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Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as "the wrongful appropriation, close imitation, or purloining and publication, of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as one's own original work."[1][2] The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, while in the previous centuries authors and artists were encouraged to "copy the masters as closely as possible" and avoid "unnecessary invention."[3][4][5][6][7] The 18th century new morals have been institutionalized and enforced prominently in the sectors of academia and journalism, where plagiarism is now considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics, subject to sanctions like expulsion and other severe career damage. Not so in the arts, which have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative process, with plagiarism being still hugely tolerated by 21st century artists.[8][9] Plagiarism is not a crime but is disapproved more on the grounds of moral offence.[3][10]

Etymology and History

The use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else's work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses." This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilt of literary theft.[3][11] The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1615–25.[citation needed] The Latin plagiārius, "kidnapper", and plagium, "kidnapping", has the root plaga ("snare", "net"), based on the Indo-European root *-plak, "to weave" (seen for instance in Greek plekein, Bulgarian "плета" pleta, Latin plectere, all meaning "to weave"). The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal, emerged in Europe only in the 18th century.[3][7] For centuries before, not only literature was considered "publica materies," a common property from which anybody could borrow at will, but the encouragement for authors and artists was actually to "copy the masters as closely as possible," for which the closer the copy the finer was considered the work.[3][4][8][12] This was the same in literature, music, painting and sculpture. In some cases, for a writer to invent his own plots was reproached as presumptuous.[3] This stood at the time of Shakespeare too, when it was common to appreciate more the similarity with an admired classical work, and the ideal was to avoid "unnecessary invention."[3][5][6] The modern ideals for originality and against plagiarism appeared in the 18th century, in the context of the economic and political history of the book trade, which will be exemplary and influential for the subsequent broader introduction of capitalism.[13] Originality, that traditionally had been deemed as impossible, was turned into an unrealistc mantra and obligation by the emerging ideology of individualism.[6][8] In 1755 the word made it into Johnson's influential A 1

and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment. by contrast. professors. and in the 21st century plagiarism is still hugely tolerated by artists. the moral concept of plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship. While both terms may apply to a particular act. has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. they are different concepts. you must give credit.[9][10] Some cases may be treated as unfair competition. Without invention a painter is but a copier.[citation needed] In short. or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud. when material protected by copyright is used without consent. plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination. In academia and journalism Within academia.[18] Journalism Since journalism's main currency is public trust.[citation needed] The increased availability of intellectual property due to a rise in technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal. or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights."). up to and including expulsion. have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative process. from the point of view of the law. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally. by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. plagiarism by students. and a poet but a plagiary of others. a reporter's failure to honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television news show's integrity and undermines its credibility. plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics. where articles appear as electronic text. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history.Dictionary of the English Language.[19] 2 .[8][9] Legal aspects Although plagiarism is some contexts loosely referred to as theft or stealing. either criminal or civil. and offenders are subject to academic censure. Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while the charges are being investigated by the news organization. [16][17] Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees. and in its own entry denoting both A thief in literature ("one who steals the thoughts or writings of another") and The crime of literary theft. an imitator. which students and professors have agreed to be bound by. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder. The word "plagiarism" is not even mentioned in any current statute. it is a non existing concept. people are asked to use this "[s]imple tip: if you did not write it yourself. the arts. On the other hand. where he was cited in the entry for copier ("One that imitates."[15][unreliable source?] Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement. along with the loss of credibility and integrity. a plagiary. In journalism. the development of the Internet. and their current enforcement in the ethical codes of academia and journalism. For professors and researchers.[3][14] Depite the 18th century new morals.

