‫ا

 أ‬

:(‫اص ا
ء)


ي ري‬

m2/s  
‫ ا 
و ا‬kg/m3  
‫ ا‬°C ‫در ا 
ﺭارة‬
1.007E-6
0.897E-6
0.804E-6
0.727E-6
0.661E-6
0.605E-6
0.556E-6

998.2
997.1
995.7
994.1
992.2
990.2
988.1

20
25
30
35
40
45
50

: "() *
‫ ا
"ي "ا‬#$%
‫اص ا‬

p/p0
1.000
0.9421
0.8870
0.7846
0.6920
0.6085
0.5334

ρ/ρ
ρ0 K ‫ در ا 
ﺭارة‬m ‫ ع‬,‫ر‬-‫ا‬

1.000
0.9529
0.9075
0.8217
0.7423
0.6689
0.6012

288.2
284.9
281.7
275.2
268.7
262.2
255.7

P0 = 1.01325E5Pa absolute
ρ0 = 1.2250kg/m3

239

0
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000

d A …………………………. 1.@21')‫ ا‬.)‫د‬#.2 + 0. z) ‫اذا آ‬ 1 :&'(#)‫ ه ا‬f ‫ل‬# ‫ن‬% ∇f = 7. F‫ أد‬.13.) ‫ر‬H I=‫أﺡ‬ :‫ ل‬: x3.2 + 0.00. 6‫ﺡ‬/=)‫ و ا)(?> ا‬6#'‫ ا)(?> ا)ﺡ‬1()‫ ا‬.3 xI+1 = xI – f/f’ x = 1. y.13 240 5 .) ‫ا)ﺡ> ا) دي‬ B=%‫را‬-B4 .(2) ∂x ∂x ∂x .(3) V A (3) .-@2/.-./ ‫ت‬1‫آ‬2 ‫ ('& ذا‬ϕ ‫اذا آ‬ 2 ϕ‫ ل‬1()‫ن ا‬% ، 6)‫ا)(ا‬ ∇..@2A ..ϕ )dV = ∫∫ ϕ .1 ‫ ذات‬4 5‫ ت ر‬678 :‫ا  ب‬ f = f(x.2 + 0.2x2.)‫د‬#.14. ، ∂f ∂f ∂f i+ j+ k …………………………………. 1.(1) ∂x ∂y ∂z z ‫ و‬y ‫ و‬x ‫'هت‬45‫ ا‬6% ϕz ‫ و‬ϕy ‫ و‬ϕx .24 3 ∫∫∫ (∇.8 f’ = 3.9:)‫ ا‬B 4 ∫∫∫ (∇f )dV = ∫∫ f ndA ………………………….(4) V A .3x = 1. 1.80 f = x3. ϕ = ∂ϕ x ∂ϕ y ∂ϕ k + + ………………………………….3x .9:).1.

017 0.014 0.007 0.036 0.014 0.017 0.021 0.0E+6 20.0E+3 500.014 0.017 0.027 0.024 0.035 0.034 0.039 0.018 0.019 0.027 0.016 0.018 0.018 0.016 0.024 0.0E+3 80.017 0.010 0.016 0.018 0.025 0.023 0.0005 0.014 0.0E+6 9.0E+3 400.017 0.027 0.018 0.014 0.019 0.035 0.023 0.037 0.015 0.0001 0.034 0.038 0.0E+3 9.0E+3 900.023 0.015 0.017 0.0004 0.0E+3 700.0E+3 90.017 0.032 0.032 0.013 0.020 0.037 0.0002 0.022 0.019 0.012 0.018 0.015 0.014 0.015 0.017 0.015 0.0E+3 1.022 0.018 0.022 0.007 0.016 0.018 0.0E+3 50.012 0.015 0.022 0.0E+3 10.035 0.017 0.019 0.016 0.035 0.035 0.016 0.0E+3 70.038 0.019 0.033 0.012 0.018 .024 0.020 0.019 0.016 0.0000 0.022 0.014 0.0E+6 8.014 0.018 0.0E+3 6.020 0.009 0.021 0.024 0.017 0.008 0.008 0.036 0.038 0.033 0.016 0.017 0.017 0.025 0.020 0.032 0.035 0.018 0.013 0.0E+6 7.018 0.020 0.017 0.0E+6 40.036 0.018 0.023 0.013 0.018 0.017 0.014 0.0E+3 60.022 0.024 0.021 0.017 0.032 0.016 0.032 0.033 0.033 0.017 0.012 0.017 0.012 0.015 0.013 0.018 0.037 0.016 0.009 0.021 0.021 0.0003 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.012 0.032 0.019 0.018 0.017 0.031 0.021 0.0E+6 30.0E+3 8.028 0.022 0.018 0.017 0.032 0.017 0.017 0.DE FG‫ ن ( ا‬5‫ﺭ‬I f ‫ﺡ? ك‬-‫ ا‬A: ‫ﻉ‬: :‫ا  ج‬ k/d Re 5.0E+6 6.021 0.016 0.0E+3 40.0E+3 300.0E+6 5.016 0.014 0.0E+6 10.018 0.0E+6 3.021 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.020 0.012 0.013 0.012 0.015 0.025 0.033 0.014 0.0E+6 241 0.0E+6 2.020 0.015 0.032 0.014 0.015 0.015 0.013 0.023 0.033 0.014 0.018 0.014 0.014 0.009 0.020 0.017 0.019 0.015 0.039 0.027 0.033 0.018 0.0E+3 200.015 0.016 0.015 0.0E+3 600.023 0.013 0.016 0.014 0.036 0.009 0.012 0.0006 0.017 0.019 0.018 0.038 0.018 0.023 0.034 0.018 0.022 0.026 0.027 0.015 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.0E+3 30.007 0.016 0.020 0.025 0.0E+3 100.016 0.034 0.011 0.018 0.017 0.016 0.019 0.012 0.0E+3 20.016 0.019 0.0E+3 7.034 0.022 0.013 0.021 0.018 0.016 0.016 0.024 0.017 0.022 0.015 0.016 0.0E+3 800.015 0.020 0.014 0.009 0.021 0.038 0.0E+6 4.018 0.021 0.

021 0.030 0.0E+3 6.019 0.024 0.0E+3 300.020 0.032 0.019 0.036 0.027 0.020 0.0E+3 100.035 0.027 0.029 .027 0.037 0.029 0.027 0.024 0.027 0.036 0.024 0.0E+6 30.019 0.026 0.023 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.026 0.022 0.031 0.020 0.038 0.019 0.030 0.020 0.024 0.0E+6 8.026 0.032 0.024 0.021 0.023 0.028 0.018 0.027 0.0E+6 10.020 0.036 0.027 0.027 0.024 0.023 0.027 0.029 0.041 0.034 0.029 0.024 0.024 0.018 0.0E+3 400.020 0.020 0.019 0.030 0.032 0.030 0.024 0.018 0.026 0.0E+6 5.0E+3 900.020 0.026 0.0E+3 90.025 0.034 0.039 0.029 0.021 0.019 0.022 0.020 0.021 0.027 0.029 0.0E+3 30.020 0.028 0.020 0.037 0.024 0.028 0.020 0.027 0.0E+3 20.0E+3 800.0E+3 200.037 0.028 0.026 0.0E+3 7.033 0.024 0.029 0.020 0.028 0.020 0.032 0.0E+6 7.029 0.023 0.025 0.020 0.024 0.0E+6 2.029 0.020 0.0E+3 700.037 0.0E+3 600.020 0.022 0.024 0.0E+3 8.027 0.029 0.033 0.030 0.024 0.020 0.019 0.024 0.029 0.041 0.033 0.039 0.022 0.037 0.020 0.0E+6 242 0.0040 0.019 0.025 0.0007 0.042 0.0E+3 10.024 0.027 0.0E+6 4.022 0.029 0.040 0.026 0.035 0.020 0.024 0.0020 0.020 0.018 0.k/d Re 5.020 0.024 0.034 0.029 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.018 0.018 0.034 0.039 0.027 0.024 0.0E+6 9.031 0.020 0.035 0.024 0.024 0.0E+3 1.023 0.0E+6 20.037 0.0E+3 80.027 0.018 0.0E+3 40.019 0.025 0.020 0.020 0.027 0.029 0.034 0.024 0.029 0.021 0.036 0.020 0.020 0.028 0.0E+3 60.021 0.020 0.029 0.038 0.029 0.018 0.023 0.029 0.028 0.020 0.020 0.0E+6 6.0009 0.029 0.039 0.036 0.023 0.021 0.027 0.029 0.027 0.024 0.029 0.024 0.0E+3 70.0E+3 500.022 0.0E+6 40.020 0.029 0.0E+3 9.027 0.029 0.031 0.0E+3 50.0030 0.020 0.027 0.027 0.040 0.027 0.029 0.031 0.020 0.0E+6 3.019 0.027 0.0010 0.036 0.018 0.039 0.024 0.

