Digital Re-print - May | June 2011

Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques: Linear and Non-Linear model

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872




Linear and Non-Linear model
by Dr Pratiksha, Assistant Professor, School of Applied Sciences, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, India
t is well known fact that nutrition is the most important factor for animal growth, reproduction and proper maintenance. and micro nutrients (that is, two percent A lot of work has been done in the area calcium or vitamin A deficient). Two types of formulations are used in of finding different levels of nutrient ingredient in diet and formulation. On the basis of diets; fixed formulation and variable formulapercentage of nutrient level, components are tion. Fixed formulations are used for the diets where the ingredient composition is Dietary information is essential for con- included in animal diet. ducting research and performing experiNo one feed ingredient can supply all of known and is not altered. It decreases the ments. The diet should supply all the essen- the nutrients and energy need for the best amount of variation in dietary constituents tial nutrients and adequate amount of energy growth. Diet should contain a mixture of that could jeopardise experimental results or to satisfy requirement for body growth, well feedstuffs, vitamin and mineral premixes that have a negative influence on the well being health conditions and animal yields. provide the right essential nutrients as well of animals. To assure nutrient specifications, ingrediAnother important aspect of diet is to as the energy necessary to use the nutrients. maintain environmental and flesh quality. The amount of each feed ingredient ent standards for nutrient concentrations are A number of feeding standards have been depends on several factors, including nutrient established prior to the procurement of the defined and practiced for a long time. requirements, ingredient cost, availability of ingredients. Dietary contaminants are conConventional and non-conventional feed each ingredient, and processing character- trolled by procuring ingredients according to strict contaminant standards and by testing resources are used to formulate the diet for istics. ruminant livestock in developing countries. For formulating diets for experimental ingredients for contaminants of concern. Variable formulations may allow for While formulating the diet, tendency is to purposes, it is necessary that all ingredients changes in ingredient composition or conreject the poor quality feeds that are avail- are controlled for all essential nutrients. able in vast quantities. But, under practical conditions, such a centration. These changes in formulations The objective is to use locally available control is difficult to set forth and mostly could lead to the incorporation of lower feed resources effectively by applying basic restricted to rapid proximate composition quality, less costly ingredients, where undenutrition principles to optimise animal yield, analyses. Specific attention should however sirable, non-assayed components, such phyhealth and weight. The alternative approach be given to obtain guarantees for absence of toestrogens, may be introduced. Variable formulated diet makes necesis to use feeding standards that would ensure anti-nutritional factors. that the production system matches the Diet given to laboratory animal may be sary adjustments according to raw material of two types: Natural Ingredients macronutrient variability, which could cause or Purified Ingredients. Natural significant variation in the finished product. Example 1: Example to formulate a linear ingredient diets support reproduc- The largest volume of laboratory animal diet programming model for the diet formulation. tion, growth, and maintenance of produced is comprised of agricultural comNutrient A B C D laboratory animals. Purified diets modities like corn, wheat, plant by-products, are made of refined ingredients to soybean meal, oats, alfalfa meal, and animal Gram 70 30 20 4 minimise nutrient variation, certain derived ingredients such as fish meal and environmental contaminants and meat and bone meal. the presence of active compounds naturally available resources. The diets should be formulated so as it occurring in plants. There are different methods to Generally, purified diets are used for diet formulate animal diet contain all essential nutrients in adequate quantities. The diet should be supplied in a formulation as they can be manipulated to Diet formulation includes balance mixform, which is easily accepted by the cultivat- contain very high or low levels of specific mac- ture of ingredients which are economically ed animal and should have little adverse envi- ro-nutrironmental impact. The strategy of choosing ents (that Example 2: The ingredients have the following nutrient values and cost the feed ingredients is based on locally is, 60 peravailable feed resources and it requires the cent of A B C D Cost/Kg. understanding of the relative roles and nutri- kcal from ent needs of the two-compartment system fat or six Ingredient 1 (gram/kg) 140 90 40 ---50 represented by the microorganisms in the percent Ingredient 2(gram/kg) 200 120 20 30 60 protein) rumen and the host animal.
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Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques:


