DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

1

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Atomic Energy Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any o f their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability o r responsibility for rhe accuracy, com. pleteness o r usefulness of any information, apparatus, product o r process disclosed, or represents t h a t its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

TABLE O F CONTENTS Page

1.
0

1.1
1. 2 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3

. . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURE DESIGN. W e l l Design . . . . . . . . , . . F r a c t u r e Design . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Design . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION General. P r o j e c t History

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1 1 7

3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3. 5 3.6
4. 5. 5.1 5. 2 5.3 5.4 5. 5

. . . . S I T E INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . Site Location . . . . . . . . . . . . Site P r e p a r a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P o w e r Installation and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . Communications . . . . . . . I n d u s t r i a l Health and Safety Miscellaneous Support. . . . . . . . . . PROPOSAL FOR GAS UTILIZA.TION PROGRAM . ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM . . . . . . . Seismicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radioactivity i n Well P r o d u c t s . . . . . . . W a t e r Quality . . . . . . . . . . . .
,

6.
6.1 6. 2 6.3 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 8. 8.1 8.2

. . 11 . . 11 . . 32 . . 49 . . 61 . . 61 . . 61 . . 64 . . 66 . . 67 . . 69 . . 71 . . 73 . . 73 . . 73 . . 74 Disturbance of Land and Effectiveness of Revegetation . 74 C o m p a r a t i v e Analysis of Environmental A s p e c t s of MHF and N u c l e a r Stimulation , . . . . . . . 75 DELIVERABILITY ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . 77 Data From R B - M H F - 3 . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Deliverability A s s e s s m e n t Calculations . . . . . . 77 C o m p a r i s o n With Rio Blanco N u c l e a r W e l l . . . . . 78 P R O J E C T ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . 79 Management . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 . . . . . .79 Public Info rm a t i o n . . . . . . . Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . . . . 83 COSTS AND SCHEDULING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 costs Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

ILLUS TRATIO NS Figure Page Nuclear Fracturing P r o j e c t MHF Site Location G e n e r a l S t r a t i g r a p h y of the P i c e a n c e B a s i n G e n e r a l S t r a t i g r a p h y of RB- E- 01 and F a w n C r e e k Government No. 1 W e l l Surveyed W e l l Location Drilling P r o g r a m Wellhead A s s e m b l y D r i l l Rig Layout Core Intervals F r a c t u r e Intervals Drilling Schedule Existing W e l l s i n Fawn C r e e k A r e a and Location of RB-MHF-3 F r a c t u r e Length Isolation Equipment P a c k e r Setting D i a g r a m Hookup t o Strip P a c k e r and Tubing Into W e l l While Flowing G a s S u r f a c e Equipment Drilling Layout Fracturing Layout. Electric Distribution P a n e l CER Microwave, Radio, and Telephone S y s t e m Gas Pipelines M H F Schedule.

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10. 11 12. 13.

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20 28 31 33 38
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42 44

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

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62 63 65 68 72 86

TABLES Page 1. 2. 3. M H F Design P a r a m e t e r s . Design 1: 100-ft Height F r a c t u r e T r e a t m e n t Design 2: 200-ft Height F r a c t u r e T r e a t m e n t

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.

34

35 36

1. INTRODUCTION

1. 1

GENERAL

A r e c e n t F e d e r a l Power Commission feasibility study(') a s s e s s e d the

possibility of economically producing gas f r o m t h r e e Rocky Mountain b a s i n s ; the G r e e n R i v e r Basin in Wyoming; the Piceance Basin in Colorado; and the Uinta Basin in Utah. These b a s i n s have potentially productive horizons 2 , 000 to 4,0 0 0 feet thick containing a n e s t i m a t e d total of 6 0 0 trillion cubic feet of g a s i n place. However, the producing sands a r e of such low permeability and heterogeneity that, in g e n e r a l , conventional methods have failed to develop these b a s i n s economically. The N a t u r a l Gas Technology T a s k F o r c e , r e s p o n s i b l e for p r e p a r i n g the r e f e r e n c e d feasibility study, d e t e r m i n e d that i f effective well stimulation methods for these b a s i n s can be developed, i t might be possible to r e c o v e r 40 to 5 0 p e r c e n t of the g a s in place. The T a s k F o r c e pointed out two possible underground f r a c t u r i n g methods: 1) n u c l e a r explosive f r a c t u r i n g , and 2 ) m a s s i v e hydraulic f r a c t u r i n g (MHF). They a r g u e d that once technical viability h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d , and with adequate economic incentives, t h e r e should be no r e a s o n why one o r even both of t h e s e approaches could not be employed, thus making a m a j o r contribution toward c o r r e c t i n g the energy deficiency of the Nation. Two n u c l e a r explosive f r a c t u r i n g r o j e c t s have been fielded in the Piceance B a s i n ( F i g u r e 1); P r o j e c t R u l i s o n F ) conducted on September 10, 1969, and P r o j e c t Rio BlancoJ3) conducted on May 1 7 , 1973. CER Geonuclear C o r p o r a t i o n was P r o j e c t Manager for both e x p e r i m e n t s . While C E R ' s previous efforts have involved the u s e of n u c l e a r explosives, its major goal is to develop a technology which will produce g a s by the b e s t and m o s t economical m e a n s available. F o r that r e a s o n , CER proposed a joint Government-industry demonstration r o g r a m to t e s t the r e l a t i v e effect i v e n e s s of m a s s i v e hydraulic f r a c t u r i n g (47 of the s a m e f o r m a t i o n and p r o ducing horizons that w e r e stimulated by the Rio Blanco n u c l e a r p r o j e c t . P i c e a n c e Basin, the location of the MHF p r o j e c t , i s a s p a r s e l y populated a r e a i n northwest Colorado. The n e a r e s t c o m m e r c i a l a i r p o r t is at Grand Junction, Colorado, and the c l o s e s t r a i l r o a d station is at Rifle, Colorado ( F i g u r e 2 ) . T h e r e a r e paved r o a d s within 5 m i l e s of the s i t e and c o m m e r c i a l power l i n e s within 1 m i l e of the s i t e . The g e n e r a l b a s i n a l s t r a t i g r a p h y is shown i n the e a s t - w e s t c r o s s section i n F i g u r e 3 . The M H F well ( R B - M H F - 3 ) is located on the gently dipping w e s t e r n flank of the Basin. The g a s b e a r i n g F o r t Union and M e s a v e r d e sandstones a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m the r i c h o i l s h a l e s found in the P a r a c h u t e C r e e k M e m b e r of the G r e e n River
-1 -

-2-

EEKER

RIO BLANC0

~

~

~

~

_

_

_

Figure 2 .

M H F site location.
-3-

I

A
I

F i g u r e 3.

G e n e r a l s t r a t i g r a p h y of the P i c e a n c e Basin.

F o r m a t i o n by about 3 , 000 f t of Wasatch F o r m a t i o n shale. ( 5 ) The d e e p e s t known aquifer in the a r e a , the "B" Zone, o c c u r s in the P a r a c h u t e C r e e k M e m b e r below the Mahogany Zone. The "B" aquifer contains b r a c k i s h w a t e r and i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m the gas sands by m o r e than 3 , 000 f t of shale. ( 6 ) The g a s b e a r i n g sandstones in the MHF p r o j e c t a r e a a r e e s t i m a t e d to contain 74 billion s t a n d a r d cubic feet of g a s p e r section. This e s t i m a t e i s b a s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n that the r e s e r v o i r r o c k p r o p e r t i e s encountered by the RB-MHF-3 W e l l will be s i m i l a r to those calculated for the Rio Blanco Nuclear Well, RB-E-01. The RB-E-01 g a s r e s e r v o i r s ( 7 ) to be s t i m u l a t e d a r e a sequence of lenticular s a n d s t o n e s of fluvial o r i g i n located i n the F o r t Union and upper p a r t of the M e s a v e r d e f o r m a t i o n s . A g e n e r a l i z e d c r o s s s e c t i o n extending through the Fawn C r e e k Government Number 1 Well and the R B - E - 0 1 Well is p r e s e n t e d in F i g u r e 4. A s i l l u s t r a t e d , the bulk of the r o c k is s h a l e with only a few i n t e r m i t t e n t sandbodies o c c u r r i n g above the middle of the F o r t Union Formation. The F o r t Union sandstones a p p e a r to have b e t t e r p o r o s i t y , p e r m e a b i l i t y , and continuity than the M e s a v e r d e . More detailed d e s c r i p t i o n s a p p e a r in R e f e r e n c e s 8 and 9. The a v e r a g e g r o s s t h i c k n e s s of the F o r t TJnion s a n d s t o n e s is 300 ft in the proposed p r o j e c t a r e a . Based on a n a n a l y s i s of logs and c o r e s f r o m a n u m b e r of w e l l s in the a r e a , the F o r t Union m e d i a n p o r o s i t y is 1 3 . 5 p e r c e n t , and a w a t e r s a t u r a t i o n of 6 0 p e r c e n t of pore s p a c e s e e m s to be r e p r e s e n t a tive of the g a s sands. P e r m e a b i l i t i e s to g a s in the F o r t Union F o r m a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d f r o m the r e s u l t s of production t e s t s on Fawn C r e e k Government Number 1 Well and another 6 m i l e s to the e a s t (Scandard Draw Number 1 Well), v a r y f r o m 0. 016 to 0. 059 m i l l i d a r c i e s ( m d ) . ( 9 ) The g r o s s upper M e s a v e r d e sand t h i c k n e s s in the p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t a r e a a v e r a g e s 350 ft. C o r e and log a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s that a p o r o s i t y of 10. 5 p e r c e n t and a w a t e r s a t u r a t i o n of 60 p e r c e n t of pore s p a c e a r e r e a s o n a b l e a v e r a g e values for M e s a v e r d e g a s s a n d s . Production t e s t s on the Scandard Draw Number 1 Well yielded a calculated M e s a v e r d e p e r m e a b i l i t y of 0. 008 md. ( 9 ) The specific r e s e r v o i r p r o p e r t i e s for R B - E - 0 1 a c r o s s the p r o j e c t e d 1, 300-ft f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l a r e s u m m a r i z e d below. Thickness of g r o s s f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l Depth t o top of f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l Depth to b a s e of f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l Net effective pay in g r o s s f r a c t u r e d interval Porosity (average) Water s a t u r a t i o n ( a v e r a g e )
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1, 300 f t 5,530 f t (GL) 6, 830 f t ( G L

408 f t

9.6% 56. 570

L

F i g u r e 4.

General stratigraphy, RB-E-01 and F a w n C r e e k G o v e r n m e n t No. 1 Well.

-6-

Mean p r e s s u r e Mean t e m p e r a t u r e G a s diviation f a c t o r Gas specific g r a v i t y ( a i r = 1. 0 ) Gas p r e s s u r e b a s e Gas t e m p e r a t u r e b a s e Gas c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y Gas in place in f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l Average p e r m e a b i l i t y

2, 600 205O 0. 92 0. 65 14. 7 60° 155 74 0.019

psia

psia F SCF/ft3 BSCF/section md

The a v e r a g e p e r m e a b i l i t y is b a s e d on the l i m i t e d testing in Fawn C r e e k Government Number 1 Well and calculations f r o m logs and c o r e s f r o m RB -E- 0 1. Thus, the s i z e of the potential r e s e r v e s , the s i m i l a r i t y of the g a s b e a r i n g sand t o that found in o t h e r Rocky Mountain b a s i n s , and its p r o x i m i t y t o n u c l e a r s t i m u l a t i o n p r o j e c t s m a k e the proposed location a n e x c e l l e n t s i t e f o r a MHF e x p e r i m e n t .

1.2

PROJECT HISTORY

c

A Senate h e a r i n g conducted by S e n a t o r H a s k e l l ( C o l o r a d o ) on P r o j e c t Rio Blanco p r i o r to the n u c l e a r detonation and i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s with p a r t i c i p a n t s on the N a t u r a l G a s Technology T a s k F o r c e following the Rio Blanco n u c l e a r d e t o n a t i o n l e d to CER submitting, on August 9, 1973, to the Atomic E n e r g y C o m m i s s i o n ( A E C ) , the B u r e a u of Mines ( B u M i n e s ) , and s e v e r a l c o m p a n i e s , a p r o p o s a l f o r a joint Government-industry m a s s i v e hydraulic f r a c t u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t . The p r o p o s a l w a s favorably r e c e i v e d and a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting was held in D a l l a s , T e x a s on S e p t e m b e r 14, 1973. 4 A Review C o m m i t t e e w a s f o r m e d at the D a l l a s m e e t i n g and the f i r s t C o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g w a s held in L a s Vegas, Nevada on October 1, 1973. T h i s m e e t i n g produced a Well and F r a c t u r e Design C o m m i t t e e , and Analysis Design C o m m i t t e e , and a l e t t e r a g r e e m e n t which defined the modus o p e r a n d i for the initial p h a s e of the MHF p r o j e c t .

T e n companies f o r m a l l y responded and b e c a m e the p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i a l c o n t r i b u t o r s . They provided t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e at t h e i r own c o s t which contributed to the d e s i g n of the e x p e r i m e n t . The Government ( r e p r e s e n t e d by the AEC and BuMines) a l s o a g r e e d to provide t e c h n i c a l and financial s u p p o r t f o r the initial p h a s e s of the project. The AEC and CER subsequently signed C o n t r a c t AT(26- 1)-623 f o r the p r o j e c t . The c o n t r a c t p r o v i d e s that CER will s e r v e as P r o j e c t Manager and the Government will provide funding through the drilling o p e r a t i o n s . The M H F Well and F r a c t u r e Design C o m m i t t e e h a s g e n e r a t e d its p r o g r a m s through c o o p e r a t i v e efforts on a n individual and i n f o r m a l basis and at five ':Minutes of this and the o t h e r m e e t i n g s mentioned a r e available f r o m CER G e onu c 1 a r C o r p o r a t i on. e

-7

-

meetings: Dallas, Texas, D e c e m b e r 5, 1973; New O r l e a n s , Louisiana, F e b r u a r y 6, 1974; L i v e r m o r e , C a l i f o r n i a , F e b r u a r y 19, 1974; L a s Vegas, Nevada, M a r c h 6 , 1974; and Dallas, T e x a s , A p r i l 5 , 1974. The Analysis Design Committee and i t s designated subcommittees developed t h e i r p r o g r a m utilizing a technique similar t o the Well and F r a c t u r e Design Committee. F o u r m e e t i n g s w e r e held during this development: L i v e r m o r e , California, F e b r u a r y 19, 1974, joint meeting with Well and F r a c t u r e Design Committee; T u l s a , Oklahoma, F e b r u a r y 26, 1974; L a s Vegas, Nevada, M a r c h 6, 1974; and Dallas, T e x a s , A p r i l 5, 1974. ( T h e l a s t two w e r e a l s o joint meetings with the W e l l and F r a c t u r e Design Committee. ) The Review Committee m e t in L a s Vegas, Nevada, M a r c h 7, 1974, i n joint s e s s i o n with the Well and F r a c t u r e Design and Analysis Design c o m m i t t e e s . The p r e l i m i n a r y MHF design was p r e s e n t e d and reviewed during this me e ting

.

The organizations participating in the Review Committee have been: Members Amoco Production Company Atlantic Richfield Company CER Geonuclear Corporation Colorado I n t e r s t a t e Gas Company Continental Oil Company Dowel1 Div. of Dow Chemical Company Equity Oil Company E s s o Production R e s e a r c h Company F u e l R e s o u r c e s Development Company Halliburton S e r v i c e s Mobil R e s e a r c h and Development C o r p o r a t i o n U. S. Bureau of Mines Observers Ashland Oil Company Be c h t e l C o r p o r a ti on C i t i e s S e r v i c e Oil Company Colorado I n t e r s t a t e Gas Company Columbia Gas S y s t e m S e r v i c e Company El P a s o N a t u r a l G a s Company F u e l R e s o u r c e s Development Company Lawrence L i v e r m o r e L a b o r a t o r y Los Alamos Scientific L a b o r a t o r y MAPCO Pacific Gas T r a n s m i s s i o n Company Public S e r v i c e Company of Colorado

.
n

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Rio Blanco N a t u r a l Gas Company Sandia L a b o r a t o r y U. S. Atomic Lnergy Commission U. S. Geological Survey Western Oil Shale Co:mpany The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Well and F r a c t u r e Design and Analysis Design C o m m i tte e s have be en : Well and F r a c t u r e Design Committee Amoco Production Company Atlantic R ic hfie Id C ompany C E R Geonuclear Corporation Continental Oil Company Dowell Div. of Dow Chemical Company E l P a s o N a t u r a l Gas Company Equity Oil Company E s s o Production R e s e a r c h Company Hallibur ton S e r v i c e s Lawrence L i v e r m o r e L a b o r a t o r y Mobil Oil Corporation U. S. Atomic Energy C o m m i s s i o n U. S. Bureau of Mines Analvsis Design Committee Amoco Production Company Atlantic Richfield Company CER Geonuclear Corporation Continental Oil Company Dowell Div. of Dow C h e m i c a l Company E l P a s o N a t u r a l Gas Company E s s o Production R e s e a r c h Company Equity Oil Company Halliburton S e r v i c e s Lawrence L i v e r m o r e L a b o r a t o r y Los Alamos Scientific L a b o r a t o r y Mobil Oil C o r p o r a t i o n Sandia L a b o r a t o r i e s U. S. Atomic Energy C o m m i s s i o n U. S. Bureau of Mines This P r o j e c t Definition contains the d e t a i l s of the design developed as a r e s u l t of the technical c o m m i t t e e s ' work and c o m m e n t s and suggestions f r o m the Review C o m m i t t e e . : ::Consists of individuals f r o m Government and i n d u s t r i a l organizations signatory to the MHF p r o j e c t L e t t e r of Agreement.

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0
2.1

2.

MASSIVE HYDRAULIC FRACTURE DESIGN

W E L L DESIGN

.
c

2.1.1

-i l l i n g P r o g r a m Dr

RB-MHF-3 will be d r i l l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,765 f t w e s t of e a s t line and 2,893 ft n o r t h of south l i n e of S11, T3S, R98W. S e e F i g u r e 5 f o r s u r v e y e d p l o t of t h i s location. A 30-in. conductor pipe will b e s e t through t h e alluvium into b e d r o c k , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 f t , and ce.mented t o s u r f a c e . A 15-in. hole will be d r i l l e d t o 300 f t . T h i s hole w i l l b e opened t o 26 in. and 16-in. c a s i n g r u n t o 300 f t . The c a s i n g will be c e m e n t e d t o s u r f a c e . A 15-in. hole w i l l be d r i l l e d with a f r e s h mud s y s t e m t o 5 , 6 0 0 f t . E l e c t r i c l o g s and a d i r e c t i o n a l s u r v e y will be r u n f r o m s u r f a c e t o 5 , 6 0 0 ft. The 1 0 - 3 / 4 - i n . c a s i n g will be s e t at 5, 600 f t and c e m e n t e d t o s u r f a c e i n two s t a g e s ( F i g u r e 6). A i r c o m p r e s s o r s will be moved i n and rigged t o d r i l l f r o m 5,600 f t t o 6 , 9 0 0 f t . Up t o nine 60-ft c o r e s will b e cut and up t o eight d r i l l s t e m t e s t s w i l l be run b e f o r e r e a c h i n g t o t a l depth. Neutron, density, and g a m m a logs w i l l be r u n f r o m 5 , 6 0 0 f t t o 6,900 f t i n the g a s - f i l l e d hole. A flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y w i l l a l s o be run. T h e hole w i l l be filled with mud and e l e c t r i c l o g s will be run from 5, 600 f t t o 6,900 f t . A f t e r a d i r e c t i o n a l s u r v e y , t h e 7-in. c a s ing w i l l b e s e t at 6 , 9 0 0 f t and c e m e n t e d f r o m 6,900 f t t o 4,650 ft.

A 60-ft, 2-5/8-in. o r i e n t e d c o r e w i l l b e d r i l l e d f r o m 6, 920 f t t o 6 , 9 8 0 f t with a 6-in. diamond c o r e bit. A small f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t w i l l be run. A downhole t e l e v i e w e r a n d / o r i m p r e s s i o n p a c k e r w i l l be r u n t o t r y t o d e t e r m i n e f r a c t u r e orientation. T h e hole w i l l be plugged b a c k to 6, 880 f t and a 10,000p s i working p r e s s u r e wellhead will be installed. The r i g w i l l be d i s m a n t l e d and moved off location.
If, a f t e r d r i l l i n g through t h e F o r t Union s a n d s ( 6 , 2 4 0 f t ) , a n a n a l y s i s of logs, c o r e , and d r i l l s t e m t e s t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s w e l l would be u n a t t r a c tive f o r m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g (and a f t e r consultation with t h e Review Comm i t t e e ) , c e m e n t plugs could be s e t and t h e w e l l abandoned. 2.1.2 Formation Tops

The p r o j e c t e d f o r m a t i o n tops at t h e RB-MHF-3 location a r e as follows ( s u r v e y e d ground level i s 6 , 5 1 7 f t ) :

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'

N89'52'W

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CONDUCTOR
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CUT 60 CORES ATAPPROX THESE DEPTHS-

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BACK DEPTH 6880'

MESAVERDE FOR MAT ION

DRILL 20' BELOW CASING THEN CUT -C R , =OE FRACTURE, RUN DiWN HOLE TELEVIEWER AND/OR IMPRESSION PACKER

F i g u r e 6.

Drilling program. -13 -

Formation Alluvium Green River Evacuation C r e e k Me,mber Parachute Creek Member Mahogany M a r k e r Black M a r k e r Orange M a r k e r Wasatch F o r t Union Sandstone Me s ave r d e T o t a l Depth Plug Back Depth

D r i l l e d Depth ( f t ) Surf ace 60 60 500 880 1,000 2,240 2,920 5,440 6,240 6,980 6,880

Elevation F r o m Mean S e a L e v e l ( f t ) +6,517 $6,457 $6,017 $5,637 $5,517 $4,277 $3,597 +1,077 $277 - 463 - 363

All depth m e a s u r e m e n t s will r e f e r e n c e ground l e v e l (e. g. : logging, coring, d r i l l ste.m t e s t i n g , d r i l l e r s depth, etc. ). An a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t to the r o t a r y table w i l l b e m a d e . 2.1.3 2. 1. 3. 1 S u r f a c e Equipment Wellhead

A wellhead a s s e m b l y ( F i g u r e 7 ) w i l l be i n s t a l l e d upon t h e completion of t h i s well. The wellhead i s designed f o r f r a c t u r i n g p r e s s u r e s between 5,000 and 10,000 p s i and production p r e s s u r e s up t o 3 , 0 0 0 - p s i working p r e s s u r e . 2.1.3.2 Blowout P r e v e n t e r s

A S e r i e s 900 16-in. double-gate blowout p r e v e n t e r and a S e r i e s 900 16-in. G r a n t rotating head S e r i e s 1525 blowout p r e v e n t e r (blind rams) a r e r e q u i r e d while drilling f r o m 300 f t t o t o t a l depth. 2.1.3.3 Drilling Rig

A drilling r i g capable of drilling t o a t o t a l depth of 8, 000 f t and having a mast and running equipment capacity t h a t w i l l handle 255,000 l b (air weight of 10-3/4-in. c a s i n g ) is r e q u i r e d ( F i g u r e 8). 2. 1. 4 Downhole Equipment

The following downhole equipment will be r u n i n RB-MHF-3:
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Casing 300 f t of H-40, 65-lb/ft, 16-in. -14-

3000 PSI PRESSURE GAUGE 2(,' I ; ID. F U L L OPENING GATE VALVE SERIES 900. 2" L I N E P I P E T H R E A D ON BOTH I N L E T AND OUTLET.

900 SERIES FLOW TEE
WITH CHRISTMAS TREE CAP 2" L.P OUTLETS

ION FACILITIES

ADAPTOR F L A N G E - 900 SERIES 5" FLANGE TO 2 Yi' A P I U.P T H R E A D S

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I.D. F U L L OPENING GATE VALVE 900 S E R I E S

5" S E R I E S 900 F L A N G E S
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I.D. FULL OPENING GATE VALVE 900 S E R I E S

5" S E R I E S 900 FLANGES

/ FLANGE 2900 SERIES : ADAPTOR TO GO FROM 7 ! TO 5" FLANGE goo S E R I ~ S
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CASING SPOOL FOR HANGING 7 " CASING

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-15

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AIR COMPRESSOR

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F i g u r e 8.
D r i l l r i g layout.

