Design and Fabrication of Ramjet Using CFD

Husein S. Bhinderwala
K. J. Somaiya College of Engineering, B. E. Mechanical, 0715060

A3 __________ (Guide) Prof.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the final year project. B. The information given in this report is true to my best knowledge and any material utilized in this report has been given appropriate citations.E MECH. PHASE-I has been satisfactorily completed by Husein S. Prashant Jain __________ (H. The details of the author are as follows: Roll No:.Prashant Jain.0715060 Class:.Bhinderwala on the topic Design and Fabrication of Ramjet using CFD under the able guidance of Prof.D) Prof. B.Pradhan _________ Principal .M.O.

various innovative technological ideas or proposals have been put forth that need great extent of research and experimentation to follow up on. The principles of Aerothermodynamics. Cryogenics. This project reviews the major knowledge base that has been accumulated through years of theoretical and experimental research on topics relevant to ramjet and scramjet propulsion. . Lastly. the author has performed a series of calculations using NASA s EngineSim software on a predetermined ramjet model and citations of data from various wind tunnel tests from references. including careful definitions of terms and a unified description of the processes and characteristics of the ramjet and scramjet engine. The aim is also to create an interest in the field of Aerospace engineering which is a major subsidy of mechanical engineering. This project is intended to offer the author an introduction to the study of ramjet and scramjet propulsion. Later in the project. Heat Exchange and Cooling are applied at various milestones through the project. Structures. The author undertakes this project because it has all the major principles of Aerospace and Mechanical applied in a very sophisticated manner.OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT In today s world. At the forefront of these technologies are total air dominance features such as missiles and advanced fifth generation fighter modules. Fluid Mechanics. Pioneering these features is the use of Ramjets and Scramjets which provides with seamless propulsion at higher Mach speeds. military superiority and strategic dominance is dictated by the country which has the most advanced weaponry and technologies at its behest.

Ramjets produce thrust only when the vehicle is already moving. Therefore. Thrust is produced by passing the hot exhaust from the combustion of a fuel through a nozzle. But there are no compressors in a ramjet. The nozzle accelerates the flow. The external air that is brought into the propulsion system becomes the working fluid. much like a turbojet engine. Although the basic principles regarding the operation of a Ramjet are explicitly mentioned in books by various foreign authors. and the reaction to this acceleration produces thrust. ramjets cannot produce thrust when the engine is stationary or static.LITERATURE REVIEW Finding literature related to Ramjet design has been next to impossible because such data is highly classified among military ranks and not usually found in books or the internet. In the early 1900's some of the original ideas concerning ramjet propulsion were first developed in Europe. In a ramjet. the combustion must occur at a pressure that is higher than the pressure at the nozzle exit. In a turbojet engine. To maintain the flow through the nozzle. the high pressure is produced by "ramming" external air into the combustor using the forward speed of the vehicle. the high pressure in the combustor is generated by a piece of machinery called a compressor. also patents regarding Ramjets dating back to 1980 s are available now since the ruling government declassifies data more than 20years old. . ramjets are lighter and simpler than a turbojet.

The need may be to improve an existing situation or to eliminate a www.´ Lee Harrisberger Engineersmanship«The Doing of Engineering Design Engineering projects involve creative problem solving. or mentors. and solution are often used interchangeably in fair guidelines. In any case. The process is iterative. www. www. NOTE: the terms This process is typical of those used by practicing engineers: the definition of terms and the number of steps may vary.´ Where can you get project ideas? You may get suggestions from teachers.societyforscience. Your very first step is to start a project notebook in which you will record every step of your process and the results of your design efforts. design. Quality entries from previous fairs are good sources of ideas and best practices. invention.unm. project. Be sure to use the web to find assistance ( meaning the designer will often repeat steps until he or she is confident the design will meet the identified needs. but these are the essential steps. rules. www. Each engineering design project should have a goal which can fit the following model statement: ³The design and construction of an (engineered product) for (target user) to do (some useful function). but they are not hypothesis testing. it is what engineering is all about ± using knowledge and know how to achieve a desired ADOPTED ³The crux of the design process is creating a satisfactory solution to a need. etc. You will use the engineering design process to create your . Some high school technology curricula address the engineering design process ( and many college and professional engineering societies have on-line resources.