First. Recent use of plagiarism detection software (see below) gives a more accurate picture of this activity's prevalence. Second.[25] 3 . submitting a copied piece of writing as original work).g. Students may feel pressured to complete papers well and quickly.[23] Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism. academic degrees or awards may be revoked as a penalty for plagiarism. where musical plagiarism and musical quotation. inaccurate. Plagiarism is not only the mere copying of text. instructors may receive the same passage copied from a popular source from several students. and with the accessibility of new technology (the Internet) students can plagiarize by copying and pasting information from other sources. inventing data. or off-topic. While plagiarism is condemned in academia and journalism. [24] and there is a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying. are widely accepted as standard practices.[20] There is little academic research into the frequency of plagiarism in high schools.[citation needed] However. or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e. Plagiarism on the Internet Content scraping is a phenomenon of copy and pasting material from Internet websites. students' choices of sources are frequently unoriginal.. this figure decreases considerably when students are asked about the frequency of "serious" plagiarism (such as copying most of an assignment or purchasing a complete paper from a website). but also the presentation of another's ideas as one's own. in the arts is often a major part of the creative process. An prominent example is music. In many universities. a student may be suspended or expelled. Prominent avant-gard composer John Zorn explained that the composition process of each of his pieces is based on the plagiarism from multiple sources that are patched together and transposed into his own aesthetic criteria. such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. regardless of the specific words or constructs used to express that idea.The ease with which electronic text can be reproduced from online sources has lured a number of reporters into acts of plagiarism: Journalists have been caught "copying-and-pasting" articles and text from a number of websites[citation needed]. This is often easily detected by teachers for several reasons. (including plagiarism. many so-called plagiarism detection services can only detect blatant word-for-word copies of text. it is often easy to tell whether a student used his or her own "voice. Fourth. lecturers may insist that submitted work is first submitted to an online plagiarism detector. Much of the research investigated plagiarism at the post-secondary level. or to the ISP that is hosting the offending site. plagiarism by students is a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level) or for the course (typically at the college or university level). and cheating during an exam) students admit to plagiarism more than any other." Third. students may choose sources which are inappropriate.[21] Of the forms of cheating. affecting both established sites[22] and blogs. Instances of plagiarism that involve copyright violation may be addressed by the rightful content owners sending a DMCA removal notice to the offending site-owner. In contrast. [citation needed] For cases of repeated plagiarism. In the academic world.

"[30] American author Jonathan Lethem delivered a passionate defense of the use of plagiarism in art in his 2007 essay "The ecstasy of influence: A plagiarism" in Harper's. the practice of Swipe (comics) widespread and major publication The Comics Journal kept a "Swipe File" column devoted to tracking cases. to copy from parts of other works and transpose them in their own world. In comics. but I gave them to you. in consideration of the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up into the new form. It must be owned. that he. Thomas Pynchon joined a campaign by many other major authors to clear Ian McEwan of plagiarism charges by sending a typed letter to his British publisher. in fact. this can be illegal if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to another entity. do plunder my visions. whose manner and style were so long thought original. professional."[31] Self-plagiarism Self-plagiarism (also known as "recycling fraud"[32]) is the reuse of significant. Typically. it is a practice common to all the major authors. in literature they are usually not revealed or kept implicit. You. in storytelling and literature. The value attributed to originality is also culturally contigent. Articles of this nature are often referred to as duplicate or multiple publication. If you copy from two. The name of the game is Give All.[26][27] Oliver Goldsmith commented:[28] Sterne's Writings. the most unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in order to garnish his own pages. 4 . that in most cases we are disposed to pardon the want of originality. the practice of appropriation is historically well established tradition. places them so well. He wrote: "The kernel. such as social. in which references are expected to be cited explicitly and precisely. like in the case of Shakespeare's rewriting of Plautus' Menaechmi for The Comedy of Errors. and cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines. are welcome to my stories.[29] Playwright Wilson Mizner said "If you copy from one author. was. some societies. that Sterne selects the materials/ of his mosaic work with so much art. the actual and valuable material of all human utterances—is plagiarism" and "Don't pirate my editions. in which it is clearly shown. identical. at the same time. 2006. condemns plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism.Similarly. reader. On December 6. A famous passage of Laurence Sterne's 1767 Tristram Shandy. They were never mine in the first place. In addition to the ethical issue. the soul—let us go further and say the substance. or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work.[citation needed] In painting. such as in academic publishing or educational assignments. the bulk. self-plagiarism is only considered to be a serious ethical issue in settings where a publication is asserted to consist of new material. like the one at the time of Shakespeare. which was published in the Daily Telegraph newspaper.[33] It does not apply (except in the legal sense) to public-interest texts. it's plagiarism. and polishes them so highly.[5] Unlike in the academia world. it's research. instead used to appreciate more the similarity with an admired classical work.