PIPE RACK

-16

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5, 600 ft of P-110, 4 5 . 4 - l b / f t , 10-3/4-in. B u t t r e s s (1, 000 f t . t o be s a n d b l a s t e d )
(Note: This i s a s p e c i a l mill r u n c a s i n g with the following p r o p e r t i e s

-

8070 b u r s t i s 6 , 600 p s i , t e n s i l e f a i l u r e i s 1, 400, 000 lb, and m i n i m u m
c o l l a p s e is 2 , 610 p s i . )
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6, 040 ft of P-110, 26. 0 - l b / f t , 7 -in. B u t t r e s s
860 f t of P-110, 2 6 . 0-lb/ft, 7-in. ( R a n g e - 2 ) Casing. Running and Cementing Equipment 16-in. Casing 1-guide shoe 3 - c ent r a l i z e r s Top and bottom c e m e n t plugs 10-3 /4-in. Casing 1-diffe r entia1 fill-up c o l l a r 1-diffe r e n t i a l f i l l - u p shoe 1-staging c o l l a r with opening and closing plugs, top and bottom plugs Number of c e n t r a l i z e r s will be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m hole deviation d a t a 7-in. Casing 1-differential fill-up c o l l a r 1-guide shoe Top and bottom plugs Number of c e n t r a l i z e r s will be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m hole deviation data Small Fracture Treatment 7, 000 f t of J - 5 5 , 2 - 7 / 8 - i n . , 6. 5 - l b / f t tubing 1 - r e t r i e v a b l e full hole p a c k e r f o r running i n 7-in. c a s i n g 1 - i m p r e s s i o n pack f o r 6-in. open hole ( i f borehole TV does not provide sufficient i n f o r m a t i o n ) 2.1.5 Special Services Mud Logging

.

2.1. 5.1

T h e r e will be a mud logging unit on the w e l l f r o m the t i m e the 10-3/4-in. c a s i n g is d r i l l e d out until t o t a l depth i s r e a c h e d . Information about t o t a l combustible g a s and m e t h a n e , liquid h y d r o c a r b o n s ( C 6 + ) , and oil f l u o r e s c e n c e i n d r i l l cuttings, and lithology will be provided. 2.1. 5 . 2
+ .

Drilling Infor ma tion

A s p e c i a l e f f o r t will be m a d e to provide detailed d r i l l i n g p a r a m e t e r s s u c h as d r i l l i n g r a t e , b i t weight, r o t a r y speed, standpipe p r e s s u r e , mud p r o p e r t i e s , worn bit d e s c r i p t i o n , and d r i l l i n g t i m e .

-17-

A five-pen r e c o r d e r w i l l be used t o m e a s u r e d r i l l i n g t i m e , weight, pump p r e s s u r e , r o t a r y speed, and pump s t r o k e s . Daily d r i l l i n g r e p o r t s w i l l be kept by the c o n t r a c t o r . A l l d r i l l i n g time and s p e c i a l c o m m e n t s w i l l be cited. 2.1. 5 . 3 Gas Me a s urern ent s While Drilling

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A 2-in. c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r will be u s e d to m e a s u r e the g a s flow while d r i l l i n g with air. A continuous r e c o r d i n g two-pen r e c o r d e r w i l l be used t o m e a s u r e flowing p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e .

2.1. 5.4

Cutting S a m p l e s

S a m p l e s w i l l be obtained a t 10-ft i n t e r v a l s f r o m s u r f a c e t o t o t a l depth. Duplicate s a m p l e s should be taken at e a c h i n t e r v a l . Approximately 1 t o 2 pounds should be obtained p e r bag. E a c h s a m p l e w i l l be washed and sieved before bagging, All s a m p l e s w i l l be r e t a i n e d at the r i g until completion of t h e well. A f t e r the hole i s completed, one set of s a m p l e s w i l l be r e t a i n e d by C E R until the p r o j e c t is completed, and one s e t placed on file with a c o m m e r c i a l c o r e and cutting l i b r a r y . 2. 1.6 Logging P r o g r a m

The following logging operations will be c a r r i e d out on t h i s well: 15-in. Hole Dual induction-laterolog-8 ( 3 0 0 f t - 5 , 6 0 0 f t ) B o r e hole compensated sonic (300 ft-5,600 f t ) G a m m a r a y (60 ft-5,600 f t ) F o u r - a r m caliper (300 ft-5,600 ft) Directional s u r v e y with 50-ft s t a t i o n s ( s u r f a c e 5, 600 f t ) 10-3/4-in. Casing C e m e n t bond ( s u r f a c e - 5 , 6 0 0 f t ) 9-7/8-in. G a s - F i l l e d Hole Differential t e m p e r a t u r e (5, 000 f t - 6 , 900 f t ) Compensated neutron porosity (5,600 f t - 6 , 900 f t ) F o r m a t i o n density compensated (5, 600 f t - 6 , 900 f t ) G a m m a r a y (5, 500 f t - 6 , 9 0 0 f t ) 9-7/8-in. Mud-Filled Hole B o r e hole compensated sonic with v a r i a b l e density o r s h e a r velocity t r a c e (5, 6 0 0 f t - 6 , 900 f t ) Dual induction l a t e r o l o g - 8 (5,600 ft-6, 900 f t ) Integrated c a l i p e r ( 5 , 6 0 0 f t - 6 , 900 f t ) Directional s u r v e y with 50-ft s t a t i o n s ( s u r f a c e to 6 , 900 f t ) -18-

7-in. Casing C e m e n t bond ( 4 , 4 0 0 ft-6, 900 f t ) 6-in. Hole Induction e l e c t r i c (6, 900 ft-6, 980 f t ) Downhole televiewer (6, 9 0 0 ft-6, 980 f t ) D i r e c t i o n a l s u r v e y ( s u r f a c e - 6 , 980 f t ) The only o t h e r logs anticipated would be the c e m e n t bond log and t e m p e r a t u r e logs. The c e m e n t bond log would be run a f t e r any squeeze job on the 10-3/4-in. a n d / o r 7-in. c a s i n g s . The t e m p e r a t u r e logs would be r u n a f t e r e a c h f r a c t u r e operation to check f r a c t u r e :height. The logging checklist f o r the engineer on s i t e i s p r e s e n t e d a s Appendix A. 2. 1.7 D r i l l S t e m Testine

A l l d r i l l s t e m t e s t s should be run with double p a c k e r s , j a r s , and two r e c o r d e r s . Each p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r should have a 72-hour clock and a . 0 to 3 , 000-psi p r e s s u r e element. Once the p a c k e r s a r e s e t , the tools a r e closed. The tools should then be opened for 4 h o u r s and then shut-in f o r 24 t o 72 h o u r s depending on well conditions. The tools should then be opened and the p a c k e r s r e l e a s e d . The p a c k e r s should be s e t a s c l o s e t o the i n t e r v a l to be t e s t e d a s possible. If p a c k e r seating cannot be obtained on the f i r s t a t t e m p t , a second attempt with a different p a c k e r setting depth should be attempted. If this f a i l s , the d r i l l s t e m t e s t of that i n t e r v a l should be abandoned. 2. 1. 8 Corine P r o e r a m

The coring anticipated c o n s i s t s of between five and eight 60-ft c o r e s (indicated on the R B - E - 0 1 log shown in F i g u r e 9 ) . The f i r s t c o r e b a r r e l will be r u n a t the top of the f i r s t F o r t Union sandstone encountered after drilling out of the 10-3/4-in. casing. The coring point will be s e l e c t e d f r o m drilling b r e a k s and s a m p l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , and a complete significant sand o r 180 f t of sand will be cut. One additional F o r t Union and t h r e e M e s a v e r d e c o r e s will be cut i n the 9-7/8-in. hole. If the d r i l l s t e m t e s t s a r e yielding significant data, the M e s a v e r d e c o r e s will be cut through a 180-ft i n t e r v a l anticipated to be included i n one f r a c t u r e zone. If the d r i l l s t e m t e s t s a r e not yielding significant data, t h r e e 60-ft M e s a v e r d e c o r e s will be cut in sandy i n t e r v a l s a t about 6 , 4 0 0 f t , 6, 650 ft, and 6, 750 ft.

A 9-7/8-in. diamond c o r e c u t t e r with a 6-3/4-in. d i a m e t e r b a r r e l will be used to cut a 4-1/2-in. c o r e . The c o r e c u t t e r head should be the type to cut a m e d i u m h a r d formation.
A f t e r d r i l l i n g about 2 0 ft below the 7-in. casing, a 60-ft c o r e will be cut.

-19 -

1 34" 0

APPROXIMATE CORE INTERVALS

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Core intervals.

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-20-

A 6-in. d i a m e t e r c o r e head with a 4-3/4-in. d i a m e t e r b a r r e l will be used to c u t a 2-5/8-in. d i a m e t e r c o r e . This c o r e will be oriented. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e shale sections of this c o r e will be fitted with s t r a i n gages and the relaxation ( a s a function of d i r e c t i o n ) will be m e a s u r e d . : : A l l c o r e s will be taken out of the b a r r e l , laid out on the pipe r a c k , fitted t o g e t h e r , d e s c r i b e d , and m a r k e d . Each c o r e will be photographed (35 mm). A 2-1/2-in. to 3-in. long piece of 4-1/2-i:n. d i a m e t e r c o r e f r o m e a c h foot of sandstone cut will be broken off, bagged in p l a s t i c , labelled, boxed, and shipped (bus e x p r e s s o r a i r f r e i g h t ) to the c o m m e r c i a l c o r e l a b o r a t o r y , The c o r e l a b o r a t o r y will d e t e r m i n e porosity, w a t e r s a t u r a t i o n , and a i r p e r m e a bility. After a n a l y s i s , the plugs u s e d for t h e s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s will be saved, along with adjacent pieces suitable f o r thin sectioning. The remaining 9 - to 9-1/2-in. c o r e section will be bagged boxed, and s t o r e d i n Grand Junction o r distributed to l a b o r a t o r i e s doing r e s e a r c h a n a l y s i s on the M H F p r o j e c t .

2.1.9
2. 1 . 9 . 1

Mud and A i r Drilling Mud P r o g r a m

The mud p r o g r a m f r o m s u r f a c e to 5 , 600 f t should be low-solids, low v i s c o s i t y , light f r e s h - w a t e r b a s e d mud (8. 5-9. 0 ppg). Low solids should be maintained by the u s e of a fine s c r e e n e d shale s h a k e r and at l e a s t one 10-cone d e s i l t e r and one 10-cone d e s a n d e r . Surface to 300 F t . The mud down to 300 ft should be a f r e s h 2. 1 . 9 . 1. 1 w a t e r type with enough gelling m a t e r i a l (bentonite) to maintain a p l a s t i c viscosity between 6 and 10 cp. Water l o s s control should c o m m e n c e with d r i l l i n g out of the conductor pipe. When d.rilling out the c e m e n t , soda a s h should be u s e d and the mud stabilized. T h e r e a r e s o m e possible zones of l o s t c i r c u l a t i o n between 80 to 1, 500 ft. If this o c c u r s , the mud should be immediately conditioned. Some stocks of l o s t c i r c u l a t i o n m a t e r i a l should be maintained on location f r o m the beginni.ng of the drilling. 2. 1 . 9 . 1 . 2 3 0 0 F t t o 5 , 6 0 0 Ft. F r o m 3 0 0 ft t o 5 , 6 0 0 ft the mud weight should be kept between 8. 5 to 9. 0 ppg. The p l a s t i c viscosity should be kept a s low as possible but high enough to keep the hole c l e a n ( 6 to 10 c p ) . Water loss should be maintained below 6 c c p e r 30 minutes and around 3 to 4 c c p e r 30 minutes through the Wasatch and F o r t Union formations. The mud should have a n oil phase o r a c h e m i c a l additive t o reduce torquing and bit balling. Zones of l o s t c i r c u l a t i o n c a n occur in both the G r e e n River shale and the Wasatch. Whenever l o s t c i r c u l a t i o n o c c u r s , the mud should be

:::These m e a s u r e m e n t s will be p e r f o r m e d by personnel for the Bureau of Mines Morgantown R e s e a r c h C e n t e r .

-21-

i m m e d i a t e l y t r e a t e d t o r e e s t a b l i s h full circulation. Testing of t h e m u d (i. e. ; w a t e r l o s s , v i s c o s i t y , and o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s ) should be frequent enough to e n s u r e good m u d quality at all t i m e s . T h e c e m e n t should be d r i l l e d out with the existing m u d s y s t e m which should then be discarded. The m u d is t o be displaced with w a t e r and t h e hole blown d r y with air. 2.1. 9.1.3 5,600 Ft t o 6, 900 Ft. A i r w i l l be u s e d f r o m 5, 600 f t t o 6, 900 f t u n l e s s w a t e r production i n c r e a s e s . If a mist s y s t e m c a n handle the w a t e r production, i t will be u s e d t o 6 , 9 0 0 f t . However, should the w a t e r production p r o v e too g r e a t , an a e r a t e d m u d w i l l be used. By using air and the conventional desanding, desilting, and s c r e e n i n g equipment, a 5. 0- t o 6. 0-ppg m u d c a n be maintained. Conventional g e l and w a t e r l o s s w i l l be used t o m a i n t a i n viscosity and hole stabilization. In the event the hole is d r i l l e d d r y t o 6, 900 f t , it w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c a r e fully condition the d r y hole p r i o r t o filling with mud. A conventional f r e s h w a t e r m u d should be u s e d t o f i l l t h e d r y hole. This should be done by running a bit down t o 200 f t above t o t a l depth a n d pumping the m u d until t h e hole is filled up t o t h e bit. The bit should be r a i s e d a n o t h e r 2 0 0 f t and the m u d pumped again. This should be continued until the m u d r e a c h e s the bottom of the casing. At t h i s position the hole should be completely filled. The bit should be l o w e r e d at 100-ft i n t e r v a l s and c i r c u l a t i o n established. This should b e done until t o t a l depth i s reached. Extreme caution should be e x e r c i s e d while doing t h i s until i t is c e r t a i n t h a t the hole is stable. Any b r i d g e s should be d r i l l e d and any sloughing i n t e r v a l s should be t r e a t e d until stable. Finally, this m u d should be conditioned t o r u n logs. 2.1.9.2 A i r Drilling Operation

n

F r o m 5 , 6 0 0 f t t o approximately 6, 9 0 0 f t , a 9-7/8-in. hole w i l l be d r i l l e d with air. Depending on t h e available equipment, the columns of w a t e r f r o m 5,600 f t t o s u r f a c e m u s t be e i t h e r unloaded by a h i g h - p r e s s u r e m u l t i s t a g e c o m p r e s s o r o r blown d r y i n s t a g e s by lower p r e s s u r e r a t e d c o m p r e s s o r s . Once the hole h a s been d r i e d out, fluids should be kept f r o m the w e l l b o r e except when c o r i n g . It w i l l then be n e c e s s a r y to i n j e c t a small amount of f o a m f o r the lubrication of the bit. If f o r m a t i o n w a t e r is produced, the a i r m u s t be converted t o a mist s y s t e m . However, should too m u c h w a t e r be produced, a n a e r a t e d m u d s y s t e m should be used with the m u d weight cont r o l l e d at 5 to 6 ppg. Calculated air r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m 5, 600 f t to 6, 900 ft, c o r r e c t e d to 5, 0 0 0 ft altitude, a r e 1, 930 MCFD t o 2,045 MCFD, respectively. T h e r e f o r e , 2, 0 0 0 MCFD of air i s r e q u i r e d f o r the air d r i l l i n g . T h i s could give a n a v e r a g e d r i l l i n g r a t e of 15 f t / h r a t a n a n n u l a r r e t u r n velocity of 3 , 0 0 0 fpm. The s a m e a i r r e q u i r e m e n t s would be n e c e s s a r y f o r m i s t d r i l l i n g . However, should a n a e r a t e d m u d s y s t e m b e r e q u i r e d , 1, 500 MCFD would b e r e q u i r e d to maintain a 6. 0-ppg m u d at 600 G P M o r 1, 040 MCFD to maintain a 6 . 0-ppg mud a t 420 GPM.
-22-

2.1.9.3

Hydraulic s P r o g r a m

The hydraulics p r o g r a m f o r the 15-in. hole should be optimized with consideration given t o minimizing hole e r o s i o n . C a l i p e r logs obtained f r o m R B - E - 0 1 show e x c e s s i v e hole e r o s i o n f r o m 2, 900 ft t o n e a r l y total depth. Minimum a n n u l a r v e l o c i t i e s f o r t h e 15-in. hole with 6-5/8-in. d r i l l pipe (Government r i g ) a v e r a g e 78-80 f p m b a s e d on sandstone p a r t i c l e s i z e s . T h e r e c o m m e n d e d p r o g r a m should t r y t o obtain optimum hydraulics and/ o r i m p a c t at t h e bit, utilizing a l a r g e enough flow rate to c l e a n the hole without c a u s i n g e x c e s s i v e hole erosion. In t h e event the bottom section, 5, 6 0 0 f t to t o t a l depth, m u s t be m u d d r i l l e d , t h e same consideration should be given t o designing the hydraulics p r o g r a m . 2.1.10 2.1.10.1 Cementing- P r o g r a m Surface Pipe

The cementing of the s u r f a c e pipe i s f r o m :300 f t t o surface. The c e m e n t w i l l be pumped down t h e 16-in. H-40 c a s i n g t o s u r f a c e . A top and bottom plug w i l l be u s e d f o r displacement. If t h e c e m e n t is not c i r c u l a t e d t o the top, a thixotropic c e m e n t should be injected f r o m t h e surface. The c e m e n t and p r o p e r t i e s a r e as follows: Volume and Type 750 s a c k s of Type G c e m e n t with 27’0 CaCl (fill-up plus 100% e x c e s s ) 1.15 cu f t / s a c k and 15. 8 l b / g a l C o m p r e s s i v e Strength ( p s i ) 8 hours 1, 035 p s i 24 h o u r s 3, 385 p s i

Slurry Properties: Curing P r o p e r t i e s :
(at 80°F)

2.1.10.2

I n t e r m e d i a t e Casing

Cementing design of t h e 10-3/4-in. i n t e r m e d i a t e s t r i n g is based on protecting t h e G r e e n R i v e r shale sequence plus having a high-strength c e m e n t covering the bottom 1, 000 ft. To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , a two-stage cementing p r o c e d u r e i s designed with the l e a d s l u r r y at t h e bottom being a light low-strength f i l l e r type c e m e n t and the tail s l u r r y being a high-strength cement. The second s t a g e is a light low-strength filler-type cement. 2.1.10.3
First Stage (5,600 f t t o 2, 000 f t )

-Q

Volume and Type

9 2 0 sac:ks of light c e m e n t ( l e a d c e m e n t ) 740 s a c k s of Type G c e m e n t (tail c e m e n t )
-23-

Slurry Properties:

Lead c e m e n t - 1. 97 cu f t / s a c k , 12.4 l b / gal., 10.9 gal. / s a c k ( w a t e r ) T a i l c e m e n t - 1. 1 8 c u f t / s a c k , 15. 9 l b / gal., 5 gal. / s a c k ( w a t e r ) C o m p r e s s i v e Strength ( p s i ) (110'F) light c e m e n t 24 h o u r s 72 h o u r s (140'F) Type G cement 24 h o u r s 24 h o u r s (11O ° F )

Curing P r o p e r t i e s :

225 p s i 485 p s i 2,940 psi 3,300 p s i

2.

.10.4

Second Stage (2, 000 Ft t o S u r f a c e )

Volume a n d Type: 1,200 s a c k s of light c e m e n t (fill-up plus 10070 e x c e s s ) S l u r r y and Curing P r o p e r t i e s : S a m e as light c e m e n t previously cited. 2.1.10.5 Production Casing

The p r i m a r y design criteria f o r cementing the 7-in. c a s i n g is t o provide a high-strength cement f r o m 6, 900 f t t o 4 , 4 0 0 f t (about 1, 200 f t within t h e 10-3/4-in. c a s i n g ) . This is t o m i n i m i z e the chance of breakdown while fracturing. T o achieve t h i s , s p e c i a l s t e p s should be t a k e n which a r e as follows : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sand b l a s t bottom 2, 500 f t of 7-in. casing. D e t e r m i n e exact f i l l - u p volume f r o m c a l i p e r log. C e n t r a l i z e c a s i n g b a s e d on d i r e c t i o n a l data. U s e f o r m a t i o n s c r a t c h e r s o v e r i n t e r v a l s of i n t e r e s t . U s e pump rates and s l u r r y p r o p e r t i e s t o e n s u r e turbulent flow of the cement. Run 2, 0 0 0 gallons of a m u d flushing fluid i n f r o n t of the cement.

6.

C e m e n t Volume and Type: 6 5 0 s a c k s of Type G with 10% s a l t (fill-up plus 3070 e x c e s s ) S l u r r y P r o p e r t i e s : 1. 18 c u f t / s a c k , 15.9 l b / g a l . , 5 gal. / s a c k ( w a t e r ) Curing P r o p e r t i e s : C o m p r e s s i v e Strength 24 hour, 3, 300 p s i

2. 1. 10.6

General Comments

The volumes f o r both the i n t e r m e d i a t e and production c a s i n g s will be calculated f r o m c a l i p e r surveys. Types and amounts of s p e c i f i c c h e m i c a l additives w i l l then be determined. Two differential fill-up d e v i c e s w i l l be r u n with the 103/4-in. c a s i n g t o e n s u r e t h a t the second s t a g e cementing c a n be run even if one f i l l - u p device fails f o r s o m e reason. Two pump t r u c k s w i l l be u s e d t o -24-

c e m e n t the i n t e r m e d i a t e casing. One w i l l be u s e d a s a standby. Only one pump t r u c k w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c e m e n t the production s t r i n g . Duplicate s a m p l e s of e a c h type of c e m e n t will be collected during e a c h cementing o p e r ation. T h e s e s a m p l e s w i l l be allowed to s e t a t a m b i e n t s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e noted, and the s a m p l e s r e t a i n e d until p r o j e c t completion.

.

2.1.11

Deviation Control

The following deviation control should be maintained throughout the well: Interval (ft)
30-300 300-1, 000 1,000-2,000 2,000-3, 000 3,000-4,000 4,000-5,000 5, 000-5,600 5,600-6,000 6 , 000-6,900

Hole Size (in. ) 22 15 15 15 15 15 15 9-718 9-718

Cumulative Maximum Deviation
0. 5 O lo 2O 3'

300 1,000 2, 000 3, 000 4O 4, 0 0 0 5 O at 5, 000 5. 6' at 5, 600 6 0 a t 6, 000 7' at 6, 9 0 0

at at at at at

ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft

Survey s t o p s f o r first 3 0 0 ft should be e v e r y 100 ft. m a d e t o m a i n t a i n as low a n angle a s p r a c t i c a l .

E v e r y e f f o r t should be

S u r v e y s t o p s throughout the r e m a i n d e r of t h e hole should be a m i n i m u m of 250 f t o r b e f o r e tripping out f o r a new bit. All s u r v e y s should be r u n with a sandline. The hole w i l l be s t a b i l i z e d by using a packed hole a s s e m b l y . One n e a r bit r e a m e r should be placed above the bit. The s t r i n g r e a m e r should be placed 30 f t above t h e bit and the s t a b i l i z e r should be placed at 60 f t above t h e bit (above t h e second c o l l a r ) . S t a b i l i z e r wings should be r e p l a c e d when 1 /8-in. w e a r is noticed. If any r a p i d buildup of angle o c c u r s between s t a t i o n s , bit weight should be reduced t o c o r r e c t the a n g l e . 2.1.12 Drilling P r o c e d u r e

T h e following d r i l l i n g p r o c e d u r e w i l l be u s e d f o r R B - M H F - 3 : 1. 2. P r e p a r e d r i l l i n g pad, m u d sump, a c c e s s r o a d s , and w a t e r supply. Move i n small a u g e r r i g , d r i l l 40-in. hole to b e d r o c k (approxi m a t e l y 6 0 f t ) , and s e t 30-in. conductor pipe. C e m e n t conductor pipe t o s u r f a c e and p r e p a r e 8-ft x 8-ft x 6 - f t c e l l a r f o r rig. Move i n d r i l l i n g unit and r i g up. -25-

3.

4.

5.

D r i l l 26-in. hole using 15-in. b i t to 300 ft and open hole to 26-in. with a r e a m e r and pilot b i t .

6.

Run 300 f t of H-40, 6 5 - l b / f t , 16-in. c a s i n g to 300 ft. c e n t r a l i z e r s and a guide shoe. Cement 16-in. c a s i n g to s u r f a c e .

Use t h r e e

7.
8.

Wait on c e m e n t f o r 24 h o u r s .

Connect 16-in. slip-on c a s i n g head spool and r i g up blowout p r e venters T h e r e should be one S e r i e s 900, 16-in. G r a n t rotating head S e r i e s 1525 and one S e r i e s 900, 1 6 - i n . , double-gate blowout preventer. P r e s s u r e t e s t blowout p r e v e n t e r s , c a s i n g , and c e m e n t t o 500 p s i . Hold m a x i m u m s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e f o r 30 m i n u t e s .

9.

10. D r i l l out plug, c e m e n t , and guide shoe with 15-in. bit. Use n e a r b i t r e a m e r and s t a b i l i z e r t o maintain deviation c o n t r o l . Hole stabilization will be maintained throughout d r i l l i n g operation. A l l single shot d i r e c t i o n a l s u r v e y s should be r u n on sandline. 11.

