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Alhamdulillah, thank to God for giving me the will to complete this Additional Mathematics project work. Secondly, I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher, Mrs Noraini bt Saldan for her guide and gives a lot of useful and important information for me to complete this task. Besides that, I would like to appreciate my parents for their support and encouragement throughout the days for me to finish this project work. Lastly, a special thank to all my friends for their help and cooperation in searching and completing the task.

As students taking Additional Mathematics, we are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. This year, Curriculum Development Division Ministry of Education had prepared three tasks for us. We are need to choose and complete ONE task only based on our area interest. Upon completion of Additional Mathematics Project Work, we gain valuable experiences and able to: Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems. Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence, improving our thinking skills. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real life problems. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing , and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely. Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem solving in ways that increase interest and confidence. Prepare ourselves for the demands of our future undertakings and in workplace. Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative.

Realize the importance and beauty of mathematics.

History of differentiation The concept of a derivative in the sense of a tangent line is a very old one, familiar to Greek geometers such as Euclid (c. 300 BC), Archimedes (c. 287212 BC) and Apollonius of Perga (c. 262190 BC). Archimedes also introduced the use ofinfinitesimals, although these were primarily used to study

areas and volumes rather than derivatives and tangents; seeArchimedes' use of infinitesimals. The use of infinitesimals to study rates of change can be found in Indian mathematics, perhaps as early as 500 AD, when the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata (476550) used infinitesimals to study the motion of the moon. The use of infinitesimals to compute rates of change was developed significantly by Bhskara II (1114-1185); indeed, it has been argued that many of the key notions of differential calculus can be found in his work, such as "Rolle's theorem".ThePersian mathematician, Sharaf al-Dn al-Ts (1135-1213), was the first to discover the derivative of cubic polynomials, an important result in differential calculus; his Treatise on Equations developed concepts related to differential calculus, such as the derivative function and the maxima and minima of curves, in order to solve cubic equations which may not have positive solutions. The modern development of calculus is usually credited to Isaac Newton (1643 1727) and Gottfried Leibniz (1646 1716), who provided independent and unified approaches to differentiation and derivatives. The key insight, however, that earned them this credit, was the fundamental theorem of calculus relating differentiation and integration: this rendered obsolete most previous methods for computing areas and volumes, which had not been significantly extended since the time of Ibn alHaytham (Alhazen). For their ideas on derivatives, both Newton and Leibniz built on significant earlier work by mathematicians such as Isaac Barrow (1630 1677), Ren Descartes (1596 1650), Christiaan Huygens (1629 1695), Blaise Pascal (1623 1662) and John Wallis (1616 1703). Isaac Barrow is generallly given credit for the early development of the derivative. Nevertheless, Newton and Leibniz remain key figures in the history of differentiation, not least because Newton was the first to apply differentiation to theoretical physics, while Leibniz systematically developed much of the notation still used today.

Since the 17th century many mathematicians have contributed to the theory of differentiation. In the 19th century, calculus was put on a much more rigorous footing by mathematicians such as Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789 1857), Bernhard Riemann (1826 1866), and Karl Weierstrass (1815 1897). It was also during this period that the differentiation was generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane.

Calculus (differentiation) To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking, to estimate minimum or maximum amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate minimum or maximum size of cake produced. Find the least area of metal required to make a closed cylindrical container from thin sheet metal in order that it might have a capacity of 2000p cm3. The total surface area of the cylinder, S, is 2pr2 + 2prh The volume = pr2h = 2000p Therefore pr2h = 2000p. Therefore h = 2000/r2 Therefore S = 2pr2 + 2pr( 2000/r2 ) = 2pr2 + 4000p r So we have an expression for the surface area. To find when the surface area is a minimum, we need to find dS/dr . dS = 4pr - 4000p dr r2 When dS/dr = 0: 4pr - (4000p)/r2 = 0 Therefore 4pr = 4000p r2 So 4pr3 = 4000p So r3 = 1000 So r = 10

You should then check that this is indeed a minimum using the technique above. So the minimum area occurs when r = 10. This minimum area is found by substituting into the equation for the area the value of r = 10. S = 2pr2 + 4000p r 2 = 2p(10) + 4000p 10 = 200p + 400p = 600p Therefore the minimum amount of metal required is 600p cm2 Geometry To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of cake to be produced Following are cakes in varies of geometry:

Progressions Geometric progression- To determine total weight or volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cakebaking, to estimate total amount of cream for decoration.


Part II Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shownin Diagram 1 for the Teachers Daycelebration. (Diagram 11)


If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 , and the height of the cake is to be 7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school.