031 0.039 0.0E+3 8.040 0.039 0.045 0.037 0.034 0.035 0.008 0.034 0.043 0.041 0.039 0.040 0.042 0.005 0.040 0.042 0.041 0.040 0.040 0.0E+6 6.039 0.031 0.0E+3 6.036 0.037 0.039 0.036 0.033 0.033 0.034 0.042 0.034 0.040 0.040 0.033 0.034 0.037 0.039 0.041 0.035 0.046 0.037 0.038 0.043 0.031 0.0E+6 3.048 0.037 0.0E+3 500.035 0.039 0.0E+3 90.034 0.037 0.007 0.035 0.036 0.038 0.0E+6 2.033 0.0E+3 20.042 0.037 0.036 0.035 0.034 0.039 0.038 0.033 0.040 0.034 0.040 0.044 0.036 0.040 0.034 0.044 0.045 0.033 0.040 0.0E+3 900.031 0.039 0.035 0.039 0.0E+6 5.031 0.0E+6 8.0E+3 50.0E+6 30.031 0.040 0.0E+3 600.0E+3 200.038 0.039 0.040 .0E+3 400.0E+6 20.032 0.031 0.041 0.039 0.0E+6 40.034 0.045 0.036 0.038 0.034 0.011 0.031 0.036 0.0E+3 10.039 0.039 0.0E+6 10.039 0.038 0.038 0.033 0.044 0.037 0.0E+3 40.040 0.035 0.034 0.046 0.033 0.0E+6 4.036 0.036 0.033 0.041 0.0E+3 700.036 0.0E+6 7.038 0.040 0.035 0.041 0.039 0.0E+3 7.037 0.033 0.038 0.042 0.032 0.036 0.041 0.039 0.037 0.041 0.035 0.040 0.0E+3 70.034 0.037 0.040 0.045 0.036 0.0E+6 243 0.034 0.034 0.034 0.037 0.031 0.039 0.040 0.039 0.037 0.036 0.037 0.043 0.040 0.0E+3 30.036 0.037 0.036 0.034 0.040 0.033 0.044 0.039 0.044 0.034 0.0E+3 300.031 0.037 0.045 0.033 0.039 0.0E+3 60.031 0.040 0.031 0.031 0.035 0.041 0.033 0.037 0.006 0.031 0.033 0.037 0.033 0.k/d Re 5.033 0.039 0.036 0.031 0.033 0.0E+3 80.033 0.041 0.031 0.036 0.037 0.040 0.040 0.031 0.041 0.0E+3 9.046 0.034 0.031 0.043 0.031 0.034 0.039 0.044 0.040 0.040 0.042 0.036 0.039 0.048 0.043 0.033 0.036 0.036 0.037 0.047 0.033 0.039 0.040 0.033 0.031 0.040 0.036 0.037 0.049 0.037 0.032 0.037 0.036 0.0E+6 9.037 0.040 0.045 0.040 0.009 0.041 0.036 0.043 0.0E+3 100.035 0.037 0.039 0.010 0.035 0.038 0.033 0.039 0.039 0.047 0.034 0.047 0.043 0.035 0.0E+3 1.0E+3 800.033 0.034 0.032 0.041 0.031 0.036 0.046 0.037 0.039 0.037 0.038 0.033 0.

043 0.044 0.044 0.044 0.0E+6 30.046 0.044 0.042 0.0E+6 20.042 0.041 0.045 0.043 .041 0.043 0.0E+3 9.012 0.0E+6 8.0E+3 20.042 0.0E+3 8.043 0.0E+3 70.044 0.0E+6 6.049 0.041 0.044 0.048 0.043 0.044 0.048 0.050 0.044 0.044 0.0E+3 60.0E+3 90.0E+6 5.050 0.043 0.042 0.0E+3 400.042 0.041 0.043 0.050 0.043 0.041 0.044 0.0E+3 300.042 0.043 0.0E+3 900.042 0.051 0.0E+6 10.042 0.046 0.043 0.041 0.043 0.043 0.043 0.048 0.014 0.013 0.047 0.044 0.041 0.044 0.042 0.0E+3 6.041 0.0E+6 9.044 0.0E+3 30.041 0.043 0.0E+6 2.041 0.046 0.042 0.042 0.042 0.043 0.042 0.0E+3 600.050 0.k/d Re 5.042 0.041 0.042 0.041 0.0E+3 200.042 0.0E+3 100.042 0.0E+6 244 0.042 0.041 0.043 0.043 0.042 0.042 0.0E+3 7.042 0.044 0.052 0.0E+3 1.0E+3 40.042 0.041 0.041 0.043 0.044 0.0E+6 7.0E+3 700.044 0.0E+3 10.043 0.042 0.042 0.045 0.0E+6 40.042 0.0E+3 80.041 0.044 0.043 0.047 0.047 0.041 0.049 0.044 0.041 0.0E+3 800.043 0.0E+3 50.048 0.041 0.049 0.045 0.0E+3 500.041 0.0E+6 3.0E+6 4.042 0.041 0.

4) (K $%F-‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪245‬‬ .‫ا  د‪6 :‬ا‪ LM‬ا ‪I‬ﺭ‪ 5‬ن ا‪k = 1.

9776 0.6951 0.2845 0.9886 0.6875 0.1850 0.0153 1.6727 3.3636 0.4001 0.6840 0.9395 0.2754 0.90 0.1824 3.6170 0.2710 0.00 246 28.9143 0.9470 0.78 1.4246 1.9627 0.6449 0.1656 2.2666 1.5407 0.2799 0.3775 0.1688 0.4337 0.08 1.2616 5.56 0.5039 0.1637 0.3261 0.7994 0.06 0.9410 0.9774 0.5162 0.28 0.4568 0.1794 0.8643 4.9949 0.2253 0.2969 0.7300 0.9823 0.60 0.8820 2.86 1.04 0.0681 1.92 1.98 1.02 1.90 1.1629 1.3095 0.86 0.8857 0.0079 1.8389 0.4242 1.40 1.7648 0.9719 0.9658 0.1379 1.12 1.2109 2.8410 0.8755 0.3042 0.7474 0.9980 0.6175 0.9936 0.2220 0.1278 0.82 0.5289 1.2344 1.5756 0.24 1.60 1.1318 0.24 0.3142 0.3801 1.0304 1.1740 0.0305 1.2836 1.3149 0.3010 1.8763 0.8444 0.4684 0.96 0.6281 0.0944 1.32 0.5963 0.0051 1.7822 0.0351 1.96 1.8082 0.66 1.2905 1.3504 0.3190 1.7358 0.6062 1.20 1.5658 0.4933 0.0581 1.5045 0.2026 0.38 1.3542 1.7706 0.8218 4.6416 7.0003 1.6597 1.88 0.74 0.2217 0.8333 28.5785 0.4428 0.9690 0.26 0.3173 2.9864 0.9955 0.6430 0.3440 0.8964 0.6326 1.2284 0.5605 0.2321 0.2292 5.2287 0.‫ي‬P5PQ7 ‫ ن ا‬5‫ﺭ‬I ‫ ا‬I M A/A* p/po T/To A.3417 0.44 0.0417 1.4653 9.9370 0.3704 0.9987 0.14 1.2130 1.po 1.9867 0.8650 0.1360 0.0842 1.00 1.9013 0.0508 1.1492 0.7879 0.8278 0.2779 2.46 1.9328 0.2941 0.4081 0.4523 0.3232 0.36 1.1447 0.5069 1.4343 0.5553 1.0248 1.0806 1.2667 0.20 0.1451 1.5655 0.8552 0.6119 0.3323 0.2157 .po 0.8815 0.3967 1.6178 2.2886 0.9799 0.4740 1.04 1.1403 0.9315 0.9997 0.9231 0.8229 1.22 0.9119 1.1501 1.5901 1.1587 0.2403 1.74 1.9061 0.3379 0.7962 0.8541 0.1788 1.6392 0.5871 1.7126 0.0056 1.1149 1.48 0.0113 1.4956 2.6670 0.0198 1.0663 1.0750 1.94 1.6068 0.3912 0.0570 1.6121 0.2570 0.62 0.8142 0.9559 0.0471 1.16 1.44 1.8606 0.4836 1.1262 1.3512 0.7590 0.16 0.2584 0.12 0.66 0.9900 0.2088 0.72 1.3924 0.22 1.9219 1.4390 1.7813 4.6783 0.10 1.92 0.1042 1.0014 1.06 1.9340 14.9052 0.9961 0.7184 0.7242 0.8711 0.9449 0.9421 14.9997 0.76 0.8052 0.8498 0.3204 0.84 0.9921 0.2190 1.1295 1.0237 1.7358 1.4249 0.8995 0.64 0.0031 1.1899 1.6659 7.34 0.7651 0.48 1.5817 0.0382 1.18 1.7532 0.6558 0.0029 1.8659 0.9747 0.3398 1.7764 0.2152 0.82 1.6821 0.6502 0.4620 0.38 0.7902 1.2188 0.5283 0.46 0.50 0.5532 0.2625 0.3376 1.6691 0.18 0.30 0.7209 0.p/A*.2356 0.6300 0.6954 0.5804 1.9823 0.5807 0.1907 0.1762 1.5859 0.7416 0.8156 4.36 0.88 1.94 0.64 1.5014 1.8201 0.3319 0.3567 1.2496 0.68 0.30 1.68 1.6587 1.5160 0.52 1.3569 0.9930 0.4815 9.6614 0.5910 0.56 1.2047 2.7840 0.9904 0.28 1.5283 M A/A* p/po T/To A.3055 0.7937 0.9107 0.2466 0.0504 1.1966 0.0000 0.5913 0.9594 0.7080 0.0089 1.9635 2.7890 0.70 1.54 1.6337 0.1539 0.2392 0.6229 0.2724 0.5965 0.9659 0.80 0.9199 0.0840 1.2429 0.2544 0.9541 0.5675 0.4455 0.58 0.7011 0.3034 1.4232 0.1265 1.8915 0.2322 1.32 1.4825 0.6827 1.7465 0.9607 0.9975 0.4017 0.3764 1.5556 0.9989 0.76 1.3809 0.7338 0.0940 1.6897 0.7424 0.0179 1.1097 1.2504 0.8222 0.3848 0.6041 0.2042 1.72 0.2804 0.5409 0.4124 0.6626 0.2703 1.9524 0.26 1.2893 0.14 0.9243 0.40 0.2991 0.6447 0.62 1.4721 0.9286 0.1656 1.0003 1.0366 1.8956 0.p/A*.02 0.8317 0.10 0.8165 0.3708 0.58 1.42 0.0432 1.0024 0.7069 0.50 1.3609 0.1255 3.08 0.4800 0.7209 0.8430 0.7716 0.52 0.6077 3.9971 0.5539 0.2353 0.8693 0.6811 0.7591 0.9993 0.80 1.54 0.6015 0.6726 0.4919 0.7076 2.3975 2.9725 0.4610 1.9668 0.42 1.98 2.1882 1.8865 0.8108 0.78 0.9153 0.9487 0.9316 0.7005 0.9999 0.6560 0.4164 0.2646 0.70 0.2423 0.0129 1.4175 1.9846 0.5308 1.5705 0.34 1.6283 0.84 1.0013 1.2502 1.