D r i l l 15-in. hole to 5, 600 ft with low-solids mud. After r e a c h i n g 5, 600 ft, c i r c u l a t e hole i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r logging.

12. Run d u a l induction l a t e r o l o g and g a m m a ray-BHC sonic logs f r o m 5 , 6 0 0 ft t o 300 f t and g a m m a r a y log to 60 f t .
13.

Run f o u r - a r m c a l i p e r f r o m 5, 600 f t to 300 ft t o obtain c e m e n t volumes .

14. Run d i r e c t i o n a l s u r v e y t o 5, 600 ft. Stations should be at 50-ft i n t e r v a l s . D e t e r m i n e c a s i n g c e n t r a l i z e r positions b a s e d on directional survey results. 15. Run 1 0 - 3 / 4 - i n . , P-110, 45. 5 - l b / f t c a s i n g with d i f f e r e n t i a l float shoe, d i f f e r e n t i a l float c o l l a r , and staging c o l l a r t o 5 , 6 0 0 f t . Staging c o l l a r should be a t a depth of 2, 000 f t . Run top and bottom plugs f o r bottom s t a g e . Bump top plug on float c o l l a r . D r o p t r i p plug t o open cementing p o r t s . C i r c u l a t e out c e m e n t above s t a g e tool. Set c a s i n g s l i p s . Wait on c e m e n t f o r 4 h o u r s . C e m e n t second s t a g e . Inject shutoff plug. Run at l e a s t 4 s a c k s of c e m e n t t o top of shutoff plug. Wait on c e m e n t f o r 24 h o u r s . P i c k up 10-3/4-in. c a s i n g , cut off e x c e s s , and i n s t a l l pack-off. Nipple up blowout p r e v e n t e r ( m u s t be S e r i e s 900).

16. Run two-stage c e m e n t job.

17.

D r i l l out plugs, stage c o l l a r , bottom plugs, fill-up c o l l a r s , guide

-26-

shoe, and cement. T e s t stage c o l l a r t o 500 psi. If stage c o l l a r l e a k s , s q u e e z e - c e m e n t the stage c o l l a r and d r i l l out cement.

.

18. 19.

Run c e m e n t bond log f r o m t o t a l depth t o surface.

If bottom 1 , 0 0 0 f t does not show good bonding, squeeze r e q u i r e d i n t e r v a l s until p r o p e r bond i s obtained.
C i r c u l a t e hole with f r e s h w a t e r . Move in c o m p r e s s o r s , and r i g up rotating head, injector, and blooie line. Blow hole d r y with a i r . Move i n .mud logging unit and rig up. D r i l l out of casing with 9 - 7 / 8 - i n . bit. Continue drilling until top of f i r s t sand i s encountered. Run junk b a s k e t on e a c h bit run p r i o r t o coring. Run 9-7/8-in. diamond c o r e c u t t e r f o r 4.0-in. c o r e with a 60-ft b a r r e l . Cut 180 f t of continuous sand o r c o r e one complete s i g nificant sands tone l a y e r . M e a s u r e any g a s a n d / o r w a t e r production during connections and trips. Run in with double p a c k e r d r i l l s t e m t e s t tools and s e t in o r above c o r e d interval. Open tools f o r flow m e a s u r e m e n t f o r 4 h o u r s and then shut i n tool f r o m 24 t o 72 hours. R e l e a s e p a c k e r s and pull tools. DECISION POINT
If after d r i l l i n g through the F o r t Union

20. 21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

sandstones it is d e t e r m i n e d that this well is not suitable f o r m a s s i v e f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s (i. e. ; l a c k of s a n d s , significant w a t e r production, etc. ), drilling should c e a s e and the logs in Steps 32 and 34 should be run. If the logs c o n f i r m it is a poor well, the p r o j e c t t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a n agement will, a f t e r consultation with the Advisory C o , m i t t e e , m a k e the decision a s t o plugging and abandoning the well.

26.

Continue drilling with 9-7/8-in. b i t and air system. If slight w a t e r is encountered, convert t o m i s t s y s t e m . If w a t e r is encountered i n quantities too g r e a t t o handle with mist, convert to a e r a t e d mud system. Run d r i l l stern t e s t s o v e r the i n t e r v a l s indicated on the R B - E - 0 1 log shown i n F i g u r e 10. F i v e t o eight d r i l l s t e m tests could be run. -27-

27.

n
ANTICIPATED FRACTURE INTERVALS

SUGGESTED FRACTURE INTERVALS FOR 4 ZONE PROJECT

DS7
# I

EST NET PAY = 192 FT E S T GROSS PAY = 198 F T
DST #2

8

DST #3

0
EST NET PAY = 7 0 F T EST GROSS PAY = 1 0 F T 9

DST #4

EST NET PAY = 8 0 F T EST GROSS PAY = 129 F T
DST

#5

0

DST

i
i

EST NET PAY= 6 0 F T EST GROSS PAY = 97 F T

0

, i

_1
:LF POTENTIA

ESTIMATED TOTAL GROSS PAY = 614 F T ESTIMATED TOTAL NET PAY = 402 FT

F i g u r e 10.

F r a c t u r e intervals.

-28-

28.

If, after running a n u m b e r of d r i l l s t e m t e s t s , r e s u l t s a r e p o o r and t h e kh d a t a are not being obtained, c e a s e running t h e t e s t s e x c e p t o v e r i n t e r v a l s which indicate g a s flows will be obtained and a r e a s o n a b l e chance of obtaining a k h is indicated.
Cut 6 0 - f t c o r e s o v e r t h e a p p r o x i m a t e i n t e r v a l s indicated i n F i g u r e 9. If t h e d r i l l s t e m t e s t s a r e working, cut 180 f t of continuous c o r e (1, l A , 1B). Cut another 180 f t of continuous c o r e (3, 3A, 3B) if a r e l a t i v e l y continuous sandy s e c t i o n of M e s a v e r d e is encountered, and d r i l l s t e m t e s t t h e i n t e r v a l a s outlined i n Step 25. If c o r e 3 e n c o u n t e r s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sand and s h a l e section, c u t c o r e s 3A and 3B i n l o w e r M e s a v e r d e sands. ,See F i g u r e 10 f o r t e s t intervals. D r i l l 9 - 7 / 8 - i n . hole t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6, 900 f t and c i r c u l a t e hole clean. M e a s u r e t o t a l g a s and fluid production o v e r e n t i r e i n t e r v a l while running a flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y f r o m 6, 900 f t t o b o t t o m of 20-3/4-in. casing. Run g a m m a r a y - s i d e w a l l neutron p o r o s i t y and c o m p e n s a t e d dens i t y l o g s f r o m 6 , 9 0 0 f t t o 5,500 f t . Mix r e e n t r y mud s y s t e m . Run dril.1 pipe with 9 - 7 / 8 - i n . b i t t o 6 , 7 0 0 f t and f i l l hole t o bit. Move bit t o 6, 500 f t and f i l l hole t o bit. Continue filling i n 200-ft i n c r e m e n t s until 5 , 6 0 0 f t is r e a c h e d . A t 5 , 600 f t , f i l l e n t i r e w e l l bore. L o w e r b i t t o 5 , 7 0 0 f t and e s t a b l i s h c i r c u l a t i o n . C i r c u l a t e f o r 1 hour. Move b i t down hole i n 100-ft i n t e r v a l s and c i r c u l a t e 1 h o u r o r m o r e at e a c h i n t e r v a l . D r i l l any b r i d g e s out. Continue until t o t a l depth is reached. C i r c u l a t e hole
for at least 8 h o u r s p r i o r to logging.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

Run BHC s o n i c log with continuous d e n s i t y t r a c e and dual induction l a t e r o l o g f r o m t o t a l depth t o 5, 600 f t . Run i n t e g r a t e d c a l i p e r t o d e t e r m i n e c e m e n t v o l u m e s f r o m t o t a l depth t o within t h e 10-3/4-in. casing. Run d i r e c t i o n a l s u r v e y f r o m t o t a l depth t o s u r f a c e making 50-ft s t a t i o n stops. Calculate c e n t r a l i z e r spacing f r o m d i r e c t i o n a l data. Run a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6,900 f t of 7 - i n . , P - 1 1 0 , 2 6 - l b / f t casing. Casing will have a guide shoe, d i f f e r e n t i a l f i l l - u p c o l l a r , and c e n t r a l i z e r s . Land c a s i n g at 6 , 9 0 0 f t . Cement c a s i n g f r o m 6 , 9 0 0 f t t o 4,400 ft. Use t o p and b o t t o m plugs. Bump f l o a t c o l l a r with b o t t o m plug. W a i t on c e m e n t f o r 24 h o u r s and s e t into s l i p s . Cut off e x c e s s and i n s t a l l pack-off. Run c e m e n t bond log f r o m 6,900 f t t o 4, 600 f t . -29P e r f o r a t e and s q u e e z e any s e c t i o n s

35.

36.

that do not have good bonding. 37.

R e r u n bond log a f t e r squeezing.

Run 6-in. bit with junk b a s k e t and d r i l l out plug, fill-up c o l l a r , guide shoe, and c e m e n t . D r i l l 2 0 f t below ?-in. c a s i n g , c i r c u l a t e hole, and t r i p out bit. Run 6-in. diamond c o r e c u t t e r with 6 0 - f t c o r e b a r r e l . Cut 60 f t of c o r e . Run dual induction s u r v e y f r o m t o t a l depth to bottom of ?-in. c a s i n g . C i r c u l a t e mud with w a t e r . Run 2-7/8-in. tubing with p a c k e r and s e t in the bottom of the 7-in. c a s i n g ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6, 850 f t ) . Run small f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t as follows: ( a ) P u m p 2, 000-gallon pad at 10 BPM. ( b ) P u m p 3 , 000 gallons with 1 l b / g a l of 20-40 m e s h sand at 10 BPM. ( c ) P u m p 2, 000-gallon f l u s h (pad, flush, and t r e a t m e n t fluid is w a t e r with the n e c e s s a r y additives). Hydraulic h o r s e p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t is 575. ( d ) R e l e a s e p a c k e r and pull tubing.

38.

39.

40.

41.

Tag bottom with w i r e line unit. Pump

P u m p any sand fill-up with sand

42.

Run bottom hole t e l e v i e w e r a n d / o r i m p r e s s i o n p a c k e r o v e r f r a c t u r e d interval. Spot c e m e n t plug in open hole to 6, 850 ft. hours

43.

.

W a i t on c e m e n t f o r 12

44.

Run 6-in. bit to bottom and d r i l l any e x c e s s i v e c e m e n t to within 2 0 f t of bottom of casing. Displace w a t e r f r o m hole with condensate. I n s t a l l 10, 000-psi working p r e s s u r e wellhead and r e l e a s e r i g . C l e a n u p drilling pad in p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s . T i m e Schedule f o r Drilling RB-MHF-3.

45. 46. 47. 2.1.12.1

F i g u r e 11 p r e s e n t s the drilling schedule for RB-MHF-3. This figure indicates the e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r of 15-in. and 9-7/8-in. bits that will be r e q u i r e d and the t i m e s that will be r e q u i r e d f o r cementing, running c a s i n g , logging, c o r i n g , d r i l l s t e m testing, and o t h e r m a j o r events. It is e s t i m a t e d that the well will -30-

e

0 . 1

7(
R
DRILL C

IBING, SET 'PACKER, R I I SMALL

JGS

a

FRACTURE TR CUT CORE ~ 0 . 4 O R I E ~ T E D CORE ( I CEMENT PLUS DI LL 20' INTO

I

I

I

;FORHATION

R U N 7"CASING,

C I

:NT CASING, WOC

6

RUN FLI

TEMPERATi

! SURVEY,

I G GAS F I L L E D HOLE, R i

)IRECTIONAL SURVEY

I

6

CUTTING COR1
~~

! E R U NU BrI Tl t R l NO.21 ' { f ,

5

-

IO. 3, 30, 8 3 b JUNK BASKET

1 B I T NO. 2

START CUTTING CORE NO. IDST NO.4

+
I
~

I

RERUN B I T NO. 1 WIJU 9

I B I T NO. 2 b ' DST NO. 3 B I T N O 20

START CUTTING CORE NO. 2

4

~

-

CUT

1 0 CORE I

-Iuo.
II

BIT NO. 1 9

I I[9T/s" C?RE C U T T E I

CEM

3

RUN DIRECTIONAL su CONE r l O N H O L E /AND R U N
~

S UP MUD LOGGING UNIT

ail
1 4

NO. 1 6

2

__
BI1

I T NO. 12-

B I T NO.

BIT

*

N0.8

I

-

4
NO. 2 START DR J N G 15" H .E NO a WOC.RUNNI~G I ' CASING

DRILLING 22' H

P
RIG A t RlGGl RIG 0

.

I
)O

0 DRILL

I 5 A / E 0 DO 4000
DEPTH ( F E E T )

7000

BO00

F i g u r e 11.

Drilling schedule. -31-

take 75 d a y s f r o m the t i m e the r i g a r r i v e s on location and starts t o r i g up t o the t i m e the hole is completed and the r i g is d i s m a n t l e d . The e s t i m a t e d rotating t i m e is 503 h o u r s . The t i m e to r e a c h the t o p of the M e s a v e r d e F o r m a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d at 42.5 days. A t t h i s t i m e a d e c i s i o n m u s t be made t o continue o r abandon the hole.

2.2
2.2.1

FRACTURE DESIGN Introduction

The m a s s i v e f r a c t u r e is c o m p r i s e d of four t o five f r a c t u r e - r e a t m e n t s . The anticipated f r a c t u r e i n t e r v a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d in F i g u r e 10. The i n t e r v a l s a r e b a s e d on the log s e c t i o n f r o m R B - E - 0 1 which is approximately 5, 000 f t t o the southwest ( F i g u r e 12). In RB-MHF-3, t h e r e is a s t r o n g possibility t h a t the i n t e r v a l s will b e different f r o m the ones p r e s e n t e d by F i g u r e 10; however, the g e n e r a l s i z e and spacing of the m a j o r units should be similar enough t o provide the b a s i s f o r the p r e l i m i n a r y design. The final d e s i g n will b e m a d e by a t e c h n i c a l subgroup and submitted t o the Review C o m m i t t e e . Two m a j o r components of the m a s s i v e f r a c t u r e a r e the a c t u a l f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t design and method of f r a c t u r i n g e a c h zone s e p a r a t e l y without having t o kill the well with mud, w a t e r , o r any fluid that could damage the f o r m a t i o n The a c t u a l f r a c t u r e d e s i g n is b a s e d on two job s i z e s . The first is f o r a g r o s s sand t h i c k n e s s of 100 f t and the second is the 200 f t of g r o s s . Both s i z e s a r e f o r a l a t e r a l f r a c t u r e extent of approximately 2, 500 f t f o r e a c h side o r wing. Table 1 s u m m a r i z e s the p a r a m e t e r s u s e d f o r designing the MHF w e l l d r i l l e d t o a depth of 6 , 900 f t i n the M e s a v e r d e F o r m a t i o n . The fluid d e s i g n is b a s e d on a s y s t e m that will m i n i m i z e damage and c l e a n up rapidly. The initial choice is a polyemulsion ( o n e - t h i r d t r e a t e d w a t e r and t w o - t h i r d s c o n d e n s a t e ) plus a g a s e o u s phase which could be n i t r o g e n o r c a r b o n dioxide. P r o p p a n t d e s i g n is initially b a s e d on m a x i m u m t r a n s p o r t with a n i n c r e a s i n g m e s h s i z e and inc r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o w a r d s the end of the t r e a t m e n t . Isolation of the f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t will be accomplished by the u s e of a r e t r i e v a b l e b r i d g e plug. Both the tubing and the p a c k e r will be s t r i p p e d through a Shaffer-type rotating head and two blind ram blowout p r e v e n t e r s . When it is t i m e to move the b r i d g e plug, 1-in. coiled tubing will b e injected into the well. Nitrogen will be u s e d t o blow the sand f r o m the t o p of the p a c k e r . The 2-7/8-in. tubing will be u s e d to unlatch the p a c k e r and r e s e t it below the next i n t e r v a l t o be stimulated. The downhole equipment d e s i g n a l s o p r o v i d e s a method of monitoring the p r e s s u r e i n the zones that have b e e n f r a c t u r e d and c l e a n e d u p while a f r a c t u r e o p e r a t i o n is being p e r f o r m e d above the b r i d g e plug. This should indicate whether t h e r e is communication between f r a c t u r e s . Once the total o p e r a t i o n is completed the well c a n be i m m e d i a t e l y put on production without any drilling.

-32-

R98W

1
3f

/

R 9 7 W BOUNDARY UNIT

t25

6

7

t35

1 8

1 9

LEGEND
A B C
:LOCATION :R E - E - 0 1

FOR R E - M H F - 3

=

FAWN CREEK GOVERNMENT # I LOCATIONS CONSIDERED FOR PROJECl

m=

D: BOISE # I

F i g u r e 12.

Existing w e l l s i n Fawn C r e e k a r e a and location of RB-MHF-3. -33-

Table 1.

MHF design p a r a m e t e r s .

N e t F o r m a t i o n Thickness A s s u m e d F r a c t u r e Height E l a s t i c Modules of F o r m a t i o n Formation Permeability Bottomhole T r e a t i n g P r e s s u r e R e s e r v o i r Pres s u r e Viscosity of G a s Fluid Loss S p u r t Lo s s

50 and 100 ft’:< 100 and 200 ft* 8.0 x 106 p s i 0.005 m d 4,340 p s i 2, 666 p s i 0.02 c p 0.0002 f t / G n . 0. 000 gal/$

Injection Rate: 40 BPM (not including gaseous p h a s e ) Type of Fluid: Polyemulsion (66-2/3’$0 condensate and 33-1/3’$0 gelled w a t e r ) Gaseous P h a s e : C a r b o n dioxide o r nitrogen Pumping: Continuous pumping down the casing annulus ( m i n i m u m c a s i n g s i z e of 7 in. ) Sand Concentration and Size: Average sand concentration i s 4 l b / g a l . pumped continuously. Sand s i z e s a r e 40-60 m e s h (0. 017-0. 010 in. dia. ) and 20-40 m e s h ( 0 . 033-0. 017 in. dia. ) D e s i r e d F r a c t u r e d Length: 2,500 ft

The following a r e f r i c t i o n calculations b a s e d on pumping 4 0 BPM f o r the s u p e r e m u l s i f r a c and a n additional 5 t o 10 BPM f o r C 0 2 o r N2. Calculations a s s u m e pumping down the annulus between 2 - 7 / 8 in. tubing and 7-in. casing. Rate BHTP (psi) 4,340 4,340 4,340 Ph (psi) 2,376 APpf** (psi) 350 350 350 APf***

PW
Ipsi)
3,416 3,700 3,997 HHP 3,348 4,079 4,897

(BPM) 40
45 50

0
1,102 1,386 1,683

2, 376
2,376

The above p a r a m e t e r s w e r e u s e d t o g e n e r a t e a f r a c t u r e design. This is p r e s e n t e d by Tables 2 and 3 f o r the 100-ft f r a c t u r e height and the 200-ft f r a c t u r e height, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l calculations p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t w e r e p e r f o r m e d by Halliburton.

n
*Two d e s i g n s are m a d e f o r 100-ft and 200-ft f r a c t u r e heights. **Based on 1.5 B P M / p e r f o r a t i o n . ***Based on a n a v e r a g e depth of 6 , 6 0 0 f e e t . -34-

{ \

Table 2.

Design 1: 100-ft height f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t .

Volume (Gal. ) 15, 000 4, 000 16, 000 4, 000 80, 000 10,800

Fluid Description Polyemulsion Pad'." Polyemulsionak Polyemulsiony; Polyemulsion* Polyemulsion** Flush

C onc e nt r ati on (Lb/Gal. ) -

Size

Sand Amount (Lb)

Totals (Lb)

3 4 5 4

40-60 40-60 40-60 20-40

*** ***

12, 000 64, 000 20,000 320,000

12,000 76, 000 96, 000 416,000

R a t e - 40 B P M (Not including g a s e o u s p h a s e ) Treatment: Sand 40-60 = 96,000 Lb 20-40 = 320, 000 L b Volume of Sand = 18, 845 Gal. (416, 000 L b ) Fluid 119, 000 G a l . Polyemulsion Condensate (6770) - 79, 730 Gal. Gelled W a t e r (3370) - 3 9 , 2 7 0 Gal. 270 KC1 0.570 U - 7 8 o r SEM-5 50 Lb WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 0 0 0 Gal. i n 12, 870 Gal. 25 Lb WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 0 0 0 Gal. i n 2 6 , 4 0 0 Gal. F l u s h Gelled W a t e r (10, 800 Gal. )+ 2% KC1 0.570 U-78 o r SEM-5 25 L b WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 0 0 0 Gal. T o t a l Volume = 137, 845 Gal. ( P o l y e m u l s i o n and S a n d ) = 148,645 Gal. ( P o l y e m u l s i o n , Sand, and Flush)

-

-

r(

M a t e r ial s R equire d : t Condensate - 91, 690 Gal. (1570 of t r e a t m e n t volume o additional condensate or 1 1 , 9 6 0 g a l l o n s ) Water 5 7 , 4 6 0 Gal. (15% of treatment volume of additional water or 7,390 gallons) WG-6 or J-133 1,554 Lb KC1 - 8 , 2 0 8 Lb U-78 o r SEM-5 246 Gal. 96, 000 Lb 40-60 Sand 20-40 Sand 320, 000 L b Nitrogen @ 400 S C F / B B L = 1 , 4 0 8 , 0 4 8 S C F 11 Gallons of D e e m u l s i f i e r

-

-

-

*Indicates 50 Lb WG-6 o r J-133/1, 000 Gal. i n the w a t e r p h a s e of emulsion. **Indicates 25 Lb WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 000 Gal. in the w a t e r p h a s e of emulsion. ***This could be changed t o 100 m e s h s a n d . +This volume will b e r e d u c e d as the depth of the treatment is r e d u c e d . -35-

Table 3.

Design 2: 200-ft height f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t .

Volume (Gal. ) 15, 000 10, 000 30, 000 10, 000 170, 000 10, 800

Fluid De s c r iption Polyemulsion Pad’:; Polyemulsion* Polyemulsion* Polyemulsion’k Polyemulsion**< Flush (Gelled W a t e r )

Concentration (Lb/Gal. )

Size

Sand Amount (Lb)

Totals (Lb)

3

4 5 4

40-60*** 40-60*** 40-60 20-40

30,000 120,000 50,000 680,000

30,000 150.000 200,000 880, 000

R a t e - 4 0 B P M (Not including g a s e o u s p h a s e ) Treatment: Sand 40-60 = 200, 000 Lb 20-40 = 6 8 0 , 0 0 0 L b Volume of Sand - 3 9 , 8 6 4 Gal. (880, 000 Lb) F l u i d - 235, 000 Gal. Polyemulsion Condensate (67%) - 157,450 Gal. Gelled Water (33%) 77,550 Gal. 270 KC1 0.570 U-78 o r SEM-5 50 Lb WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 0 0 0 Gal. in 2 1 , 4 5 0 Gal. 25 L b WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 0 0 0 Gal. in 56, 100 Gal. Flush - Gelled W a t e r (10, 800 Gal. ) + 270 KC1 0.5% U-78 or SEM-5 25 L B WG-6 o r J - 1 3 3 / 1 , 0 0 0 Gal. T o t a l Volume = 274, 864 Gal. ( P o l y e m u l s i o n and Sand) = 285,664 Gal. ( P o l y e m u l s i o n , Sand and Flush)

-

Mate rials Required: Condensate - 181, 068 Gal. (1570 of treatment volume of additional condensate o r 23,618 g a l l o n s ) Water 101,483 Gal. ‘15% of t r e a t m e n t volume of additional w a t e r o r 13, 132 g a l l o n s ) 3 , 3 5 5 Lb WG-6 o r J-133 KC1 14,585 Lb U-78 o r SEM-5 - 438 Gal. 40-60 Sand 200, 000 Lb 20-40 Sand 680,000 Lb Nitrogen @ 400 S C F / B B L - 2 , 7 1 2 , 9 9 0 S C F 11 Gallons of D e e m u l s i f i e r

-

-

-

-

*Indicates 50-Lb WG-6 o r J-133/1, 000 Gal. in the w a t e r phase of emulsion. **Indicates 25-Lb WG-6 or J- 133/1, 000 Gal. in the w a t e r phase of e m u l s i o n ***This could be changed t o 100 mesh s a n d . +This volume will be r e d u c e d as t h e depth of the treatment is reduced. -36-

c

u

2.2.2

F r a c t u r e C ontingency Planning

The length to height r a t i o of the f r a c t u r e wing:: u s e d in t h i s MHF d e s i g n is quite l a r g e . R a t i o s of this o r d e r of magnitude have been r e p o r t e d in conjunction with f r a c t u r e e x p e r i e n c e on C r e t a c e o u s sandstone in the D e n v e r J u l e s b u r g Basin. Thus, i t d o e s not a p p e a r u n r e a s o n a b l e to u s e the high r a t i o s in this design. However, the high r a t i o e x p e r i e n c e is f r o m another a r e a and i t would s e e m prudent to c o n s i d e r contingency planning in c a s e f r a c t u r i n g in the Piceance B a s i n exhibits lower r a t i o s . An e s t i m a t e of f r a c t u r e height on Zone 1 should be p o s s i b l e if the t e m p e r a t u r e profiling p r o g r a m y i e l d s significant r e s u l t s . If no anomalous behavior is encountered in the f i r s t zone f r a c t u r e , the second zone f r a c t u r i n g should p r o c e e d a c c o r d i n g to plan. In the event of a n unusual f r a c t u r e height in the f i r s t zone, the contingent r e s p o n s e should be to provide enough s e p a r a t i o n between the f i r s t and second zones, b a s e d upon available r a t i o information, s o that f r a c t u r e c o a l e s c e n c e will not o c c u r when the second zone is f r a c t u r e d . T h i s involves reducing the r a t i o . If the second zone f r a c t u r e information i n d i c a t e s that this r a t i o a p p e a r s s a t i s f a c t o r y , the f r a c t u r e p r o g r a m will continue, utilizing the new r a t i o . The g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e for designing e a c h f r a c t u r e s t a g e will be t o evaluate the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained f r o m e a c h p r e v i o u s l y f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l . With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n the f r a c t u r e d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e on succeeding zones c a n be a l t e r e d if n e c e s s a r y . Any modifications o r redesigning s h a l l be c a r r i e d out by a t e c h n i c a l subgroup and p r e s e n t e d to the Review C o m m i t t e e with the d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e f o r the next stage.
2.2.3

S u b s u r f a c e Equipment and Running P r o c e d u r e s

P e r f o r m i n g four t o five i s o l a t e d f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s without killing the well r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l attention to both t h e s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e equipment and running p r o c e d u r e s . Once the first i n t e r v a l is f r a c t u r e d at the bottom of the well, cleaned up, and t e s t e d , it m u s t b e i s o l a t e d f r o m the next f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e a r e two b a s i c ways of isolating t h e s e i n t e r v a l s . One way is t o s e t a sand plug with c e m e n t spotted on t o p to c o v e r e a c h i n t e r v a l that h a s b e e n p e r f o r a t e d and f r a c t u r e d . A t the end of the total o p e r a t i o n a r i g would b e brought in and the sand plugs d r i l l e d out with a g a s . The m a i n p r o b l e m in doing this is that t h e r e is no way t o r e e n t e r a p r e v i o u s l y t r e a t e d i n t e r v a l without drilling once the sand plug is set. This m e a n s that it is i m p o s s i b l e

'%Distancefrom w e l l b o r e to the end of one v e r t i c a l f r a c t u r e ( F i g u r e 13).

