STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Final Year - Structural Engineering BSc(Eng)

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St ii C. Caprani
Contents

1. Introduction to Structural Dynamics 1

2. Single Degree-of-Freedom Systems 8
a. Fundamental Equation of Motion
b. Free Vibration of Undamped Structures
c. Free Vibration of Damped Structures
d. Forced Response of an SDOF System

3. Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems 20
a. General Case (based on 2DOF)
b. Free-Undamped Vibration of 2DOF Systems

4. Continuous Structures 28
a. Exact Analysis for Beams
b. Approximate Analysis – Bolton’s Method

5. Practical Design 42
a. Human Response to Dynamic Excitation
b. Crowd/Pedestrian Dynamic Loading
c. Damping in Structures
d. Rules of Thumb for Design

6. Appendix 54
a. References
b. Important Formulae
c. Important Tables and Figures

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 1 C. Caprani
1. Introduction to Structural Dynamics

Modern structures are increasingly slender and have reduced redundant strength
due to improved analysis and design methods. Such structures are increasingly
responsive to the manner in which loading is applied with respect to time and hence
the dynamic behaviour of such structures must be allowed for in design; as well as
the usual static considerations. In this context then, the word dynamic simply means
“changes with time”; be it force, deflection or any other form of load effect.

Examples of dynamics in structures are:
- Soldiers breaking step as they cross a bridge to prevent harmonic excitation;
- The Tacoma Narrows Bridge footage, failure caused by vortex shedding;
- the London Millennium Footbridge: lateral synchronise excitation.

(a)

(b)
Figure 1.1

The most basic dynamic system is the mass-spring system. An example is shown in
Figure 1.1(a) along with the structural idealisation of it in Figure 1.1(b). This is known
as a Single Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) system as there is only one possible
displacement: that of the mass in the vertical direction. SDOF systems are of great
m
k
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 2 C. Caprani
importance as they are relatively easily analysed mathematically, are easy to
understand intuitively, and structures usually dealt with by Structural Engineers can
be modelled approximately using an SDOF model (see Figure 1.2 for example).
Figure 1.2

If we consider a spring-mass system as shown in Figure 1.3 with the properties m =
10 kg and k = 100 N/m and if give the mass a deflection of 20 mm and then release
it (i.e. set it in motion) we would observe the system oscillating as shown in Figure
1.3. From this figure we can identify that the time between the masses recurrence at
a particular location is called the period of motion or oscillation or just the period, and
we denote it T; it is the time taken for a single oscillation. The number of oscillations
per second is called the frequency, denoted f, and is measured in Hertz (cycles per
second). Thus we can say:

1
f
T
= (1.1)
We will show (Section 2.b, equation (2.19)) for a spring-mass system that:

1
2
k
f
m
= (1.2)

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 3 C. Caprani
In our system:
1 100
0.503 Hz
2 10
f

= =
And from equation (1.1):
1 1
1.987 secs
0.503
T
f
= = =
We can see from Figure 1.3 that this is indeed the period observed.

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-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Period T
Figure 1.3

To reach the deflection of 20 mm just applied, we had to apply a force of 2 N, given
that the spring stiffness is 100 N/m. As noted previously, the rate at which this load is
applied will have an effect of the dynamics of the system. Would you expect the
system to behave the same in the following cases?
- If a 2 N weight was dropped onto the mass from a very small height?
- If 2 N of sand was slowly added to a weightless bucket attached to the mass?

Assuming a linear increase of load, to the full 2 N load, over periods of 1, 3, 5 and 10
seconds, the deflections of the system are shown in Figure 1.4.

m = 10 kg
k = 100 N/m
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 4 C. Caprani
Dynamic Effect of Load Application Duration
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (s)
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
m
)
1-sec
3-sec
5-sec
10-sec
Figure 1.4

Remembering that the period of vibration of the system is about 2 seconds, we can
see that when the load is applied faster than the period of the system, large dynamic
effects occur. Stated another way, when the frequency of loading (1, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1
Hz for our sample loading rates) is close to, or above the natural frequency of the
system (0.5 Hz in our case), we can see that the dynamic effects are large.
Conversely, when the frequency of loading is less than the natural frequency of the
system little dynamic effects are noticed – most clearly seen via the 10 second ramp-
up of the load, that is, a 0.1 Hz load.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 5 C. Caprani
Case Study – Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland
Aberfeldy footbridge is a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) cable-stayed bridge
over the River Tay on Aberfeldy golf course in Aberfeldy, Scotland (Figure 1.5). Its
main span is 63 m and its two side spans are 25 m, also, tests have shown that the
natural frequency of this bridge is 1.52 Hz, giving a period of oscillation of 0.658
seconds.

Figure 1.5: Aberfeldy Footbridge

Figure 1.6: Force-time curves for walking: (a) Normal pacing. (b) Fast pacing

Footbridges are generally quite light structures as the loading consists of
pedestrians; this often results in dynamically lively structures. Pedestrian loading
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 6 C. Caprani
varies as a person walks; from about 0.65 to 1.3 times the weight of the person over
a period of about 0.35 seconds, that is, a loading frequency of about 2.86 Hz (Figure
1.6). When we compare this to the natural frequency of Aberfeldy footbridge we can
see that pedestrian loading has a higher frequency than the natural frequency of the
bridge – thus, from our previous discussion we would expect significant dynamic
effects to results from this. Figure 1.7 shows the response of the bridge (at the mid-
span) when a pedestrian crosses the bridge: significant dynamics are apparent.

Figure 1.7: Mid-span deflection (mm) as a function of distance travelled (m).

Design codes generally require the natural frequency for footbridges and other
pedestrian traversed structures to be greater than 5 Hz, that is, a period of 0.2
seconds. The reasons for this are apparent after our discussion: a 0.35 seconds load
application (or 2.8 Hz) is slower than the natural period of vibration of 0.2 seconds (5
Hz) and hence there will not be much dynamic effect resulting; in other words the
loading may be considered to be applied statically.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 7 C. Caprani
Look again at the frog in Figure 1.1, according to the results obtained so far which
are graphed in Figures 1.3 and 1.4, the frog should oscillate indefinitely. If you have
ever cantilevered a ruler off the edge of a desk and flicked it you would have seen it
vibrate for a time but certainly not indefinitely; buildings do not vibrate indefinitely
after an earthquake; Figure 1.7 shows the vibrations dying down quite soon after the
pedestrian has left the main span of Aberfeldy bridge - clearly there is another action
opposing or “damping” the vibration of structures. Figure 1.8 shows the Undamped
response of our model along with the Damped response; it can be seen that the
oscillations die out quite rapidly – this obviously depends on the level of damping.

