SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
SMART Innovation & People – SMARTiP PROJECT
Milestone M1 – Smart Citizens Vision and Strategy
Version no. 1.0
Prepared/ Updated By Dave Carter
..................................................................... 4 3................ 6 4........... Co-production in the context of developing Future Internet-enabled services.......... Conclusions: implementing the vision ......................................................................................... 3 2................ Smart citizens in smart cities: elaborating the concept ..................SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
Smart Citizens in Smart Cities: Vision and Strategy 1........................... 8 5............... Smart cities: Future Internet enabled urban development ............................. Smart Citizens in Smart Cities: Vision and Strategy Overview ...................... 10
The SMARTiP project is working to take the experience developed by a wide range of existing user-driven open innovation initiatives in Europe. The pilots aim to provide a catalyst to stimulate citizen engagement in becoming active generators of content and applications development. The project aims to demonstrate new approaches in which the focus is first and foremost on citizen empowerment as an essential catalyst in creating a new paradigm to transform the dynamics of data flows. Cologne. Many previous initiatives. The objective is to develop co-production in innovation and dynamic ways which result in more inclusive. working both with the cities (with leaderships and staff) and with innovators. business and the research and innovation communities. and using the experience gained to become more informed and involved users of the developing Internet-enabled services in ‘smart cities’. which will support the co-production of citizen-centric Internet-enabled services. • Smart mobility. The project is starting with a series of pilot projects covering three thematic areas: • Smart engagement. to create new ways of empowering people to play a fuller and more equal role in emerging governance systems through their access to dynamic Internetenabled services. Gent. so that. One of the main objectives of this approach is to develop user-driven open innovation in ways which maximise the active engagement of users and citizens thus enabling the co-creation and co-production of new services. The project will be creating a series of ‘test-beds’ and demonstrators in five cities. a more inclusive and sustainable urban environment can be developed. Bologna. The central vision of the project is that ‘smart cities’ require ‘smart citizens’ if they are to be truly inclusive. Smart Citizens in Smart Cities: Vision and Strategy Overview
The SMARTiP project starts from the premise that the development of Future Internet enabled services in ‘smart cities’ should be driven by conscious efforts to ensure that digital technologies are used to improve living and working conditions and the overall quality of life.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
1. higher quality and more efficient public services which can then be made replicable and scalable for cross-border deployment on a larger scale. in doing so. • Smart environments. particularly those focusing on egovernment and e-inclusion. as not everyone is getting equal access to the skills and opportunities that are supposed to be there. Manchester and Oulu. innovative and sustainable. particularly those developed through Living Labs. have tackled the ‘digital divide’ only to find that the persistent inequalities blighting many urban neighbourhoods mitigate against citizen empowerment and participation within the information society. management and
. and to apply this experience to the challenge of transforming public services by empowering ‘smart citizens’ to be able to co-create and coproduce innovative Internet-enabled services within emerging ‘smart cities’. is also proving to be its biggest challenge. In working in this way the aim is to enhance the ability of cities to grow and sustain a ‘smart city’ ecosystem which engages citizens together with city leaderships. The promise of the information society. entrepreneurs and developers.
& Harris. Italy and Finland. can help to accelerate the uptake of these technologies and services. The new and. ‘Co-production’ has emerged both as a “critique of the way that professionals and users have been artificially divided” and as a new way for citizens “to share in the design and delivery of services. This needs to enable citizens to build the social capital and capacity required to become co-creators and co-producers of new and innovative services with the means to ensure that they are delivered in more effective and inclusive ways. The aim is to ensure that pilot applications and services can be validated in ‘real world’ environments in order to minimize any limits on their availability and to maximize their accessibility and subsequent deployment. leading to new forms of empowerment for those citizens. (2001) “No More Throwaway People: The Co-production Imperative”. social media and Web 2. London. Belgium. • Building social networks. The Lab. • Promoting reciprocity. E.0 applications opens up possibilities for a new interpretation and understanding of spatial inequalities and neighbourhood effects. (2009) “The Challenge of Co-production: how equal partnerships between professionals and the public are crucial to improving public services”. D.2 Internet-based technologies and services provide new opportunities for stimulating co-production while. Washington DC. unexploited aspect of this approach is that of promoting and stimulating ‘co-production’ as an essential element of the process of transforming public service delivery through Future Internet-enabled services. Co-production in the context of developing Future Internet-enabled services
‘Co-production’ as a concept emerged some four decades ago but it is now developing into a practical agenda for system change which can be seen to be closely allied with the concept of ‘co-creation’ in the methodology of open innovation. taking full advantage of new Internet-based technologies and applications. including SMEs and other entrepreneurs and innovators. seen through the experiences of the citizens themselves. at the same time.