-37-

WELL BORE

OF RE-MHF-3

FORT Uh

I

co
I

w

MESAVE

SECTION I I (640 ACRES)

F i g u r e 13.

Fracture length.

to d e t e r m i n e whether a f r a c t u r e c r e a t e d by a previous t r e a t m e n t i s in c o m munication with a f r a c t u r e f r o m the i n t e r v a l above i t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , and b e c a u s e of the possibility of f o r m a t i o n damage during the sandplug cleanout operation and for the flexibility of being able to t e s t e i t h e r one o r a l l of the t r e a t e d i n t e r v a l s , i t w a s decided to mechanically s e a l off the lower i n t e r v a l by m e a n s of a r e t r i e v a b l e bridge plug. F i g u r e 14 shows the equipment r e q u i r e d to isolate the f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l . The p a c k e r a s s e m b l y i s r u n to the p r e d e t e r m i n e d pack-off position and s e t . The blanking plug in the tubing i s pulled and the p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r s a r e r u n in and landed, The sealing plug i n the top of the packer i s r u n and latched. The tubing i s unlatched and the casing i s p r e s s u r e t e s t e d to check the s e a l of the p a c k e r a s s e m b l y . A heavy g e l i s spotted on top of the p a c k e r , the casing p r e s s u r e i s bled off, and the tubing pulled to p e r f o r a t e . See F i g u r e 15 for the packer setting d i a g r a m . After perforating the casing, the tubing i s s t r i p p e d into the well with a blanking plug below a pump seating nipple. Once the tubing i s landed the blanking plug i s pulled and the well f r a c t u r e d . If i t is n e c e s s a r y to pump the f r a c t u r e d i n t e r v a l while cleaning up the well, a plunger pump can be s e a t e d and pumped. Once the well i s cleaned up and i t is time to u n s e a t the p a c k e r , coiled 1-in. tub.ing i s lowered to the top of the packer and the sand i s blown out. Once the p a c k e r i s clean, the 1-in. tubing i s removed and the blanking plug i s r u n in and s e a t e d (if the p a c k e r i s to be moved). The p a c k e r c a n then be latched and u n s e a t e d . Before the p a c k e r i s unseated, the sealing plug c a n be pulled and the r e c o r d e r s r e t r i e v e d . Also, both zones c a n be flowed before unseating the p a c k e r . If n e c e s s a r y , the fluid l e v e l below the p a c k e r c a n be checked. Once the p a c k e r i s unseated i t c a n be r a i s e d to the next zone and r e s e t . If, a f t e r p r e s s u r e testing down the casing, the packer s e a l is not holding, it c a n be r e s e t o r pulled out of the hole and r e d r e s s e d , If t h e r e a r e no l e a k s , the p a c k e r c a n be u s e d a s a bridge plug for e a c h t r e a t m e n t without pulling i t to s u r f a c e . By the end of a l l the f r a c t u r e operations the well c a n be put on production by e i t h e r pulling the sealing plug o r unseating the p a c k e r and s t r i p ping i t out of the hole.
2. 2 . 4

Surface F a c i l i t i e s and Operations

One of the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of this multistage f r a c t u r e operation is being able to t r e a t the well without having to kill it a f t e r stimulation. To do this, a l l downhole equipment will e i t h e r need to be snubbed in o r stripped through a rotating head. Because of the speed and e a s e of operation, the u s e of a Shaffer-type rotating head is c o n s i d e r e d the optimum method for handling the subsurface equipment. F i g u r e 16 shows the equipment r e q u i r e d to r u n i n the 2 - 7 / 8 - i n . tubing and p a c k e r a s s e m b l y .
A S e r i e s 2900 (10, 000-psi working p r e s s u r e ) blowout p r e v e n t e r m u s t be used on top o'f the tubing spool head i f a h i g h - p r e s s u r e 6 - 1 / 2 - i n . ID gate valve c a n -

not be p u r c h a s e d .

Either the valve o r the blowout p r e v e n t e r will i s o l a t e the

-39-

n
RUNNING IN WITH PACKER ASSEMBLY TO ISOLATE LOWER INTERVAL FROM INTERVAL TO BE FRACTURED.

GAS S

I

.LAR

n

F i g u r e 14.

Isolation equipment. -40-

F i g u r e 15.

Packer setting diagram.

-41-

I

2; 7'
ROTATING H E A D PLATFORM FOR RUNNING YORKOVER UNIT FOR STRIPPING TUBING I N AND OUT OF HOLE (PUMP JACK LOCATED ON PLATFORM IF R E O U I R E D ) OF RUNNING 27/."-3 TUBING)

TUBING GAS FLOW L I N E

v;'

b

\

HYDRAULIC HYDRIL T Y P E BLOW OUT PREVENTOR ( B L I N D RAMS CAPABLE OF RUNNING 2 ?/a' - 3; '' / TUBING)

BUILT UP RAMP FOR WORK OVER U N I T

I

A
N
I

7': P - 1 1 0 , 3 2 - l b / f t CASING W I T H FLANGES WELDED O N BOTH E N D S . T H I S SECTION IS FOR I N S T A L L I N G AND REMOVING R E T R I E V A B L E 6 '/a" O.D.

7

%' SERIES

2900 (TUBING SPOOL)

.

SERIES 2900 HYDRAULIC HYDRIL TYPE BLOW OUT PREVENTOR ( B L I N D RAMS CAPABLE OF RUNNING 6 '/e" O.D. PACKER) OKED TO FRACTURING MAN1F O L D

HOOKED TO F R A C T U R I N MANIFOLD

3'/e" SERIES 2900
GATE V A L V E S

7

L J

F i g u r e 16.

Hookup to s t r i p p a c k e r and tubing into we11 while flowing gas.

cs

g a s - f i l l e d c a s i n g f r o m the s u r f a c e while installing t h e p a c k e r i n the 7-in. c a s i n g extension below the rotating head. This i s t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r the two blowout p r e v e n t e r s and extension c i t e d i n t h e d i a g r a m . Once t h e p a c k e r i s i n s t a l l e d , t h e l o w e r blowout p r e v e n t e r c a n be opened and t h e p a c k e r lowe r e d into t h e hole. F r o m then on the tubing c a n be r u n through the rotating head and t h e two open blowout p r e v e n t e r s . While running i n o r out, g a s will be f l a r e d out the blooie l i n e and burned. When it is time t o c o m m e n c e a f r a c t u r i n g t r e a t m e n t , t h e s u r f a c e injection manifold i s connected to the two 3 - 1 / 8 - i n . s i d e outlet v a l v e s extending out of t h e tubing spool. T h e 2-7/8-in. tubing is landed i n the tubing spool and t h e two blowout p r e v e n t e r s , o r one valve and one blowout p r e v e n t e r , a r e closed. T h e f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t c a n then. go down the annulus. T h e product i o n tubing w i l l p r o t r u d e f r o m t h e top of the rotating head with a valve on top. When t h e f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t i s completed, the r e t u r n fluids. and g a s c a n e i t h e r be produced out t h e annulus o r t h e tubing. When the c l e a n u p and testing is c o m p l e t e , the blowout p r e v e n t e r s c a n be opened and t h e tubing pulled. While the tubing is i n p l a c e , a l l n o r m a l w i r e l i n e o p e r a t i o n s c a n be run. Also, 1-in. coiled tubing c a n be i n j e c t e d down t h e 2 - 7 / 8 - i n . pipe t o c l e a n out any s a n d produced f r o m the f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t that i s c o v e r i n g the r e t r i e v a b l e b r i d g e plug. The r a m p and p l a t f o r m a r e r e q u i r e d to position the workover unit a n d / o r pump j a c k above the wellhead s o n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s c a n be c a r r i e d out. B e c a u s e of t h e n u m b e r of o p e r a t i o n s to be p e r f o r m e d on t h i s w e l l plus the s h o r t a g e of w o r k o v e r s with s u b s t r u c t u r e s , it is n e c e s s a r y to have a p e r m a n e n t s t r u c t u r e built to handle the e x t r e m e height of t h e r e q u i r e d equipment.
2.2. 5

Method of Handling Tubing During F r a c t u r e T r e a t m e n t a n d IJDon ComDletine the Well f o r P r o d u c t i o n

T h e design of t h e c a s i n g s t r i n g and wellhead i s b a s e d on a m a x i m u m t r e a t i n g p r e s s u r e of 9, 960 p s i which i s the i n t e r n a l yield of 26-lb/ft, P-110, 7 - i n . casing. T h e f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t will be down the c a s i n g annulus between the 2-7/8-in. tubing and 7-in. casing. F i g u r e 17 i n d i c a t e s the s u r f a c e a r r a n g e m e n t f o r t h e tubing, c a s i n g , and wellhead. A f t e r p e r f o r a t i n g a n i n t e r v a l , 2 - 7 / 8 - i n . tubing w i l l be r u n to the top of t h e p e r f o r a t i o n s . T h e tubing w i l l be landed through the top rotating head, H y d r i l type blowout p r e v e n t e r and the bottom blowout p r e v e n t e r o r g a t e valve. A h i g h - p r e s s u r e donut-type tubing l a n d e r will be used. J u s t below t h e donut a heavy 2-7/8-in. c o l l a r with a r u b b e r b l a s t pad w i l l be used. It will be n e c e s s a r y to u s e t h e b l a s t pad and c o l l a r f o r e a c h j o b e v e n though the c r i t i c a l velocity of 45 f t / s e c w i l l not be r e a c h e d u s i n g the two 3-1/8-in. ID s i d e v a l v e s f o r pumping the fluid into t h e annulus. Using nitrogen a t a

Gs
I

-43 -

i

n

n

F i g u r e 17.

Surface equipment.

-44-

concentration of 400 S C F / B B L , e r o s i o n could occur u n l e s s t h e s e preventative s t e p s a r e taken. Each time the tubing i s landed, a r e t r i e v a b l e b a c k - p r e s s u r e valve will be u s e d inside the tubing hanger neck. T h i s i s to p r o t e c t anyone working o v e r the tubing until the p r e s s u r e i s equalized in the wellhead. It a l s o allows the r e m o v a l of the blowout p r e v e n t e r a s s e m b l y a n d / o r gate valves f o r working on the wellhead. If a S e r i e s 2 9 0 0 , 6-3/16-in. ID gate valve c a n be obtained, i t will r e p l a c e the S e r i e s 2900 7-1/16-in. blowout p r e v e n t e r Once the tubing is landed and s e c u r e d with the locking lugs, e i t h e r the blowout p r e v e n t e r o r the gate valve will be closed and the f r a c t u r e fluids will be pumped into the annulus through the 3 - 1 / 8 - i n . ID gate valves. When i t is t i m e to pull the tubing, the lugs a r e r e l e a s e d and the tubing withdrawn through the s u r f a c e blowout p r e v e n t e r a s s e m b l y . When landing the tubing for final production the s a m e p r o c e d u r e will be u s e d except a second s e a l will be placed over the tubing hanger neck. This second s e a l h a s a 7-1/16-in. flange that will connect to the Christmas t r e e .

2.2.6

Fracture Treatment

The following is the p r e l i m i n a r y t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e f o r RB-MHF-3: PARTNO. 1 ( T h i s phase will be completed while the well i s being d r i l l e d . )

1.

After determining that the well is u s a b l e , the pad f o r the f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t should be s t a r t e d . Tankage for condensate and w a t e r should be located and t r a n s p o r t e d to f r a c t u r e pad. The tanks should be completely cleaned. I n s t a l l piping to connect t h r e e - p h a s e s e p a r a t o r with w a t e r and condensate tanks plus f l a r e and cleanup pits. Locate and o r d e r n e c e s s a r y quantities of condensate, sand, c h e m i c a l s , GO2, o r N 2 for f i r s t f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t . T e s t specific condensate f o r emulsion c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the effect of GO2 a n d / o r N 2 on the emulsion. A f t e r obtaining c a r e s , r u n r o c k m e c h a n i c s t e s t s plus fluid sensitivity and flow p r o p e r t i e s .

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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7.

Complete detailed final design of f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t with e x a c t fluid, sand, g a s e o u s p h a s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , and number of p e r f o r ations p e r foot. T r a n s p o r t a l l m a t e r i a l s t o well s i t e in p r e p a r a t i o n f o r first f r a c t u r e t r e atrnent. P i c k f i r s t i n t e r v a l t o p e r f o r a t e and f r a c t u r e .

8.

9.

PARTNO. 2 ( T h i s p h a s e is the a c t u a l completion of the f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s . ) 10. Move in w o r k o v e r , n e c e s s a r y stripping equipment, and blowout p r e v e n t e r s and r i g up. Rig up logging unit t o p e r f o r a t e . Tag bottom of hole, r u n c o l l a r l o c a t o r - g a m a r a y logs. t e m p e r a t u r e log between total depth and 5,000 ft. P e r f o r a t e i n t e r v a l of i n t e r e s t with c a s i n g gun. be used on wellhead a s s e m b l y . Run b a s e

11. 12.

13.

L u b r i c a t o r should

14.

S t r i p tubing into well t o the t o p of the p e r f o r a t i o n s . Tubing should have pump nipple and no-go c o l l a r f o r landing the p r e s s u r e r e c o r d ers. Rig up wellhead manifold t o f r a c t u r e well. Move in and r i g up f r a c t u r e equipment. Move i n C 0 2 o r N2 t r u c k s and r i g up. F r a c t u r e t h e first i n t e r v a l e i t h e r with the 100-ft height o r 2 0 0 - f t height t r e a t m e n t . ( a ) 100-ft height t r e a t m e n t ( b ) 200-ft height t r e a t m e n t

15. 16. 17. 18.

-

See Table 2. See T a b l e 3.

Pumping P r o c e d u r e (NOTE: Maximum s u r f a c e t r e a t i n g p r e s s u r e i s 9 , 9 6 0 p s i minus h y d r o s t a t i c p r e s s u r e a t the lowest p e r f o r ation being treated. )

n

( a ) P u m p pad t o e s t a b l i s h r a t e and breakdown formation.
(b) S t a r t pumping polyemulsion with sand and nitrogen.

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( c ) Continue pumping sand at the concentrations cited i n Table 2 o r Table 3. During the t r e a t m e n t it will be n e c e s s a r y to m e a s u r e the polyemulsion v i s c o s i t y with a F a n n v i s c o m e t e r . This r e q u i r e s the sand t o be e,mptied f r o m the blender ( 1 / 2 minute) and s a n d - f r e e s a m p l e s t o be taken. This should be done f o r e v e r y 15,000-gallon i n t e r v a l until the f l u s h i s s t a r t e d . A l s o pump r a t e s , s a n d concent r a t i o n s , and nitrogen r a t e s should be r e c o r d e d f o r e a c h interval. A continuous p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r ( s t r i p c h a r t with 0 t o 7 , 5 0 0 - p s i r a n g e ) will be connected t o the wellhead t o monitor the fluid injection, p r e s s u r e s , and s h u t - i n - p r e s s u r e while te.mperature logging, and drawdown p r e s s u r e s while flowing the well. T o w a r d s the end of the t r e a t m e n t ( l a s t 15,000 t o 3 0 , 0 0 0 gal. ), i n c r e a s e sand concentrations up to 6 lb/gal. of 20-40 sand. ( d ) P u m p flush (volume of casing to l o w e r p e r f o r a t i o n ) . Inject 1 gal. of d e m u l s i f i e r p e r 1 , 0 0 0 gal. of flush a f t e r pumping f i r s t 1, 000 g a l . of flush. ( e ) Reduce pump r a t e and completely pump out a l l manifolds and s u r f a c e injection l i n e s . ( f ) Shut in well, disconnect f r a c t u r i n g injection l i n e s , and connect w e l l t o production piping while t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y i s being run.

19.
20.

Tag bottom with t e m p e r a t u r e sonde. Run an absolute t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y a c r o s s the f r a c t u r e d interval. Run a s many t r a v e r s e s a s possible within a 2-hour period. Do not k e e p well shut i n f o r m o r e than 2 h o u r s f o r any reason. Open well to flow t o the pit until ,most of flush i s r e c o v e r e d . D i v e r t flow through s e p a r a t o r . Initial r a t e of g a s should not exceed 2 MMSCFD. Run w i r e l i n e s i n k e r b a r t o tag bottom f o r s a n d fill-up. D i v e r t flow t o annulus while running s i n k e r b a r s t o bott0.m. T h i s should be done e v e r y 6 h o u r s o r s o o n e r until sand fill-up i s determined. If sand fill-up i s s m a l l , i n c r e a s e flow r a t e if possible. Do not go o v e r 3 MMSCFD unless it i s c e r t a i n that sand will not be produced out the fracture.

21.

22.

23.

If s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e d r o p s rapidly, indicating downhole fluid buildup, l o w e r tubing t o within 60 f t o r l e s s of t o t a l depth. Use foa,ming agent t o clean hole. If this i s not sufficient, c o n s i d e r swabbing tubing o r installing a pump.
On the s u r f a c e , monitor a l l fluid and g a s production and take s a m p l e s p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r analysis. If well continues t o clean up without any fluid p r o b l e m s , continue

24.

25.

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n
flowing with bottomhole p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r hung i n p e r f o r a t e d tailpipe. 26. Maintain flow f o r a m i n i m u m of 2 weeks u n l e s s a n e x c e s s i v e amount of w a t e r is being produced. T r y to r e c o v e r a s m u c h condensate as p o s s i b l e (50 t o 80 p e r c e n t ) . Shut i n w e l l and m e a s u r e buildup f o r a m i n i m u m of 3 days, then s t a r t next f r a c t u r e zone operation. S t r i p out tubing. S t r i p i n tubing with r e t r i e v a b l e bridge plug with blanking plug s e t i n bottom joint of tubing. P u l l blanking plug a f t e r the tubing is landed and the p a c k e r set. Run two p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r s and s e t off i n landing collar. Set blanking plug i n top of packer. Unlatch tubing off plug. Deplete g a s p r e s s u r e i n casing. Spot heavy g e l on top of bridge plug. Fill hole with pad and p r e s s u r e up c a s i n g and bridge plug to check bridge plug seal. P u l l out tubing. P e r f o r a t e next i n t e r v a l to be f r a c t u r e d with c a s i n g gun. S t r i p i n tubing s t r i n g with blanking plug to above the top p e r f o r a tion. P u l l blanking plug. Repeat Step No. 8, 9, 10, and 16 through 28. Inject l - i n . coiled tubing down t o top of sand and c i r c u l a t e nitrogen down tubing and sand up the annulus. Clean s a n d out until 2-7/8-in. tubing with o v e r s h o t c a n l a t c h on to r e t r i e v a b l e bridge plug. Latch on to bridge plug and r e s e t it above the top perforations. P u l l blanking plug and r e t r i e v e the p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r below bridge plug. Flow combined f r a c t u r e i n t e r v a l s through tubing if required. R e r u n p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r and s e t blanking plug i n top of bridge plug. Unlatch tubing and spot heavy g e l on top of plug. P u l l tubing and p r e p a r e t o p e r f o r a t e .

27.

28. 29.

30.

31. 32. 33.

34. 35.

36. 37.

38.

39.

40.

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0

41. 42.

Repeat Step No. 33 through 41 f o r each i n t e r v a l coming lip the hole.:: A f t e r completing the l a s t f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t and cleaning up the well, s t r i p the bridge plug out of the well and s t r i p i n production s t r i n g t o top of perforations. Run flowing t e m p e r a t u r e survey. Lower tubing t o within 100 f t of t o t a l depth. Land tubing and i n s t a l l wellhead. Run p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r into p e r f o r a t e d tubing. If possible, flow w e l l a t high enough r a t e t o keep the fluids unloaded. P r o d u c e g a s and fluids through a t h r e e - p h a s e s e p a r a t o r . all g a s and fluid volumes. P r o d u c e g a s into pipeline i f possible. S e e l o n g - t e r m production t e s t p r o c e d u r e . ANALYSIS DESIGN Introduction Measure

43. 44. 45. 46.

47. 48. 2.3 2.3.1

T h e evaluation of t h e m a s s i v e hydraulic f r a c t u r i n g e x p e r i m e n t depends upon acquiring two m a j o r components. The f i r s t is the r e s e r v o i r p a r a m e t e r s s u c h a s effective permeability, n e t pay, porosity, w a t e r s a t u r a t i o n and fluid properties. The second i s the f r a c t u r e d e s c r i p t i o n such a s effective f r a c t u r e a r e a , t o t a l f r a c t u r e a r e a , f r a c t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n , and f r a c t u r e height. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e f r a c t u r e and r e s e r v o i r p r o p e r t i e s w i l l ultimately l e a d to the d e s c r i p t i o n and prediction of the w e l l ' s f u t u r e d e l i v e r a b i l i t y o v e r its product i o n l i f e plus d e t e r m i n i n g to w h a t e x t e n t the o b j e c t i v e s of the f r a c t u r e d e s i g n

w e r e achieved. The a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m w i l l r e q u i r e m a n y of the evaluation techniques c u r r e n t l y available. The p r o g r a m i s s u m m a r i z e d as follows: 1. Extensive logs w i l l be r u n o v e r all of the F o r t Union and M e s a v e r d e s e c t i o n s ( s e e p a r a g r a p h 2.1). Detection of possible g a s pay zones w i l l be achieved with a m u d l o g ging unit. Gas and w a t e r flow rates, while d r i l l i n g , w i l l be m e a s u r e d and fluid s a m p l e s taken.

2.

-

3.

:N f r a c t u r i n g operations will b e c a r r i e d out during the w i n t e r m o n t h s (Octo:o b e r to A p r i l ) . R e f e r to p a r a g r a p h 2. 3. 3 . 4 for p r o g r a m f o r this p e r i o d .
-49-

4.