4565 0.0127 0.3998 0.1205 0.0368 0.68 3.1602 0.4903 0.2572 0.p/A*.4197 6.6302 8.7058 3.0899 0.0317 0.20 2.2613 0.30 2.1069 0.0417 0.2697 0.0882 0.2675 0.1954 0.1400 0.12 3.04 3.0550 0.48 2.0249 0.3365 0.7891 8.0974 0.3202 8.0242 0.0725 0.6359 3.0108 0.1201 0.18 2.86 2.08 3.5361 0.1128 0.0357 0.1825 0.2762 0.3541 0.0135 0.0234 0.0096 0.0430 0.1140 0.3061 3.5674 3.5506 0.0307 0.0069 0.5409 0.1004 0.1290 0.5696 4.2009 0.48 3.3761 0.0091 0.36 2.26 3.96 2.2592 0.9304 5.9354 1.4366 0.00 247 1.2066 0.4252 0.90 2.1524 0.82 2.84 2.0643 0.7160 1.10 2.0264 0.2513 0.0817 0.8742 8.28 2.94 2.0890 0.0215 0.1690 8.0175 0.9698 2.12 2.0075 0.32 2.1547 4.0751 0.0873 0.p/A*.58 3.0470 7.0926 0.60 3.4688 0.1232 0.0787 0.1128 0.38 2.3511 0.22 3.32 3.3337 0.2439 3.92 3.3164 2.20 3.0071 0.62 2.06 2.0517 0.0114 0.72 3.1153 M A/A* p/po T/To A.68 2.4816 0.2806 0.3593 2.0326 0.1047 0.0917 0.3729 0.0170 0.2633 0.54 3.0794 0.4739 8.2816 9.0738 0.0775 0.90 3.2654 0.4328 0.0840 0.0443 0.0102 0.0185 0.7989 9.70 3.3894 0.46 3.3173 0.56 3.1791 7.80 2.1164 0.0762 4.02 2.8448 5.78 3.4501 7.0086 0.0105 0.4991 0.0228 0.0851 0.0196 0.10 3.1025 0.8369 1.1754 0.5403 2.0719 0.4342 3.16 3.1261 0.54 2.3019 0.3419 10.0073 3.0856 0.7304 7.2418 0.8690 1.78 2.5880 2.2552 0.4859 0.04 2.7891 2.1094 0.0124 0.0471 0.1582 0.2995 0.0120 0.1166 0.0080 0.1850 0.0935 0.8960 2.46 2.1687 0.2474 0.0825 0.2852 0.98 3.5173 0.5313 0.1538 2.0848 0.7451 1.0068 0.0089 0.92 2.7467 4.3199 0.34 2.1305 0.0099 0.8056 1.0800 0.96 3.26 2.44 2.1351 0.66 2.0765 0.0604 0.M A/A* p/po T/To A.7187 0.2126 0.1147 9.3121 0.0501 0.00 4.0809 0.4484 0.0380 0.4104 0.72 2.42 3.2829 0.1901 0.3963 0.2899 0.0160 0.0706 0.2381 0.1875 0.2744 2.0994 0.0077 0.0139 0.1830 3.80 3.1209 5.2740 0.0156 0.0779 0.18 3.5127 0.2189 5.4177 0.5458 0.3253 0.9238 3.0347 0.76 3.1383 0.60 2.0404 0.0663 0.1367 0.6642 6.6367 2.3827 0.1104 0.1927 0.1219 0.0824 0.0111 0.1036 0.24 2.1837 6.1246 0.7771 3.88 3.2096 0.52 2.5266 0.9172 7.0752 0.0082 0.52 3.50 3.1233 3.1931 2.1487 0.0204 8.88 2.3095 0.1731 0.2875 0.8377 4.3481 0.po 2.1505 0.4513 9.3069 0.0073 0.3160 4.1451 0.84 3.1116 0.7896 6.1275 0.0684 0.3186 5.40 2.0745 0.98 4.3602 0.9558 6.0180 0.3452 0.7372 2.24 3.0131 0.3044 0.0965 0.1981 0.0409 2.1563 0.0712 0.0865 0.2455 0.0878 0.74 3.3134 7.30 3.3989 4.0066 0.0585 0.56 2.5409 6.4731 0.2784 0.2970 0.0996 0.4068 0.9770 10.38 3.3309 0.0202 0.94 3.76 2.1153 2.0706 .7750 1.2532 0.0151 0.8420 2.0623 0.1015 0.1434 0.1801 0.8498 3.5081 0.1543 0.1709 0.14 2.6237 9.1580 10.0731 0.7357 5.3696 0.4936 2.3633 0.6573 4.40 3.0392 0.14 3.2493 0.0272 0.9506 9.0457 0.0248 5.9993 4.1239 0.3571 0.1060 0.3794 0.2037 0.4773 0.5288 10.34 3.0147 0.4201 5.5036 0.4033 0.02 3.0298 0.3860 0.0687 6.22 2.0143 0.0647 3.4444 0.1335 0.0908 0.5234 5.0964 0.4947 0.1644 0.1058 0.2922 0.2436 0.5891 7.5219 0.0777 2.0728 0.0984 0.1417 0.58 2.50 2.0336 0.86 3.0832 0.28 3.0117 0.44 3.po 3.3226 0.1080 0.1027 0.4289 0.4405 0.2399 0.6864 2.82 3.9018 1.62 3.66 3.4479 2.2946 0.0221 0.4214 0.70 2.0772 0.0906 0.0208 0.0801 0.1623 0.2346 0.0094 0.0935 0.3928 0.74 2.1469 0.0533 0.9511 3.42 2.0758 0.1092 0.4141 0.0050 2.2333 2.64 2.0191 0.4031 2.0486 0.3665 0.0084 0.3422 0.4835 4.5001 3.1320 0.4606 0.0954 0.1178 0.0165 0.1777 0.0289 0.16 2.3695 3.36 3.4524 0.6286 5.3393 0.0945 0.0281 0.1665 0.2718 0.08 2.3281 0.0567 0.06 3.3147 0.64 3.0256 0.3007 6.4647 0.1192 0.