Criteria are derived from needs expressed by customers. and knowledge.). ). safer. Some typical constraints are cost. size. ruggedness. Good designs will meet important design criteria within the limits fixed by the constraints. Identify a Need The need (also called the problem you are solving or the engineering goal) is frequently identified by customers the users of the product. more efficient. and where the product will be used. who it is for (customer). The customer could be a retail consumer or the next team in a product development. Establish Design Criteria & Constraints Design criteria are requirements you specify that will be used to make decisions about how to build and evaluate the product. weight. and ease of manufacture. Good designs are also economical to make and use because cost is always a design constraint! . less expensive. 2. speed. Customers may express needs by describing a product ( I need a car. legal issues. Criteria define the product s physical and functional characteristics. time. Constraints are factors that limit the engineer s flexibility. etc. raw materials. natural factors such as topography. and retest 7) Communicate the design 1. climate. and how it improves upon previous designs (easier to use. what need it satisfies (problem to solve). ) or as a functional requirement ( I need a way to get to school.The Engineering Design Process: 1) Identify a need. The need should be described in a simple statement that includes what you are designing (the product). Some examples of criteria are shape. make design changes. express as a goal 2) Establish design criteria/constraints 3) Evaluate alternative designs 4) Build a prototype of best design 5) Test and evaluate the prototype using the design criteria 6) Analyze test results.

Many engineering design projects will require PRIOR APPROVAL FROM THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE (SRC). and Retest Testing will disclose some deficiencies in your design. modifying current designs. and retests in your notebook. or inventing new solutions. Test and Evaluate the Prototype Against Important Design Criteria to Show How Well the Product Meets the Need You should develop a test plan describing what you will test. how previous solutions may be improved. You should consider atleast two or three alternative designs and consider using available technology. document your analyses. particularly if you will involve humans in particular types of product testing that involve more than minimal risk to the product testers. 6. Can you defend your choices to the judges? STOP! You must obtain approval from your teacher before you build the prototype. cost of various bridge building materials. You ll discover where knowledge and science limit your solutions.3. how you will test. Evaluate Alternative Designs Your research into possible solutions will reveal what has been done to satisfy similar needs. and what different approaches may meet design objectives. and how you ll perform analysis. As always. You must test your prototype under actual or simulated operating conditions. then build a prototype. Analyze Test Results. Make corrections and retest OR prepare an analysis of what went wrong and how you will fix it. 5. Customers are usually involved in product testing so be sure you have SRC approval if people are involved. . Build a Prototype of Best Design Use your alternative analyses to choose the design that best meets criteria considering the constraints. Sometimes the testing fails completely and sends the designer back to the drawing board. fixes. Make Design Changes. A prototype is the first full scale and usually functional form of a new type or design. It s important to document in your project notebook how you chose and evaluated alternative designs. Superior work will demonstrate tradeoff analyses such as comparing the strength vs. 4.

 Prepare preliminary designs. Prepare and Bring Your Abstracts Remember to bring 10-15 copies of your abstract with you to have on your display. Identify variables.  Present results. 9.  Test and redesign as necessary. Prepare Your Project Exhibit Be sure you are familiar with the ISEF Display and Safety Rules for the current fair year. and results. Communicate the Design The designer s real product is the description of a design from which others will build the product.7. 8. .  Present Results. Your local.  Do background research.  Design experiment.  Formulate your hypothesis. along with production cost estimates.  Establish design criteria. regional. Engineering Process  Define a need. Your product description will be conveyed in drawings. test plans.  Do background research. You ll have clear instructions on how to produce your design. Use your notebook and the fair/expo exhibit to communicate the design to your customer and the judges. assembly instructions. Establish procedures. Judges like to take copies of student abstracts as they are reviewing and evaluating projects to be scored.  Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment. and state fairs/expos may have additional rules with which you need to be familiar as well. photos. Members of the public are also sometimes interested in picking up copies of your abstract as they come through during Public Open Houses. materials lists. Scientific Process  State your question. Consider listing lessons learned so future designers need not repeat any of your frustrations.

I have also presented a paper at the NCTIME 2010 held at Nashik on the topic Computational Fluid Dynamic Solutions Of Hypersonic Viscous Flow. I have gained a wide knowledge base on a variety of topics which will leverage me to successfully complete my project. I have also done a series of test on a c-d nozzle using CFD which are as shown below: .PROGRESS SO FAR In this semester. Also I have learned the basics and some implementations of Computational Fluid Dynamics.

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