D r i l l stem tests ( s h o r t - t e r m buildup t e s t s ) w i l l be conducted o v e r the f r a c t u r e i n t e r v a l s . C o r e s w i l l be c u t o v e r i n t e r v a l s which r e p r e s e n t the sandstone s e c t i o n s t o be stimulated ( s e e p a r a g r a p h 2. 1). An o r i e n t e d c o r e w i l l be cut i n the bottom of t h e well (approximately 6, 9 2 0 f t t o 6, 980 f t ) . This section w i l l be hydraulically f r a c t u r e d . An i m p r e s s i o n p a c k e r a n d / o r bottom hole t e l e v i e w e r w i l l be r u n to d e t e r m i n e f r a c t u r e orientation. Flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y s w i l l be r u n at the completion of the d r i l l i n g before filling the hole with m u d and after t h e last f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t when all the zones a r e commingled. A b a s e t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y ( i n s i d e the 7-in. c a s i n g ) w i l l be r u n o v e r the t o t a l i n t e r v a l t o be s t i m u l a t e d (5, 6 0 0 f t t o 6 , 880 f t ) before the f i r s t f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t . Following e a c h f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t a m i n i m u m of two t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y s w i l l be r u n o v e r the f r a c t u r e d interval. A f t e r e a c h f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t all flow r a t e s w i l l be m e a s u r e d once t h e w e l l stream i s d i v e r t e d through t h e s e p a r a t o r . P r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r s will be r u n t o obtain the bottom hole p r e s s u r e s . A f t e r the c l e a n up p e r i o d t h e w e l l w i l l be shut i n f o r a buildup t e s t . During the w i n t e r when f r a c t u r i n g t r e a t m e n t s a r e i m p r a c t i c a l t o r u n b e c a u s e of t h e cold weather, a l o n g - t e r m flow t e s t w i l l be conducted with all t h e f r a c t u r e d zones put on production. At t h e end of the f r a c t u r i n g all i n t e r v a l s w i l l be commingled and a l o n g - t e r m production t e s t w i l l be run. P r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r s w i l l be placed below the bridge plug a s s e m b l y ( F i g u r e s 14 and 1 5 ) to d e t e r m i n e i f t h e f r a c t u r e being induced above the bridge plug connects with any of t h e f r a c t u r e s below t h e bridge Plug

5 .

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

-

In the event the d r i l l s t e m tests do not yield t h e r e q u i r e d information, a small f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t will be run through the 7-in. c a s i n g i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t e r v a l i n the M e s a v e r d e and F o r t Union f o r m a t i o n s . T h e s e t e s t s w i l l include a drawdown and buildup of sufficient duration t o d e t e r m i n e the effective flow capacity (millidarcy-feet, kh). If s e v e r e w a t e r production o c c u r s during any of t h e t e s t i n g , plans will be implemented to e i t h e r shut off the w a t e r flow, r e m o v e it by production, o r , a s a last r e s o r t , abandon the well.

-50-

2.3.2

R e s e r v o i r De s c r i p t i o n D e t e r m i n a t i o n P o r o s i t y and W a t e r S a t u r a t i o n

2.3.2. 1

A complete suite of logs will be r u n in the g a s - and mud-filled hole between 5,600 f t and 6,900 ft. The compensated neutron p o r o s i t y , for,mation density compensated, b o r e - h o l e compensated sonic, and t h e dual induction-laterolog 8 logs will be used t o calculate p o r o s i t i e s and w a t e r s a t u r a t i o n s f o r the F o r t Union and M e s a v e r d e f o r m a t i o n s . C o r e s obtained f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t e r v a l s of both the F o r t Union and M e s a v e r d e f o r m a t i o n s will be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e c o r e p o r o s i t i e s , fluid s a t u r a t i o n s , p e r m e a b i l i t i e s , and r o c k p r o p e r t i e s . By using both the c o r e and log d a t a , r e a s o n a b l e values of p o r o s i t y and w a t e r s a t u r a t i o n should be obtained. P r o c e d u r e s i n the d r i l l i n g s e c t i o n outline both p r o g r a m s in detail. Logs and c o r e a n a l y s i s could a l s o be used t o d e t e r m i n e i f the w e l l w a s not suitable f o r the e x p e r i m e n t . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, if t h e air drilling and d r i l l s t e m t e s t s do not encounter g a s through the F o r t Union section, a d e c i s i o n w i l l have t o be m a d e on whether t o continue o r abandon the well. In t h i s c a s e , log and c o r e r e s u l t s will provide the m a i n b a s i s f o r t h i s decision.
2. 3; 2. 2

Net P a y and Effective P e r m e a b i l i t y

Evaluation of the effective p e r m e a b i l i t y r e q u i r e s knowing the net pay a s s o c i a t e d with t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y - net pay product ( k h - m i l l i d a r c y - f e e t ) . Logs and c o r e a n a l y s i s a r e not completely sufficient f o r d e t e r m i n i n g net pays o r effective p e r m e a b i l i t i e s . Drilling t h e F o r t Union and M e s a v e r d e for,mations with a i r allows g a s a n d / o r w a t e r e n t r y points t o be d e t e r m i n e d and t h e flow r a t e s m e a s u r e d . The detection of the g a s will come f r o m using a mud logging s e r v i c e f r o m 5,600 f t t o t o t a l depth. T h i s s e r v i c e w<ll provide a g a s d e t e c t o r and g a s chromatograph. G a s rates will be m e a s u r e d a t t h e s u r f a c e during t r i p s , connections, and whenever n e c e s s a r y . If w a t e r production i s s e v e r e , a s e p a r a t o r will be i n s t a l l e d t o m e a s u r e t h e a c t u a l r a t e s . If p o s sible, t h e g a s e n t r y points will be c o r r e l a t e d with the logs and c o r e s t o esti m a t e net pay. A f t e r t h e air d r i l l i n g is completed, a flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y will be r u n f r o m t o t a l depth t o 5 , 0 0 0 f t t o obtain additional information t o aid i n evaluating the n e t pay. The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r t h e d r i l l stem t e s t i s t o d e t e r m i n e the effective p e r m e a b i l i t y net pay product (kh). If r e a s o n a b l e v a l u e s f o r net pay can be d e t e r m i n e d , effective p e r m e a b i l i t i e s c a n be calculated. Once an i n t e r v a l is f r a c t u r e d , it would be e x t r e m e l y difficult t o d e t e r m i n e kh. Since the f r a c t u r e flow g e o m e t r y i s p r i m a r i l y l i n e a r , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of kh is i m p o s s i b l e until a long flow p e r i o d h a s b e e n achieved and flow changes f r o m l i n e a r t o a different g e o m e t r y , : :

':'This is d i s c u s s e d in g r e a t d e t a i l by A. C. G r i n g a r t e n , e t a l . , in t h e i r p a p e r " P r e s s u r e A n a l y s i s f o r F r a c t u r e d Wells", S. P. E . p r e p r i n t No. 405 1, 1972.
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T h e r e f o r e , a significant effort will be m a d e to r u n d r i l l s t e m t e s t s over the i n t e r v a l s to be stimulated ( F i g u r e 10). Flow data p r i o r to setting the d r i l l s t e m t e s t p a c k e r s will be monitored a t the s u r f a c e using the mud logging s e r v i c e to indicate the initial e n t r y and a c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r to m e a s u r e g a s flow r a t e s a s a function of t i m e and depth. Once the d r i l l s t e m t e s t tools a r e r u n and s e t , the well will be opened f o r another s h o r t flow period and then shut-in for a buildup (24 to 72 h o u r s ) . The length of the buildup will be determined by the length of the afterflow effects, and how long i t t a k e s to obtain sufficient p r e s s u r e data to calculate a value of kh. In the event t h e r e i s too m u c h w a t e r production, formation damage is too s e v e r e , o r the i n t e r v a l s to be t e s t e d a r e too tight o r lack net pay, the scheduled d r i l l s t e m t e s t p r o g r a m will be a l t e r e d . If this o c c u r s , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the actual i n t e r v a l s to t e s t will be m a d e on the b a s i s of s u r f a c e information obtained while drilling through the section. Only sands that indicate a m e a s u r a b l e g a s flow would be t e s t e d . In the event that meaningful d r i l l stem t e s t s cannot be obtained i n the F o r t Union and the M e s a v e r d e f o r m a t i o n s , a n a l t e r n a t e testing p r o g r a m would be r e q u i r e d . The a l t e r n a t e testing p r o g r a m would s e l e c t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t e r v a l i n the F o r t Union and i n the Mesaverde f o r m a t i o n s and conduct a s m a l l f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t on e a c h i n t e r v a l a f t e r t h e 7-in. casing i s landed and cemented. After e a c h f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t the well would be allowed to c l e a n u p and have sufficient flow and buildup s o that the flow g e o m e t r y i s s u c h that the effective kh c a n be calculated f r o m e i t h e r the drawdown o r the buildup t e s t. 2.3.2. 3 Other R e s e r v o i r P a r a m e t e r s

n

It is doubtful that the i n i t i a l r e s e r v o i r p r e s s u r e c a n be obtained f r o m the d r i l l s t e m t e s t s . However, a n attempt will be m a d e t o e s t i m a t e the t o t a l volume of g a s produced while d r i l l i n g and before e a c h buildup. The c u m u lative production m u s t be known with s o m e d e g r e e of c e r t a i n t y so t h a t the buildup c a n be extrapolated to e s t i m a t e the s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . During the shut-in p e r i o d s between f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s the s t a t i c p r e s s u r e will be r e c o r d e d . F r o m this data the m a x i m u m initial r e s e r v o i r p r e s s u r e c a n possibly be extrapolated.
T e m p e r a t u r e a s a function of depth will be m e a s u r e d a n u m b e r of t i m e s a s follows: 1.
2.

Flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y before the hole i s filled with mud. Base t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y inside the 7-in. casing when the hole is filled with the f r a c t u r e pad. Flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y a f t e r all the i n t e r v a l s have been f r a c t u r e d and commingled and placed on production.

3.

F r o m t h i s d a t a the bottom hole formation t e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d . -52-

Y

F l u i d p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as g a s v i s c o s i t y and g a s deviation f a c t o r a s a function of p r e s s u r e w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m c o r r e l a t i o n s b a s e d on t h e g a s c o m p o s i tion. S a m p l e s of t h e g a s and s e p a r a t o r fluid w i l l be c o l l e c t e d and analyzed both while d r i l l i n g ( g a s a n a l y s e s only) and while t e s t i n g a f t e r e a c h f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t and during t h e l o n g - t e r m production t e s t s . D e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s e r v o i r d r a i n a g e s h a p e o r g e o m e t r y p o s s i b l y c a n be e s t i m a t e d f r o m c o m p u t e r m a t c h i n g of l o n g - t e r m production d a t a with c o m p u t e r r e s e r v o i r s i m u l a t o r codes. Bottom hole p r e s s u r e and s u r f a c e flow r a t e s w i l l be r e c o r d e d as a function of t i m e during the production testing. 2.3.3 2.3. 3.1 F r a c t u r e Analysis F r a c t u r e Height

A f t e r e a c h f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t a t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y w i l l be conducted o v e r the i n t e r v a l that h a s j u s t been stimulated. A n u m b e r of t r a v e r s e s w i l l be m a d e i n a n a t t e m p t to d e t e r m i n e t h e f r a c t u r e height a t the w e l l b o r e . P r i o r to running t h e f i r s t f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t a b a s e t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y w i l l be run f o r a m a x i m u m c o m p a r i s o n of the t e m p e r a t u r e anomaly. 2.3.3.2 C r e a t e d F r a c t u r e A r e a and Effective F r a c t u r e A r e a

T h e c r e a t e d f r a c t u r e a r e a f o r e a c h i n t e r v a l w i l l be e s t i m a t e d a f t e r evaluating the a c t u a l t r e a t m e n t f o r e a c h s t a g e . T o t a l v o l u m e s of sand, condensate, w a t e r , a n d c h e m i c a l s will be r e c o r d e d . T r e a t i n g p r e s s u r e a s a function of time will be r e c o r d e d both by t h e s e r v i c e company equipment and by a s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r a t t h e wellhead. V i s c o s i t y of the i n j e c t e d fluid w i l l be m e a s u r e d o v e r t h e e n t i r e t r e a t m e n t a t a p r e d e t e r m i n e d i n t e r v a l . P u m p rates w i l l a l s o be continuously r e c o r d e d . F r o m t h i s volume, r a t e , and o t h e r data t h e c r e a t e d f r a c t u r e a r e a c a n be e s t i m a t e d . The effective f r a c t u r e area (the productive c r o s s s e c t i o n a l s a n d a r e a of the f r a c t u r e ) that o c c u r s i n e a c h i n t e r v a l c a n be e s t i m a t e d f r o m s h o r t - t e r m drawdown o r buildup t e s t s . T h e r e f o r e , after e a c h f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t , t h e w e l l w i l l be i m m e d i a t e l y put on production t o c l e a n up. This flow will be continued f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d ( 2 t o 3 w e e k s ) a f t e r which the w e l l w i l l be s h u t i n f o r a buildup. 2.3. 3.3 F r a c t u r e Orientation

A f t e r r e a c h i n g 6, 900 f t and setting and c e m e n t i n g the 7-in. c a s i n g , a n o r i e n t e d c o r e will be cut f r o m 6, 920 f t t o 6, 980 ft. A r e g u l a r bit will be u s e d to d r i l l out t h e c e m e n t i n t h e 7-in. c a s i n g , plus 20 f t of f o r m a t i o n below the 7-in. c a s i n g t o give enough r o o m to a c c u r a t e l y o r i e n t the c o r e b a r r e l . A small f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t w i l l be conducted between 6 , 900 f t and 6, 980 f t and a bottom hole t e l e v i e w e r will be r u n o v e r t h i s i n t e r v a l to t r y to d e t e r m i n e t h e f r a c t u r e orientation. If t h i s a t t e m p t i s not conclusive, a n i m p r e s s i o n p a c k e r w i l l a l s o be r u n to d e t e r m i n e f r a c t u r e orientation. -53-

2. 3.3.4

A s s e s s m e n t of F r a c t u r e T r e a t m e n t s

The actual a s s e s s m e n t of r e s e r v o i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f r a c t u r e height, and effective flow a r e a c a n be e s t i m a t e d by the s h o r t - t e r m t e s t s and methods previously cited. However, to d e t e r m i n e the r e s e r v o i r geometry, f r a c t u r e length, and to confirm the v a r i o u s f r a c t u r e and r e s e r v o i r p a r a m e t e r s , a l o n g - t e r m production t e s t is scheduled o v e r the w i n t e r period and a f t e r a l l the t r e a t m e n t s a r e completed. Since two t r e a t m e n t s a r e scheduled f o r c o m pletion before winter, the f i r s t l o n g - t e r m t e s t will probably have both of the M e s a v e r d e i n t e r v a l s commingled and producing into a pipeline. At the end of the stimulation phase, a l l of the stimulated zones will be commingled and placed on production. Flow r a t e s of w a t e r condensate and g a s , and bottom p r e s s u r e s , will be m e a s u r e d continuously. Periodic s a m p l e s will be obtained f o r analysis. 2.3.4 2.3.4.1 T e s t P r o g r a m - Drilling P h a s e Gas M e a s u r e m e n t s

Once a i r drilling is s t a r t e d below 5 , 6 0 0 f t (bottom of 10-3/4-in. casing), a
m u d logging u n i t w i l l be on location to detect any g a s i n the w e l l s t r e a m .

Once g a s i s detected, the g a s flow should be m e a s u r e d e i t h e r during a connection on a t r i p o r by shutting off the a i r momentarily. Flow r a t e s will be m e a s u r e d by a c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r connected to a bypass on the blooie line. During connections the g a s flow should be m e a s u r e d . While tripping out, the gas flow should be m e a s u r e d continuously. If i t a p p e a r s that a significant g a s flow is o c c u r r i n g accompanied by s o m e w a t e r , the bypass should be routed through the t h r e e - p h a s e s e p a r a t o r to m e a s u r e both g a s and liquid production.
If s m a l l amounts of w a t e r a r e encountered, the a i r drilling operation c a n continue with the addition of a f o a m e r to the a i r . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the g a s m e a s u r e m e n t p r o g r a m could continue. If a significant amount of w a t e r production o c c u r s , conversion to a mud s y s t e m would probably be r e q u i r e d and the only significant information obtained on the g a s encountered while drilling would be the mud logger output.

2. 3.4. 2

D r i l l Stem Test

If g a s i s being produced during the a i r o r f o a m drilling operation, a s e r i e s of d r i l l s t e m t e s t s will be run. The approximate i n t e r v a l s o v e r which d r i l l s t e m t e s t s will be run a r e displayed i n F i g u r e 10. All d r i l l s t e m t e s t s should be run with double p a c k e r s , j a r s , and two r e c o r d e r s . Each p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r should have a 72-hour clock and a p r e s s u r e e l e m e n t no g r e a t e r than 3,000 psi. Once the p a c k e r s a r e s e t , the tools a r e c l o s e d . The tools should then be opened f o r a 4-hour flow period and then shut i n f o r a 24 to 72 hour buildup.

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When t h e p a c k e r s a r e r e l e a s e d , t h e t e s t i n g tool w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y shut off. Thus, no g a s flow will o c c u r i n the d r i l l pipe while coming out of t h e hole. Gas flow m e a s u r e m e n t s during the 4 - h o u r flow p e r i o d will be m o n i t o r e d by t h e c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r . Gas being p r o d u c e d out the annulus above t h e p a c k e r s w i l l be m e a s u r e d throughout the flow t e s t and buildup. The p a c k e r s should be s e t as c l o s e to t h e i n t e r v a l t o be t e s t e d a s possible. If p a c k e r s e a t i n g cannot be obtained on t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t , a second a t t e m p t with a diff e r e n t p a c k e r s e t t i n g depth should be attempted. If t h i s f a i l s , the d r i l l s t e m t e s t of t h a t i n t e r v a l should be abandoned. 2. 3.4. 3 Flowing T e m p e r a t u r e Survey

A flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y should be r u n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r r e a c h i n g 6, 9 0 0 ft. A d i f f e r e n t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e log w i l l be r u n from 6 , 900 f t to 5, 0 0 0 ft. S u r f a c e flow r a t e s will be continuously m e a s u r e d with a c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r . If t h e r e is n o g a s flow, t h i s log w i l l b e o m m i t e d . 2.3.5 2.3. 5.1 Test Program

-

Fracturing Phase

B a s e T e m p e r a t u r e Survey

P r i o r to p e r f o r a t i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r v a l to be f r a c t u r e d , a t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y will b e r u n i n the 7-in. casing. This t e m p e r a t u r e sonde w i l l be r u n f r o m t o t a l depth to 5, 0 0 0 ft to e s t a b l i s h a n a c c u r a t e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t . 2.3.5.2 Treatment Measurements

P r i o r t o t h e s t a r t of a l l f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s , v o l u m e s of fluids w i l l be m e a s u r e d i n t h e tanks. Sand v o l u m e s w i l l be e s t i m a t e d and c h e m i c a l s f o r the v a r i o u s p h a s e s w i l l be checked. During t h e t r e a t m e n t a w r i t t e n r e c o r d will b e kept of r e m a i n i n g tank v o l u m e s and s a n d q u a n t i t i e s a s a function of t i m e a n d i n j e c t e d volume. A s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r ( 0 to 7 , 5 0 0 - p s i r a n g e ) with a 12 h o u r o r l e s s c l o c k d r i v e w i l l be u s e d to r e c o r d the wellhead p r e s s u r e during t h e t r e a t m e n t , t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e logging, a n d i n i t i a l cleanup. Since the t r e a t m e n t c o m p a n i e s do not have a n a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g of pump r a t e v e r s u s t i m e , e a c h pump t r u c k o p e r a t o r w i l l be p r o v i d e d with a s c h e d u l e t o f i l l out indicating r a t e v e r s u s t i m e f o r h i s t r u c k a s w e l l a s any m a j o r changes i n pump r p m . This will a l s o be done f o r t h e i n j e c t e d fluid density v e r s u s time. A F a n n v i s c o m e t e r will be used t o m e a s u r e t h e v i s c o s i t y of the polye m u l s i o n f o r e v e r y 15, 000 gallons of fluid injected. At t h e end of e a c h t r e a t m e n t , e a c h tank w i l l be checked to d e t e r m i n e t h e r e m a i n i n g v o l u m e s of fluid. Remaining c h e m i c a l s and s a n d w i l l a l s o b e noted.

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2.3.5.3

P r o f i l e Logging

Immediately a f t e r each f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t , t e m p e r a t u r e logging equipment will be r u n into the hole ( l u b r i c a t o r will be rigged up on tubing with sonde ready to run). P r o f i l e s will be r u n f r o m e i t h e r t o t a l depth o r bridge plug depth to 200 f t above the t o p p e r f o r a t i o n . If a profile is not going back to the b a s e line a t 2 0 0 f t above the perforation, t h i s logging i n t e r v a l will be i n c r e a s e d until the profile r e t u r n s to the b a s e t e m p e r a t u r e gradient a s previously logged b e f o r e f r a c t u r i n g . Under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s should the well be shut-in longer than 2 h o u r s after shutdown of injection. 2.3.6 P r e s s u r e M e a s u r e m e n t s Below Bridge Plug

After the first f r a c t u r e stage i s completed, a bridge plug will be s e t to isolate the next stage to be f r a c t u r e d f r o m the lower s t a g e ( s ) . Two A m e r a d a type p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r s , having a p r e s s u r e range of 0 to 7 , 5 0 0 p s i , will be hung below the bridge plug. One r e c o r d e r should have a 72-hour clock and the other should have a 7-day clock. P r i o r to pulling the p a c k e r , t h e s e r e c o r d e r s should be r e t r i e v e d . If a p r e s s u r e r e s p o n s e i s noted, a p r e s s u r e gradient should be r u n t o d e t e r m i n e how m u c h fluid, i f any, i s below the b r i d g e plug. 2.3.7 Cleanup and Buildup T e s t

After the t e m p e r a t u r e profile is completed, the fluids f r o m the well should be vented into the pit. The w a t e r used f o r the flush should be produced until g a s a p p e a r s and the stream c a n be d i v e r t e d to the s e p a r a t o r . Initial flow c a n be f r o m both the tubing and annulus, but once flow i s diverted to the s e p a r a t o r it should only be f r o m the tubing.
A s soon a s possible, e i t h e r a s u r f a c e recording bottom hole p r e s s u r e g a g e o r two A m e r a d a r e c o r d e r s will be r u n into the bottom p e r f o r a t e d joint of tubing. The p r e s s u r e e l e m e n t ( s ) should have a 0 t o 3, 500-psi range. Oil and gas flow r a t e s will be m e a s u r e d e i t h e r by a critical flow p r o v e r o r orifice run. Water and condensate production will be m e t e r e d and m e a s u r e d i n the tanks. Flowing t e m p e r a t u r e s will a l s o be r e c o r d e d and s a m p l e s will be obtained for a n a l y s i s .

The cleanup and drawdown t e s t could l a s t f r o m 1 to 3 weeks, o r m o r e , before the well i s shut-in f o r a buildup. This will depend on the scheduling f o r the next f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t . A m i n i m u m buildup of 2 t o 4 days will be obtained. 2.3.8 F i n a l Flowing T e m p e r a t u r e Survey

The r e t r i e v a b l e bridge plug will be unseated and moved to 5 , 000 ft a f t e r the completion of the l a s t f r a c t u r e sequence ( t r e a t m e n t and testing). An A m e r a d a r e c o r d e r will be r u n t o total depth to d e t e r m i n e the fluid level. If t h e r e i s a l a r g e column of w a t e r above the bottom p e r f o r a t i o n s that cannot be lifted by

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crs

t h e g a s when flowing t h e well, the b r i d g e plug m u s t be c o m p l e t e l y r e m o v e d f r o m t h e w e l l and the tubing r e r u n to 30 f t above t o t a l depth. Using t h e tubing f o r production the w a t e r should be blown out of the w e l l bore. T h e tubing should then be r a i s e d t o 5, 0 0 0 f t and t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e log should be r u n to t o t a l depth with t h e w e l l shut in. The w e l l should be open t o flow a t a r a t e between 2 to 3 MMSCFD and the t e m p e r a t u r e log r u n f r o m total depth to 5 , 000 ft. A l l flow r a t e s should be m e a s u r e d and r e c o r d e d a t the s u r f a c e .
If t h e fluid g r a d i e n t check does not indicate enough w a t e r to h i n d e r the t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y , the t e m p e r a t u r e s u r v e y should p r o c e e d with t h e bridge plug on t h e tubing a t 5, 000 ft. At the completion of the s u r v e y t h e b r i d g e plug c a n be completely r e m o v e d f r o m t h e well,

2.3.9

P r o d u c t i o n Testing P h a s e

T h e r e w i l l be two m a i n production t e s t s . The f i r s t w i l l be a f t e r the l a s t t r e a t m e n t i n the fall and before the f i r s t one i n t h e s p r i n g . It i s e s t i m a t e d that t h i s p e r i o d w i l l c o v e r 5 to 6 months. The second t e s t w i l l be s t a r t e d a f t e r t h e l a s t s t a g e i s c o m p l e t e d and continued to a t l e a s t J a n u a r y 1976. 2.3.10 Winter P r o d u c t i o n T e s t

I

If t h e s e c t i o n of RB-MHF-3 i s s i m i l a r to the one c i t e d i n F i g u r e 10, it is p r o b a b l e t h a t two of the l a r g e r f r a c t u r e d e s i g n s will be c a r r i e d out b e f o r e t h e o n s e t of cold w e a t h e r i n October o r November. This should e n c o m p a s s the M e s a v e r d e s e c t i o n u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r s t i m u l a t i o n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 , 2 4 0 f t t o 6 , 880 f t ) . A f t e r t h e s e c o n d s t a g e i s cleaned up and the flow and buildup t e s t s a r e c o m pleted, t h e b r i d g e plug will be u n s e a t e d and r e m o v e d f r o m the well. The tubing w i l l be r e r u n and landed at a depth of 2 0 t o 30 f t above total depth and t h e r e c o r d e r ( s ) r u n to the p e r f o r a t e d joint at t h e endof the tubing. During any of t h e s t r i p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s (i. e., moving the tubing and removing t h e b r i d g e p l u g s ) , the g a s will be flowed through a t h r e e - p h a s e s e p a r a t o r , m e t e r e d , and f l a r e d . If possible, once t h e tubing is i n place, the g a s w e l l w i l l be flowed into the pipeline ( i f a v a i l a b l e ) a t a r a t e between 2 to 3 MMSCFD. Bottom hole p r e s s u r e s w i l l be obtained a s soon a s it i s p o s s i b l e to r u n a p r e s s u r e recorder. S u r f a c e and bottom hole p r e s s u r e s will be m e a s u r e d during t h e e n t i r e w i n t e r period. Flowing s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s w i l l be r e c o r d e d a n d g a s , w a t e r , and condensate s a m p l e s will be obtained f o r a n a l y s i s . Fluid r a t e s w i l l be obtained o v e r the e n t i r e t e s t . F l u i d g r a d i e n t s will be r u n p e r i o d i c a l l y to d e t e r m i n e i f a fluid c o l u m n has built up i n the bottom of t h e well. One s h o r t buildup ( 2 to 3 d a y s ) w i l l be r u n a f t e r t h e f i r s t month of production and a n o t h e r will be r u n b e f o r e the end of t h e t e s t . T h i s p o s s i b l y w i l l give a n

I

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indication of whether the effective f r a c t u r e flow a r e a i s changing. 2.3. 11 P r o d u c t i o n T e s t (After Completion of L a s t F r a c t u r e )

After the completion of the l a s t f r a c t u r e , cleanup of the i n t e r v a l , and flow and buildup t e s t s , the b r i d g e plug will be s t r i p p e d out of the hole. During t h i s operation the flow r a t e of the g a s will be m e a s u r e d . The tubing will be r e r u n to 2 0 to 30 f t above total depth and landed. This tubing will have a pump nipple s o that a plunger pump c a n be landed i f r e q u i r e d . P r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r ( s ) will be r u n into a p e r f o r a t e d joint at the bottom of the tubing. If p o s s i b l e , the initial flow f r o m the commingled zones will b e s e t at a r a t e of between 2 to 6 MMSCFD. If sand production is a p r o b l e m , the r a t e will be reduced s o t h a t sand t r a n s p o r t into the well b o r e is m i n i m i z e d .
A s in the winter t e s t , all flow r a t e s , p r e s s u r e s , and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n will b e g a t h e r e d on a routine b a s i s . Buildup tests will be r u n p e r i o d i c a l l y throughout this testing sequence to again check on whether the c r e a t e d f r a c t u r e a r e a is changing. This testing sequence is scheduled through J a n u a r y 1976 but could continue beyond that t i m e .
2.3.12

A l t e r n a t e T e s t s to D r i l l S t e m T e s t s

A s indicated p r e v i o u s l y , if the d r i l l s t e m t e s t p r o g r a m d o e s not obtain the information n e c e s s a r y to d e t e r m i n e the m i l l i d a r c y - f e e t kh of the i n t e r v a l s , it is planned to f r a c t u r e i n the F o r t Union and M e s a v e r d e sections. I t would be n e c e s s a r y t o pick a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t e r v a l f r o m e a c h f o r m a t i o n and r u n a small f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t on each. The following is the a l t e r n a t e p r o g r a m ;
1. Select one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sand in the F o r t Union F o r m a t i o n and one in the M e s a v e r d e F o r m a t i o n . This sand should be s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of all information available s u c h as l o g s , gas detection d a t a , drilling b r e a k s , c o r e s , etc. If p o s s i b l e , a sand will be s e l e c t e d that h a s good g a s s a t u r a tion and a r e a s o n a b l e chance for obtaining a drawdown and buildup t e s t to d e t e r m i n e the flow c a p a c i t y , kh.

2.

A gamma r a y - c o l l a r l o c a t o r log would be r u n o v e r the i n t e r v a l s of i n t e r e s t .
The M e s a v e r d e sand would be p e r f o r a t e d with a c a s i n g perforator. A small f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t would be conducted s i m i l a r to the one previously cited in the drilling p r o c e d u r e (Step 40). However, the f r a c t u r i n g fluid would be of the nondamaging type s u c h as polyemulsion, alcohol, etc. Also, nitrogen would be u s e d with the fluid.

3.

4. Tubing ( 2 - 7 / 8 in. ) would be r u n in the hole with a p a c k e r ,

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5.

The well would be cleaned u p through the tubing. A s soon as p o s s i b l e , the g a s will be flowed t o the s e p a r a t o r f o r g a s and liquid r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t .

6. A p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r will be r u n into a p e r f o r a t e d joint of
tubing below the p a c k e r . S u r f a c e and bottom hole p r e s s u r e s will be r e c o r d e d throughout the t e s t .
7.

The drawdown t e s t will be r u n long enough t o obtain a flow g e o m e t r y such that the effective flow capacity (kh) c a n be d e t e r m i n e d . The well will then be s h u t - i n and a buildup will be r e c o r d e d for a s i m i l a r t i m e , i f n e c e s s a r y . The second t r e a t m e n t will be c a r r i e d out on the s e l e c t e d F o r t Union sandstone. Steps 2 through 7 will be followed. Water P r o b l e m s While Drilling and Testing

8.

9.
2.3. 13

If, while d r i l l i n g , t h e r e is a s i z e a b l e influx of w a t e r without enough g a s r a t e t o l i f t the w a t e r , the following p r o c e d u r e will b e followed:
1.

A two- o r t h r e e - p h a s e s e p a r a t o r will be connected t o the pipeline that h a s t h e c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r .
The bit will be r a i s e d 2 t o 5 f t off the bottom and the hole blown c l e a n of cuttings. When the hole i s c l e a n , the a i r - w a t e r s t r e a m will be d i v e r t e d into the s e p a r a t o r long enough for a w a t e r r a t e to b e d e t e r m i n e d .

2.

3.

4 Repeat S t e p s 2 and 3 p e r i o d i c a l l y throughout the r e m a i n i n g .
portion of the air d r i l l e d hole.

If, a f t e r f r a c t u r i n g a n i n t e r v a l , the w a t e r production i s too g r e a t t o b e lifted by the flow of g a s , as many of the following s t e p s as n e c e s s a r y will be taken i n the following o r d e r until the p r o b l e m is solved.
1. Soap o r a foaming agent will be injected so that the w a t e r c a n be lifted by the existing g a s r a t e s o v e r a test period.
2.

A s t r i n g of 3 - 1 / 2 - i n . tubing will be s t r i p p e d into the well and landed below the l o w e r p e r f o r a t i o n s . A 2 - 3 / 8 - i n . OD tubing s t r i n g will be s t r i p p e d into 3-1/2-in. tubing. A pump nipple will be r u n on the bottom of the tubing. This tubing will be landed below the p e r f o r a tions, 10 t o 20 f t l o w e r than the 3 - 1 / 2 - i n . tubing. A plunger pump will be r u n and connected to the pump jack. The well will be flowed through the tubing annulus.

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3.

If the w a t e r production is too s e v e r e , t h e s e i n t e r v a l s will be cemented off completely.

n

If, when all the i n t e r v a l s a r e commingled for the production t e s t ( l o n g - t e r m t e s t a f t e r the last t r e a t m e n t ) , the w a t e r production i n c r e a s e s s u c h that the g a s r a t e will not keep the well unloaded, a dual o r c o n c e n t r i c tubing s t r i n g could be r u n into the hole. A plunger pump would be installed to pump the w a t e r . The o t h e r s t r i n g would be u s e d to flow the g a s and m e a s u r e the bottom hole p r e s s u r e s .

2.3. 14

Equipment N e c e s s a r y for Testing

A two- o r t h r e e - p h a s e portable i n d i r e c t h e a t e r - s e p a r a t o r will be obtained p r i o r t o drilling the 9-7/8-in. hole and move t o the w e l l site. A c r i t i c a l flow p r o v e r and s u r f a c e r e c o r d i n g p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e r e c o r d e r will be u s e d for r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The n e c e s s a r y bottom hole p r e s s u r e gages, h o i s t s , l u b r i c a t o r s , and o t h e r testing equipment will be s e l e c t e d and obtained p r i o r to the testing p e r i o d s . Selection of the downhole p r e s s u r e r e c o r d e r will be b a s e d on reliability and a c c u r a c y of the i n s t r u m e n t f o r the p r e s s u r e changes expected, plus availability of s p a r e p a r t s , e a s e of running, and o v e r a l l cost. A l l p r e s s u r e gages will be p e r i o d i c a l l y r e c a l i b r a t e d with a dead weight t e s t e r .

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3.

SITE INFORMATION

3. 1

SITE LOCATION

The M H F e x p e r i m e n t well is located in S11, T3S, R98W ( F i g u r e 12). F o u r a l t e r n a t e locations w e r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d : S1, T3S, R98W; S22, T3S, R98W; S3, T3S, R98W; S31, T2S, R97W. See Appendix B f o r d e t a i l s on the a l t e r n a t e locations.

3.2
3.2.1

SITE PREPARATION Well A r e a

The well a r e a will be c l e a r e d , graded f o r p r o p e r drainage, and the native m a t e r i a l compacted. Approximately 8 a c r e s of usable s u r f a c e w i l l be provided f o r the placement of the d r i l l i n g and m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g equipment, a s s o c i a t e d components, and the supporting t r a i l e r s . The layout of the a r e a f o r drilling i s shown in F i g u r e 18. The fencing around the r e s e r v e pit will be a t h r e e - s t r a n d b a r b e d w i r e fence. The layout f o r the f r a c t u r i n g is shown i n F i g u r e 19. T h i s equipment is r e q u i r e d only during the v a r i o u s s t a g e s of the m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g t r e a t m e n t and will be removed upon completion. Only that equipment n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l the w e l l ( i f the well i s of c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e ) will r e m a i n and will c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y of the wellhead and production equipment.

W a t e r f o r the operation will be taken f r o m Fawn C r e e k adjacent to the location.
W a s t e d i s p o s a l will be handled as follows:

1.

D r i l l m u d will be b u r i e d and a p p r o p r i a t e revegetation p e r f o r m e d on the d i s t u r b e d area. Produced f r a c t u r i n g w a t e r ( s a l i n e ) will be collected i n a lined pit and r e u s e d on additional f r a c t u r i n g jobs. Upon completion of the p r o j e c t , the composition of the r e s i d u a l w a t e r w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d and r e p o r t e d t o the BLM with recommendations f o r d i s p o s a l (i. e . , s p r a y i n g on r o a d s ) . Disposal will follow BLM stipulations. Sewage collected i n tank-type c h e m i c a l t o i l e t s w i l l be t r a n s ported t o one of the l o c a l municipal s e w e r a g e t r e a t m e n t plants f o r disposal. Solid waste such a s wood, p a p e r , m e t a l , e t c . , will be collected and t r a n s p o r t e d t o one of the municipal dumps f o r disposal.

2.

3.

4.

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F i g u r e 18. Drilling layout.
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F i g u r e 19.

F r a c t u r i n g layout.

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3. 2 . 2

Roads

n

Roads in the g e n e r a l a r e a include Piceance C r e e k , Black Sulphur C r e e k , and Fawn C r e e k r o a d s as well as unimproved r o a d s u s e d by r a n c h e r s during nonwinter months. P i c e a n c e C r e e k Road i s paved f r o m its junction with U.S. Highway 64 ( M e e k e r t o Rangely) on the n o r t h t o Colorado State Highway 789 ( M e e k e r t o R i f l e ) on the e a s t and is maintained by Rio Blanco County. Black Sulphur C r e e k Road i s maintained by the County and h a s r e c e n t l y been paved to the Fawn C r e e k turnoff. Location of exit f r o m the m a i n highway w i l l be a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Black Sulphur C r e e k and F a w n C r e e k Roads. Fawn C r e e k Road is a n improved d i r t r o a d suitable f o r oil field type equipm e n t and only m i n i m a l maintenance work need be p e r f o r m e d .

3.2.3

R e s t o r a t i o n of the A r e a

A t the conclusion of the production testing, the t e m p o r a r y f a c i l i t i e s will be removed and only those items a s s o c i a t e d with a s t a n d a r d completed g a s well will r e m a i n . T h e s e items a r e the well c o l l a r , the well head equipm e n t , fencing, and the deadmen f o r guying of the workover r i g .
The piping, tankage, production equipment, and o t h e r equipment required f o r the production testing of the well will be removed f r o m the s i t e and placed in s t o r a g e , and t r a i l e r w i l l be removed. The r e m a i n i n g a r e a will be r e g r a d e d t o c l o s e l y m a t c h the o r i g i n a l c o n t o u r s and, at the a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e of the y e a r , r e v e g e t a t e d to BLM specifications. Any r e m a i n i n g drilling mud will be sprinkled on the a c c e s s r o a d and the mud pits will be backfilled.

3.3

POWER INSTALLATION AND DISTRIBUTION

C o m m e r c i a l e l e c t r i c a l power is available n e a r the w e l l location.. O n e hundred KVA of 3-phase, 120- t o 208-volt, 60-Hz e l e c t r i c power will be available. It will be n e c e s s a r y t o add a deadman to the existing power line and not m o r e than two power poles, w i r e etc. on the well location to provide c o m m e r c i a l power t o the f a c i l i t i e s . These i t e m s will be removed upon completion of the m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g p r o g r a m . The e l e c t r i c a l distribution panel f o r the MHF well ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) will be equipped with individual safety switches f o r e a c h m a j o r i t e m of equipment

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to allow m a i n t e n a n c e without i n t e r r u p t i n g e l e c t r i c s e r v i c e . S u r f a c e -laid e l e c t r i c c a b l e s w i l l connect e a c h i t e m of equipment o r t r a i l e r to the s a f e t y switch on the e l e c t r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n panel. Where n e c e s s a r y , the e l e c t r i c c a b l e s s h a l l be fenced o r b u r i e d t o p r o t e c t p e r s o n n e l and t o p r o t e c t c a b l e s f r o m v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . Cable r o a d c r o s s i n g s w i l l be through conduits o r c u l v e r t s . The e l e c t r i c power d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m s h a l l have a grounding s y s t e m utilizing grounding r o d s . At the conclusion of the MHF t r e a t m e n t , the s u r f a c e - l a i d e l e c t r i c d i s tribution c a b l e s w i l l be r e m o v e d w i t h t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m s of equipm e n t . The e l e c t r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n p a n e l s w i l l be r e m o v e d upon p r o j e c t completion.

3.4

COMMUNICATIONS

The p r i n c i p a l telephone and r a d i o communication f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p r o j e c t w i l l be located i n Grand Junction w h e r e t h e CER m i c r o w a v e telephone s y s t e m i n t e r c o n n e c t s with the Mountain B e l l telephone s y s t e m . Microwave communication equipment w i l l be utilized f o r both the telephone and the VHF duplex r a d i o net. Microwave telephone r e l a y s t a t i o n s w i l l be located a t Lands End and Monument P e a k with t e r m i n a l equipment i n the CER communications shed a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 / 2 mile w e s t of the P r o j e c t R i o Blanco e m p l a c e m e n t well. T w o - p a i r s i g n a l cable w i l l be laid on the west s i d e of the F a w n C r e e k a c c e s s r o a d f r o m the well s i t e tr, the existing s i g n a l c a b l e t e r m i n a l located in the NW 1 / 4 , NW 1 / 4 , S14, T3S, R98W. The CER telephone s y s t e m at the MHF s i t e o p e r a t e s o v e r a m i c r o w a v e link as a d i r e c t dialing extension of the G r a n d Junction telephone exchange of the Mountain B e l l telephone s y s t e m . F o u r telephone l i n e s w i l l o r i g i n a t e i n the Grand Junction telephone exchange. Two of the telephone l i n e s w i l l t e r m i n a t e at the MHF s i t e and the o t h e r two telephone l i n e s w i l l be r e tained f o r u s e on the P r o j e c t Rio Blanco location. Individua1,telephone n u m b e r s w i l l be a s s i g n e d t o e a c h of the f o u r telephone l i n e s f r o m the Grand Junction telephone office. A telephone d i r e c t o r y of telephone n u m b e r s and r e s p e c t i v e locations and o r g a n i z a t i o n s will be published. Upon completion of the p r o j e c t , the telephone cable will be r e m o v e d in i t s entirety. A r a d i o r e l a y station is located at Monument P e a k t o provide adequate r a d i o c o v e r a g e to mobile and fixed s t a t i o n s i n the P i c e a n c e C r e e k Basin.

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A l i m i t e d n u m b e r of mobile r a d i o s w i l l be f u r n i s h e d a t c o s t by CER f o r u s e by t h o s e p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t l y involved with f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s during t h e experiment.
In t h e event of c o m m e r c i a l power f a i l u r e , the m i c r o w a v e telephone s y s t e m and V H F r a d i o r e p e a t e r and c o n t r o l s t a t i o n . w i l l continue to o p e r a t e on b a t t e r y power f o r a m i n i m u m of 8 hours. F r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e C E R VHF r a d i o net a r e : Repeater Repeater Transmit Receive 153.350 MHz 158.370 MHz

T r a n s m i t f r e q u e n c i e s f o r the m i c r o w a v e s y s t e m a r e as follows: G r a n d Junction t o Lands End Lands End t o Monument P e a k Monument P e a k t o E W E W to Monument P e a k Monument P e a k t o Lands End Lands End to G r a n d Junction 956.700 953.500 956.900 953.300 957.100 953.100 MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz

F i g u r e 2 1 d i a g r a m s the m i c r o w a v e , telephone, and r a d i o s y s t e m . 3. 5 3. 5.1 INDUSTRIAL HEALTH AND SAFElTY General

C E R o p e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be conducted i n a c c o r d a n c e with t h e s t a n d a r d s of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. All p a r t i cipating organizations a r e responsible f o r t h e health and s a f e t y of t h e i r own p e r s o n n e l and f o r conducting all a c t i v i t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e with procedures that a s s u r e : 1.
2.

A s a f e a n d healthful e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e i r employees. Control and m i n i m i z a t i o n of h a z a r d s t o t h e public and t o p e r s o n n e l of o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . Minimization of t h e a c c i d e n t a l d a m a g e o r l o s s of company and privately owned equipment, m a t e r i a l s , and property.

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3.5.2

First Aid

CER will provide e a c h participating agency contacts with l o c a l m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and physicians i n the Grand Junction, Rifle, and M e e k e r a r e a s f o r u s e i n the event of accident o r i l l n e s s . CER will a r r a n g e f o r suitable f i r s t a i d supplies as r e c o m m e n d e d by a l o c a l physician. 3.5.3
Fire P r o t e c t i o n

Hand-operated f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r s will be provided a t the well location a t points convenient to e a c h significant s t r u c t u r e o r piece of equipment. Extinguisher types will be supplied f o r control of C l a s s A , B o r C f i r e s , a s appropriate. 3.5.4 I n d u s t r i a l Hygiene

Potable w a t e r and c h e m i c a l o r s t a n d a r d toilets will be provided. The c h e m i c a l toilets will be s e r v i c e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Solid w a s t e s will be disposed of i n a c c o r d a n c e with l o c a l regulations and in a m a n n e r to avoid c r e a t i o n of a h a z a r d to health, i n s e c t o r rodent h a r b o r a g e , o r environmental pollution. A l i m i t e d n u m b e r of office t r a i l e r s a t the well location will be connected to a nonpotable w a t e r s o u r c e and sewage s y s t e m involving a s e p t i c tank. T h i s will be in accordance with Rio Blanco County Planning Directive.

3.6
3.6.1

MISCELLANEOUS SUPPORT Labor

Due to the r e m o t e location of the p r o j e c t and the low l e v e l of i n d u s t r i a l ization in the a r e a , the n u m b e r o skilled workmen available i s limited. f Work will be planned accordingly, and i f a r e q u i r e m e n t e x i s t s f o r a s p e c i a l skilled w o r k e r not available i n w e s t e r n Colorado, sufficient t i m e m u s t be allowed for obtaining one f r o m another l a b o r m a r k e t . 3.6.2 Office Space

Minimal office s p a c e , occasionally a s s o c i a t e d with living q u a r t e r s , will b e provided at the well location a s indicated below: Organization AEC/BuMines:k Type T r a i l e r Office Office Office Approximate Size (ft. )
10 x 5 0 10 x 40 8 x 40

CER
R EEC 0 : :
k :

Drilling Operations Only.

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A copy machine will be available.

G

3.6. 3

Miscellaneous P u r c h a s e of M a t e r i a l s

The r e m o t e n e s s of the p r o j e c t r e s t r i c t s the quantity and type of supplies and m a t e r i a l s available f o r p u r c h a s e and quick delivery. T h e r e f o r e , leadtime b e c o m e s v e r y i m p o r t a n t and since the l a c k of a m i n o r i t e m c a n c a u s e l o s t time, it i s i m p e r a t i v e that even m i n o r i t e m s be c o n s i d e r e d i n planning purchasing r e q u i r e m e n t s . Each p r o j e c t participant a l s o should bring adequate s p a r e p a r t s f o r possible r e p l a c e m e n t while i n the field.

3.6.4

F u e l and Lubricating Oil

Limited e m e r g e n c y fuel and lubricating oil supplies f o r vehicles and equipment will be available a t the well.

3.6. 5

War ehous inq

N o enclosed s t o r a g e will be available at the w e l l .

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4. PROPOSAL FOR GAS UTILIZATION PROGRAM
The evaluation p r o g r a m of the e x p e r i m e n t f o r e s e e s a t l e a s t 15 months of production testing. During that t i m e about $200, 000 worth of g a s m a y be produced, a n amount important enough to avoid wasting by flaring. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s intended to r e p a y the financial contributions of the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the e x p e r i m e n t out of the s a l e of gas eventually produced f r o m the stimulated we 11. Discussions with v a r i o u s companies indicate i t would be possible to conclude a s a t i s f a c t o r y g a s s a l e s a g r e e m e n t for the gas produced by the p r o j e c t well. It s e e m s advisable, t h e r e f o r e , to link the well with a n available pipeline during the testing stage of the p r o j e c t i f a reasonable c o n t r a c t c a n be m a d e for the g a s s a l e . S e v e r a l g a s pipelines a r e located i n the vicinity of the p r o j e c t well ( F i g u r e 2 2 ) The n e a r e s t one c a n be r e a c h e d by about 5 $ m i l e s , o f connecting line j u s t n o r t h of the p r o j e c t well. This pipeline, with a d i a m e t e r of 4 inches, i s owned by W e s t e r n Slopes Gas Company. According to Rocky Mountain N a t u r a l Gas Company, p a r t of t h i s W e s t e r n Slopes line will be duplicated by them i n the n e a r future using 4-inch pipe to the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Black Sulphur and P i c e a n c e C r e e k s and 6-inch pipe f r o m that point to the C a s c a d e C o m p r e s s o r Station lqcated i n TZS, R 9 5 W , S29. J u s t n o r t h of this Western Slope line, a 14-inch d i a m e t e r pipeline owned by C a s c a d e N a t u r a l Gas Company connects the Basin with m a r k e t s in Utah. To connect the project well to this line would take about 8 m i l e s of connecting line to r e a c h the point w h e r e i t c r o s s e s the Piceance C r e e k valley. A t that point a 6-inch d i a m e t e r line, owned by Rocky Moyntain N a t u r a l G a s , connects the C a s c a d e line to the town of C r a i g . North West Pipeline C o r p o r a t i o n h a s a gathering and c o m p r e s s o r plant in TZS, R 9 6 W , S5, located about 1 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of the p r o j e c t well. This 1 station would give a c c e s s to the 26-inch pipeline owned by the s a m e company and leading to m a r k e t s i n Oregon and Washington. T h i s 26-inch pipeline and a 6-inch W e s t e r n Slopes pipeline a r e located approximately 19 a i r m i l e s w e s t of the p r o j e c t well. Rocky Mountain N a t u r a l G a s plans to c o n s t r u c t a gathering s y s t e m to connect wells in the E a s t Douglas C r e e k a r e a with the 26-inch line. To r e a c h t h e s e pipelines u p to about 30 m i l e s of pipeline m a y be needed b e c a u s e of the topography.