24 2.46 2.818 0.3152 4.723 0.9994 0.0471 1.716 0.3429 2.3858 2.6394 1.8038 0.4158 1.635 0.544 0.6272 1.3639 0.2676 1.8935 7.912 0.5924 1.547 0.5152 0.7203 1.4097 0.2590 2.631 0.5466 1.1280 1.7395 0.06 2.1909 1.9282 1.0088 7.1111 9.5617 1.2765 5.5831 5.530 0.3888 2.9928 0.9794 0.‫ة‬P: ‫ ا ?ﻉ‬:P‫ا ﺹ‬ M1 M2 p2/p1 T2/T1 po2/po1 M1 M2 p2/p1 T2/T1 po2/po1 1.4379 0.1029 1.0393 1.2383 2.7209 2.9946 0.6464 0.4792 7.1774 2.484 0.897 0.2525 2.9989 0.1442 1.4472 3.509 0.5401 0.617 0.8474 0.641 0.86 1.40 1.9285 1.555 0.9026 0.62 1.534 0.8389 0.4307 0.2432 9.9097 0.476 0.4452 0.561 0.1405 1.3602 7.4578 1.4873 1.5658 0.7842 4.0903 1.5000 1.517 0.506 0.12 2.8046 1.86 2.5019 1.6928 0.7369 1.0450 4.28 2.7704 1.855 0.577 1.3202 2.0982 2.18 2.5405 2.52 2.9476 0.9676 0.9912 2.00 0.488 0.12 1.34 1.6002 2.04 2.3283 II .9999 0.22 1.651 0.6855 1.1261 3.5922 8.8302 0.515 0.84 1.9468 1.3069 1.66 1.4955 2.44 1.72 1.581 0.830 0.48 2.8498 8.1762 5.46 1.6079 1.4800 5.8393 1.6713 1.5317 0.4648 8.6091 2.0213 2.2215 6.1250 7.84 2.1657 1.9982 0.537 0.8720 0.14 2.60 1.04 1.1976 2.82 2.588 0.8746 1.3577 0.6555 2.3762 9.40 2.2807 1.9973 0.16 2.7205 8.9104 1.7022 0.9233 0.0050 6.9827 0.5133 1.34 2.2035 1.3606 1.4028 0.6835 0.8808 4.0482 3.48 1.90 2.4166 0.8981 6.68 1.1531 1.94 2.7808 9.6725 2.7832 3.497 0.0263 1.1200 2.550 0.3742 1.7302 0.2179 2.6885 4.80 1.7674 0.4583 2.6236 1.8557 0.842 0.1574 2.5921 0.98 2.92 1.592 0.0595 2.475 4.9783 5.646 0.507 0.0132 1.7875 1.519 0.78 1.42 1.0952 1.14 1.7792 6.7038 1.70 1.3961 0.511 0.478 0.868 0.7922 5.3778 5.28 1.766 0.3642 2.8877 0.6872 5.2162 1.4754 0.1941 1.494 0.0000 0.2968 1.94 1.9420 0.9907 0.3701 0.6649 0.748 0.9298 0.00 248 0.786 0.90 1.6133 3.491 0.88 2.527 0.88 1.7857 0.0522 1.8951 2.6373 0.657 0.64 2.1178 2.9652 1.675 0.944 0.7948 0.8215 0.4299 1.1938 10.8799 0.485 0.7581 0.5288 2.5745 0.66 2.7458 2.532 0.8219 1.3340 0.3895 0.1154 1.32 2.4032 1.6978 3.08 1.4071 4.701 0.513 0.600 0.42 2.38 2.523 0.06 1.539 0.58 2.525 0.612 0.8050 1.5938 4.5572 0.9166 0.500 0.1375 2.6553 1.2418 1.621 0.4990 0.9800 9.4418 6.0551 2.74 1.9718 0.9961 0.6011 0.2421 7.72 2.54 2.604 0.78 2.0403 2.62 2.82 1.8924 1.7765 0.10 2.2450 1.64 1.6450 9.76 2.70 2.480 0.8569 1.553 0.487 0.9568 4.981 0.8695 3.6742 0.24 1.4292 2.564 0.490 0.0025 2.9857 0.76 1.571 0.731 0.4074 2.5071 0.08 2.3880 1.5991 7.6281 0.8200 2.9838 2.0552 10.776 0.479 0.2938 1.5770 1.882 0.50 1.30 1.10 1.483 0.5833 0.02 2.574 0.2242 4.4583 1.663 0.92 2.4526 0.4677 0.50 2.2050 3.740 0.6557 0.608 0.38 1.9884 0.596 0.9175 10.7488 0.56 1.9758 0.962 0.6658 6.22 2.5298 3.74 2.3217 2.3312 6.32 1.68 2.757 0.54 1.567 0.4440 1.5316 1.7536 1.0768 5.5234 0.0649 1.3398 0.5101 9.6790 0.493 0.499 0.4733 2.2797 2.2290 1.558 0.3336 1.8661 1.9360 0.18 1.5861 2.3495 1.0776 1.80 2.1128 6.668 0.3457 0.56 2.58 1.8639 0.3517 0.5533 6.0788 2.0882 8.2848 3.4236 0.7200 7.16 1.3006 2.3333 1.504 0.9712 3.8418 7.2128 8.5167 1.626 0.20 2.5698 1.807 0.687 0.1783 1.6100 0.60 2.20 1.3655 3.3765 0.5179 2.44 2.30 2.681 0.6875 1.8127 0.481 0.4832 0.9582 0.9645 8.4911 0.3383 8.796 0.96 2.4018 1.52 1.1858 2.98 3.6191 0.5486 0.96 1.521 0.9630 0.4727 1.694 0.7448 1.928 0.36 2.7115 0.708 0.5632 2.4512 2.2547 1.3202 1.26 1.496 0.8952 0.4601 0.1341 4.3470 1.9531 0.542 0.6322 2.36 1.9998 0.502 0.584 0.3829 0.26 2.02 1.

16 3.1537 3.450 0.14 3.441 0.9298 12.00 249 0.0045 13.94 3.467 0.9442 18.1218 15.40 3.7800 11.1761 0.2322 0.4535 14.6392 13.02 3.7744 2.84 3.456 0.2093 0.86 3.8482 13.435 10.8578 17.1510 0.454 0.2811 0.459 0.1522 16.6311 11.6800 16.9008 11.0469 0.36 3.1673 0.1920 0.473 0.2762 0.2404 0.4615 15.438 0.72 3.5383 12.463 0.78 3.1618 13.42 3.1731 0.2577 0.7426 3.3978 3.0492 3.3227 0.62 3.0365 17.1987 0.6252 3.48 3.2860 0.1563 0.2622 0.90 3.5031 16.58 3.28 3.1702 0.1802 3.5783 17.453 0.8323 3.98 4.9979 3.52 3.2489 0.5962 3.1285 18.56 3.50 3.6836 3.6152 10.1435 0.9848 4.1617 0.5000 2.96 3.8928 3.10 3.32 3.80 3.66 3.2057 0.5103 3.4791 13.3172 0.7130 3.2878 3.92 3.8625 3.1792 0.3968 17.8970 2.08 3.462 0.457 0.9781 16.2533 0.440 0.4738 10.468 0.64 3.439 0.3065 0.454 0.3425 3.455 0.458 0.437 0.8002 13.440 0.474 0.6328 15.0751 3.3012 0.1887 0.44 3.442 0.1589 0.443 0.1411 0.88 3.447 0.4257 3.470 0.461 0.438 0.26 3.20 3.74 3.38 3.451 0.82 3.6543 3.2910 0.471 0.1901 11.5388 3.444 0.9233 3.76 3.4832 11.449 0.4537 3.3118 0.466 0.1953 0.2243 0.1855 0.7608 17.12 3.0805 12.9220 2.460 0.68 3.04 3.7575 10.2715 0.447 0.461 0.443 0.441 0.1250 14.2446 0.2337 3.446 0.472 0.46 3.7026 2.2888 14.7503 2.448 0.30 3.3200 13.3362 11.8475 2.1536 0.1485 0.445 0.436 0.1645 0.6192 14.06 3.2282 0.3701 3.2205 0.34 3.1823 0.8022 3.8230 2.445 0.2912 15.2129 0.2363 0.3272 16.1273 3.0234 3.2668 0.54 3.2162 17.450 0.2322 12.437 0.6928 12.9471 2.7264 2.3848 12.22 3.0158 4.24 3.18 3.8050 15.1460 0.3138 18.2960 0.4819 3.2022 0.436 0.9540 3.0450 11.7723 3.452 0.465 0.70 3.9533 15.8722 2.1011 3.3150 3.60 3.464 0.2167 0.9621 14.9724 2.1388 .7858 14.2069 3.5674 3.M1 M2 p2/p1 T2/T1 po2/po1 3.7986 2.2607 3.