However.In academic fields. Self-plagiarism and codes of ethics Some academic journals have codes of ethics which specifically refer to self-plagiarism. self-plagiarism is when an author reuses portions of their own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications.[41] Some professional organizations like the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism. since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others' material. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of "recycling". Resnik clarifies. Stephanie J. However. and copyright infringement.[36] For example.[34] Identifying self-plagiarism is often difficult because limited reuse of material is both legally accepted (as fair use) and ethically accepted." It does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. "Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft."[43] 5 . partitioning of one study into multiple publications.[40] Roig (2002) offers a useful classification system including four types of self-plagiarism: duplicate publication of an article in more than one journal. it must be borne in mind that these researchers also obey limits: If half an article is the same as a previous one. The concept of self-plagiarism The concept of "self-plagiarism" has been challenged as self-contradictory or an oxymoron. where heavy publish-or-perish demands have led to a rash of duplicate and “salami-slicing” publication. the phrase is used to refer to specific forms of potentially unethical publication. Bird identifies the ethical issues sometimes called "self-plagiarism" as those of "dual or redundant publication." As David B. "self-plagiarism" may refer to the case of a student who resubmits "the same essay for credit in two different courses. the Journal of International Business Studies. Scanlon:[39] "Self-plagiarism" is a term with some specialized currency. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part". it is used in discussions of research and publishing integrity in biomedicine. the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins.[42] Other organisations do not make specific reference to self-plagiarism: The American Political Science Association (APSA) has published a code of ethics which describes plagiarism as "deliberate appropriation of the works of others represented as one's own. Bird[37] argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer. often called salami-slicing. tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles." She also notes that in an educational context. For example. text recycling. the reporting of a single study's results in "least publishable units" within multiple articles.[35] It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work. but without attributing the previous publication. to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. Most prominently."[38] According to Patrick M. it will usually be rejected.

" but it does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. saying: "there are often paragraphs or sequences of paragraphs that can be bodily lifted from one article to the other. copyrights law’s fair use defense would likely provide a shield against many potential publisher claims of copyright infringement against authors who reused portions of their previous works. The previous work needs to be restated in order to lay the groundwork for a new contribution in the second work. Portions of the previous work must be repeated in order to deal with new evidence or arguments.[44] Factors that justify reuse Pamela Samuelson in 1994 identified several factors which excuse reuse of one's previously published work without the culpability of self-plagiarism. The author thinks they said it so well the first time that it makes no sense to say it differently a second time." She refers to her own practice of converting "a technical article into a law review article with relatively few changes—adding footnotes and one substantive section" for a different audience.[35] Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of self-plagiarism. 5. in that it is frequently useful to consult the sources used by an author. Samuelson states she has relied on the "different audience" rationale when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities. 2. which she deals with separately. 3. She seems less concerned about reuse of descriptive materials than ideas and analytical content. in truth. [35] She also states “Although it seems not to have been raised in any of the self-plagiarism cases. I lift them. The audience for each work is so different that publishing the same work in different places was necessary to get the message out."[35] As a practical issue In addition to legal and ethical concerns. and consulting the original source allows these errors to be detected. plagiarism is frequently also a practical issue.[35] She relates each of these factors specifically to the ethical issue of self-plagiarism. Among other factors which may excuse reuse of previously published material Samuelson lists the following: 1. There are a number of reasons why this is useful: • An author may commit an error in how they interpret or use a source.The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) has published a code of ethics which says its members are committed to: "Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions. The previous work needs to be restated in order to lay the groundwork for the contribution in the second work. And. as distinct from the legal issue of fair use of copyright. She refers to writing for different legal and technical communities. 4. and plagiarism makes this more difficult. 6 .