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5.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM

T o provide d a t a f o r c o m p a r i s o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s p e c t s of t h e m a s s i v e h y d r a u l i c and n u c l e a r explosive f r a c t u r i n g techniques f o r s t i m u l a t i o n of g a s production, s o m e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r a m e t e r s will be m o n i t o r e d o r documented. T h e s e w i l l include the s e i s m i c i t y of the i m m e d i a t e a r e a , radioactivity i n t h e g a s produced, t h e l o c a l w a t e r quality, and the d i s t u r b a n c e of the land and the effectiveness of revegetation. T h e s e d a t a will c o m p l e t e the a c q u i s i tion of i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y to a s s e s s the r e l a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t of t h e two techniques recognized as t h e only o n e s having potential f o r r e c o v e r y of g a s f r o m r e l a t i v e l y i m p e r m e a b l e gas s a n d s i n thick f o r m a t i o n s . 5.1 SEISMICITY

It i s known t h a t t h e injection of l a r g e a m o u n t s of fluids into s u b s u r f a c e f o r m a t i o n s c a n t r i g g e r movements on f a u l t s and g e n e r a t e earthquakes. The fluid v o l u m e s involved i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a r e not a s l a r g e a s a r e involved i n t h e w a t e r flood of t h e Rangely f i e l d o r the injection of w a s t e d i s p o s a l a t t h e Rocky Mountain A r s e n a l , both of which have been c o r r e l a t e d with e a r t h q u a k e s . In addition, t h e injection p e r i o d s will be r e l a t i v e l y brief. However, i t seems prudent to expend s o m e effort t o m o n i t o r f o r any change i n s e i s m i c i t y which m i g h t be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the M H F operations.

A s e m i - h i g h - g a i n s e i s m i c s t a t i o n w i l l b e a c t i v a t e d i n a quiet location, p r e f e r a b l y at the location e s t a b l i s h e d f o r P r o j e c t Rio Blanco about 1 / 4 mile n o r t h of t h e Equity c a m p on Black Sulphur C r e e k . S h e l t e r , m a n p o w e r , and e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r a r e available at the camp. Standby b a t t e r y power will be available t o a s s u r e continuous operation. The s t a t i o n w i l l have the c a p a c i t y of detecting but not locating e a r t h q u a k e s of magnitude z e r o o r g r e a t e r to a r a d i u s of at least 20 km. The p r e f e r r e d location is about 6 k m f r o m t h e MHF well. P a p e r r e c o r d i n g will be u s e d with daily p a p e r changes. P a p e r r e c o r d s will be i n s p e c t e d weekly f o r any evidence of seismic activity.
The s t a t i o n w i l l be a c t i v a t e d about 1 m o n t h p r i o r t o f r a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s and will r e c o r d continuously f o r a p e r i o d of 12 m o n t h s , o r 3 to 4 m o n t h s a f t e r t h e scheduled end of f r a c t u r i n g operations. 5.2 RADIOACTIVITY IN W E L L PRODUCTS

It is tentatively planned to sample t h e produced g a s at i n t e r v a l s t o provide d a t a on t h e concentration of n a t u r a l radon-222 f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . T h e r e i s s o m e unverified potential that the l a r g e void v o l u m e s c r e a t e d i n a n u c l e a r chimney provide a "holding tank" which would r e s u l t i n reduction of t h e l e v e l s of n a t u r a l radon-222 activity (half-life, 3 . 8 d a y s ) i n the g a s when

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the g a s is produced f r o m the well. It is conceivable t h a t t h i s could be a trade-off a g a i n s t addition of artificial radioactivity to t h e g a s by the u s e of n u c l e a r explosives. F e w radon-222 d a t a a r e available f r o m the Rulison and Gasbuggy p r o j e c t s . However, g a s s a m p l e s f r o m the P r o j e c t Rio Blanco t e s t i n g a r e being r e g u l a r l y analyzed f o r radon-222, although much of the data is not yet available. It m a y be p o s s i b l e t o conclude f r o m the Rio Blanco a n a l y s e s w h e t h e r o r not the effect of radon-222 reduction exists. If t h i s is not p o s s i b l e , it is planned t o provide c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a by taking s a m p l e s f o r radon-222 a n a l y s i s at t h e following i n t e r v a l s . In a n y event, adequate c h e m i c a l and r a d i o c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s will be m a d e on g a s s a m p l e s taken after e a c h fracture treatment. 5.2.1 Long-Term Production T e s t

F o r the l o n g - t e r m production test of the combined f r a c t u r e zones, duplicate s'amples of produced g a s will be t a k e n at plus 1 day and monthly thereafter until the conclusion of t h e test. The gas s a m p l e s w i l l be analyzed f o r radon222. 5.2.2 S o u r c e s of L a b o r a t o r y Work

C o m m e r c i a l l a b o r a t o r i e s offering the d e s i r e d a n a l y s i s s e r v i c e s w i l l be used, provided t h a t they have i n t e r c a l i b r a t e d with the National B u r e a u of S t a n d a r d s (NBS) o r with o t h e r l a b o r a t o r i e s t r a c e a b l e to NBS. 5.3 WATER QUALITY

T h e r e is s o m e potential f o r leakage of s a l i n e fluids into Fawn C r e e k a d j a c e n t to t h e w e l l pad, which s u g g e s t s a m o d e s t p r o g r a m of s a m p l i n g t h e c r e e k w a t e r flow. Accordingly, a fixed s a m p l i n g point will be s e l e c t e d a t a conveniently a c c e s s i b l e location both up- and d o w n s t r e a m p r i o r to, and during, the drilling activities. Subsequently, s a m p l i n g will be r e p e a t e d once within 2 to 3 days after e a c h f r a c t u r e operation. S a m p l e s w i l l b e analyzed f o r e l e c t r i c a l conductivity and f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l c h e m i c a l constituents with e m p h a s i s on t h o s e u s e d i n t h e f r a c t u r i n g fluids. S a m p l e s will be analyzed i n a G r a n d Junction l a b o r a t o r y and the r e s u l t s s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e F i n a l Report. 5.4 DISTURBANCE O F LAND AND EFFECTIVENESS O F REVEGETATION

Substantial e x p e r i e n c e in documenting and manipulating t h e vegetation i n the P i c e a n c e B a s i n is i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y documents of t h e B u r e a u of Land Management (BLM). :k In p a r t i c u l a r , the s u c c e s s i o n a l development of plant c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e area is definable f r o m t h e BLM e x p e r i e n c e i n development of g r a z i n g areas and by i n f e r e n c e f r o m inspection of abandoned p a s t u r e land. ::For d e s c r i p t i o n of vegetation r e l e v a n t t o p r o p o s e d site, see K. J. S c h i a g e r , et al, Biological/Ecological Considerations, P r o j e c t Rio Blanco, d a t e d July 1971. - 74-

It is planned that m a n a g e m e n t of top s o i l , c l e a r i n g of vegetation, and r e s e e d ing w i l l be done according t o t h e specifications of the BLM. The effectiveness of t h e revegetation can b e s t be evaluated by inspection and a p p r o x i m a t e measu r e m e n t of t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a after completion of t h e f r a c t u r i n g operations and by inspection at the end of the f i r s t a n d second full growing s e a s o n s after s e e d ing.

5. 5

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS O F ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS O F M H F AND NUCLEAR STIMULATION

A s a portion of t h e o v e r a l l c o m p a r i s o n of t h e M H F techniques with the Rio Blanco n u c l e a r stimulation experiment, the environmental a s p e c t s will be evaluated relatively. Consideration w i l l be given not only t o the environm e n t a l parameters m o n i t o r e d f o r the M H F p r o j e c t but a l s o t o available data on a i r and w a t e r quality, quality of t h e produced g a s i n a radiological s e n s e , site population, d i s t u r b a n c e of the l o c a l population, d i s t u r b a n c e of vegetation, d i s r u p t i o n of wildlife, and seismic effects. P o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n w e l l s p a c i n g s t o develop t h e f i e l d would be c o n s i d e r e d in attempting t o quantify the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o s t s .

I

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6.
6.1

DELIVERABILITY ASSESSMENT

DATA FROM R B - M H F - 3

The o v e r a l l design f o r this MHF experiment e n d e a v o r s to provide i n f o r m a tion on two i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s affecting deliverability; the r e s e r v o i r p a r a m e t e r s and the f r a c t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The information will be obtained f r o m a number of s o u r c e s ; i. e . , geophysical l o g s , mud logs and g a s flow r a t e s while drilling, c o r e a n a l y s e s , d r i l l s t e m t e s t s r e s u l t s , f r a c t u r i n g data, i m p r e s s i o n p a c k e r /borehole TV, and production information. The data gathering p r o g r a m will be initiated during the drilling operations and will continue through the final testing phase. This data acquisition p r o g r a m was p r e s e n t e d i n detail in Section 2.

6.2

DELIVERABILITY ASSESSMENT C ALC ULA TIONS

The information obtained f r o m the drilling completion, logging, and e a c h of the individual f r a c t u r e t r e a t m e n t s should provide the b a s i s f o r a n e s t i m a t e of the r e s e r v o i r and f r a c t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the zone and a n initial e s t i m a t e of the z o n e ' s deliverability. The e s t i m a t e s c a n be m a d e by matching the flow r a t e - p r e s s u r e behavior of the zone with calculated f r a c t u r e and r e s e r v o i r p r o p e r t i e s . The matching p r o c e s s should r e s u l t i n a mutually c o n s i s t e n t picture of the permeability and sand c r o s s sectional a r e a (kA) i n t e r s e c t e d by the propped portion of the f r a c t u r e . The technical evaluation of the individual zone f r a c t u r e p e r f o r m a n c e and the calculations of k A will be m a d e by the P r o j e c t M a n a g e r ' s technical staff and reviewed by the Advisory C o m m i t t e e . The evaluation of e a c h of the zones will be s u m m a r i z e d i n a n individual zone f r a c t u r e - p r o d u c t i o n r e p o r t which will be i s s u e d a t the end of e a c h stage. A final s u m m a r y f r a c t u r e production r e p o r t will be i s s u e d within 180 days of the completion of the f r a c t u r e and cleanup of the l a s t zone. The final f r a c t u r e - p r o d u c t i o n r e p o r t will include a s u m m a r y of the f r a c t u r e c o s t information. T h e s e r e p o r t s will be p r e p a r e d by the P r o j e c t M a n a g e r ' s technical staff and reviewed by the Advisory Committee. After the completion of the individual zone f r a c t u r i n g , the well will undergo l o n g - t e r m testing with a l l zones producing. The l o n g - t e r m productionp r e s s u r e d a t a f r o m the combined zone testing will be m a t c h e d with the kA and f r a c t u r e g e o m e t r y information. An initial calculated r e s e r v o i r continuity f a c t o r will be obtained a s a n output f r o m this matching p r o c e s s and a n initial e s t i m a t e of l o n g - t e r m deliverability will be developed f r o m the matching. The deliverability e s t i m a t e will be c o m p a r e d with the calculated r e s e r v o i r p r o p e r t i e s and f r a c t u r e g e o m e t r y to develop f r a c t u r e efficiency information. The deliverability a s s e s s m e n t will be p r e p a r e d by the P r o j e c t M a n a g e r ' s

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technical staff and reviewed by the Advisory Committee. This information a s well a s a final c o s t s u m m a r y will be included in the final p r o j e c t s u m m a r y r e p o r t which will be i s s u e d within 180 days of the completion of the project.

6. 3

COMPARISON WITH RIO BLANC0 NUCLEAR WELL

The MHF deliverability and c o s t a s s e s s m e n t will be c o m p a r e d with equivalent deliverability and c o s t a s s e s s m e n t data f r o m the Rio Blanco n u c l e a r project i f the l a t t e r data a r e available. Definitive n u c l e a r f r a c t u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e data was not obtained f r o m the initial Rio Blanco r e e n t r y well. An addition r e e n t r y well is to b e d r i l l e d in the s a m e t i m e period a s RB-MHF-3. The drilling p r o g r a m c o n s i s t s of drilling into the f r a c t u r e d region, and cavity i f possible, c r e a t e d by the middle explosive of the three-explosive experiment. This well should yield additional information about the f r a c t u r e extent and r e s e r v o i r flow capacity (kh). If the g a s delivery and n u c l e a r f r a c t u r i n g c o s t information f r o m the Rio Blanco n u c l e a r e x p e r i m e n t is available p r i o r to the completion of the M.HF e x p e r i m e n t , the n u c l e a r f r a c t u r e - MHF f r a c t u r e d e l i v e r ability and c o s t c o m p a r i s o n will be p r e p a r e d by the P r o j e c t M a n a g e r ' s technical staff and reviewed by the Advisory Committee. This information would be s u m m a r i z e d in the final P r o j e c t S u m m a r y R e p o r t .

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7.
7.1

P R O J E C T ADMINISTRATION

MANAGEMENT

The P r o j e c t Manager ( C E R ) i s responsible f o r managing and implementing a l l the p r o j e c t a c t i v i t i e s and p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e d by the P r o j e c t Definition and the recommendations of the Advisory Committee. An Advisory Committee will be established consisting of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of e a c h indust r i a l participant plus f o u r f r o m the Government, two f r o m the AEC, and two f r o m the Bureau of Mines. The m e m b e r s of the Advisory Committee will be kept informed on all a c t i v i t i e s and, a s a p p r o p r i a t e , meetings will be called e i t h e r by the P r o j e c t Manager o r a t the r e q u e s t of t h r e e o r m o r e m e m b e r s . The P r o j e c t Manager will provide the C h a i r m a n to the Advisory Committee and the S e c r e t a r y who will be r e s p o n s i b l e for keeping a r e c o r d of all actions and decisions of that Committee. Two s m a l l working subc o m m i t t e e s , one f o r the f r a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s and the other for a n a l y s i s , will be established to provide technical advice to the P r o j e c t M a n a g e r . The P r o j e c t Manager will provide a P r o j e c t Engineer who will work c l o s e l y with e a c h of these subcommittees and be r e s p o n s i b l e for c a r r y i n g out the technical and field a c t i v i t i e s identified i n the MHF P r o j e c t Definition o r r e c o m m e n d e d by the Advisory C o m m i t t e e .

7. 2

PUBLIC INFORMATION

CER will d r a f t a l l public information announcements, upon its own initiative o r a s m a y be suggested and a g r e e d upon by the p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s ; plan and conduct v i s i t s to the s i t e f o r individuals, newsmen, public officials, and other i n t e r e s t e d groups and individuals; and plan and conduct b r i e f i n g s and m e e t i n g s a s m a y be n e c e s s a r y and a g r e e d upon by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . C E R w i l l coordinate i n f o r m a t i o n actions with the AEC through the N e v a d a O p e r a t i o n s O f f i c e j O f f i c e of Information S e r v i c e s and other p r o j e c t p a r t i c i pants as a p p r o p r i a t e .

A l l information actions taken by CER will be coordinated in advance with those participants who wish to be involved except w h e r e t i m e does not p e r m i t s u c h coordination. 7. 3
REPORTS

i3

It is intended t h a t a l l technical information utilized i n o r developed i n connection with the p r o j e c t will be available to the public. This d a t a will e n c o m p a s s r e p o r t s , r e c o r d s , logs and other information generated by the project. The P r o j e c t Manager will provide information, data, and technical r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y to the i n d u s t r i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s and, at the s a m e time, to the Government, The Government will be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making this information available to the g e n e r a l public through i t s open file s y s t e m .

-79-

The publications c a n be purchased a t the following locations: U. S. Atomic Energy C o m m i s s i o n Technical Information C e n t e r P o s t Office Box 6 2 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (Check should be payable to M i c r o s u r a n c e , Inc. ) National Technic a1 Infor mation Service U. S. Department of C o m m e r c e Springfield, VA 2 2 15 1

The publications will a l s o b e available f o r public inspection in full s i z e copy a t the following locations: U. S. Bureau of Mines B a r tle sville P e t r o l e u m Re s e a r c h Center Virginia and Cudahy S t r e e t s B a r t l e s v i l l e , OK 74003

U. S. Atomic Energy C o m m i s s i o n Nevada Operations Office 2753 South Highland Drive L a s Vegas, NV 89102

U.S. Bureau of Mines Office of M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e Evaluation L i b r a r y , Bldg 20 Denver F e d e r a l C e n t e r Denver, CO 80225

.

In addition to the collection of b a s i c data such a s l o g s , c o r e a n a l y s i s and c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s , two types of r e p o r t s will be g e n e r a t e d , Those p r e p a r e d f o r routine operating p u r p o s e s and informing v a r i o u s m e m b e r s of the Advisory C o m m i t t e e , and f o r m a l r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d f o r g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u tion. 7.3.1 Operating R e p o r t s

The P r o j e c t Manager s h a l l be responsible, with the a s s i s t a n c e of the p a r t i c ipants, f o r gathering, a s s e s s i n g , and compiling information and data f r o m i t s staff, the p a r t i c i p a n t s , the Government, and all o t h e r p e r s o n s involved i n the p r o j e c t and the r e p o r t i n g and publishing of such d a t a and information a s m a y b e a p p r o p r i a t e , including: 1. 2. 3.
4.

Minutes of the meetings of the Advisory Committee Daily drilling r e p o r t s Biweekly p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s Monthly p r o j e c t c o s t information F r a c t u r e production s u m m a r y r e p o r t s

5.

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7.3.2

F o r m a l Report

One f o r m a l r e p o r t i s c u r r e n t l y anticipated. This final r e p o r t will be a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o j e c t r e p o r t p r e p a r e d a t the conclusion of the p r o j e c t . I t will include a s t a t e d breakdown of a l l the c o s t s and e x p e n s e s of the p r o j e c t and a s u m m a r y of the o v e r a l l a s p e c t s of the p r o j e c t including r e c o m m e n d a tions on f u t u r e c o u r s e s of action. I t will include a r e v i e w of a l l a s p e c t s of the MHF e x p e r i m e n t i n d e t a i l s o that the environmental, d e l i v e r a b i l i t y , and economic f a c t o r s m a y be c o m p a r e d with the Rio Blanco n u c l e a r stimulation expe r i m e n t

.

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8. 8.1 COSTS

COSTS AND SCHEDULING

.

The M H F e x p e r i m e n t h a s been designed by a g r o u p of e x p e r t s t o gain the m o s t information p r a c t i c a b l e f r o m a s e r i e s of individual f r a c t u r e s . To do this r e q u i r e s extensive c o r i n g , logging, and testing to delineate the r e s e r v o i r and the a c t u a l f r a c t u r e s m a y well be t a i l o r e d as a r e s u l t of the preceding operations. T h i s s e t of c r i t e r i a m a k e s p r e c i s e costing difficult and, t h e r e f o r e , the Review C o m m i t t e e reviewed the initial plans and reduced t h e i r scope. The r e s u l t i s a n e s t i m a t e of $1.4 million f o r the f r a c t u r e phase of the e x p e r i m e n t to be paid by i n d u s t r y and $975, 000 f o r the P r o j e c t Definition, organization, drilling, and p r e p a r a t i o n of the hole. This expense is to be borne by the Government. C E R h a s a dual r o l e i n that i t s p e r s o n n e l will p e r f o r m c e r t a i n p a r t s of the work a s well as being P r o j e c t Manager f o r the experiment. It will be compensated by way of a fixed fee. In the following c o s t e s t i m a t e s , C E R p e r s o n n e l ' s t i m e was e s t i m a t e d (and will be c o s t e d ) without profit in as m u c h a s the fixed fee i s s e p a r a t e l y identified. E s t i m a t e d c o s t s of the MHF work to be funded by the Government.

1. C o n t r a c t AT(26-1)-623 Phase I
P h a s e I1 2. Drilling and p r e p a r a t i o n of hole Contingency
Total

$85,557 127,467

721, 083
40, 893

$975,000

E s t i m a t e d c o s t s of the MHF work to be funded by industry. Four Fracture Treatments Condensate f o r four t r e a t m e n t s ( b a s e d on 5070 m a k e u p a f t e r e a c h job) Fracture Tankage r e n t a l and t r a n s p o r t Pe r f o r ating Workover Downhole equipment Surface equipment Nitrogen s e r v i c e and coiled l - i n . tubing P u r c h a s e and installation of production facilities -83-

$140, 000 498,400 47,952 6,000 35,400 23,200 27,060 17,400 25, 000

Installation of tanks and piping Construction of workover p l a t f o r m Technical s u p p o r t Miscellaneous (haulage, u t i l i t i e s , e t c . )

$ 22,000 15, 000 61, 048 10,490
$929, 050

A nalv s i s

.
$ 38, 150
5,900 5,100 3,000 88, 038 16, 000 10,900 $167, 088

P u r c h a s e of well testing equipment T e m p e r a t u r e profile logging Fluid a n a l y s i s Diff e r e ntial tempe r atu r e log Technical support Equipment maintenance Miscellaneous c o s t s (haulage, u t i l i t i e s , e t c . )

Legal and accounting
Reports

$

30,000
30, 0 0 0

E n v i r o n m e n t a l evaluation and c o m p a r i s o n Production evaluation and c o m p a r i s o n P r o g r a m management Closeout and r e c l a m a t i o n CER fixed fee

17,500 12, 862 63,500 30, 000 120,000

$
Total Contingency

303, 862

$1,400, 0 0 0

$

125, 000

SUMMARY O F TOTAL COST FOR MHF EXPERIMENT Government funding Contingency Industry funding Contingency Total E x p e r i m e n t C o s t

$

934, 107' 40, 893 1 , 4 0 0 , 000 125. 000

$2,500,000

The total c o s t of the MHF e x p e r i m e n t i s m i s l e a d i n g to the extent t h a t it d o e s not r e f l e c t the contribution of the technical c o m m i t t e e s that w e r e staffed voluntarily, l a r g e l y by industry, t o d e s i g n and c r i t i q u e the e x p e r i ment. The m o n e t a r y value of this contribution m u s t be at l e a s t 10 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l projected c o s t of the e x p e r i m e n t and without t h i s w o r k and the G o v e r n m e n t ' s willingness t o fund the P r o j e c t Definition, the p r o j e c t could not have been e s t a b l i s h e d .

- 84-

8. 2

SCHEDULING

F o r the purpose of this e s t i m a t e , we will a s s u m e that the initiation of p r o j e c t fielding will o c c u r on May 15, 1974, and that p r o j e c t w r a p - u p will be initiated on J a n u a r y 1, 1976. The timing of the m a j o r operations i s displayed in F i g u r e 23.

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OPERATIONS Drilling and Site P r e p a r a t i o n F r a c t u r e & Analysis Preparation

I

1

I

1974 I
I

1

I

1

I

I

I

I

1

1975 1
I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

1'
1

I

I

I

1

I

First S e r i e s of F r a c t u r e s
Initial Analysis Phase Second S e r i e s of F r a c t u r e s

Final T e s t Phase P r e p a r a t i o n of F r a c t u r e Report Environmental Comparison Production Comparison Legal and Accounting CER Management Liaison, P R

F i g u r e 23.

M H F schedule.

APPENDIX A LOG QUALITY CONTROL CIXECKLIST

INTRODUCTION: Many i m p o r t a n t decisions in the life of a well a r e b a s e d , a t least i n p a r t , on log i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The quality of a log i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c a n be no b e t t e r than the quality of the log i t s e l f . The time to a s s u r e the quality of a log i s , of c o u r s e , a t the t i m e it is being run. T h e r e i s no opportunity t o c o r r e c t a log f o r e r r o r s , o v e r s i g h t s , o r o m i s s i o n s a t any l a t e r date. To i n s u r e good quality logs a quality c o n t r o l c h e c k l i s t h a s been p r e p a r e d . The checklist h a s b e e n designed to prompt the r e s p o n s i b l e engineer o r geologist to g e t together with the logging engineer a t the well s i t e t o d i s c u s s the logging job and examine the logs f o r quality. It is i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the field p r i n t s be a c c u r a t e , c o m p l e t e , and of good quality since i m p o r tant d e c i s i o n s a r e based on the information r e c o r d e d on t h e s e copies. ,This c h e c k l i s t p l a c e s most of the responsibility f o r a good quality log on the s e r v i c e company logging e n g i n e e r a s it should b e . However, it a l s o r e q u i r e s that the r e s p o n s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e take an active p a r t i n the logging o p e r a tion, which, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , is the r e a s o n he i s a t the well s i t e . The checklist p r e s e n t e d h e r e contains 43 checks pertaining to all types of logs commonly run. In addition, t h e r e i s space provided t o i n s e r t c h e c k s which m a y c o v e r l o c a l conditions. This l i s t l e t s the logging engineer know what we d e s i r e and need t o i n s u r e adequate log quality. T h e s e checks a r e p r e s e n t e d on both s i d e s of a single page. After filling out the heading and Section I i n the office, the responsible r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t a k e s the c h e c k list t o the well s i t e a t the t i m e of logging and p r e s e n t s it to the logging e n g i n e e r p r i o r to the logging operation. The logging engineer i s r e q u e s t e d t o indicate whether o r not he p e r f o r m e d the applicable checks by marking i n e i t h e r the "Yes" o r f f N o fcolumn opposite the check. F o r an acceptable r log, the a n s w e r s should a l l be "Yes". If the a n s w e r to a check i s "No", the logging engineer is asked t o d i s c u s s this item with the r e s p o n s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a tive; and he should explain why the a n s w e r is "No" If the a n s w e r t o a check is "No" and hole conditions, r i g t i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , o r o t h e r r e a s o n s do not p e r m i t its c o r r e c t i o n , we a t l e a s t know the l i m i t a t i o n s of the log quality. This is b e t t e r than not knowing that a log m a y be faulty.