Levels of nutrients

sustainable and provides nutrient and energy requirements of a given species for a given response. The reliability of knowledge on the quality of ingredients and the constraints; both have an impact on the quality of diet formulation. Reliable and updated database on chemical composition, physical characteristics and bioavailability information on feed ingredients is essential for diet formulation. Including all the information diet is formulated to achieve the objective of least cost with adequate nutrients. There are three important aspects while considering the diet formulation, cost, nutrient level and ingredients limit. • Different kinds of conventional methods to formulate the diets are: • Trial-and-error method • Two by two matrix method • Square method • Simultaneous equation method • Least cost formulation • Linear programming method • Two-by-two matrix method solves

two nutrient requirements using two different feed ingredients. A two-by-two matrix is set and a series of equations are established to find the solution of the problem. Square method is relatively easy and simple to work on. It is used with only two nutrient ingredients. To use this method, level of nutrient being computed should be intermediate between the nutrient concentrations of the two feed ingredients being used. This method is used to satisfy only one nutrient requirement. This method has limited use as it is based on certain limitations. Simultaneous equation method is also has limited use, because it is used for two nutrient ingredient combination diet. It uses simple algebraic method to solve these equations. Trial and error method is generally used to formulate rations for swine and poultry. This method tries different diets and manipulates it until the nutrient requirements of the animal are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a ration that meets all

the nutrient requirements of the animal. But in practice, it is really not possible to use it always, as it is a time and money consuming method. Linear programming method is widely used for animal diet formulation. It is a method to determine the least cost combination of ingredients using a series of mathematical equations. This method provides a number of possible solutions to each series of equations, but when the factor of cost is applied, there can only be one least cost combination. This method is in practice for a long time to give solutions to the problem of diet formulation considering the cost factor associated with it. Before using this technique for ration formulation, certain information should be available about the important nutrient ingredient to be included in diet. First, all available ingredients should be listed with associated cost factor. Tables representing the nutrient composition of

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A nutrition program was developed for high producing dairy herds to attain efficient and profitable levels of milk production [Sklan, D. and Dariel, I., 1993]. A model was developed to represent the efficiency of nutrient use and its relationship to profitability on dairy farms [Tedeschi, L. O, 2004]. A cost analysis spreadsheet and validation of that spreadsheet on milking and custom heifer operations was developed [Guevara V.R., 2004]. Lead factors are used in computerised ration formulation programs developed at Virginia Tech to increase milk production above a herd or group average for which total mixed rations are formulated for group feedTable 1: Crude protein (CP) ing [Stallings, C. CP level Ingredients C; Mcgilliard, M. L]. Chance constrained program<25% Whole cereals, pulses, oil seeds ming is used to 25-50% Oil seed meals formulate comAnimal by-products (meat meal, blood meal), plant mercial feeds for >50% protein concentrates, isolates, extractives animals [Britt, J. S; Thomas, R. C; mathematical model is derived with Linear Speer, N. C; Hall, M. B., 2003]. Programming specifications. Now method of A stochastic-linear program Excel workLPP is used to solve it and it provides solu- book was developed that consisted of two tion for the feed mixture. worksheets illustrating linear and stochastic Let us consider an example to formulate program approaches. a linear programming model for the diet Both approaches used the Excel Solver formulation. Suppose 1 kg of feed mix must add-in. Excel spreadsheet was set up so that the contain a minimum quantity of each of four calculated margin of safety (MOS) value, accordnutrients as in Example 1: ing to the requested probability, was the same Now objective is to find the amounts of for both the linear and stochastic programs. active ingredients and filler in one kg of feed A multiple-objective programming (MOP) mix. Now it is considered as one kg of feed model was applied to the feed formulation mix is made up of three parts - ingredient 1, process with the objectives of minimising ingredient 2 and filler so let: nutrient variance and minimising rations cost. A study was conducted to introduce a dual model in an original linear program to obtain the shadow prices of resources that x1 = amount (kg) of ingredient 1 in take part in optimisation, in feed formulation. one kg of feed mix The shadow prices of nutrients resourced x2 = amount (kg) of ingredient 2 in showed degrees of influence of a diet's least one kg of feed mix cost when increasing or decreasing expected x3 = amount (kg) of filler in one kg of diet nutrient ‘b’ values of a diet. feed mix The higher the shadow prices of a nutriwhere x1 ≥ 0, x2 ≥ 0 and x3 ≥ 0 ent resource, the more obvious its influence on least cost. When the shadow price of a Now the nutrient constraints are set up kind of resource equals to zero, it means that reaching this nutrient value does not have an according to given information as And the objective function is to minimise:. influence on a special diet least cost within It represents formulation of a complete a particular ‘b’ value. This paper also discusses the development of direction of feed linear diet model. formulation-optimizing techniques in China [Xiong BenHai, Luo QingYao, Pang ZhiHong]. Well-balanced ration The importance of Non-linear Programming A number of models have been derived for different objective of study and con- Applications is growing due to rapidly increasing sophistication of managers and operation strains. The LP model can be solved for a com- researchers in implementing decision oriented plicated set of nutrient requirements to give mathematical models, as well as to the growing a relatively well-balanced ration [VandeHaar availability of computer routines capable of solving large-scale nonlinear problems. and Black, M. J., 1991]. While formulating a mathematical model The principal objective in the application of LP to feed formulation is the production related to real life problems, many different of least cost rations that will produce satisfac- situations lead to non-linear formulation of constraints and objective function. tory results.
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feed ingredients should be analysed properly. Nutrient levels are estimated from a variety of sources including published commodity compendium data, wet chemistry testing of raw materials and finished product testing. Nutrient losses due to heat treatment and mechanical processes during manufacturing, or post-production effects of irradiation or autoclaving are not routinely taken into consideration in these estimates. After this nutrient requirement for the particular species and ingredient limitation should be given proper consideration. After collecting all the necessary information, a