1451 1.82 0.92 0.1143 1.62 0.2893 1.4467 3.9635 2.0311 106.0691 0.1853 3.78 0.2703 1.0815 1.2498 0.68 0.48 0.26 0.3522 193.1513 1.0198 1.5113 24.450 440.6191 3.0056 1.7520 3.8975 1.50 0.4509 1.0089 1.42 0.3887 3.1471 1.0570 1.6456 1.58 0.1291 1.0132 1.0471 1.3865 7.56 0.2208 1.1145 0.8282 1.86 0.12 0.70 0.2993 4.5383 4.0662 5.10 0.1905 1.0351 1.7701 27.0048 0.80 0.6958 2.2616 5.30 0.0917 0.0873 1.1976 1.16 0.0698 1.4054 1.5413 1.1889 1.3398 1.34 0.2453 1.96 0.4908 0.1194 1.1265 1.66 0.1656 1.9435 9.6736 0.4172 0.2130 1.1788 1.0382 1.0031 1.0929 1.1840 1.1923 1.1244 1.0454 1.8229 1.60 0.0218 0.1801 2.4740 1.2509 13.0089 0.4554 4.5961 9.0984 1.0000 p/p* po/po* 54.06 0.1553 1.9719 1.1991 1.3647 1.32 0.7054 2.2403 1.0005 0.3085 1.46 0.1697 1.1824 3.00 250 T/T* 1.3801 1.4482 1.3572 5.0305 1.64 0.0145 0.5901 1.0516 1.1339 1.7026 1.84 0.5333 11.5289 1.0310 0.74 0.0000 III .5757 0.7866 0.28 0.1663 1.02 0.1863 1.0000 28.4815 9.18 0.38 0.(‫ﺡ? آ‬-‫ ن ا‬5‫ﺭ‬I ‫ا‬ M 0.0129 1.0423 0.3173 2.0237 1.0681 1.9744 1.1729 1.04 0.0559 0.8093 6.22 0.1292 1.8291 6.0944 1.0003 1.0263 1.0179 1.90 0.8643 4.2979 0.72 0.1966 1.1815 1.5427 14.9216 45.4246 1.2542 1.0391 1.1953 1.0578 1.8218 4.0485 1.2779 2.0757 1.5634 2.1156 7.6727 3.0000 ϕ* 1778.0238 1.1999 1.0066 1.98 1.1628 1.0327 1.9174 0.52 0.3034 1.1011 1.8420 2.1851 3.1985 1.88 0.1038 1.6587 1.3261 1.3326 2.94 0.9421 14.24 0.3533 0.7076 2.1091 1.9219 1.0042 2.1885 1.08 0.1411 0.7634 1.0743 1.6876 6.1882 1.1759 1.8820 3.20 0.3817 18.14 0.0014 1.4935 1.1583 1.6843 10.1721 0.7358 1.1097 1.0806 1.7182 66.9554 4.1978 18.76 0.5919 1.4428 2.1384 1.36 0.40 0.0021 0.6659 7.0723 0.2313 2.1429 1.44 0.2081 0.54 0.4080 32.4956 2.1656 2.0519 1.1996 1.1381 2.0638 1.6915 1.1591 1.1939 1.

1394 1.3787 2.1432 0.5253 1.4235 1.30 0.2841 0.3469 0.8147 1.1374 0.0212 1.0157 1.3526 2.0255 1.0002 1.9964 1.46 0.42 0.1626 2.8592 0.7199 0.2362 1.2461 1.0023 0.7043 1.8955 0.48 0.0753 1.92 0.1566 1.7470 0.2665 1.0193 1.4569 1.9883 0.8189 0.5975 0.4089 0.0550 1.8723 0.1737 1.2727 2.2057 0.0070 1.9344 0.9358 0.2675 1.9639 0.2140 1.58 0.7965 0.2554 1.0895 0.0431 1.2213 1.2066 0.5957 1.4572 0.0269 1.74 0.7409 1.9997 1.2961 1.80 0.9247 1.5755 0.1141 1.8515 1.7587 0.82 0.1708 0.3946 2.1736 0.2445 0.0064 1.1822 1.8935 0.2073 1.0376 1.3669 2.4935 0.7725 0.1791 1.9836 0.2209 2.1652 1.10 0.6914 0.6301 0.1151 0.0666 0.9988 0.5638 0.1059 1.98 1.76 0.02 0.1314 2.78 0.0979 1.28 0.18 0.2591 1.8469 0.2406 1.9951 0.0283 1.7254 0.1904 1.9814 0.88 0.0000 p/p* po/po * 2.66 0.0008 1.54 0.0991 2.0171 0.1985 1.7901 0.6316 1.0170 1.1925 2.06 0.6151 0.2623 1.14 0.8398 0.9929 1.9553 0.3667 0.22 0.3585 1.2477 2.9167 0.3837 0.32 0.50 0.0826 1.0076 0.2959 2.86 0.6678 1.9921 0.0314 1.3907 1.0560 0.6903 0.9973 0.5348 0.20 0.4206 0.44 0.2658 1.4512 0.24 0.0049 1.0657 2.38 0.0362 0.4908 1.9781 0.96 0.08 0.0171 1.0000 1.26 0.12 0.1069 0.64 0.0285 1.0000 IV .9085 0.0984 1.70 0.34 0.36 0.0220 1.2064 1.04 0.0019 0.0106 1.2647 1.0797 0.0682 1.3104 0.90 0.00 251 To/To T/T* * 0.0276 1.2346 1.2510 1.56 0.5603 1.60 0.0468 0.1308 1.6614 0.1515 1.9221 0.5290 0.0236 1.0092 0.40 0.2395 0.9530 0.0121 1.6535 0.62 0.‫?* ل ا ﺭارة‬F‫^ ا‬: ‫ ن‬5‫ﺭ‬I ‫ا‬ M 0.52 0.0000 0.0017 1.9715 0.94 0.0615 1.8771 0.0302 0.0124 1.8882 1.1224 1.3359 2.2745 0.16 0.0234 1.2281 1.0205 0.3170 2.0095 1.0479 1.68 0.9455 0.4933 0.0278 1.0489 1.9682 0.0728 1.7778 1.0245 1.3270 1.1480 1.72 0.3250 0.0901 1.8196 0.3880 2.3987 2.0026 1.1246 1.0325 1.9608 1.0031 1.84 0.

‫ا ﺭ‪:‬ـــز‬ ‫ا)‪=#‬ﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪ > Ca‬ا)‪ -W‬ا)‪6.