2. The project will then facilitate collaborative networking between each local ‘smart citizens’ pilot and the local developer communities. NESTA. in turn.1 It is based on four key principles: • Recognizing people as assets. The project intends to “support the facilitation of emerging markets for innovation” (as outlined in the recent DG INFSO Communication “A Strategy for ICT R&D and Innovation in Europe: Raising the Game”) by creating opportunities to trial and deploy co-production of public services using Internet-enabled technologies and applications in the five contrasting socio-economic urban environments in partner cities in the UK. co-production provides new opportunities for securing citizens’ engagement and active involvement in the process of developing ‘smart services’ which. The potential of new bottom up approaches based on user-generated content. M. New Economic Foundation (NEF).
Cahn.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
service development. in ways that can broaden and strengthen services and make them more effective”. This ‘virtuous circle’ is then capable of enhancing cities’ ability to grow and sustain ‘innovation
Boyle. as yet. Essential Books. Germany. • Valuing work differently. and contribute their own wisdom and experience.
by embedding the pro-active involvement of citizens in all aspects of designing and delivering services and thus providing both citizens and the public authorities responsible for providing these services with a new rationale to make the PPPP – Public-Private-People Partnership – approach viable and desirable. as well as users. open spaces. This will also include innovative ways of ensuring that all citizens can gain access to these new Internet-enabled services. including through developing citizen based support services for elderly and disabled people through the co-production of care services involving social care professionals. employment possibilities and quality of life. to develop more inclusive. carers and family and community networks. volunteers. including around budgeting and financial issues. cycling and walking with the aggregation and analysis of data to support smart mobility planning for individuals.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
ecosystems’ and. waste management and improved built environments.g.
The aim of the pilot projects is to demonstrate how the wider deployment of Internet-based technologies and services can be enhanced through co-production and. Smart mobility: supporting citizen monitoring of personal travel routes using public and private transport. higher quality and efficient services which are then capable of being replicable and scalable for wider cross-border deployment on a much larger scale. Smart environments: engaging citizens in monitoring and action to support the co-production of environmental services. The added value for the users is that they have a real incentive to become more involved as co-producers. e. It is this which can then make these approaches more sustainable. in turn. The relationship between the concept of ‘co-production’ and the thematic focus of the project is illustrated below. of the content and services available in the emerging smart cities through having access to new skills. provide new and more innovative approaches to bring together both the e-government and e-inclusion agendas with the Future Internet agenda to tackle these inter-connected policy agendas in a more holistic way. The project will be deploying currently available Internet-based technologies and services to develop a series of pilot projects. social groups and institutions. through this. initially focusing on three thematic areas: • Smart engagement: stimulating citizen engagement with analyzing and implementing data which is generated both from institutions. for smart communities and smart services. which can then be visualized in ways which can support participatory planning. through commitments to ‘Open Data’ and by citizens themselves. including air quality.
what it could and should mean. This will include the development of business plans not only for the proposed thematic services specifically but also more generally for the new business models which will be proposed to take forward all such services as the basis of replicating. next generation access (NGA) service networks and applications based on the emerging ‘Internet of Things’. A full range of options and possibilities are being discussed. with corporations on one side and
“Fast Company” magazine. sensors and networks.fastcompany. offering ‘smart city in a box’ solutions” which threaten to “hand corporations the keys to our privacy”. participatory budgeting with citizens moving from personal budgeting to public/civic budgeting Citizens as active co-creators in analysing the needs of local communities Smart environments Citizens as sensors and sensing networks Smart mobility People mapping themselves ‘on the move’
Valuing work differently
Service efficiencies creating new community investment funds
Building social networks
Developing new social capital New collaborative approaches to holistic planning including a citizens data aggregator resource management
People engaged in environmental improvements on a equal basis with professionals Citizens being resourced to improved the quality of life Identifying and activating citizens’ capacity
People maps as a tool in improving mobility planning and delivery Incentivising greener and more effective ways of improving mobility Creating innovative new mobility possibilities
Each pilot project will focus on combining existing prototypes.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
Co-production across themes Recognizing people as assets Smart engagement Consumers of data & apps to producers of data & apps. Dec. mobile and location based services. 16 2010: http://www. scaling up and sustaining their development on a more holistic basis.g. how it can best be achieved and what are likely to be the opportunities and challenges encountered along the way.g. article by Greg Lindsay... e.