The application of non-linear programming to the field of animal nutrition is growing day-by-day. The main goal in making feedstuffs is to increase profits of animal production by increasing the nutritional value of the feedstuff or a mixture of feedstuffs. Feedstuffs containing 20 percent crude protein or more are considered protein supplements. Protein supplements may be classified as animal or plant proteins. Animal proteins are generally considered to be higher quality than plant proteins. The main plant protein sources used in catfish feeds are oilseed meals, such as soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and peanut meal. Some other oilseed meals could be used but are not generally available on a timely basis and at an economical cost per unit of protein. Table 1 represents levels of crude protein in different meals.

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Vitamins and minerals
Vitamin and mineral premixes are generally added to feeds. They provide more vitamins and minerals than what is needed for growth to make up for any losses that may occur during feed manufacture or storage. They are made from high quality ingredients, using forms of vitamins and minerals which animal can readily digest. The rate of growth and the efficiency with which the nutrients are utilized mainly depend on three factors, which may be used to maximize it8. Accounting all these facts, weight gain of an animal depends upon: Digestible crude protein Total digestible nutrient Digestible dry matter Metabolic weight is used as a base for whole of the calculations. Moir had earlier reported that a level between 200 and 300K. Cal DE per Kg0.75 is generally encountered while studying the intake in growing animals. A non-linear model is defined as: To maximize Subject to: I=1,2,3,…………….m, j=1,2,3,……….l Where f(x), g(x) and h(x) are functions defined on, X is a subset of and x is a vector of n components.

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Optimising feed for weight gain
Non-linear programming is used to maximise the body weight of sheep under the given experimental conditions and satisfying NRC feeding standards (Pratiksha, 2006). To sum up, an effort has been made to give a new dimension to the already existing multi-dimensional non-linear models and its use to formulate a real-world problem of optimising the feed in terms of weight gain of the animal and to solve it as well. This objective supports the all over effect of nutrient ingredients simultaneously on the animal yield and weight gain of an animal. It has already been accepted that non-linear programming has a great deal of future prospects as it has direct practical utility in the field of animal nutrition.



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