-9‬‬ ‫ا)] ‬ ‫ا)‪ -‬رة‬ ‫ ل ا)=‪@2‬ن ا)ﺡ'‪6#‬‬ ‫ ل ا(‪-‬ل ا)ﺡ‪2‬ارة‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪Re‬‬ ‫‪s‬‬ ‫‪T‬‬ ‫‪T‬‬ ‫‪U‬‬ ‫‪u‬‬ ‫^.f‬‬ ‫‪f‬‬ ‫‪  Fr‬د ‪2%‬ود‬ ‫'‪ .‬ا)'ذ.‬ا)ﺹ‪rW‬ﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪q LT‬ل ا)‪ .‬ت ا)ﺡ'‪a‬‬ ‫ا‪.1‬‬ ‫ﺡ ة ا)(‪#‬ر‬ ‫در ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪Q‬‬ ‫‪252‬‬ .. h‬‬ ‫(‪ b‬ار‪W4‬ع ا)‪.-1/‬ا)' ار@‪ .2‬ا‪x F'45‬‬ ‫‪.2b‬‬ ‫ُ‪2‬آِ‪ .1‬ا)ﺡ‪2‬ارة ا)‪.y‬‬ ‫ا)‪W.‬‬ ‫‪g‬‬ ‫‪#b H.-1/‬ا)' ار@‪ ..95‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪6@2b 2/9‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪2/9‬‬ ‫‪d‬‬ ‫ا)‪ .‬ت ا)] ‬ ‫‪ cV‬ا)ﺡ‪2‬ارة ا)‪1^  .‪.‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬ ‫‪M‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪p‬‬ ‫‪P‬‬ ‫‪q‬‬ ‫ د خ‬ ‫ا)‪W.. ا) ز‬ ‫رد ا)‪>W‬‬ ‫ د ر@)‬ ‫ا)?‪ .95‬‬ ‫> ا‪ .no‬‬ ‫‪k‬‬ ‫=‪ .%y‬ا)=‪.@ .‬‬ ‫‪.‬ا)‪2r#‬ة‬ ‫‪ m‬ا)?(‪.‬‬ ‫ ل ‪@2b‬ن ا)?(‪..1‬ا)=‪ 6% .‬ت ‪ 6%‬ا)‪.‬ا)ﺡ‪2‬ارة‬ ‫‪.#‬‬ ‫‪ > CD‬ا‪.95‬ا)'‪.9/‬ا) ا‪.‬‬ ‫‪cf‬‬ ‫‪ > CL‬ا)‪[%2‬‬ ‫‪ cP‬ا)ﺡ‪2‬ارة ا)‪1^  .‬‬ ‫‪k‬‬ ‫‪q‬ل‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪q LL‬ل ا)‪ .‬ت ‪ 6%‬ا) ‪.e‬‬ ‫‪e‬‬ ‫> ا‪5‬ﺡ(?ك ‪ 6%‬ا‪I.

-1/‬ا)' ار@‪.1‬ا)=‪ 6% .‬ا)?‪.%y‬‬ ‫ا)‪.‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪v‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪W‬‬ ‫‪w‬‬ ‫‪Wt‬‬ ‫‪z‬‬ ‫‪τ‬‬ ‫‪Γ‬‬ ‫‪ρ‬‬ ‫‪µ‬‬ ‫‪ν‬‬ ‫‪ψ‬‬ ‫‪ϕ‬‬ ‫‪ϕ‬‬ ‫‪α‬‬ ‫‪δ‬‬ ‫‪Π‬‬ ‫ﺡﺹ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ار ‪ .‬ا)?‪#‬ن‬ ‫> اﺡ(?ك‬ ‫زاو@‪ . 5‬ي‬ ‫‪253‬‬ .‬ا)=‪.‬و ‪ .2‬‬ ‫ُ‪2‬آِ‪ .‬ا‪=5‬ب‬ ‫دا)‪ .‬و ‪ .2‬ا‪y F'45‬‬ ‫ا)ﺡ'‪a‬‬ ‫ﺡِ‪>#‬‬ ‫ُ‪2‬آِ‪ .‬ا) @‪.1‬ا)=‪ 6% .‬‬ ‫ا)‪..‬ا)‹'م‬ ‫‪ Ž#b‬ا)‪ .4#‬‬ ‫دا)‪ .2‬ا‪z F'45‬‬ ‫ا)زن‬ ‫ا‪5‬ر‪W4‬ع ا)‪2‬أ‪6b‬‬ ‫ا‪‹ 5‬د ا)‪-‬ﺹ‪6‬‬ ‫ا)( و@‪2‬‬ ‫ا)?‪.

H Boundary Layer Theory McGraw-Hill Anderson. J Theory and Problems of Fluid Dynamics Schaum Rogers. H. Parts I and II Ronald Leipman. Shapiro Dynamics and thermodynamics of compressible fluid flow. V Fluid Dynamics McGraw-Hill A. S Modern Developments in Fluid Dynamics Dover Publications Schlichting.W Engineering Instrumentation & control Butterworths. H. J Turbulence McGraw-Hill Glauert. www. Work and Heat Transfer Longman Langhoar. Roshko. H Dimensional Analysis and the Theory of Modeling John Wiley Goldstein. Vol. Computational Fluid Dynamics. J Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics International Textbooks Bolton. W. B Mechanics of Fluids van Reinhold Hughes. H Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory Cambridge University Press Streeter. J D. Brighton. Mayhew Engineering Thermodynamics. A Elements of Gas Dynamics International Textbooks Owczarek.1.cfd-online.com/resources/ 254 L6‫ر‬ ^‫ا ﺭ‬ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 . McGraw-Hill Hinze.^‫ﺭا‬: ^‫ ا ﺭ‬L)‫ا‬ Massey.

7.2‬‬ ‫‪1،2،3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪1،5‬‬ ‫‪1،2‬‬ ‫‪1،2،14‬‬ ‫‪1،2،3‬‬ ‫‪6.15‬‬ ‫‪6،8‬‬ ‫‪9،6‬‬ ‫‪13،11،12‬‬ ‫‪255‬‬ .‫ا ‪ Q‬ب‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫أر‪ 6‬م ا ﺭا^‬ ‫‪1.

‫ ت‬c‫ ا ﺹ‬L"‫ﻉ‬: (‫"ي‬F‫( – ا‬E‫ﺭ‬8) 256 ‫"ي‬F-‫ ا‬AE * ‫ا‬ E‫ا   ا ﻉﺭ‬ stress apparent turbulent stress Reynolds stresses one dimensional friction roughness height displacement stability continuity cylinder drag skin drag pressure drag branched pipes pipe pitot-static tube heat transfer compressible model stall barometer span Prandtl Bernouli dimensional Blasius Bourdon Boussinesq entropy Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dimensional analysis circulation lubrication hydrodynamic lubrication acceleration similarity ‫ا ‹د‬ ‫ي‬2‫ا ‹د ري ™ه‬ )@‫ا ‹دات ر‬ 1)‫أﺡدي ا‬ ‫اﺡ(?ك‬ ./ .no)‫ع ا‬W4‫ار‬ . .‫ازاﺡ‬ ‫ار‬2-(b‫ا‬ .9‫ا‬ .@ .@‫ار‬2#(b‫ا‬ .9‫ا‬ .‫ا‬/b‫أ‬ .

‫أ‬ ‫ب‬1‫أ‬ 6‫آ‬2‫ب ا)] ا)ﺡ‬1‫أ‬ ‫ارة‬2‫ل ﺡ‬-(‫ا‬ 6q ]‫ا‬ ‫ذج‬#‫أ‬ ‫ا‹ر‬ 2(‫.رو‬ ‫.‫ﺡ‬4 2@‫ و‬4 )4 6‫آ‬2‫) ﺡ‬4 ‫=رع‬4 &. @ 14 (‫[ )ت ح م‬r‫ا‬#)‫ ا‬. 6)2. . ‫.‫آ‬2‫ ﺡ‬I=‫ﺡ‬4 ‫> . ي‬ ‫ز@س‬:. ‫.n4 .9‫ا‬ . ي‬.ردون‬ Ž=b.2W( I.ع‬ >(‫ا‬2.

n4 6b ‫.& ه‬n4 6. propulsion accuracy rotation subsonic steady lift stagnation angle of attack Mach angle 257 6‫آ‬2‫.dynamic similarity physical similarity geometric similarity differential discretization integral iterative equilibrium current three dimensional two dimensional molecular aerofoil. airfoil atmosphere container control volume Finite volumes turbulence intensity specific heat critical dynamic Thermodynamics Fluid dynamics sensitivity throat convective helicopter streamline error stream function potential function propeller thrust.& ﺡ‬n4 6r@% &.

@‫زاو‬ ‫ خ‬..)‫دا‬ ‫ّع‬%‫د‬ [%‫د‬ .b=‫ﺡ‬ .‫آ‬2‫ا)ﺡ‬ [r‫ا‬#)‫ ا‬.@‫ار‬2‫ ا)ﺡ‬.#‫ﺡ‬ .@‫زاو‬ .9‫د‬ ‫دوران‬ 64‫دون ﺹ‬ I4‫ر‬ [%‫ر‬ ‫رآد‬ ‫ ا)‹'م‬. ‫ارة‬2‫ﺡ‬ ‫ج‬2‫ﺡ‬ 6‫آ‬2‫ﺡ‬ .‫ﺡ‬ .?4 ‫ري‬2?4 ‫ازن‬4 ‫ّر‬4 1)‫ ا‬6^:^ 1)‫ ا‬6r^ 6Ÿ@    .‫آ‬2‫ﺡ‬ .W4 @2W4 6.)‫دا‬ ‫ن‬#?)‫ ا‬.@‫ﺡو‬ a?‫ ا)(ﺡ‬a'‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺡ'م ﺡ دة‬ ‫ر‬#()‫ﺡ ة ا‬ .‫ﺡا‬ ‫=ب‬5‫ ا‬e ¡/e ‫@ن‬2=)‫ ا‬.