or paragraphs from another text or follow too closely the other text's arrangement and organization.William Shakespeare Complete Works. phrases. though. they are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research and may be allowed a greater "extent of dependence" on other works. in its own working documents. Introduction to the Comedy of Errors. Second Edition (2000) by Philip Rubens. Jack (2002) The Perfectly Acceptable Practice of Literary Theft: Plagiarism. ^ From the 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary: use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work qtd. 7. 5. If a paragraph comes from a law report. If someone helped with a report. 4. a citation is expected to be written quote: while we applaud difference. Frederic (1963) Publica materies. Greenwood Press.51–54. For example. Robert S. ISBN 0838984169. Organizational publications Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for originality to particular people. Shakespeare's first audiences fovoured likeness: a work was good not because it was original. Also available online since 2006 at Writing World. pp. because they assume a common spirit of scientific endeavor (as evidenced. which in the case of comedy meant a play by Terence or Plautus ^ a b c Lindey. p. the American Historical Association's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005) regarding textbooks and reference books states that. As with any technical field. in free and open source software projects) in which scientists freely share their work. The line between permissible literary and impermissible source code plagiarism. in Lands (1999) ^ a b c d e f g h Lynch. is apparently quite fine. in Arion ^ a b c Royal Shakespeare Company (2007) The RSC Shakespeare . but because it resembled an admired classical exemplar."[45] Within an organization. 3. since textbooks and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work.• • Authors generally only supply the portions of prior works that are directly relevant to the work at hand. Alexander (1952) Plagiarism and Originality. references between works provide valuable information about their authoritativeness and how closely works are related. p. even such a book does not make use of words. The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Third Edition (2003) by Microsoft does not even mention plagiarism. As modern automated indexing methods become prevalent. Technical manuals routinely copy facts from other manuals without attribution. Library plagiarism policies. in Stepchyshyn. and the Eighteenth Century. 6. no. nor does Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style. of the ideas. 4 (Winter 2002–3). Connecticut ^ a b Edward Young (1759) Conjectures on Original Composition 7 . or the expression of the ideas… of another qtd. Assoc of College & Resrch Libraries. for example. computer programming makes use of what others have contributed to the general knowledge. Vera. they may expect to be credited. in Colonial Williamsburg: The Journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 24. 65. those not yet a part of the common understanding of the profession. ^ a b Will. ^ From the Oxford English Dictionary: the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one’s own. Nelson (2007). Other portions of their sources are likely to be relevant to later extensions and generalizations of their work. 2. standards are looser but not non-existent. this helps to locate relevant id=OHamIn5dPR8C. and the authors of such texts are also expected to "acknowledge the sources of recent or distinctive findings and interpretations. [45] However. http://books. Copyright. References 1.

