Metabolism of Carbohydrates

The Energy Metabolism of Glucose Entry of other Carbohydrates into Glycolysis Pyruvate Metabolism Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
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Metabolism of carbohydrates

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Carbohydrate metabolism

Energy metabolism of glucose
Disaccharides anabolism Glycogen (animals) Starch (plants) catabolism phosphogluconate pathway Glucose glycolysis ATP + NADH + H+ gluconeogenesis Pyruvate Lactate anaerobic,muscles aerobic Acetyl CoA

anaerobic,yeast Ethanol

Ribose-5-phosphate + NADPH + H+
3! 4!

Glycolysis

First five reactions of glycolysis
ATP ADP glucose glucose-6-P

6 carbon stage Requires energy

ATP ADP

fructose-6-P fructose-1,6-bisP

glyceraldehyde-3-P
5!

dihydroxyacetone-P
6!

3-bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphoglycerate 2-bisphosphoglycerate ADP ATP phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate 7! Overall glycolysis glucose 2 ADP + 2 PO4= + 2 NAD+! 10 enzymes! Pi 3 carbon stage Double this since two pyruvate are made. 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2 ATP! H2O 8! Entry of other carbohydrates into glycolysis Entry of other carbohydrates into glycolysis maltase invertase (bacteria) sucrase (animals) lactase 9! 10! Entry of other carbohydrates into glycolysis Entry of other carbohydrates into glycolysis 11! 12! .Reactions of glycolysis NAD+ NADH + H+ ADP ATP glyceraldehyde-3-P 1.

Biosynthesis of carbohydrates 17! 18! .Entry of other carbohydrates into glycolysis Pyruvate metabolism Galactose galactokinase Glucose-6-phosphate Phosphoglucomutase Galactose-1-phosphate galactose-1phosphate uridyl transferase Glucose-1-phosphate UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase UDP-galactose -4-epimerase UDP-galactose UDP-glucose 13! 14! Fermentation Lactate fermentation 15! 16! Alcohol fermentation Used by anaerobic bacteria to obtain additional energy from glucose.

6 -bisphosphate + ADP Stage III ATP Glucose Pi HO 2 Glucose-1-phosphate + UDP Glucose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate ATP Pi HO 2 Stage II Fructose-1.Biosynthesis of carbohydrates Skeletal muscles Glycogen glucose-6-P exercise glucose-6-P pyruvate lactate rest glucose glucose-6-P mitochondria pyruvate lactate Pyruvate Gluconeogenesis Phosphoenolpyruvate Oxaloacetate Blood Liver Glycogen glucose-6-P Pyruvate Stage I Lactate Pyruvate Malate Malate Phosphoenol pyruvate Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Muscles lack enzyme needed to convert pyruvate to glucose-6-P. Only seven of the ten steps in glycolysis are reversible. PEP + ADP pyruvate + ATP 22! Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis 23! 24! . Must be sent to liver. The three steps to be bypassed are: 1. 19! 20! Gluconeogenesis Glycogen UDP-glucose Gluconeogenesis The process is sometimes called ‘reverse glycolysis’ but that is a misnomer. fructose-6-phosphate + ATP 10. glucose + ATP glucose-6-phosphate + ADP fructose-1.6-bisphosphate Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 3-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoenolpyruvate 21! 3.

Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis Fructose-6-phosphate ATP phosphofructokinase Pi fructose-1.6-bisphosphate 25! gluconeogenesis 26! 28! 30! glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Synthesis of disaccharides and polysaccharides glucose-6phosphatase glucose-6-phosphate + H2O glucose + Pi 27! Activation of glucose and galactose Synthesis of UDP-galactose 29! .6bisphosphatase H2O Fructose-1.

Synthesis of glycogen Glucose. A "(1 4) linkage results. It’s synthetic route is similar to starch except a "(1 4) linkage is produced. activated and tagged by attachment of UDP. Glycogen synthase catalyzes the formation of a new ! (1 4) glycosidic linkage. It is produced by a two step process. not UDP. UDP-galactose + glucose UDP + lactose 33! Synthesis of sucrose Sucrose is present in most fruits and vegetables. UDP-glucose or GDP-glucose + (glucose)n Regulation of glycolysis UDP or GDP + (glucose)n+1 35! 36! . ADP-glucose + (glucose)n (glucose)n+1 + ADP 31! 32! (glucose)n+1 + UDP Synthesis of lactose This disaccharide is actively synthesized in the mammary glands of mammals. is added to the nonreducing ends of an existing glycogen. It is produced by combining activated galactose with glucose using lactose synthase. UDP-glucose + fructose-6-phosphate sucrose-6phosphate synthase H2O phosphatase sucrose + Pi sucrose-6-phosphate + UDP 34! Synthesis of cellulose Cellulose. Starch synthase catalyzes the addition of glucose to an existing starch molecule by formation of ! (1 4) glycosidic linkage. UDP-glucose + (glucose)n + H2O Synthesis of starch Similar to glycogen formation except glucose is activated by ADP.major structural polysaccharide in cell walls of plants and some bacteria.

6-bisphosphate phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate 37! .Regulation of glycolysis feedback inhibition glucose glucose 6-phosphate fructose 6-phosphate fructose 1.

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