‫ آ‬#b 6‫ا‬b ‫َق‬2¤ ‫ﺹروخ‬ ‫ ( ة‬.r .2b ‫@ن‬2b 6..@‫@ن ر‬2b % ‫@ن‬2b ‫ن‬#‫@ن آ‬2b @‫@ن آو‬2b 645 ‫@ن‬2b aA( ‫@ن‬2b 64 ‫@ن‬2b 6?b #b 6. ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ 7‫ﺡ‬rW‫ﺹ‬ ‫م‬#ِ‫ﺹ‬ 64‫ﺹ‬ ¦. ‫ﺹ‬ .downstream suction Speed of sound flow Rayleigh flow Fanno flow Potential flow Couette flow non-Newtonian flow Uniform flow Newtonian flow static head total head Swammee choked rocket Normal shock oblique shock downstream laminar valve sonic compressor pressure dynamic pressure exit pressure stagnation pressure gauge pressure absolute pressure back pressure energy internal energy boundary layer Combined boundary layer prototype numerical methods buoyancy Reynolds number Froude number Mach number 258 >%b I‫ﺡ‬b ‫ ا)ﺹت‬.

.

6‫آ‬2‫.

ﺡ‬ 6 ‫و‬2e .

‫.

رآدي‬ 6b9 .

/ . .

6r‹ .

@‫ ار‬. ..-1q B'‫ ه‬. ا‬2q .9q .-1q 6r‫از .e‫ دا‬.@‫ ار‬.9q .@‫ق  د‬2q Wq )@‫ د ر‬ ‫ود‬2% ‫ د‬ ‫ د خ‬ .

W ‫¦ز‬ >‫¦ز آ‬ ‫اق‬2(‫ﺡ‬5‫ ا‬. inviscid convergent 259 ‫م‬ ‫ ﺡ دة‬2‫ﺹ‬ .moment Finite elements turbine gas perfect gas combustion chamber unsteady vacuum Finite differences separation loss venturi minor losses supersonic Von Karman orifice power shear hydraulic diamater conservation laws body force surface force gauge mass relative mass density relative density adiabatic efficiency momentum continuum Kuta-Joukowski elbow Colebrooke-White isotropic incompressible dimensionless isentropic irrotational inviscous..%2¦ I4‫ ر‬2¦ ‫اغ‬2% ‫وق ﺡ دة‬2% >‫ﺹ‬% -% ‫ري‬n% .

#= ‫ة‬9 .#‫آ‬ ...1= .%y‫آ‬ .‫ه‬% ‫ رة‬9 ©9 6@2َb 2/9 ªW‫ ا)ﺡ‬B‫ا‬9 .‫ﺡ‬/b ‫ة‬9 6b9 .. ي‬5 ‫ @ ى‬14 5 6‫ دورا‬5 7 ) 5 ‫م‬5 .(‫آ‬ .‫ (ﺹ‬.1= .%y‫آ‬ aA‫آ‬ ‫ءة‬W‫آ‬ ‫ك‬2‫ ا)(ﺡ‬.4‫آ‬ ‫آع‬ @‫وك – وا‬21)‫آ‬ 6‫'ه‬4‫ ا‬5 7q ]‫ ا‬5 ‫ .(‫آ‬ . 9‫ا‬% 64‫ق ﺹ‬% B‫ن آر‬% .#‫آ‬ 6?=%‫ @آ‬.

ردون‬ 6.?)‫ ا‬.95‫> ا‬ 6. f Skin-drag coefficient total-drag coefficient flow coefficient correction factor volume flow rate mass flow rate insulated 260 2¤-‫م‬5 7 ) . ϕ friction factor.)‫د‬ ϕ ‫ﺡ(?ك‬5‫> ا‬ f ‫ﺡ(?ك‬5‫> ا‬ .@2‫ ™ه‬.(?)‫@ن ا‬2=)‫ ل ا‬ ‫ول‬ . ‫)و‬ .@ .‫آ‬2‫ ﺡ‬. viscid dynamic viscosity Apparent viscosity kinematic viscosity plate turbulent fluid inequality flux vector symmetric ideal duct enthalpy jet engine bearing Mach cone metacentre buoyancy center couple lubricant free path reservoir sink pump Bourdon gauge manometer absolute Laplace equations Navier-Stokes equations Continuity equation Darcy formula friction factor.@1( ‫@ن‬2=)‫('& ا‬ >^#( 6)y ‫ى‬2' ‫اري‬2‫ﺡ(ى ﺡ‬ ‫ث‬W ‫ك‬2‫ﺡ‬ >#‫ﺡ‬ ‫وط خ‬2o   ‫آ ا)(¡ر‬2 W/)‫آ ا‬2 ‫دوج‬ ) 2‫=ر ﺡ‬ ‫=(دع‬ I‫ﺹ‬ .5 ‫ت‬5‫د‬ °‫(آ‬b-2% ‫ت‬5‫د‬ .@‫ار‬2#(b5‫ ا‬.95‫> ا‬ ‫@ن‬2=)‫> ا‬  ‫ﺹﺡ‬4 > 6#'‫@ن ا)ﺡ‬2=)‫ ل ا‬ 6.4#‫ آ‬. ‫)و‬ .rb ‫] ط‬ .)‫د‬ 6b‫ دار‬./ُ ‫س‬:.convergent-divergent viscous. ‫)و‬ ‫)ح‬ 2r [r .')‫ ا‬.o] ‫] ط .

. . 2 .)‫ارة ا‬2‫ ا)ﺡ‬.‫از‬ .  ‫ر‬ 2¤ .1= . H# 24‫و‬ ./- .@ ‫ ﺡ‬.@2A ³W 6/¦]4 ³W ‫م‬e W ‫‹ر‬5‫ ا‬.@2A ‫ .? ‹م‬.@‫ د‬#4 ‫ ت‬ . divergent specific-heat ratio aspect ratio metacentric radius system SI units divergence theorem Buckingham theorem Froude theorem jet ramjet crude oil stall point reference point modeling chord 261 .ً‫@ن ا)ا‬2=)‫ ا‬°@- ‫ اري‬- ²%? [/- .@2A ‫ود‬2% .%y?)‫س ا‬- °1? ‫ل‬# [1 aA( .constriction flow meters scalar paraboloid hydrometer piston gradient source uniform system nozzle relative weighing expansion waves wave turbulence diffuser.1= 6‫ ا)(¡ر ﺡ‬2/-)‫ﺹ´ ا‬ ‫م‬A 6#))‫م ا)ﺡ ات ا‬A 1()‫ ا‬.A ³W ./- .

/ .‫"ي‬F‫)ا‬ (E‫ ا ﻉﺭ‬AE * ‫ا‬ .‫ ت‬c‫ ا ﺹ‬L"‫ﻉ‬: ‫ﺭس و‬f ((E‫ﺭ‬8 ./ .

.9‫د‬ aA‫آ‬   ‫ ا)‹'م‬.@‫زاو‬ ‫ي‬2‫ا ‹د ري ™ه‬ . ‫)و‬ .1=  6r‹ .. ‫=رع‬4 .@2‫ ™ه‬.

ردون‬ ‫] ط .-1q ‫.‫أ‬ ‫ . 2(‫.-1q ‫اق‬2(‫ﺡ‬5‫ ا‬.? ‹م‬.@2A Wq W/)‫آ ا‬2 ‫ّق‬2¤ 24‫و‬ 2@‫ و‬4 @‫وك – وا‬21)‫آ‬ B'‫ ه‬.#= ‫ة‬9 .%2¦ 6q ]‫ا‬ ¦. ‫ز@س‬:. .2W( I.رو‬ >#‫ﺡ‬ 6)2.@‫ ار‬. .@‫ ار‬.ردون‬ Ž=b.

1=‫ا)(ﺡ‬ ªW‫ ا)ﺡ‬B‫ا‬9 262 5"F-‫ا   ا‬ absolute absolute pressure acceleration accuracy adiabatic aerofoil.‫آ‬2‫ﺡ‬ . airfoil angle of attack apparent turbulent stress Apparent viscosity aspect ratio atmosphere back pressure barometer bearing Bernouli Blasius body force boundary layer Bourdon Bourdon gauge Boussinesq branched pipes Buckingham theorem buoyancy Buoyancy center choked chord circulation Colebrooke-White Combined boundary layer combustion chamber compressible compressor Computational fluid dynamics conservation laws . [r‫ا‬#)‫ ا‬.