[Use = 3.142] Answer: Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3.142)( ) x 7 (3.142) = ( ) 863.872 = ( ) = 29.392 d = 58.784 cm

2)The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin width and 45.0 cm in height. a)If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,hcm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to beused,d cm. Tabulate your answers Answer: First, form the formulafor d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, V = 19000, that is: 19000 = (3.142)(d/2)h = = d d= Height,h (cm) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Diameter,d(cm) 155.53 109.98 89.80 77.77 68.56 63.49 58.78 54.99 51.84 49.18

(b)Based on the values in your table,

(i)state the range of heights that isNOTsuitable for the cakes andexplain your answers. Answer: h< 7cm is NOT suitable, because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less attractive. (ii)suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Givereasons for your answer. Answer: h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitable for easy handling. (c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation betweenhand d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you haveformed. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computersoftware.] Answer: 19000 = (3.142)( )h 19000/(3.142)h = = d d= d= log d = log d = Log h Log d log h + log 155.53 0 1 2 2.19 1.69 1.19 3 0.69 4 0.19

(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. Answer: h = 10.5cm, log h = 1.021, log d = 1.680, d = 47.86cm (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use yourgraph to estimate the height of the cake obtained. Answer:

d = 42cm, log d = 1.623, log h = 1.140, h = 13.80cm 3)Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thicknessof the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about1cm (a)Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). Answer: h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. of cream at the top surface + Vol. of cream at the side surface Vol. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3.142)( ) x 1 = 2375 cm Vol. of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1 = 1382.23 cm Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.23 cm (b)Suggestthreeother shapes for cake, that will have the same height andvolume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream tobe used on each of the cakes. Answer:

1 Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid)

19000 = base area x height base area = length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement, 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50, width = 47.5, height = 8) Therefore, volume of cream = 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm 2 Triangle-shaped base

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50) Slant length of triangle = (95 + 25)= 98.23

Therefore, amount of cream = Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.68 cm 3 Pentagon-shaped base

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement, 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19) Therefore, amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface = 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm (c)Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the leastamount of fresh cream to be used? Answer: Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires only 3135 cm of cream to be used.


Part III Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream todecorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus.State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for youranswers. Answer: Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a). 19000 = (3.142)rh (1) V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2) From (1): h = (3) Sub. (3) into (2): V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)r( ) V = (3.142)r + ( ) V = (3.142)r + 38000r-1 ( ) = 2(3.142)r ( 0 = 2(3.142)r ( 0 = 2(3.142)r ) ) -->> minimum value, therefore =

= r 6047.104 = r r = 18.22 Sub. r = 18.22 into (3): h= h = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44cm Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function. Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3.142)rh (1) f(r) = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)hr (2) From (2): f(r) = (3.142)(r + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142) = (3.142)[ (r + ) ( ) ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0 = (3.142)[ (r + h) h ] = (3.142)(r + h) (3.142)h (a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = (3.142)h, corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub. r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3.142)(--h)h h = 6047.104 h = 18.22 Sub. h = 18.22 into (1): 19000 = (3.142)r(18.22) r = 331.894 r = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22 cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44 cm

I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.



FURTHER EXPLORATION Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.(a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparingall these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns. Answer: height, h of each cake = 6cm

radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake 31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599 a = 31, r = V = (3.142)rh Radius of 1st cake = 31, volume of 1st cake = (3.142) (31)(6) = 18116.772 Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9, vol. of 2nd cake = 14674.585 Radius of 3rd cake = 25.11, vol. of 3rd cake = 11886.414 Radius of 4th cake = 22.599, vol. of 4th cake = 9627.995 18116.772, 14674.585, 11886.414, 9627.995, a = 18116.772, ratio, r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = = 0.81 (b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximumnumber of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using othermethods. Answer: Sn = Sn = 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81 57000 = 1 0.81n = 0.59779 0.40221 = 0.81n og0.81 0.40221 = n


n = 4.322 therefore, n 4

CONCLUSIONS In cake baking and decoration, without my realize, mathematics are commonly used. I saw the usage of geometry, differentiation and also progression. By using geometry, the cakes become more attractive and adorable. While, differentiation and progression help us to estimate the amount of ingredients that are needed whether in baking or decorating. Without mathematics, one may bake a cake that has very high or very wide dimensions. This will cause problems to himself to handle with those cakes.

So, as I doing this project, I noticed that geometry, differentiation and progression can be close in our daily life. Different shapes have different volumes and amount of fresh cream to be layered. From differentiation, we can calculate the maximum or minimum value of fresh cream to be used correctly. After we know and learn concept of this mathematics, we can apply them in our life. In order to bake a handy and nice cake, we can capable to decide on shapes that are more favourable and suitable.


While I conducting this project, a lot of information that I had found. I had learnt how to bake a cake with the best dimensions and able to estimate the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate that cake. A part from that, this project encourage students to work together and share their knowledge. It is also

encourage students to gather information from internet, improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication. Last but not least, I proposed this project should be continue because it brings a lot of moral values to the students understanding in Additional Mathematics. In the making of this project, I have spent countless hours doing this project.I realized that this subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I cant fulfill my big dreams and wishes. I used to hate Additional Mathematics It always makes me wonder why this subject is so difficult I always tried to love every part of it It always an absolute obstacle for me Throughout day and night I sacrificed my precious time to have fun From.. Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday And even the weekend that I always looking forward to

From now on, I will do my best on every second that I will learn Additional Mathematics.