3. ranging from the most optimistic views of how “tech-powered cities” will revolutionise the way we live to more sceptical views which are critical of perceived dangers in “global technology companies . including RFID. e. Parts of this debate have been characterised as a “battle for the soul of the smart city”3. and describing the adaptation work required to develop these into the four targeted service areas outlined above. Smart cities: Future Internet enabled urban development
There is a dynamic discourse emerging around the concept of ‘smart cities’ with a very wide range of actors generating ideas about the concept. using available Internet-based technologies.com/1710342/the-battle-
the City of Manchester. or ‘e-inclusion’. hackers and ‘citizen hacktivists’”4 on another.org/inclusion
www. is also closely related to concerns about citizens’ acceptance of internet-enabled services. within the wider context of issues relating to trust. All of the participating cities in the SMARTiP project are members of the Eurocities network5 and. including working to understand and exchange ideas about the diversity of ‘smart city’ strategies and policies in Europe and globally. experience and expertise. The concept of ‘smart cities’ is being taken up by many cities as a strategic priority which recognises the growing importance of digital technologies in enabling the commitments of those cities to competitiveness and sustainability.iftf.opencities. At the same time the term is being used as a marketing concept by both cities and businesses to provide an image for what they believe a future city should be like. with smart health. smart education and smart living/working. Consequently the ‘smart city’ concept is highly contested but this is just as likely to stimulate greater awareness and interest in this discourse as to constrain it. is working together with the City of Barcelona (involved in the coordination of one of the other Smart Cities Portfolio projects. The main aim of this collaboration is to generate a dynamic dialogue around the conceptualisation and strategic definition of the ‘smart city’. with smart energy. The main focus is on cities being ‘greener’. smart environments and smart mobility. The most important thing is that projects. joint planning of events and joint dissemination activities. The Working Group met for the first time at the KSF meeting in Ghent on April 8th 2011 and will work in partnership with the Smart Cities Portfolio Working Group (of seven CIP 2010 ICT-PSP projects and the APOLLON CIP 2009 project).eurocities.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
“entrepreneurs. and more liveable.
Institute for the Future report: “A planet of civic laboratories: the future of cities. in order to generate a wider discussion with other cities. information and inclusion”:
www. security and privacy. “Open Cities”6) in developing a Smart Cities Working Group within the Eurocities Knowledge Society Forum (KSF). especially within the Digital Agenda for Europe. The issue of inclusiveness. the FIREBALL FP7 Coordination Action and the European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL) to ensure knowledge sharing. the project co-ordinator. such as SMARTiP and the other projects with the Smart City Portfolio. are aware of the discourse and can feedback into it a credible European perspective based on real evidence. This focus on sustainability and quality of life has also stimulated concern that not enough attention is being paid to the question of inclusiveness and this is now emerging as an important cross-cutting theme.
as with responses to climate change and the equation that smart cities are about smart energy and related policy drivers. The project will assess existing grass roots. i. The SMARTiP project partners. based on the principles of open access. Smart citizens in smart cities: elaborating the concept
The SMARTiP project is one part of what it is hoped will be an emerging eco-system of projects. where the greatest challenges lie and sources of expertise which cities and their partners can call on for advice and support. led by Manchester and Ghent. local initiatives and cross-border collaborations which will enable the ‘smart cities’ concept to be more fully elaborated and backed up with practical examples of what works. to identify how citizens can best build social capital to acquire the capacities. supported through cross-border exchange of knowledge and expertise and the creation of a collaborative knowledge base.e. using Creative Commons to develop new co-ownership models). This work will include: a) Analysing existing good practices where citizens are actively engaged in content and service generation.