#‫آ‬ a?‫ ا)(ﺡ‬a'‫ﺡ‬ .#‫ﺡ‬ ‫م‬5 2¤-‫م‬5  ‫ﺹﺡ‬4 > @‫@ن آو‬2b ‫دوج‬ ‫ج‬2‫ﺡ‬ ‫م‬e W ‫ّر‬4 .@‫ﺡو‬ .)‫د‬ .‫ (ﺹ‬..%y‫آ‬ 6..@‫ار‬2#(b‫ا‬ .ً‫@ن ا)ا‬2=)‫ ا‬°@- .@‫ار‬2#(b5‫ ا‬.)‫د‬ ..‫ا‬/b‫أ‬ 6b‫ دار‬.

‫ازاﺡ‬ 1()‫ ا‬. ي‬ ‫> .@2A >%b ‫ﺹ‬ . ي‬. ي‬5 @2W4 .W4 2¤ ‫.‫ﺡ‬4 ‫ .9‫ا‬ ‫ى‬2' 6‫آ‬2‫ﺡ‬ 6‫آ‬2‫.

& ﺡ‬n4 . ‫)و‬ ‫ءة‬W‫آ‬ ‫آع‬ .9q ‫اري‬2‫ﺡ(ى ﺡ‬ @ 14 ‫ازن‬4 ¡/e 263 constriction flow meters container continuity Continuity equation continuum control volume convective convergent convergent-divergent correction factor Couette flow couple critical crude oil current cylinder Darcy formula density differential diffuser.‫آ‬2‫ ﺡ‬. divergent dimensional dimensional analysis dimensionless discretization displacement divergence theorem downstream downstream drag duct dynamic dynamic pressure dynamic similarity dynamic viscosity efficiency elbow energy enthalpy entropy equilibrium error . ﺡ‬ 6‫آ‬2‫.

6 ‫و‬2e .

@2A ‫¦ز‬ 6b9 6b9 .@‫ د‬#4 ‫ ت‬ % ‫@ن‬2b ‫وق ﺡ دة‬2% ‫أ]ء ﺡ دة‬ ‫ﺡ'م ﺡ دة‬ ‫@ن‬2b ‫@ن‬2=)‫> ا‬ [r [r‫ا‬#)‫ ا‬. .‫آ‬2‫ﺡ‬ ‫@ن‬2=)‫('& ا‬ 2‫=ر ﺡ‬ ‫اﺡ(?ك‬ ϕ ‫ﺡ(?ك‬5‫> ا‬ f ‫ﺡ(?ك‬5‫> ا‬ ‫ود‬2% ‫ د‬ ‫ود‬2% .

@1( ‫ول‬ 6.e‫ دا‬.?4 .9q 7 ) 5 6‫ دورا‬5 ‫ @ ى‬14 5 6‫'ه‬4‫ ا‬5 ‫ري‬2?4 ³W ‫ث‬W ‫ك‬2‫ﺡ‬ 264 exit pressure expansion waves Fanno flow Finite differences Finite elements Finite volumes flow flow coefficient fluid Fluid dynamics flux vector free path friction friction factor. inviscid irrotational isentropic isotropic iterative jet jet engine .& ه‬n4 ‫ل‬# #b ‫ارة‬2‫ل ﺡ‬-(‫ا‬ .‫ﺡا‬ 6@2b 2/9 6‫آ‬2‫) ﺡ‬4 . ϕ friction factor. 6b ‫.. f Froude number Froude theorem gas gauge gauge pressure geometric similarity gradient head heat transfer helicopter hydraulic diamater hydrodynamic lubrication hydrometer ideal incompressible inequality insulated integral internal energy inviscous.%y?)‫س ا‬- 6)y 7q ]‫ ا‬5 .

(?)‫@ن ا‬2=)‫ ل ا‬   ‫آ ا)(¡ر‬2 6‫ ا)(¡ر ﺡ‬2/-)‫ﺹ´ ا‬ .4‫آ‬ 7‫ﺡ‬rW‫ﺹ‬ ‫س‬:.(‫آ‬ 6..5 ‫ت‬5‫د‬ [%‫ر‬ -% )ُ )4 ‫ خ‬..@‫زاو‬ ‫وط خ‬2o ‫ د خ‬ 6.. ‫)و‬ 6?=%‫ @آ‬.4#‫ آ‬.rb ‫] ط‬ .

@‫ق  د‬2q .‫ه‬% ²%?#)‫[ ا‬/-#)‫ا‬ >‫¦ز آ‬ 6r@% &. H# 6Ÿ@ ‫ا)م‬ ‫ك‬2‫ ا)(ﺡ‬.)‫دا‬ ‫ رة‬9 265 kinematic viscosity Kutta .. 9‫ا‬% ‫ذج‬#‫أ‬ .Joukowski laminar Laplace equations lift loss lubricant lubrication Mach angle Mach cone Mach number manometer mass mass flow rate metacentre metacentric radius minor losses model modeling molecular moment momentum Navier-Stokes equations Newtonian flow non-Newtonian flow Normal shock nozzle numerical methods oblique shock one dimensional orifice paraboloid perfect gas physical similarity pipe piston pitot-static tube plate Potential flow potential function power .n4 ‫ب‬1‫أ‬ °1? 7‫آ‬2‫ب ا)] ا)ﺡ‬1‫أ‬ ‫)ح‬ ‫ن‬#‫@ن آ‬2b ‫ن‬#?)‫ ا‬. ‫ﺹ‬ 1)‫أﺡدي ا‬ .#‫آ‬ °‫(آ‬b-2% ‫ت‬5‫د‬ 64 ‫@ن‬2b 645 ‫@ن‬2b ‫ ( ة‬. ‫ﺹ‬ ³W .r .

>(‫ا‬2. .

/ . .

95‫> ا‬ 64‫ﺹ‬ [1 ‫.9‫ا‬ .b=‫ﺡ‬ >‫ﺹ‬% ©9 ‫ﺡ ات‬. .@ . ‫ارة‬2‫ﺡ‬ .) 6#))‫م ا‬A)‫ا‬ &.)‫ارة ا‬2‫ ا)ﺡ‬. .%y‫آ‬ ..1= .‫از‬ ‫=(دع‬ )@‫ د ر‬ )@‫ا ‹دات ر‬ ‫ﺹروخ‬ ‫دوران‬ .(‫آ‬ .n4 I‫ﺹ‬ . ا‬2q ./- .ع‬ .@ .1= . 2 .no)‫ع ا‬W4‫ار‬ ‫ اري‬- .@ ‫ ﺡ‬.2b ‫ار‬2-(b‫ا‬ ‫رآد‬ ‫.')‫ ا‬.@‫@ن ر‬2b .1= ‫ ا)ﺹت‬.o] 6/¦]4 ³W 6.9‫ا‬ ‫ّع‬%‫د‬ 6r‫از .

/- 6?b I4‫ر‬ ‫@ن‬2=)‫ ا‬.)‫دا‬ 266 Prandtl pressure pressure drag propeller prototype pump ramjet Rayleigh flow reference point relative density relative mass relative weighing reservoir Reynolds number Reynolds stresses rocket rotation roughness height scalar sensitivity separation shear SI units similarity sink skin drag Skin-drag coefficient sonic source span specific heat specific-heat ratio Speed of sound stability stagnation stagnation pressure stall stall point static steady stream function . رآدي‬ ‫ا‹ر‬ ‫‹ر‬5‫ ا‬.

?)‫ ا‬.W ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬#()‫ﺡ ة ا‬ 2r 1)‫ ا‬6r^ aA( aA( ‫@ن‬2b I4‫ ر‬2¦ ‫اغ‬2% ‫م‬#ِ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ري‬n% 7 ) 6#'‫@ن ا)ﺡ‬2=)‫ ل ا‬ B‫ن آر‬% .‫ آ‬#b 6.95‫> ا‬ .@‫ار‬2‫ ا)ﺡ‬.A ‫م‬A . viscid volume flow rate Von Karman wave .‫ﺡ‬ [%‫د‬ [%‫د‬ 6.‫ﺡ‬/b ‫ة‬9 6‫ا‬b >^#( .  267 streamline stress subsonic suction supersonic surface force Swammee symmetric system system Thermodynamics three dimensional throat thrust propulsion total head total-drag coefficient turbine turbulence turbulence intensity turbulent two dimensional uniform Uniform flow unsteady vacuum valve venturi viscous.‫=ب‬5‫ ا‬e ‫ا ‹د‬ 64‫دون ﺹ‬ I‫ﺡ‬b 64‫ق ﺹ‬% .‫آ‬2‫ا)ﺡ‬ 1)‫ ا‬6^:^ .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful