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an 1

Yufei Zhao

an 1

Yufei Zhao Trinity College, Cambridge yufei.zhao@gmail.com April 2011 In this lecture we look at some problems involving expressions of the form an 1. Lets start with a couple of warm up problems. Problem. Let a, m, n be positive integers. Prove that gcd(an 1, am 1) = agcd(m,n) 1. Solution. Using the identity x 1 = xk1 + + x + 1, we know that ae 1 | ad 1 whenever x1 e | d, so agcd(m,n)1 divides both an 1, and am 1. On the other hand, if r divides both an 1 and am 1, then r must be relatively prime to a, so a can be inverted mod r. There exists integers s, t such that sn + tm = gcd(m, n). So agcd(m,n) asn+tm (an )s (am )t 1 (mod r).

k

Any common divisor of an 1 and am 1 must be a divisor of agcd(m,n) 1 as well. This proves that gcd(an 1, am 1) = agcd(m,n) 1. Another approach is to use the Euclidean algorithm. If m > n, say, then gcd(an 1, am 1) = gcd(an 1, am 1 amn (an 1)) = gcd(an 1, amn 1). So the the Euclidean algorithm process that gives us gcd(n, m) = d also gives us gcd(an 1, am 1) = ad 1.

For a prime number p and a nonnegative integer k, write pk pk+1 n. In this case we say that n is exactly divisible by pk . Problem. Let k be a nonnegative integer. Prove that 3k+1

k k

23 + 1.

k k

From Eulers theorem, we know that 3k+1 | 223 1 = (23 + 1)(23 1). We have k k 2 1 (1)3 1 1 (mod 3). So 3k+1 | 23 + 1. However, this doesnt show us that k 3k+2 23 + 1, so we adopt a dierent approach.

3k

Solution. We use induction on k. We can check for k = 0. Suppose that k 1 and 3k 23 +1. k k k1 We would like to show 3k+1 23 + 1. It suces to show that (23 + 1)/(23 + 1) is divisible by 3 but not 9. We can check this by hand when k = 1. For k 2, we have 23 + 1 k1 k1 = (23 )2 23 + 1 (1)2 (1) + 1 3 3k1 + 1 2 by the induction hypothesis, and hence it is divisibly by 3 but not 9.

k

k1

(mod 3k )

The previous problem showed us a useful technique, whose idea is captured in the following lemma.

an 1

Yufei Zhao

Lemma. (Exponent lifting trick) Let a 2, k 1, 0 be integers, p a prime number. Suppose (p, k) = (2, 1), and pk a 1 and p n. Then pk+ an 1. When n = p , we obtain the conclusion that pk p ap 1, so that p is lifted into the exponent. We give two proofs of the lemma. The rst proof uses induction following ideas in the previous problem, whereas the second proof does not use induction. First proof. Write n = p m, where p m. Use induction on . When am 1 = (a 1)(am1 + am2 + + a + 1) where am1 + am2 + + a + 1 1m1 + 1m2 + + 1 + 1 = m (mod pk ), and hence not divisible by p. Thus pk am 1. This concludes the base case = 0. For the inductive step, it suces to show that pk+ an 1 implies pk+ +1 anp 1. This np 1 amounts to showing that a n 1 is divisibly by p by not p2 . We have a anp 1 = an(p1) + an(p2) + + an + 1 1 + 1 + + 1 + 1 = p (mod pk+ ). an 1 We are done unless k + = 1, i.e., (k, ) = (1, 0), which we deal with separately. Assume (k, ) = (1, 0). Let am 1 = pb where p b. We would like to show that p2 apm 1. We have

p

= 0,

apm 1 = (1 + pb)p 1 = p2 b +

i=2

p i i pb. i

Since p = 2 (excluded as (p, k) = (2, 1)), p3 divides all the terms except for the rst term. Therefore apm 1 is divisible by p2 but not p3 . Second proof. Write a = pk b + 1 where p b. We have

n

i=2

n ki i p b. i

We have pk+

+1

n i

n ki i n n 1 ki i pk(i1) n 1 i p b = p b = npk b. i i1 i i1 i This number is always divisible by pk+ for i 2 as (p, k) = (2, 1).

+1

pk(i1) i

is always positive

Practice problems: 1. A primitive root mod n is a number g such that the smallest positive integer k for which g k 1 mod n is (n). 2

an 1

Yufei Zhao

(a) Show that 2 is a primitive root mod 3n for any n 1. (b) Show that if g is an odd primitive root mod p such that p2 g p1 1, then g is also a primitive root mod pn and 2pn for any n 1. 2. (Cyclotomic polynomials) For a positive integer n, dene the polynomial n (x) by n (x) = (x e

1kn gcd(n,k)=1

2ik n

).

d|n d (x)

(b) Prove that n (x) is an integer polynomial. (c) Let m and n be positive integers, and let p be a prime divisor of n (m). Prove that either p | n or n | p 1. (d) (Special case of Dirichlets theorem) Prove that for every positive integer n, there are innitely many primes p with p 1 (mod n). 3. (IMO 2003) Let p be a prime number. Prove that there exists a prime number q such that for every integer n, np p is not divisible by q. 4. (a) Prove that m (x) and n (x) are always relatively prime as polynomials for m = n. (b) Show that if for some integer x, m (x) and n (x) are not relative prime, then m/n is an integer power of a prime. 5. Let p1 , p2 , . . . , pk be distinct primes greater than 3. Let N = 2p1 p2 pk + 1. (a) (IMO Shortlist 2002) Show that N has at least 4n divisors. (b) Show that N has at least 22

k1

7. (IMO 2000) Does there exist a positive integer N which is divisible by exactly 2000 dierent prime numbers and such that 2N + 1 is divisible by N ? 8. Let N be a positive integer ending in digits 25, and m a positive integer. Prove that for some positive integer n, the rightmost m digits of 5n and N agree in parity (i.e., for 1 k m, the k-th digit from the right in n is odd if and only if the k-th digit from the right in N is odd). 9. (Hensels lemma) Let f (x) = cn xn + cn1 xn1 + + c2 x2 + c1 x + c0 be a polynomial with integer coecients. Its derivative f is a polynomial dened by f (x) = ncn xn1 + (n 1)cn1 xn2 + + 2c2 x + c1 . Suppose that a Z satises p | f (a) and p f (a). Prove that for any integer k, there exists an integer b satisfying pk | f (b) and p | b a.

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