Damped and Undamped Response
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-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Undamped
Damped

Figure 1.8

Damping occurs in structures due to energy loss mechanisms that exist in the
system. Examples are friction losses at any connection to or in the system and
internal energy losses of the materials due to thermo-elasticity, hysteresis and inter-
granular bonds. The exact nature of damping is difficult to define; fortunately
theoretical damping has been shown to match real structures quite well.
m = 10 kg
k = 100 N/m
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 8 C. Caprani
2. Single Degree-of-Freedom Systems

a. Fundamental Equation of Motion

(a) (b)
Figure 2.1: (a) SDOF system. (b) Free-body diagram of forces

Considering Figure 2.1, the forces resisting the applied loading are considered as:
1. a force proportional to displacement (the usual static stiffness);
2. a force proportional to velocity (the damping force);
3. a force proportional to acceleration (D’Alambert’s inertial force).
We can write the following symbolic equation:

applied stiffness damping inertia
F F F F = + + (2.1)
Noting that:

stiffness
damping
inertia
F
F
F
ku
cu
mu
= ¹
¦
=
`
¦
=
)

(2.2)
that is, stiffness × displacement, damping coefficient × velocity and mass ×
acceleration respectively. Note also that u represents displacement from the
equilibrium position and that the dots over u represent the first and second
derivatives with respect to time. Thus, noting that the displacement, velocity and
acceleration are all functions of time, we have the fundamental equation of motion:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) mu t cu t ku t F t + + = (2.3)

This is the standard form of the equation. In the case of free vibration when there is
no external force, ( ) F t , we write the alternative formulation:

( ) F t
mu
cu
ku
m
k
u(t)
c
( ) F t
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 9 C. Caprani
2
( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 0 u t u t u t ce e + + = (2.4)

which uses the following notation,
2 ;
c
m
ce =
2
k
m
e = (2.5) and (2.6)
where
;
cr
c
c
c = 2 2
cr
c m km e = = (2.7) and (2.8)
e is called the undamped circular natural frequency and its units are radians per
second (rad/s). c is the damping ratio which is the ratio of the damping coefficient,
c , to the critical value of the damping coefficient
cr
c ; we will see what these terms
physically mean.

In considering free vibration only, the general solution to (2.4) is of a form

t
u Ce
ì
= (2.9)
When we substitute (2.9) and its derivates into (2.4) we get:

( )
2 2
2 0
t
Ce
ì
ì ceì e + + = (2.10)
For this to be valid for all values of t, we get the characteristic equation:

2 2
2 0 ì ceì e + + = (2.11)
the solutions to this equation are the two roots:

2 2 2
1,2
2
2 4 4
2
1
ec e c e
ì
ec e c
÷ ± ÷
=
= ÷ ± ÷
(2.12)
Therefore the solution depends on the magnitude of c relative to 1. We have:
1. 1 c < : Sub-critical damping or under-damped;
Oscillatory response only occurs when this is the case – as it is for almost all
structures.
2. 1 c = : Critical damping;
No oscillatory response occurs.
3. 1 c > : Super-critical damping or over-damped;
No oscillatory response occurs.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 10 C. Caprani
b. Free Vibration of Undamped Structures

We will examine the case when there is no damping on the SDOF system of Figure
2.1 so 0 c = in equations (2.4), (2.11) and (2.12) which then become:

2
( ) ( ) 0 u t u t e + = (2.13)

2 2
0 ì e + = (2.14)

1,2
i ì e = ± (2.15)
respectively, where 1 i = ÷ . Using these roots in (2.13) and by using Euler’s
equation we get the general solution:

( ) cos sin u t A t B t e e = + (2.16)

where A and B are constants to be obtained from the initial conditions of the system
and so:
( )
0
0
cos sin
u
u t u t t e e
e
| |
= +
|
\ .

(2.17)
where
0
u and
0
u are the initial displacement and velocity of the system respectively.
Noting that cosine and sine are functions that repeat with period 2t , we see that
( )
1 1
2 t T t e e t + = + (Figure 2.3) and so the undamped natural period of the SDOF
system is:

2
T
t
e
= (2.18)
The natural frequency of the system is got from (1.1), (2.18) and (2.6):

1 1
2 2
k
f
T m
e
t t
= = = (2.19)

and so we have proved (1.2). The importance of this equation is that it shows the
natural frequency of structures to be proportional to
k
m
. This knowledge can aid a
designer in addressing problems with resonance in structures: by changing the
stiffness or mass of the structure, problems with dynamic behaviour can be
minimized.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 11 C. Caprani
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-20
-10
0
10
20
30
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
(a)
(b)
(c)

Figure 2.2: SDOF free vibration response for (a)
0
20mm u = ,
0
0 u = , (b)
0
0 u = ,
0
50mm/s u = , and (c)
0
20mm u = ,
0
50mm/s u = .
Figure 2.2 shows the free-vibration response of a spring-mass system for various
initial states of the system. It can be seen from (b) and (c) that when
0
0 u = the
amplitude of displacement is not that of the initial displacement; this is obviously an
important characteristic to calculate. The cosine addition rule may also be used to
show that equation (2.16) can be written in the form:
( ) ( ) cos u t C t e u = + (2.20)
where
2 2
C A B = + and tan
B
A
u
÷
= . Using A and B as calculated earlier for the
initial conditions, we then have:
( ) ( ) cos u t t p e u = + (2.21)
where p is the amplitude of displacement and u is the phase angle, both given by:

2
2 0
0
;
u
u p
e
| |
= +
|
\ .

0
0
tan
u
u
u
e
÷
=

(2.22) and (2.23)
The phase angle determines the amount by which ( ) u t lags behind the function
cos t e . Figure 2.3 shows the general case.

m = 10 kg
k = 100 N/m
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 12 C. Caprani
Figure 2.3 Undamped free-vibration response

Examples
Example 2.1
A harmonic oscillation test gave the natural frequency of a water tower to be
0.41 Hz. Given that the mass of the tank is 150 tonnes, what deflection will
result if a 50 kN horizontal load is applied? You may neglect the mass of the
tower.
Ans: 50.2 mm
Example 2.2
A 3 m high, 8 m wide single-bay single-storey frame is rigidly jointed with a
beam of mass 5,000 kg and columns of negligible mass and stiffness of EI
c
=
4.5×10
3
kNm
2
. Calculate the natural frequency in lateral vibration and its
period. Find the force required to deflect the frame 25 mm laterally.
Ans: 4.502 Hz; 0.222 sec; 100 kN
Example 2.3
An SDOF system (m = 20 kg, k = 350 N/m) is given an initial displacement of
10 mm and initial velocity of 100 mm/s. (a) Find the natural frequency; (b) the
period of vibration; (c) the amplitude of vibration; and (d) the time at which the
third maximum peak occurs.
Ans: 0.666 Hz; 1.502 sec; 25.91 mm; 3.285 sec.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 13 C. Caprani
c. Free Vibration of Damped Structures

Figure 2.4: Response with critical or super-critical damping

When taking account of damping, we noted previously that there are 3, cases but
only when 1 c < does an oscillatory response ensue. We will not examine the critical
or super-critical cases. Examples are shown in Figure 2.4.

To begin, when 1 c < (2.12) becomes:

1,2 d
i ì ec e = ÷ ± (2.24)
where
d
e is the damped circular natural frequency given by:

2
1
d
e e c = ÷ (2.25)
which has a corresponding damped period and frequency of:

2
;
d
d
T
t
e
=
2
d
d
f
e
t
= (2.26) and (2.27)
The general solution to equation (2.9), using Euler’s formula again, becomes:
( ) ( ) cos sin
t
d d
u t e A t B t
ce
e e
÷
= + (2.28)
and again using the initial conditions we get:

0 0
0
( ) cos sin
t d
d d
d
u u
u t e u t t
ce
ce
e e
e
÷

| | +
= +
|

\ .

(2.29)

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 14 C. Caprani
Using the cosine addition rule again we also have:
( ) ( ) cos
t
d
u t e t
ce
p e u
÷
= + (2.30)
In which

2
2 0 0
0
;
d
u u
u
ce
p
e
| | +
= +
|
\ .

0 0
0
tan
d
u u
u
ce
u
e
÷
=

(2.31) and (2.32)
Equations (2.28) to (2.32) correspond to those of the undamped case looked at
previously when 0 c = .
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0
5
10
15
20
25
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Figure 2.5: SDOF free vibration response for:
(a) 0 c = ; (b) 0.05 c = ; (c) 0.1 c = ; and (d) 0.5 c = .
Figure 2.5 shows the dynamic response of the SDOF model shown. It may be clearly
seen that damping has a large effect on the dynamic response of the system – even
for small values of c . We will discuss damping in structures later but damping ratios
for structures are usually in the range 0.5 to 5%. Thus, the damped and undamped
properties of the systems are very similar for these structures.

Figure 2.6 shows the general case of an under-critically damped system.
m = 10 kg
k = 100 N/m
c varies
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 15 C. Caprani
Figure 2.6: General case of an under-critically damped system.

Estimating Damping in Structures
Examining Figure 2.6, we see that two successive peaks,
n
u and
n m
u
+
, m cycles
apart, occur at times nT and ( ) n m T + respectively. Using equation (2.30) we can
get the ratio of these two peaks as:

2
exp
n
n m d
u m
u
tce
e
+
| |
=
|
\ .
(2.33)
where ( ) exp
x
x e ÷ . Taking the natural log of both sides we get the logarithmic
decrement of damping, o , defined as:
ln 2
n
n m d
u
m
u
e
o tc
e
+
= = (2.34)
for low values of damping, normal in structural engineering, we can approximate this:
2m o tc ~ (2.35)
thus,
( ) exp 2 1 2
n
n m
u
e m m
u
o
tc tc
+
= ~ ~ + (2.36)
and so,

2
n n m
n m
u u
m u
c
t
+
+
÷
~ (2.37)
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 16 C. Caprani
This equation can be used to estimate damping in structures with light damping
( 0.2 c < ) when the amplitudes of peaks m cycles apart is known. A quick way of
doing this, known as the Half-Amplitude Method, is to count the number of peaks it
takes to halve the amplitude, that is 0.5
n m n
u u
+
= . Then, using (2.37) we get:

0.11
m
c ~ when 0.5
n m n
u u
+
= (2.38)
Further, if we know the amplitudes of two successive cycles (and so 1 m = ), we can
find the amplitude after p cycles from two instances of equation (2.36):

1
p
n
n p n
n
u
u u
u
+
+
| |
=
|
\ .
(2.39)

Examples
Example 2.4
For the frame of Example 2.2, a jack applied a load of 100 kN and then
instantaneously released. On the first return swing a deflection of 19.44 mm
was noted. The period of motion was measured at 0.223 sec. Assuming that
the stiffness of the columns cannot change, find (a) the effective weight of the
beam; (b) the damping ratio; (c) the coefficient of damping; (d) the undamped
frequency and period; and (e) the amplitude after 5 cycles.
Ans: 5,039 kg; 0.04; 11,367 kg·s/m; 4.488 Hz; 0.2228 sec; 7.11 mm.
Example 2.5
From the response time-history of an SDOF system given, (a) estimate the
damped natural frequency; (b) use the half amplitude method to calculate the
damping ratio; and (c) calculate the undamped natural frequency and period.
Ans: 2.24 Hz; 0.0512; 2.236 Hz; 0.447 sec. (see handout sheet for figure)
Example 2.6
Workers’ movements on a platform (8 × 6 m high, m = 200 kN) are causing
large dynamic motions. An engineer investigated and found the natural period
in sway to be 0.9 sec. Diagonal remedial ties (E = 200 kN/mm
2
) are to be
installed to reduce the natural period to 0.3 sec. What tie diameter is required?
Ans: 28.1 mm.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 17 C. Caprani
d. Forced Response of an SDOF System

Figure 2.7: SDOF undamped system subjected to harmonic excitation

So far we have only considered free vibration; the structure has been set vibrating by
an initial displacement for example. We will now consider the case when a time
varying load is applied to the system. We will confine ourselves to the case of
harmonic or sinusoidal loading though there are obviously infinitely many forms that a
time-varying load may take – refer to the references (Appendix - 6.a) for more.