.

DISC USSI ON : In the following p a r a g r a p h s the c h e c k l i s t and the individual checks a r e discussed.

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Log Quality Control Checklist Page 2

HEADING This p a r t of the f o r m should be filled out in the office p r i o r to leaving for the well site. This would i n s u r e that the information is c o r r e c t and exactly a s we want i t to be. Space is provided to l i s t the logs to be r u n and the i n t e r v a l s to be logged on both the detail depth s c a l e (usually 5" = 1 0 0 ' ) and small depth s c a l e (usually 2" = 100'). When running a n acoustic log, the i n t e r v a l s to be logged with the t h r e e foot span and one foot span could a l s o be l i s t e d h e r e .
I.

TO BE CHECKED BY THE CER REPRESENTATIVE THIS SHOULD BE CHECKED BEFORE LEAVING O F F I C E

CHECK NO.

1.

This is p a r t i c u l a r l y important i f a n unusual type of mud was used. Most mud descriptions on log headings a r e too g e n e r a l and often inaccurate. Since the fluid in the invaded zone depends upon the type of mud u s e d to d r i l l a p a r t i c u l a r zone, i t is i m p o r t a n t to know the depth a t which any m a j o r mud p r o p e r t y changes o c c u r r e d . This will have a b e a r i n g on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the log. Hole s i z e and casing s i z e c a n have a n effect on log r e s p o n s e ; s o it is i m p o r t a n t t o know w h e r e a change o c c u r r e d . This i n f o r m a tion is a l s o i m p o r t a n t to the logging engineer in running the logs. Unusual hole conditions would be such things a s l o s t circulation, tight hole, dog l e g s , s a l t w a t e r flows, etc. These f a c t o r s c a n have an effect on log r e s p o n s e and a r e a l s o important to the logging engineer i n running the logs. Two s p a c e s a r e provided f o r i n s e r t i n g checks to c o v e r l o c a l conditions o r conditions pertaining to a p a r t i c u l a r well.

2.

3.

4.

5-6.

1. 1

GENERAL

7.

This i s , of c o u r s e , only n e c e s s a r y f o r r e s i s t i v i t y o r conductivity m e a s u r i n g logs. Do -obtain the sample f r o m the mud pit i f not

-8%-

Log Quality C o n t r o l Checklist Page 3

avoidable. If you o r the logging e n g i n e e r cannot be t h e r e at the p r o p e r t i m e to s e c u r e a flow line s a m p l e , l e a v e word f o r someone e l s e to do i t .

8.

The mud c e l l m u s t be c l e a n and f r e e f r o m a i r bubbles. This is m o s t i m p o r t a n t in mud f i l t r a t e ( R m f ) m e a s u r e m e n t s i n c e it is done in a s m a l l volume cell. W e have s e e n c a s e s w h e r e the field Rmf m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e in g r o s s d i s a g r e e m e n t with l a b o r a t o r y m e a s u r e m e n t s . This was probably b e c a u s e of s a l t in the cell left o v e r f r o m the l a s t logging job o r air bubbles in the c e l l . Rmc m e a s u r e m e n t i s r e q u i r e d only for m i c r o l o g o r m i c r o l a t e r o l o g type s u r v e y s .

9.

Agreement between two s e p a r a t e t e s t s i n s u r e s that the mud c e l l w a s c l e a n and f r e e f r o m a i r bubbles. T h i s would provide a b e t t e r approximation of bottom-hole t e m p e r a t u r e . Many t i m e s the mud column h a s not had t i m e t o w a r m u p to f o r m a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e ; t h e r e f o r e the t h e r m o m e t e r reading on the f i r s t r u n in the hole will be too low. If a t h e r m o m e t e r is attached t o subsequent logging r u n s , the m a x i m u m reading m a y be m o r e r e p r e s e nta t ive of bottom -hole t empe r atu r e. Checking the equipment while going in the h o l e \ r e d u c e s the t i m e the tool m u s t be kept a t bottom and c a n s o m e t i m e s save having to r e p e a t an e n t i r e t r i p . This will show i f t h e r e i s any a p p r e c i a b l e d r i f t in the logging tool. If t h e r e i s much d r i f t , c o n s i d e r having the log r e r u n . This should be done with all logs. If the r e p e a t is enough different f r o m the o r i g i n a l so as to change your i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , r e p e a t again o r , i f p o s s i b l e , use a different tool. Much of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t work is done with field p r i n t s . c o p i e s should be as complete and a c c u r a t e a s possible. These

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

This is usually applicable only to d e e p w e l l s w h e r e m o r e than one r u n is r e q u i r e d to log the well. O v e r l a p s contain information about the d e g r e e of invasion and g e n e r a l r e p e a t a b i l i t y of the logs.

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Log Quality Control Checklist Page 4

16.

This c o m p a r i s o n will point out any g r o s s e r r o r s i n the s c a l e s of the logs. Shale readings a r e probably the m o s t r e l i a b l e t o c o m p a r e , Water sand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n change’because of changes in w a t e r r e s i s t i v i t y o r porosity.
We have s e e n c a s e s w h e r e the logging engineer was apparently taken by s u r p r i s e by v e r y high r e s i s t i v i t y zones and did not have the n e c e s s a r y back-up ( h i g h - s c a l e ) galvanometers s e t u p t o r e c o r d the high r e s i s t i v i t i e s ; consequently no c u r v e of any kind was r e c o r d e d through the zone.

17.

18.

If a p a r t i c u l a r tool h a s been malfunctioning, we c a n identify it by t h i s information and take precautions not t o r u n it again until the trouble h a s been c o r r e c t e d .
Depth c o n t r o l is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i t e m . If t h e r e is a g r o s s d i s a g r e e m e n t between two o r m o r e l o g s , it m u s t be d e t e r m i n e d which is c o r r e c t .

19.

ID. ELECTRICAL LOG AND S P CURVE
20.

These anomalies usually show u p as s h a r p , hashy deflections o r sine-wave type deflections s u p e r i m p o s e d on the S P c u r v e . Magnetism (winch d r u m o r cable m a g n e t i z e d ) is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sine wave of constant frequency s u p e r i m p o s e d on the S P c u r v e , Bim e t a l l i s m is reeogniized as s h a r p S P r e v e r s a l s , usually opposite high r e s i s t i v i t y zones. These a r e the f i r s t things to check. Other c a u s e s of SP t r o u b l e s a r e s o u r c e s of e l e c t r i c a l noise, such as g e n e r a t o r s , w e l d e r s , r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r s , highlines, etc. T h e s e should be shut down, i f possible, while logging. In a given a r e a , the magnitude of the S P depends p r i m a r i l y on the mud r e s i s t i v i t y . The s c a l e u s e d on the log of a n e a r b y w e l l m a y not n e c e s s a r i l y be the optimum one on the offset if the mud r e s i s t i v i t y v a r i e s appreciably between the wells. Drift of the S P baseline frequently o c c u r s and is not n e c e s s a r i l y a sign of a faulty log. However, it is i m p o r t a n t , i f it is n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e an adjustment f o r t h i s d r i f t , that it be done abruptly, and

2 1.

22.

23.

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Log Quality C h e c k l i s t Page 5

9

s o noted on the log, r a t h e r than a g r a d u a l , continuous c o r rection. S P deflections a r e m e a s u r e d f r o m the S P b a s e l i n e s o it i s i m p o r t a n t that the b a s e l i n e be i n i t s n a t u r a l position.
24.

t

The s h o r t n o r m a l , long n o r m a l , and l a t e r a l should r e a d a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e in s h a l e s o r o t h e r noninvaded zones. Some diff e r e n c e s m a y be attributed t o d i f f e r e n c e s in hole effect on the c u r v e r e s p o n s e s . This d i f f e r e n c e is accentuated i f the mud is of low r e s i s t i v i t y . If the r e s i s t i v i t y c u r v e s r e a d l e s s than z e r o , the tool i s not calibrated correctly

25.

.

26.

If log is r u n f a s t e r than t h i s , d e t a i l will be l o s t .

IV.

INDUCTION-ELECTRICAL LOG It is particularly important

27.

T h i s should be routine p r o c e d u r e . t o do this in low r e s i s t i v i t y mud.

28.

If they do not, they a r e not c a l i b r a t e d c o r r e c t l y . It is f a i r l y common that t h e s e c u r v e s do not check exactly. When making log calculations, it is b e s t to u s e the conductivity c u r v e and t o c o n v e r t t o r e s i s t i v i t y manually. Self -explanatory.

29.

3 0.

V.
31.

LATEROLOG, GUARD LOG-FOCUSED LOG

S P in salt m u d s with l a t e r o l o g - t y p e tools a r e not always u s a b l e but should be obtained. T h e r e is no e x t r a c o s t f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . P r o b a b l y the b e s t S P will be obtained while running into the hole with the s u r v e y c u r r e n t off. D i s c u s s e d previously in 29.

32.

33.

The r u b b e r insulation on the pads should be in good condition and f r e e f r o m c u t s and c r a c k s . The e l e c t r o d e s should be p r o p e r l y r e c e s s e d to p r e v e n t shorting out while logging.

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Log Quality Checklist Page 6

34.

Self-explanatory. This will give a good value f o r R m only i f a sufficiently enl a r g e d section of the hole i s encountered. This mud check should be r e c o r d e d on a l l field and final p r i n t s . By noninvaded zones, we m e a n p r i m a r i l y s h a l e s and tight zones. T h e r e is no r e a s o n why t h e s e c u r v e s should not r e a d approxim a t e l y the s a m e value i n such zones. If they do not, something is wrong. Logging f a s t e r than 2 , 500 fph runs the r i s k of hanging up and losing the tool i n the hole.

35.

36.

37.

VII.

ACOUSTIC-SONIC LOGS

38.

The film should be examined f o r t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . If the mud happens t o be g a s cut, the sonic log will show e x c e s s i v e cycle skipping. F o r t y m i c r o s e c o n d s p e r foot r e p r e s e n t s a velocity of 2 5 , 000 fps. No lithology should have a velocity g r e a t e r than t h i s ; t h e r e f o r e t r a v e l t i m e s l e s s than 4 0 p seconds /foot indicate that something i s wrong. This i s a n a v e r a g e m a x i m u m logging speed. If the sonic log i s run by i t s e l f , o r with the c a l i p e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y the 3-foot span, it c a n be r u n f a s t e r than this (-4,000 fph). However, i f a g a m m a r a y i s run with the sonic log, i t will r e q u i r e a slower speed (-3, 000 fph).

39.

40.

VIII.

NUCLEAR LOGS (GAMMA RAY, NEUTRON, DENSITY, CHLORINE ) This shows what deflections a r e indicative of lithology changes and which a r e simply random, s t a t i s t i c a l variations.

41.

42.

If the s t a t i s t i c a l v a r i a t i o n is m o r e than t h i s , consider having the log r e r u n with different i n s t r u m e n t settings o r , i f p o s s i b l e ,

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Log Quality Checklist Page 7

.
a different tool. The designation "clean" line r e f e r s to the g a m m a r a y while "tight" line r e f e r s to the neutron log.
43.

Neutron r e s p o n s e i s affected by the fluid in the hole; s o i t is i m p o r t a n t to know i f the hole w a s full o r not.

Two s p a c e s a r e provided for n u c l e a r log checks which might p e r t a i n to local conditions o r individual wells.

IX.

ADDITIONAL CHECKS AND/OR R E M A R K S

This s p a c e i s for any additional checks f o r o t h e r logs o r l o c a l o r individual well situations. This section should a l s o be u s e d for recording any c o m m e n t s on the logging job which m a y have a b e a r i n g on the future i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the log. Explanation of any i t e m s checked "No" m a y a l s o be w r i t t e n here.

It i s suggested that both the s e r v i c e company logging e n g i n e e r and the responsible r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sign t h e i r n a m e s in the space provided.

ij

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LOG QUALITY C O N T R O L CHECKLIST LOGGING ENGINEER CHECKS A L L I T E M S A P P L I C A B L E T O LOGGING O P E R A T I O N AND DlSCUSSES ANY I T E M S C H E C K E D "NO" WITH CER R E P R E S E N T A T I V E

WELL COUNTY NO. OF F I E L D P R I N T S LOGGING COMPANY STATE

LOC.

LOGS RUN

SCALE

SCALE

ELE V

.

DATUM

FINAL PRINTS DATE I. T O B E C H E C K E D BY C E R R E P R E S E N T A T I V E

-1 ;
YES NO
4.

A c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of m u d i s f u r n i s h e d logging e n g i n e e r and i n c l u d e d i n log heading. D e p t h s a t which a n y m a j o r c h a n g e i n m u d p r o p e r t i e s o c c u r e d a r e i n c l u d e d i n " R e m a r k s " of l o g h e a d i n g D e p t h s a t which a n y h o l e o r c a s i n g s i z e c h a n g e s o c c u r a r e i n c l u d e d i n " R e m a r k s " of log h e a d i n g D e p t h s a t w h i c h a n y u n u s u a l h o l e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e e n c o u n t e r e d a r e i n c l u d e d in " R e m a r k s " Df h e a d i n g

a
I p
1

I

I il

11. G E N E R A L
s a m p l e t a k e n f r o m flowline i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e c o m i n g out of h o l e f o r logging R m f , and R m c m e a s u r e d a n d r e c o r d e d a l o n g with t e m p e r a t u r e of m e a s u r e m e n t . Mud c e l l w a s c l e a n a n d d i d n o t c o n t a i n a i r b u b b l e s measurement was made. a t R m , R m f m e a s u r e m e n t w / r e f i l l e d c e l l . R e p e a t m e a s u r e m e n t w i t h i n 2% of f i r s t m e a s u r e m e n t x i m u m b o t t o m h o l e t e m p e r a t u r e m e a s u r e d and r e c o r d e d on % l o g g i n g r u n s l o g s c h e c k e d going i n t o h o l e to c h e c k s u r f a c e and downhole e q u i p m e n t ' b r a t i o n c h e c k s a n d e l e c t r i c a l z e r o e s p r o p e r l y r e c o r d e d b e f o r e a n d a f t e r logging r u n s b o t t o m 2 0 0 ' o r zone of i n t e r e s t t w i c e and c o m p a r e b o t h r u n s l u d e all s c a l e s , c a l i b r a t i o n s , r e p e a t r u n s , o v e r l a p s , e t c . , o n f i e l d p r i n t s revious r u n s in s a m e well by 200' and c o m p a r e o m p a r e f a v o r a b l y w i t h n e a r e s t c o n t r o l w e l l s ( S h a l e and w a t e r zone r e a d i n g s c o m p a r e ) b a c k - u p g a l v a n o m e t e r s u s e d so c u r v e i s r e c o r d e d t h r o u g h a l l i n t e r v a l s 001 d e s c r i p t i o n a n d d e s i g n a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n log h e a d i n g r e c o g n i z e a b l e m a r k e r s a g r e e on a l l l o g s i n the s a m e w e l l 111. E L E C T R I C A L LOG AND S P LOG

c u r v e and p i c k u p n o r m a l w i t h no a n o m a l i e s due t o m a g n e t i s m , b i - m e t a l l i s m , s t r a y c u r r e n t s , e t c . P a b n o r m a l ( s e e 2 0 ) r e - r u n w i t h s u r v e y c u r r e n t off a n d / o r c h e c k g r o u n d e l e c t r o d e quate SP sensitivity (about 5 divisions deflection f r o m shale line t o "clean" l i n e ) b a s e l i n e d r i f t c o r r e c t e d a b r u p t l y (not g r a d u a l l y ) a n d s o noted o n t h e l o g s t i v i t i e s of e a c h c u r v e c l o s e t o same v a l u e i n s h a l e s if f r e s h m u d and hole n o t e n l a r g e d s t i v i t y c u r v e s d o not r e a d l e s s t h a n z e r o i m u m logging s p e e d d i d not e x c e e d 6 , 000 fph (OVER

L b
IV. INDUCTION-ELECTRIC LOG ( C H E C K ALSO 20, 21, 22)

e
V.

Stand-off d e v i c e s u s e d on induction log sonde Induction a n d s h o r t n o r m a l c u r v e s r e a d g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o Induction r e s i s t i v i t y c u r v e c h e c k s with conductivity c u r v e (R = lOOO/C) M a x i m u m logging s p e e d did n o t e x c e e d 6 , 000 fph LATERCLOG, GUARD LOG, FCCUS

S P r u n with l o g , going in hole if n e c e s s a r y , e v e n in s a l t m u d R e s i s t i v i t y c u r v e c h e c k s with conductivity c u r v e (R = lOOO/C)

I l l

VI.

MICROSURVEY ( M L , M L L , C O N T R A C T , FORXO, E T C . )

in non-invaded z o n e s

...-

VII.

ACOUSTIC, SONIC LOGS

VII. NUCLEAR LOGS (GAMMA RAY, NEUTRON, DENSITY, CHLORINK)
S t a t i s t i c a l c h e c k s m a d e f r o m all n u c l e a r logs. S t a t i s t i c s p r e f e r a b l y m a d e for 2 m i n u t e s .in s h a l e and 2 m i n u t e s in d e n s e z o n e . m a d e a t s a m e i n s t r u m e n t s e t t i n g s a s f i n a l log. P e a k to p e a k v a r i a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l # h e c k s d o e s not e x c e e d 1 / 5 t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m the s h a l e l i n e t o the " c l e a n " l i n e (or "tight" l i n e ) F l u i d l e v e l d e t e c t e d while going in hole with n u c l e a r log and r e c o r d e d Statistics

IX. ADDITIONAL CHECKS AND/OR REMARKS

LOGGING ENGINEER

C ER R E P R E S E N T A T I V E

APPENDIX B A LTERNA T E W E L L LO CA T IO NS LOCATION: S1, T3S, R98W S a m e a s Location S11, T3S, R98W except f o r t h e following items:
1

See the attached g e n e r a l i z e d drawing f o r t h e proposed equipment layout at the a l t e r n a t e w e l l location. T h i s equipment i s r e q u i r e d only d u r i n g the v a r i o u s s t a g e s of the m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g t r e a t m e n t and will be r e m o v e d upon completion. Only t h a t equipment n e c e s s a r y to control the well will r e m a i n and w i l l c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y of the wellhead and production equipment i f t h e well i s of c o m m e r c i a l value. D r i l l m u d w i l l be buried and a p p r o p r i a t e revegetation p e r f o r m e d on the Sewerage w i l l be collected i n tank- type c h e m i c a l t o i l e t s disturbed a r e a . and t r a n s p o r t e d to one of the l o c a l municipal s e w e r a g e t r e a t m e n t plants f o r disposal. Solid w a s t e such a s wood, p a p e r , m e t a l , e t c . , w i l l be collected and t r a n s p o r t e d t o one of the municipal dumps f o r disposal. C o m m e r c i a l e l e c t r i c power i s available i n the Fawn C r e e k valley and w i l l be utilized f o r e l e c t r i c power during the d r i l l i n g and m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g p r o g r a m s . It w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o add a d e a d m a n to the e x i s t i n g power line and not m o r e than two power p o l e s , w i r e , etc. on the well location t o provide c o m m e r c i a l power t o the f a c i l i t i e s . A f t e r completion of t h e m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g p r o g r a m , t h e s e i t e m s would be removed. A m i c r o w a v e telephone s y s t e m w i l l be utilized to provide telephone c o m m u nications t o the well location. It will be n e c e s s a r y to i n s t a l l t h e following t e m p o r a r y f a c i l i t i e s t o provide telephone s e r v i c e :
1.

Tower with antenna Microwave e n c l o s u r e ( 3 0 cu. f t ) . P o w e r cable ( s u r f a c e l a i d ) t o m i c r o w a v e s y s t e m .

2.
3.

4. Signal cable ( s u r f a c e l a i d ) to telephones.
Upon completion of t h e m a s s i v e f r a c t u r i n g p r o g r a m t h e s e i t e m s would be r em oved. LOCATION: S 2 2 , T3S, R98W Same as Location S1, T3S, R98W except t h a t the e l e c t r i c power r e q u i r e d f o r t h e f a c i l i t i e s at the well location will be g e n e r a t e d on the s i t e .

-97-

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LOCATION S3, T3S, R98W S a m e a s Location S1, T3S, R98W except for the following i t e m s : Roads in the g e n e r a l a r e a of the e x p e r i m e n t include Piceance C r e e k and Black Sulphur C r e e k r o a d s a s well a s other unimproved r o a d s u s e d by r a n c h e r s during nonwinter months. Piceance C r e e k Road i s paved f r o m i t s junction with U. S. Highway 64 ( M e e k e r to Rangely) on the n o r t h to Colorado State Highway 789 ( M e e k e r to R i f l e ) on the e a s t and i s maintained by Rio Blanco County. Black Sulphur C r e e k Road i s maintained by the County. Location of exit f r o m the m a i n highway will be a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Black Sulphur C r e e k Road and the existing trail r o a d departing southw a r d ; s a i d i n t e r s e c t i o n located i n the southwest q u a r t e r of S24, R98W, T2S. The planned a c c e s s r o a d s a r e Piceance C r e e k Road and Black Sulphur C r e e k Road, T h e r e i s a n existing t r a i l road departing the Black Sulphur C r e e k Road within the southwest q u a r t e r of Section 24 (T2S, R98W) running south to southwest through Section 25, 26, 35, 34 (T2S, R98W) and Section 3 (T3S, R98W). This existing t r a i l r o a d would be rebuilt to a 20-foot wide r o a d utilizing the native m a t e r i a l s . One drainage s t r u c t u r e a c r o s s Black Sulphur C r e e k will be r e q u i r e d . Minimal realignment will be r e q u i r e d to provide suitable a c c e s s f o r oil field type equipment. Approximately 4.2 m i l e s of r o a d construction will be required. The n e c e s s a r y w a t e r f o r the operation will be taken f r o m Black Sulphur C r e e k and t r u c k e d to the location. LOCATION: S31, TZS, R97W S a m e a s Location S1, T3S, R98W except f o r the following i t e m s : T h e r e i s a n existing t r a i l r o a d departing the Fawn C r e e k Road a t approxim a t e l y the q u a r t e r c o r n e r between Section 29 and 30 (TZS, R 9 7 W ) running southwest a t o p the ridge through Section 31. This existing t r a i l road would be rebuilt t o a 20-foot wide r o a d utilizing the native m a t e r i a l s . Minimal realignment will be r e q u i r e d to provide suitable a c c e s s for oil field type equipment. Approximately 1. 3 miles of road c o n s t r u c t i o n will be r e q u i r e d . The n e c e s s a r y w a t e r for the operation will be taken f r o m Black Sulphur C r e e k and trucked to the location.

I

-99-

REFERENCES

c

1.

R e p o r t by N a t u r a l G a s Technology T a s k F o r c e f o r the T e c h n i c a l Advisory C o m m i t t e e of the N a t u r a l G a s Survey by the F e d e r a l P o w e r C o m m i s s i o n , A p r i l 1, 1973. " P r o j e c t Rulison M a n a g e r ' s R e p o r t " , USAEC, NVOO (NVO-71), April, 1973. " P r o j e c t R i o Blanco, P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r s Completion Report", USAEC, NVOO (NVO- 135), July, 1973. " P r o p o s a l f o r a M a s s i v e Hydraulic F r a c t u r i n g E x p e r i m e n t " , CER Geonuclear C o r p o r a t i o n , August 9, 1973. Donnell, J . R . , " T e r t i a r y Geology and Oil Shale R e s o u r c e s of the P i c e a n c e C r e e k Basin Between the C o l o r a d o and White R i v e r s N o r t h w e s t e r n Colorado", USGS Bul. 1082-L (1961) " P r o j e c t Rio Blanco Hydrology of the Piceance Basin", CER Geonuclear C o r p o r a t i o n , July 30, 1971, " P r o j e c t R i o Blanco Geology of the Piceance Basin", CER Geonuclear C o r p o r a t i o n , D e c e m b e r 2, 1971.
4

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

B o a r d m a n , C . R . , H a m m a c k , G. W . , Fertl, W. H . , Atkinson, C . H . , "Evaluation of Low- P e r m e a b i l i t y G a s - B e a r i n g F o r m a t i o n s i n Rio Blanco County, Colorado", J o u r n a l of P e t r o l e u m Technology, October, 1973. " P r o j e c t Rio Blanco R e s e r v o i r R e p o r t " , CER Geonuclear C o r p o r a t i o n , A p r i l 2, 1971.

1

9.

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