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S T D n P F I ES-2-ENGL
1992 D 7 1 b 4 5 4 4 00005b3 TTb
PFI Standard ES-2 (Revised 1992) (Reaffirmed 2000)
METHOD OF DIMENSIONING PIPING ASSEMBLIES
Prepared by Pipe Fabrication Institute Engineering Committee
All PFI Standards are advisory only. There is no agreement to adhere to any PFI Standard and their use by anyone is entirely voluntary.
PIPE FABRICATION INSTITUTE
Dedicnied i Technicnl Advnnceriienis and Stnndnidizntion in o the Pipe Fn6iicniion lndrrsir3~ Since 1913
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Two alternate methods of locating working points are suggested in 2. values and are for reference only. This root opening may vary from O to 1/4" (6.2 In order to assure full penetration to the root of a weld. 2. etc. the fabricator takes into account the following factors. Pipe sizes together with applicable wall thicknesses are not shown with metric equivalents. it is essential that the engineer provide the fabricator with additional information such as: (a) radius of bend (b) type of elbow (c) gasket or other allowances (d) pipe size and wall thickness (e) type of branch connection. This shrinkage varies with welding process. The SI (metric) values where included with the customary U.1 This standard covers the recommended practices for dimensioning piping assemblies in a manner that would enable the fabricator to furnish a product meeting the geometry intended by the design engineer. the ends to be joined are set up with a small gap between them called root opening. 2.0 mm) depending on the welding technique. 2 COPYRIGHT Pipe Fabrication Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . Metric units were derived utilizing the following conversion factor: Conversion inches to millimeter Factor 25.4 1. Fabrication Variables 3. Since two points determine a straight line. Dimensioning 2. it is recommended that the pipe axes be located by means of working points. root opening.2 and 2. ES-3) (i) material 3.1 In making the piping assemblies. 3. All conversions depend upon the intended precision of the original quantity and are rounded to the appropriate accuracy.4 While not necessary for the determination of the pipeline geometry. Terminal points and points of change in direction of the pipe axis are known as working points. Thus the geometry of a piping system can be fully defined by the location of the centerline axis of the pipe. column lines. shrinkage and fitting tolerances.2 Fig.3 Shrinkage of the weld metal occurs in cooling. values in this Standard are the rounded equivalents of the U.1 Piping is normally of a circular cross section.3.S. such as from ground elevation. technique.P F I ES-2-ENGL 1772 7Lb95'49 00005b'4 732 = PFI Standard ES-2 (Revised 1992) (Reaffirmed 2000) METHOD OF DIMENSIONING PIPING ASSEMBLIES METRIC CONVERSIONS The conversion of quantities between systems of units involves a determination of the number of significant digits to be retained. 1A illustrates location of the working points along the axis of the pipe by providing information on the length and direction of each consecutive segment of the axis.S T D . such as tee or nozzle (f) location of flanged or field welded joints 2. 3.3' Fig. 2. 1 l (g) location of attachments (h) permissible tolerances (See PFI Std.S. 1B illustrates dimensioning by means of location of the working points from fixed reference planes. Scope 1.
On steel the weld shrinkage usually amounts to 1/16" (2.12 k3 k3 f . Alternatively.. the fabricator must make allowances for shrinkage (See Paragraph 3.48" k . (reference welds marked "W" in Fig.usE T wF?. 3... .19 k5 E. For 90" & 45" elbows & tees these are: Tol.12" (3.5)...wR"G POECT FIGUREIA FIGUREIB 3 COPYRIGHT Pipe Fabrication Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .30" 32" . Tol. (mm) I 2 f 2 I .TIE IN DIMENSION R..0 mm) to 118" (3.0 mm) for larger sizes. 3.O9 k . it may be necessary for the fabricator to vary root opening or trim components to hold overall dimensions (reference L')..P F I ES-2-ENGL 1992 7 L b 4 5 4 4 00005b5 8 7 9 PFI Standard ES-2 (Revised 1992) (Reaffirmed 2000j piping material and pipe wall thickness.0 mm).) 112" .8" 1O" 12" .).5 Due to the above factors only the fabricator is able to correctly determine root opening. or center to end.REFERENCE DMENSK)N G .O9 k . (in. 4 KDIME" . ANSI B 16.06" (1. is k . Consequently.. The PFI recommends that these root openings not be shown on the engineers' design drawings for fabricators' assemblies.. when the design does not allow for intervening pipe segments. and with permission from the purchaser's engineer. face to face.S T D ..O6 3.24" 26" .9 gives tolerances for butt welding fittings. 1A & lB)..6 In certain situations. adjustment may be made in adjoining assemblies..5 mm) for sizes up to and including 10" and f ..4 All standard welding fittings and flanges are subject to tolerances on terminal dimensions (end to end. etc.EQUIPEMENT D -I T.. The tolerance on overall length of flanges as given in ANSI B16.5..
New York California Florida Ohio West Virginia Kansas British Columbia (Canada) Ohio Ohio Michigan Wisconsin Washington Texas California Maryland A I abama Pennsylvania Illinois Arkansas Missouri Alberta (Canada) Minnesota Wisconsin Wisconsin Ohio Ohio California West Virginia Wisconsin Michigan A current index of the latest revised ES Standards. Gaithersburg. Beaver Falls. St. such needs are continually considered and reviewed by the Engineering Committee of the Pipe Fabrication Institute to provide recommended procedures. FLO-RITE. INC. A. INC. MC ABEE CONSTRUCTION. INC. INC. Longview. Freeport. Hence. S&D / OSTERFELD MECHANICAL CONTRACTORS SCOTT CO. Tuscaloosa. PHILLIPS.. San Leandro. Louis. Fond du Lac. as the PFI Standards are for minimum requirements the designer or fabricator always has the option of specifying supplementary conditions in the form of requirements beyond the scope of the PFI publications. HPI CONSTRUCTION CO. INC. S. NEWMECH COMPANIES. O’NEIL COMPANY Jamaica. INC. INC. KELLY LLC J. Barberton. INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS. However. EI Dorado. Livonia. INC. F. INC. Huntington. H. Kaukauna. St. J. OF CALIFORNIA SPECIALTY PIPING CORPORATION TEAM INDUSTRIES. Oconto Falls. Delta. MC CARL’S. AIR CONDITIONING COMPANY. LTD. Davisville. MECHANICAL INCORPORATED MID STATES PIPE FABRICATING. Riviera Beach. INC. Walbridge. LEE. Glendale. HUXTABLE & ASSOCIATES. PFI Safety Training Guideline. Technical Bulletins and Safety Training Guideline is available from the Pipe Fabrication Institute. INC. which have been demonstrated by collective experiences to fulfill requirements in a manner for Code compliance. Highland Park. INC. GREEN COMPANY J. Freeport. COMUNALE COMPANY. S. Masury. Standards and Technical Bulletins are published to serve proven needs of the pipe fabricating industry at the design level and in actual shop operations. MURPHY COMPANY NARDE1 FABRICATORS. Calgary. New London. INC. COPYRIGHT Pipe Fabrication Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . AHERN CO. Paul. LTD. M & M WELDING AND FABRICATORS.S T D * P F I ES-2-ENGL 1772 7 L b 4 5 4 4 OOOOSbb 705 CHARTER MEMBERS ACCORD PIPE FABRICATORS. W. J. IVOR J. GETSCHOW COMPANY PIPING SYSTEMS. Santa Clara. JOHN E. INC. INC. INC. INC. GEM INDUSTRIAL. Dayton. MC KINNEY. Toledo. INC. IDEAL WELDERS. Lawrence. KINETIC SYSTEMS.
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