http://www. September. Pineapple Press.335. Flanagin. ^ Loewenstein. Jeffrey I. a b c d e November. (2006). ^ Jonathan Lethem (February 2007). Friesner.html.1016/j. p. Communications of the ACM. & Young. 36." so I'd take that section out of the score and transcribe it into my own notation. 31.. ^ CNET. 2006.idno=5240451. Jefferson.007. Peter (1974) Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy p. Dreamers.] You could call it 23 · 2 December 2004 pages 34–35 | 4103 words 28. ^ Blancett. ^ Louisiana State University 11.umich. Basically. "Academic Plagiarism Defined". ^ "Self-plagiarism and Dual and Redundant Publications: What http://www. Wheeler. Da Capo Press (ISBN 0-306-80893-5). doi:10. 37(August): 21–25. Joseph (2002) Ben Jonson and possessive authorship. Online 39.–11". [1] 37. fabrication and falsification''. ^ Burke.8. p. ^ See Allow me to rephrase. p. 2 (1). December 1999. 30. p. Letter to the Daily Telegraph newspaper. 2007). so I'd take out of the score and put it someplace else. Journal of the Association for Information Systems. M. ^ Mark Ford Love and Theft london Review of Books Vol. Francis Edward Jackson (2005) Etymological Dictionary of the Latin Language. Robert P. 9.htm research. N. Lowe. you could call it quoting.177. 7(2). I'd hear an Elliott Carter theme that I thought was [. ^ Quoted by Stuart B. ^ "Frequently asked questions regarding selfplagiarism: How to avoid recycling fraud. ^ See for example Dellavalle. 26 No.. McIver. http://www. ^ Pynchon. Volume 5 p. Kassirer & Angell.449-50 quote: I used to copy the scores over and see how the things would work [. Florida. ^ Broome. 1993.] Then.xviii 29. (1994). ^ Authorship gets lost on Web. pp.umich. 1995. 15. a b [dead link] 10. David B. [. but in art some might say it is almost essential.273–274. ^ Kock. R. ^ Oliver Goldsmith The vicar of Wakefield: a tale. ^ Hexham. ^ Duckworth.ucalgary. it's like I'd hear a sound element in a Bartok section and I'd say. 2000 ^ a b c Lands. Robert (1999) Plagiarism is no Crime published by The Association of Illustrators (AOI). ^ Samuelson. Entry for copier in Volume I. Times Higher Education Supplement.345 entry for plagium. USA Today 23. ^ List of cases of plagiarism among journalists 20. (June 8. Quote: Plagiarism may be a taboo in academia." ''Plagiary: cross-disciplinary studies in plagiarism. P. and Ellis. Plagiarism and Copyright Principles within Visual 24. 2004). ^ See 25. quote: "the crime of kidnapping.rgn=main. 91–121. Reddit 16. http://www.10. [. 8 . pp. Boston. 19. 57 (3). 96–104. Banks. Retrieved 2010-08-02. ^ Laurence Sterne Tristram Shandy. note 3. The New York Sun. Penelope (2000) Petrarch's Apes: Originality. 17. "Self-plagiarism: oxymoron. ^ a b c d Alfrey. or scientific misconduct?" Nursing Outlook. Schein & Paladugu.view=text. 42(7). Marcus A. but it's not so much what you're taking as it is how you transform it into your own world. c=plag. ^ "Scanlon. William (1999) Talking Music. research Plagiarism and Poor Academic Practice – A Threat to the Extension of eLearning in Higher Education?. London: Routledge.physletb. http://www. February 17. via Google Books Is the Problem?".harpers. Quod. ^ Online plagiarism strikes blog world. "The ecstasy of influence: A plagiarism". A case of academic plagiarism. Vol. and boost my tally of (2005). (1999). Sarasota." 12.527. notes to chapter six. The Ethics of Science: an introduction. 18. Marion E.. pp. Retrieved [dead link] 2007-12-11.071 33.] In a lot of ways it's got a collage element to it." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. ISBN 1-56164-034-4. December 6. 27(4).480. 3 July 2008 34. 26. I. Thomas. 1995. MIS Quarterly. 38. Entry for plagiary in Volume II.lib. Vol V. ^ Samuel Johnson (1755) A Dictionary of the English Language.] it's very similar to what I'm doing now in terms of the plagiarism involved. ^ Hart. Springerlink.lib.. 2003. Schemers and Scalawags. "Opinion: Why Do They Do It?". (2007).. "Self-Plagiarism or Fair Use?" Communications of the ACM. Dealing with plagiarism in the IS research community: A look at factors that drive plagiarism and ways to address them. ^ Klein A.. p. ^ Clarke. Retrieved 2007-12-11 22. McCarthy. ^ masterm. Harper's Magazine. 1 32. N. (1998). 511–532. Vol. you could call it a lot of different things. ^ 40.0002. "That sounds neat.nysun. 52 (6). & Webpronews.2003. by Rebecca Attwood.springerlink.. 154 13. (2007). Tim (December 15. fair use. 1998. (2003). 21. Electronic Journal of E-Learning. Patrick M. Cambridge University Press 14... (2004). 1989 http://quod. 1994. 2001. Plagiarism by academics: More complex than it seems. 35. "Song from myself: an anatomy of self-plagiarism. Retrieved 2010-08-02.3. R. 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