To begin, we note that the forcing function ( ) F t has excitation amplitude of
0
F and
an excitation circular frequency of O and so from the fundamental equation of motion
(2.3) we have:

0
( ) ( ) ( ) sin mu t cu t ku t F t + + = O (2.40)

The solution to equation (2.40) has two parts:
• The complementary solution, similar to (2.28), which represents the transient
response of the system which damps out by ( ) exp t ce ÷ . The transient response
may be thought of as the vibrations caused by the initial application of the load.
• The particular solution, ( )
p
u t , representing the steady-state harmonic response
of the system to the applied load. This is the response we will be interested in as
it will account for any resonance between the forcing function and the system.

The particular solution will have the form
( ) cos sin
p
u t A t B t = O + O (2.41)
After substitution in (2.40) and separating the equation by sine and cosine terms, we
solve for A and B to get and follow the procedure of (2.21) to get:
( ) ( ) sin
p
u t t p u = O ÷ (2.42)
m
k
u(t)
c
0
( ) sin F t F t = O
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 18 C. Caprani
In which

( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2 0
1 2 ;
F
k
p | c|
÷

= ÷ +



2
2
tan
1
c|
u
|
=
÷
(2.43) and (2.44)

where the phase angle is limited to 0 u t < < and the ratio of the applied load
frequency to the natural undamped frequency is:
|
e
O
= (2.45)
the maximum response of the system will come at ( ) sin 1 t u O ÷ = and dividing (2.42)
by the static deflection
0
F k we can get the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) of the
system as:

( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2
DAF 1 2 D | c|
÷

÷ = ÷ +


(2.46)

1
1
2
D
|
c
=
= (2.47)
Figure 2.8: Variation of DAF with damping and frequency ratios.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 19 C. Caprani
Figure 2.8 shows the effect of the frequency ratio | on the DAF. Resonance is the
phenomenon that occurs when the forcing frequency coincides with that of the
natural frequency, 1 | = . It can also be seen that for low values of damping, normal
in structures, very high DAFs occur; for example if 0.02 c = then the dynamic
amplification factor will be 25. For the case of no damping, the DAF goes to infinity -
theoretically at least; equation (2.47).

Measurement of Natural Frequencies
It may be seen from (2.44) that when 1 | = , 2 u t = ; this phase relationship allows
the accurate measurements of the natural frequencies of structures. That is, we
change the input frequency O in small increments until we can identify a peak
response: the value of O at the peak response is then the natural frequency of the
system. Example 2.1 gave the natural frequency based on this type of test.

Examples
Example 2.7
The frame of examples 2.2 and 2.4 has a reciprocating machine put on it. The
mass of this machine is 4 tonnes and is in addition to the mass of the beam.
The machine exerts a periodic force of 8.5 kN at a frequency of 1.75 Hz. (a)
What is the steady-state amplitude of vibration if the damping ratio is 4%? (b)
What would the steady-state amplitude be if the forcing frequency was in
resonance with the structure?
Ans: 2.92 mm; 26.56 mm.
Example 2.8
An air conditioning unit of mass 1,600 kg is place in the middle (point C) of an
8 m long simply supported beam (EI = 8×10
3
kNm
2
) of negligible mass. The
motor runs at 300 rpm and produces an unbalanced load of 120 kg. Assuming
a damping ratio of 5%, determine the steady-state amplitude and deflection at
C. What rpm will result in resonance and what is the associated deflection?
Ans: 1.41 mm; 22.34 mm; 206.7 rpm; 36.66 mm.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 20 C. Caprani
3. Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

a. General Case (based on 2DOF)

(a)

(b) (c)
Figure 3.1: (a) 2DOF system. (b) and (c) Free-body diagrams of forces

Considering Figure 3.1, we can see that the forces that act on the masses are similar
to those of the SDOF system but for the fact that the springs, dashpots, masses,
forces and deflections may all differ in properties. Also, from the same figure, we can
see the interaction forces between the masses will result from the relative deflection
between the masses; the change in distance between them.

For each mass, 0
x
F =
¯
, hence:
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
mu c u k u c u u k u u F + + + ÷ + ÷ = (3.1)
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
m u c u u k u u F + ÷ + ÷ = (3.2)
In which we have dropped the time function indicators and allowed u A and u A to
absorb the directions of the interaction forces. Re-arranging we get:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1
2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
u m u c c u c u k k u k F
u m u c u c u k u k F
+ + + ÷ + + + ÷ =
+ ÷ + + ÷ + =


(3.3)

2
F
2 2
m u
2
c u · A
2
k u · A
2
m
1
m
1
( ) u t
1
( ) F t
2
m
2
( ) F t
2
( ) u t
1
k
1
c
2
k
2
c
1 1
mu
1 1
c u
1 1
k u
1
m
1
F
2
c u · A
2
k u · A
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D.I.T. Bolton St 21 C. Caprani
This can be written in matrix form:

1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0
m u c c c u k k k u F
m u c c u k k u F
+ ÷ + ÷ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
+ + =
´ ` ´ ` ´ ` ´ `

÷ ÷
¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )


(3.4)

Or another way:
Mu +Cu +Ku = F (3.5)
where:
M is the mass matrix (diagonal matrix);
u is the vector of the accelerations for each DOF;
C is the damping matrix (symmetrical matrix);
u is the vector of velocity for each DOF;
K is the stiffness matrix (symmetrical matrix);
u is the vector of displacements for each DOF;
F is the load vector.

Equation (3.5) is quite general and reduces to many forms of analysis:

- Free vibration:
Mu +Cu +Ku = 0 (3.6)
- Undamped free vibration:
Mu + Ku = 0 (3.7)
- Undamped forced vibration:
Mu + Ku = F (3.8)
- Static analysis:
Ku = F (3.9)

We will restrict our attention to the case of undamped free-vibration – equation (3.7) -
as the inclusion of damping requires an increase in mathematical complexity which
would distract from our purpose.

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D.I.T. Bolton St 22 C. Caprani
b. Free-Undamped Vibration of 2DOF Systems

The solution to (3.7) follows the same methodology as for the SDOF case; so
following that method (equation (2.42)), we propose a solution of the form:
( ) sin t e o + u = a (3.10)
where a is the vector of amplitudes corresponding to each degree of freedom. From
this we get:
( )
2 2
sin t e e o e ÷ + = ÷ u = a u (3.11)
Then, substitution of (3.10) and (3.11) into (3.7) yields:
( ) ( )
2
sin sin t t e e o e o ÷ + + Ma +Ka = 0 (3.12)
Since the sine term is constant for each term:

2
e ÷

K M a = 0 (3.13)
We note that in a dynamics problem the amplitudes of each DOF will be non-zero,
hence, = a 0 in general. In addition we see that the problem is a standard
eigenvalues problem. Hence, by Cramer’s rule, in order for (3.13) to hold the
determinant of
2
e ÷ K M must then be zero:

2
0 e ÷ K M = (3.14)
For the 2DOF system, we have:
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2
0 k k m k m k e e e ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ =

K M = (3.15)
Expansion of (3.15) leads to an equation in
2
e called the characteristic polynomial of
the system. The solutions of
2
e to this equation are the eigenvalues of
2
e ÷

K M .
There will be two solutions or roots of the characteristic polynomial in this case and
an n-DOF system has n solutions to its characteristic polynomial. In our case, this
means there are two values of
2
e (
2
1
e and
2
2
e ) that will satisfy the relationship; thus
there are two frequencies for this system (the lowest will be called the fundamental
frequency). For each
2
n
e substituted back into (3.13), we will get a certain amplitude
vector
n
a . This means that each frequency will have its own characteristic displaced
shape of the degrees of freedoms called the mode shape. However, we will not know
the absolute values of the amplitudes as it is a free-vibration problem; hence we
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 23 C. Caprani
express the mode shapes as a vector of relative amplitudes,
n
, relative to, normally,
the first value in
n
a .
As we will see in the following example, the implication of the above is that MDOF
systems vibrate, not just in the fundamental mode, but also in higher harmonics.
From our analysis of SDOF systems it’s apparent that should any loading coincide
with any of these harmonics, large DAF’s will result (Section 2.d). Thus, some modes
may be critical design cases depending on the type of harmonic loading as will be
seen later.

Example of a 2DOF System
The two-storey building shown (Figure
3.2) has very stiff floor slabs relative to the
supporting columns. Calculate the natural
frequencies and mode shapes.

3 2
4.5 10 kNm
c
EI = ×
Figure 3.2: Shear frame problem.

Figure 3.3: 2DOF model of the shear frame.

We will consider the free lateral vibrations of the two-storey shear frame idealised as
in Figure 3.3. The lateral, or shear stiffness of the columns is:
1
m
1
( ) u t
2
m
2
( ) u t
1
k
2
k
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D.I.T. Bolton St 24 C. Caprani
1 2 3
6
3
6
12
2
2 12 4.5 10
3
4 10 N/m
c
EI
k k k
h
k

= = =


× × ×
=
= ×

The characteristic polynomial is as given in (3.15) so we have:

6 2 6 2 12
6 4 10 2 12
8 10 5000 4 10 3000 16 10 0
15 10 4.4 10 16 10 0
e e
e e
× ÷ × ÷ ÷ × =

× ÷ × + × =

This is a quadratic equation in
2
e and so can be solved using
6
15 10 a = × ,
10
4.4 10 b = ÷ × and
12
16 10 c = × in the usual expression
2
2
4
2
b b ac
a
e
÷ ± ÷
=
Hence we get
2
1
425.3 e = and
2
2
2508 e = . This may be written:
2
425.3
2508
n
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
hence
20.6
50.1
n
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
rad/s and
3.28
7.97 2
n
t
¦ ¹
= =
´ `
¹ )

f Hz
To solve for the mode shapes, we will use the appropriate form of the equation of
motion, equation (3.13):
2
e ÷

K M a = 0 . First solve for the
2
e = ÷

E K M matrix
and then solve Ea = 0 for the amplitudes
n
a . Then, form
n
.
In general, for a 2DOF system, we have:
2
1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0
n
n n
n
k k k m k k m k
k k m k k m
e
e
e
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= ÷ =

÷ ÷ ÷

E
For
2
1
425.3 e = :
6
1
5.8735 4
10
4 2.7241
÷
= ×

÷

E
Hence
1 6
1 1
2
5.8735 4 0
10
4 2.7241 0
a
a
÷ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
= =
´ ` ´ `

÷
¹ ) ¹ )
E a
Taking either equation, we calculate:
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D.I.T. Bolton St 25 C. Caprani
1 2 1 2
1 1
1 2 1 2
5.8735 4 0 0.681 1
4 2.7241 0 0.681 0.681
a a a a
a a a a
÷
÷ = ¬ = ¹ ¦ ¹
=
` ´ `
÷ + = ¬ =
¹ ) )

Similarly for
2
2
2508 e = :
6
2
4.54 4
10
4 3.524
÷ ÷
= ×

÷ ÷

E
Hence, again taking either equation, we calculate:
1 2 1 2
2 1
1 2 1 2
4.54 4 0 0.881 1
4 3.524 0 0.881 0.881
a a a a
a a a a
÷
÷ ÷ = ¬ = ÷ ¹ ¦ ¹
=
` ´ `
÷ ÷ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
¹ ) )

The complete solution may be given by the following two matrices which are used in
further analysis for more complicated systems.