4. This work aims to build upon the conceptual basis of ‘what is a smart city?’ as elaborated in the 2010 CIP Work Programme. b) Developing the pilot projects to stimulate new and innovative practice.g. Within this context the SMARTiP project focuses on ‘smart citizens’ as both active sources of service ‘production’ and engaged users of services. backed up by advice and support from project partners using best practice to support knowledge transfer.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
The first stage of this work is capture data about definitions around the following questions: • What is a ‘Smart City’ . It will be taking account of the growing discourse on different definitions of what a ‘smart city’ is or should be. skills and aspirations to become co-producers of future internet-enabled services in ‘smart cities’. user-driven. focusing on diversity and inclusion issues (more horizontal themes).”. and the visions which are trying to be multi-dimensional. a ‘smart city’ being “a city that makes a conscious effort to uptake innovative ICT based solutions to improve conditions of living and working and support a more inclusive and sustainable urban environment. as well as stimulate new action. The first elaboration will demonstrate the linkages between ‘smart city’ visions which are focused on one primary issue (more vertical themes). c) Working on the idea of a “smart cities services generator” which can take the practices and showcases developed in one city and reuse these in another city. and aiming to set down a series of benchmarks defining good practices in relation to citizen engagement and to both the principles and the practices of co-production. The objective is to put human agency at the centre of both trends and to try to ensure that the idea of ‘smart citizens’ is applicable to all aspects of smart city strategies and policies. open data and open source (e. as outlined above. “prosumers” and “peer providers”. for example are working within Eurocities to
.are the definitions currently being used? • What are the components that make up a ‘smart city’? • Which services should cities have in order to be ‘smart’? • Which infrastructures should be prioritised? • What do cities wishing to be a ‘smart city’ aspire to? The results of this work will then feed into the ‘Smart Cities’ Roadmap being produced as part of the FIREBALL project and the development of a knowledge base of best practices being produced in collaboration with the Smart Cities Portfolio Working Group. action by citizens using internet-enabled services.
energy-efficient city that uses renewable energy sources as much as possible. http://cordis. interactive. with the lowest possible use of resources. and is a pioneer in the deployment of advanced smart technologies. It also provides a further opportunity. A smart city leads the way towards CO2 neutrality and delivers solutions (infrastructure etc. using technology and innovative solutions to increase social inclusion and combat poverty and deprivation. which includes the idea that “the ‘democratization’ of access to knowledge which has been enabled by online collaborative tools (wikis. blogs. including a commitment to ensuring that “the success of e-government and similar initiatives demands not only a basic level of wealth and education for poorer citizens to cross the digital divide: it also require recognition on the part of bureaucrats of the organisational and human changes that citizens have come to expect from interconnected cities. especially given its strong links with the Covenant of Mayors Sustainable Energy Action Plans.” Others active in the EU Future Internet PPP are also keen to promote active engagement by users and citizens in defining the future ‘rules’ and practices of the future internet. as opposed to the inflexible. where the recent DGINFSO Report “Towards a Future Internet” (coordinated by the Oxford Internet Institute)9 aims to set out “Guiding principles for a needs-based future internet”.”8 Similar thinking is happening in the area of “Future Internet”. Economist Intelligence Unit.eu/energy/technology/consultations/20110513_smart_cities_en. such that it is efficient. public debate and innovation. there is a growing recognition of the need to do more to harness technology to “enable.htm Eurocities Response to Public Consultation on the Smart Cities and Communities Initiative (Draft). a smart city must be a good place to live. however. simple and even malleable via contemporary technology and design. mono-functional and monolithic structures of many 20th century cities.europa.) for its inhabitants that are cost effective and efficient. but are actively encouraged to see the city itself as something they can collectively ‘tune’. A smart city is also an inclusive place. Overall. even where the focus is more technological.europa.com/city-of-the-future
. on ICTs as tools for city management. sponsored by Siemens (2010): www.eu/fp7/ict/fire/future-internet-and-society_en. to articulate the ‘smart citizens in smart cities’ concept.html “ICT for City Management”. Citizens are not only engaged and informed in the relationship between their activities. In a contribution to the PPP Usage Area Workshop ARUP set out some of their ideas for exploring and testing “the possibilities of contemporary and future ICT in transforming the city into a ‘smart city’: “A smart city is one in which the seams and structures of the various urban systems are made clear.”
http://ec. This initiative is to be very much welcomed. engage and empower city stakeholders”10. their neighbourhoods.siemens. At the same time it is a healthy. engaging. etc) has been a key element favouring free exchange of information between people. including biomass and waste. P2P.” Similarly. offering the best possible quality of life. adaptive and flexible. The analysis and the preservation of this open and inclusive character of the current internet should be central to any prospects for future developments. and the wider urban ecosystems. March 2011.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
articulate a positive response to the recent EC public consultation on the forthcoming “Smart Cities and Communities Initiative”7. which is at the heart of the Eurocities’ response to the consultation: “A smart city integrates state of the art green technologies to create a city that is both sustainable and can deliver high living standards.