2
425.3
2508
n
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
and
1 1
1.468 1.135

=

÷

For our frame, we can sketch these two frequencies and associated mode shapes:
Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.4: Mode shapes and frequencies of the example frame.
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D.I.T. Bolton St 26 C. Caprani
Larger and more complex structures will have many degrees of freedom and hence
many natural frequencies and mode shapes. There are different mode shapes for
different forms of deformation; torsional, lateral and vertical for example. Periodic
loads acting in these directions need to be checked against the fundamental
frequency for the type of deformation; higher harmonics may also be important.

As an example; consider a 2DOF idealisation of a cantilever which assumes stiffness
proportional to the static deflection at 0.5L and L as well as half the cantilever mass
‘lumped’ at the midpoint and one quarter of it lumped at the tip. The mode shapes are
shown in Figure 3.5. In Section 4(a) we will see the exact mode shape for this – it is
clear that the approximation is rough; but, with more DOFs it will approach a better
solution.

Mode 1
Mode 2
Figure 3.5: Lumped mass, 2DOF idealisation of a cantilever.

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D.I.T. Bolton St 27 C. Caprani
Case Study – Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland
Returning to the case study in Section 1, we will look at the results of some research
conducted into the behaviour of this bridge which forms part of the current research
into lateral synchronise excitation discovered on the London Millennium footbridge.
This is taken from a paper by Dr. Paul Archbold, formerly of University College
Dublin.

Table 1 gives the first 14 mode and associated frequencies from both direct
measurements of the bridge and from finite-element modelling of it. The type of mode
is also listed; L is lateral, V is vertical and T is torsional. It can be seen that the
predicted frequencies differ slightly from the measured; however, the modes have
been estimated in the correct sequence and there may be some measurement error.

We can see now that (from Section 1) as a person walks at about 2.8 Hz, there are a
lot of modes that may be excited by this loading. Also note that the overall
fundamental mode is lateral – this was the reason that this bridge has been analysed
–it is similar to the Millennium footbridge in this respect. Figure 1.7 illustrates the
dynamic motion due to a person walking on this bridge – this is probably caused by
the third or fourth mode. Several pertinent mode shapes are given in Figure 3.7.

Mode Mode
Type
Measured
Frequency
(Hz)
Predicted
Frequency
(Hz)
1 L1 0.98 1.14 +16%
2 V1 1.52 1.63 +7%
3 V2 1.86 1.94 +4%
4 V3 2.49 2.62 +5%
5 L2 2.73 3.04 +11%
6 V4 3.01 3.11 +3%
7 V5 3.50 3.63 +4%
8 V6 3.91 4.00 +2%
9 T1 3.48 4.17 20%
10 V7 4.40 4.45 +1%
11 V8 4.93 4.90 -1%
12 T2 4.29 5.20 +21%
13 L3 5.72 5.72 +0%
14 T3 5.72 6.07 +19%

Table 1: Modal frequencies Figure 3.6: Undeformed shape
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D.I.T. Bolton St 28 C. Caprani
Mode 1:
1
st
Lateral mode
1.14 Hz
Mode 2:
1
st
Vertical mode
1.63 Hz
Mode 3:
2
nd
Vertical mode
1.94 Hz
Mode 9:
1
st
Torsional mode
4.17 Hz
Figure 3.7: Various Modes of Aberfeldy footbridge.
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D.I.T. Bolton St 29 C. Caprani
4. Continuous Structures

a. Exact Analysis for Beams

General Equation of Motion
Figure 4.1: Basic beam subjected to dynamic loading: (a) beam properties and
coordinates; (b) resultant forces acting on the differential element.

In examining Figure 4.1, as with any continuous structure, it may be seen that any
differential element will have an associated stiffness and deflection – which changes
with time – and hence a different acceleration. Thus, any continuous structure has an
infinite number of degrees of freedom. Discretization into an MDOF structure is
certainly an option and is the basis for finite-element dynamic analyses; the more
DOF’s used the more accurate the model (Section 3.b). For some basic structures
though, the exact behaviour can be explicitly calculated. We will limit ourselves to
free-undamped vibration of beams that are thin in comparison to their length. A
general expression can be derived and from this, several usual cases may be
established.
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D.I.T. Bolton St 30 C. Caprani
Figure 4.2: Instantaneous dynamic deflected position.

Consider the element A of Figure 4.1(b); 0
y
F =
¯
, hence:
( )
( )
( )
,
, , 0
I
V x t
p x t dx dx f x t dx
x
c
÷ ÷ =
c
(4.1)
after having cancelled the common ( ) , V x t shear term. The resultant transverse
inertial force is (mass × acceleration; assuming constant mass):
( )
( )
2
2
,
,
I
v x t
f x t dx mdx
t
c
=
c
(4.2)
Thus we have, after dividing by the common dx term:

( )
( )
( )
2
2
, ,
,
V x t v x t
p x t m
x t
c c
= ÷
c c
(4.3)
which, with no acceleration, is the usual static relationship between shear force and
applied load. By taking moments about the point A on the element, and dropping
second order and common terms, we get the usual expression:
( )
( ) ,
,
M x t
V x t
x
c
=
c
(4.4)
Differentiating this with respect to x and substituting into (4.3), in addition to the
relationship
2
2
v
M EI
x
c
=
c
(which assumes that the beam is of constant stiffness):

( ) ( )
( )
4 2
4 2
, ,
,
v x t v x t
EI m p x t
x t
c c
+ =
c c
(4.5)
With free vibration this is:

( ) ( )
4 2
4 2
, ,
0
v x t v x t
EI m
x t
c c
+ =
c c
(4.6)

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D.I.T. Bolton St 31 C. Caprani
General Solution for Free-Undamped Vibration
Examination of equation (4.6) yields several aspects:
• It is separated into spatial ( x ) and temporal ( t ) terms and we may assume that
the solution is also;
• It is a fourth-order differential in x ; hence we will need four spatial boundary
conditions to solve – these will come from the support conditions at each end;
• It is a second order differential in t and so we will need two temporal initial
conditions to solve – initial deflection and velocity at a point for example.
To begin, assume the solution is of a form of separated variables:
( ) ( ) ( ) , v x t x Y t o = (4.7)
where ( ) x o will define the deformed shape of the beam and ( ) Y t the amplitude of
vibration. Inserting the assumed solution into (4.6) and collecting terms we have:

( )
( )
( )
( )
4 2
2
4 2
1 1
constant
x Y t
EI
m x x Y t t
o
e
o
c c
= ÷ = =
c c
(4.8)
This follows as the terms each side of the equals are functions of x and t separately
and so must be constant. Hence, each function type (spatial or temporal) is equal to
2
e and so we have:

( )
( )
4
2
4
x
EI m x
x
o
e o
c
=
c
(4.9)
( ) ( )
2
0 Y t Y t e + =

(4.10)
Equation (4.10) is the same as for an SDOF system (equation (2.4)) and so the
solution must be of the same form (equation (2.17)):
( )
0
0
cos sin
Y
Y t Y t t e e
e
| |
= +
|
\ .

(4.11)
In order to evaluate e we will use equation (4.9) and we introduce:

2
4
m
EI
e
o = (4.12)
And assuming a solution of the form ( ) exp( ) x G sx o = , substitution into (4.9) gives:

( ) ( )
4 4
exp 0 s G sx o ÷ = (4.13)
There are then four roots for s and when each is put into (4.13) and added we get:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
exp exp exp exp x G i x G i x G x G x o o o o o = + ÷ + + ÷ (4.14)
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D.I.T. Bolton St 32 C. Caprani
In which the G ’s may be complex constant numbers, but, by using Euler’s
expressions for cos, sin, sinh and cosh we get:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
sin cos sinh cosh x A x A x A x A x o o o o o = + + + ÷ (4.15)
where the A’s are now real constants; three of which may be evaluated through the
boundary conditions; the fourth however is arbitrary and will depend on e .
Simply-supported Beam
Figure 4.3: First three mode shapes and frequency parameters for an s-s beam.

The boundary conditions consist of zero deflection and bending moment at each end:
( ) ( )
2
2
0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t EI t
x
c
= =
c
(4.16)
( ) ( )
2
2
, 0 and , 0
v
v L t EI L t
x
c
= =
c
(4.17)
Substituting (4.16) into equation (4.14) we find
2 4
0 A A = = . Similarly, (4.17) gives:

( )
( )
1 3
2 2
1 3
sin( ) sinh( ) 0
'' sin( ) sinh( ) 0
L A L A L
L A L A L
o o o
o o ì o o
= + =
= ÷ + =
(4.18)
from which, we get two possibilities:
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 33 C. Caprani
3
1
0 2 sinh( )
0 sin( )
A L
A L
o
o
=
=
(4.19)
however, since sinh( ) x ì is never zero,
3
A must be, and so the non-trivial solution
1
0 A = must give us:
sin( ) 0 L o = (4.20)
which is the frequency equation and is only satisfied when L n ì t = . Hence, from
(4.12) we get:

2
n
n EI
L m
t
e
| |
=
|
\ .
(4.21)
and the corresponding modes shapes are therefore:
( )
1
sin
n
n x
x A
L
t
o
| |
=
|
\ .
(4.22)
where
1
A is arbitrary and normally taken to be unity. We can see that there are an
infinite number of frequencies and mode shapes ( n ÷ ·) as we would expect from
an infinite number of DOFs. The first three mode shapes and frequencies are shown
in Figure 4.3.

Cantilever Beam
This example is important as it describes the sway behaviour of tall buildings. The
boundary conditions consist of:
( ) ( ) 0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t t
x
c
= =
c
(4.23)
( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
, 0 and , 0
v v
EI L t EI L t
x x
c c
= =
c c
(4.24)
Which represent zero displacement and slope at the support and zero bending
moment and shear at the tip. Substituting (4.23) into equation (4.14) we get
4 2
A A = ÷
and
3 1
A A = ÷ . Similarly, (4.24) gives:

( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4
3 3 3 3
1 2 3 4
'' sin( ) cos( ) sinh( ) cosh( ) 0
''' cos( ) sin( ) cosh( ) sinh( ) 0
L A L A L A L A L
L A L A L A L A L
o o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o o o
= ÷ ÷ + + =
= ÷ + + + =
(4.25)
where a prime indicates a derivate of x , and so we find:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
sin( ) sinh( ) cos( ) cosh( ) 0
cos( ) cosh( ) sin( ) sinh( ) 0
A L L A L L
A L L A L L
o o o o
o o o o
+ + + =
+ + ÷ + =
(4.26)
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D.I.T. Bolton St 34 C. Caprani
Solving for
1
A and
2
A we find:

( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
2
cos( ) cosh( ) sin( ) sinh( ) sin( ) sinh( ) 0
cos( ) cosh( ) sin( ) sinh( ) sin( ) sinh( ) 0
A L L L L L L
A L L L L L L
o o o o o o
o o o o o o

+ ÷ + ÷ + =


+ ÷ + ÷ + =

(4.27)
In order that neither
1
A and
2
A are zero, the expression in the brackets must be zero
and we are left with the frequency equation:
cos( ) cosh( ) 1 0 L L o o + = (4.28)
The mode shape is got by expressing
2
A in terms of
1
A :
2 1
sin( ) sinh( )
cos( ) cosh( )
L L
A A
L L
o o
o o
+
= ÷
+
(4.29)
and the modes shapes are therefore:
( ) ( )
1
sin( ) sinh( )
sin( ) sinh( ) cosh( ) cos( )
cos( ) cosh( )
n
L L
x A x x x x
L L
o o
o o o o o
o o
+
= ÷ + ÷

+

(4.30)
where again
1
A is arbitrary and normally taken to be unity. We can see from (4.28)
that it must be solved numerically for the corresponding values of L o The natural
frequencies are then got from (4.21) with the substitution of L o for nt . The first
three mode shapes and frequencies are shown in Figure 4.4.
Figure 4.4: First three mode shapes and frequency parameters for a cantilever.
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D.I.T. Bolton St 35 C. Caprani
b. Approximate Analysis – Bolton’s Method

We will now look at a simplified method that requires an understanding of dynamic
behaviour but is very easy to implement. The idea is to represent, through various
manipulations of mass and stiffness, any complex structure as a single SDOF system
which is easily solved via an implementation of equation (1.2):

1
2
E
E
K
f
M t
= (4.31)
in which we have equivalent SDOF stiffness and mass terms.