gov20. and experience of. interoperability. There is certainly a much wider appreciation of why this is being suggested or. in terms of what a ‘Smart City’ could and should be. These are: • Local leadership support for the development of the pilot services at the highest level. • Secondly. citizen engagement in defining both the vision and the implementation for all of the elements that need to make up the ‘building blocks’ of the ‘smart city’. through extending their reach and developing new business models applicable locally.de/apps-4-berlin/
. inclusiveness and sustainability. in some cases. The project has developed some initial benchmarks for mapping and evaluating progress towards this end. to support the re-use of pilot services. especially in terms of usability. both in terms of enhancing the scope and scale at a local level. but this has not yet been matched by action at any widespread or systematic level. • Thirdly. This involves three main elements: a) An explicit statement of the project’s commitment to. ‘OpenApps’ development. Conclusions: implementing the vision
The purpose of this milestone report is to set out the collective learning of the project partners to date. This is why the project partners are committed to the three step approach outlined above: • Firstly. The project vision is based on creating citizen-centric. and the creation of a genuinely cross-border collaborative network to develop this practice. identifying and analysing good practice. security and reliability. flexibility. user-driven approaches to the co-creation and co-production of future internet-enabled services in ‘smart cities’.verkkodemokratia. development and delivery of future internet-enabled services in ways which are accessible. in turn. through the “services generator” idea. particularly openness. provide support for the development of the “services generator” idea. empowering and sustainable. which are felt to be relevant and (potentially) transferrable to the pilot projects being developed within the project. to create active citizen engagement in the planning. starting with each being replicated in at least one other “smart city” setting within the partnership. ‘Apps4’ places11. however.fi/apps4finland and http://www. demonstrating how the pilot projects contribute to the smart city vision delivering this on a cross-border basis.
Examples include: http://www. and to identify the way that the project will build on this as the pilot projects are developed and plans are implemented for replicating and re-using the pilot services through a crossborder collaborative network. c) Setting out the foundations of the “services generator” idea as a central element of the project’s sustainability strategy. acting as a catalyst to generate pilot projects that build on existing good practice at a local level but which also embrace new developments from across Europe and globally which are identified through supporting networks. b) Practical demonstration through the pilot projects of how those principles are put into practice. and in terms of wider replicability. demanded. such as Eurocities and ENoLL.g.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
The real challenge is still.
5. e. providing the starting point for a ‘smart citizens in smart cities’ applications platform that would. drawing out the lessons learned to identify how best to use and re-use the results from the pilot projects.
Buy-in from key stakeholders from within the user communities and citizen networks. wearables. using future-internet technologies to create new economic and social opportunities for working and for living. Smart cities will enable smart citizens to make their environments greener. Identifiable progress towards co-production which results in service transformation. Smart citizens in smart cities will be part of new cross-border collaborations across Europe and globally. locative technologies. resilient and attractive.SMART Innovation & People CIP Project
• • • • • Momentum established which can support the creation of a ‘critical mass’ of citizen. Accessible applications and user groups which are seen as attractive and “fun” by users. cleaner and healthier as well as more open and inclusive. not only for the project but also for the wider collaborative networks being developed through the Smart Cities Portfolio Working Group. Future Internet technologies are available and accessible. Eurocities and ENoLL and the ‘Future Internet for Smart Cities Roadmap’ being developed through the FIREBALL Coordination Action.
. innovation and diversity. co-owning new ways of planning and delivering services and co-producing services both for themselves and for those that they live with. In conclusion. Future internet-enabled smart citizens will collaborate in new and dynamic ways.g. the SMARTiP project offers the following vision as the starting point for “Smart Citizens in Smart Cities”: Smart Cities will have smart citizens at their heart. e. therefore. Smart citizens in smart cities will ensure that smart cities are more democratic.
These will be used to evaluate project progress and to feedback into future iterations of the Smart City Vision. enabling them to have the capacity and confidence to use state-of-the-art future internet technologies to transform the way they live and work and their quality of life. using future internet-enabled services to generate and celebrate creativity. care for and work with. ‘networked objects meet web-centric systems’. user and developer engagement.