Consider a mass-less cantilever which carries two different masses, Figure 4.5:
Figure 4.5: Equivalent dynamic mass distribution for a cantilever.

The end deflection of a cantilever loaded at its end by a force P is well known to be
3
3
PL
EI
and hence the stiffness is
3
3EI
L
. Therefore, the frequencies of the two
cantilevers of Figure 4.5 are:

1 3
1
1 3
;
2
EI
f
M x t
= and
3
1 3
;
2
E
E
EI
f
M L t
= (4.32) and (4.33)
And so, if the two frequencies are to be equal, and considering
1
M as the mass of a
small element dx when the mass per metre is m, the corresponding part of
E
M is:

3
E
x
dM mdx
L
| |
=
|
\ .
(4.34)
and integrating:

3
0
0.25
L
E
x
M mdx
L
mL
| |
=
|
\ .
=
í
(4.35)
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D.I.T. Bolton St 36 C. Caprani
Therefore the cantilever with self-mass uniformly distributed along its length vibrates
at the same frequency as would the mass-less cantilever loaded with a mass one
quarter its actual mass. This answer is not quite correct but is within 5%; it ignores
the fact that every element affects the deflection (and hence vibration) of every other
element. The answer is reasonable for design though.

Figure 4.6: Equivalent dynamic mass distribution for an s-s beam

Similarly for a simply supported beam, we have an expression for the deflection at a
point:

( )
2
2
3
x
Px L x
EIL
o
÷
= (4.36)
and so its stiffness is:

( )
2
2
3
x
EIL
K
x L x
=
÷
(4.37)
Considering Figure 4.6, we see that, from (4.31):

( )
2 3
2
1
3 48
E
EIL EI
L M
x L x M
=
÷
(4.38)
and as the two frequencies are to be equal:

( )
2
2
4
0
16
8/15
L
E
L x
M x mdx
L
mL
÷
=
=
í
(4.39)
which is about half of the self-mass as we might have guessed.

Proceeding in a similar way we can find equivalent spring stiffnesses and masses for
usual forms of beams as given in Table 1. Table 4.1 however, also includes a
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 37 C. Caprani
refinement of the equivalent masses based on the known dynamic deflected shape
rather than the static deflected shape.

Table 4.1: Bolton’s table for equivalent mass, stiffnesses and relative amplitudes.
Figure 4.7: Effective SDOFs: (a) neglecting relative amplitude; (b) including relative
amplitude.
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D.I.T. Bolton St 38 C. Caprani
In considering continuous beams, the continuity over the supports requires all the
spans to vibrate at the same frequency for each of its modes. Thus we may consider
summing the equivalent masses and stiffnesses for each span and this is not a bad
approximation. It is equivalent to the SDOF model of Figure 4.7(a). But, if we allowed
for the relative amplitude between the different spans, we would have the model of
Figure 4.7(b) which would be more accurate – especially when there is a significant
difference in the member stiffnesses and masses: long heavy members will have
larger amplitudes than short stiff light members due to the amount of kinetic energy
stored. Thus, the stiffness and mass of each span must be weighted by its relative
amplitude before summing. Consider the following examples of the beam shown in
Figure 4.8; the exact multipliers are known to be 10.30, 13.32, 17.72, 21.67, 40.45,
46.10, 53.89 and 60.53 for the first eight modes.

Figure 4.8: Continuous beam of Examples 1 to 3.

Example 1: Ignoring relative amplitude and refined M
E
From Table 4.1, and the previous discussion:
( )
3
48 3 101.9
E
EI
K
L
= × +
¯
; and
8 1
3
15 2
E
M mL
| |
= × +
|
\ .
¯
,
and applying (4.31) we have: ( )
4
1
10.82
2
EI
f
mL t
=
The multiplier in the exact answer is 10.30: an error of 5%.

Example 2: Including relative amplitude and refined M
E
From Table 4.1 and the previous discussion, we have:
3 3 3
48 101.9
3 1 0.4108 185.9
E
EI EI EI
K
L L L
= × × + × =
¯
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D.I.T. Bolton St 39 C. Caprani
3 0.4928 1 0.4299 0.4108 1.655
E
M mL mL mL = × × + × =
¯
and applying (4.31) we have:
( )
4
1
10.60
2
EI
f
mL t
=
The multiplier in the exact answer is 10.30: a reduced error of 2.9%.

Example 3: Calculating the frequency of a higher mode
Figure 4.9: Assumed mode shape for which the frequency will be found.

The mode shape for calculation is shown in Figure 4.7. We can assume supports at
the midpoints of each span as they do not displace in this mode shape. Hence we
have seven simply supported half-spans and one cantilever half-span, so from Table
4.1 we have:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3
3
48 101.9
7 1 0.4108
0.5 0.5
3022.9
7 0.4928 0.5 1 0.4299 0.5 0.4108
1.813
E
E
EI EI
K
L L
EI
L
M m L m L
mL
= × × + ×
=
= × × + ×
=
¯
¯
again, applying (4.31), we have:
( )
4
1
40.8
2
EI
f
mL t
=
The multiplier in the exact answer is 40.45: and error of 0.9%.

Mode Shapes and Frequencies
Section 2.d described how the DAF is very large when a force is applied at the
natural frequency of the structure; so for any structure we can say that when it is
vibrating at its natural frequency it has very low stiffness – and in the case of no
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 40 C. Caprani
damping: zero stiffness. Higher modes will have higher stiffnesses but stiffness may
also be recognised in one form as

1 M
EI R
= (4.40)
where R is the radius of curvature and M is bending moment. Therefore, smaller
stiffnesses have a larger R and larger stiffnesses have a smaller R . Similarly then,
lower modes have a larger R and higher modes have a smaller R . This enables us
to distinguish between modes by their frequencies. Noting that a member in single
curvature (i.e. no point of contraflexure) has a larger R than a member in double
curvature (1 point of contraflexure) which in turn has a larger R than a member in
triple curvature (2 points of contraflexure), we can distinguish modes by deflected
shapes. Figures 4.3 and 4.4 illustrate this clearly.
Figure 4.10: Typical modes and reduced structures.

An important fact may be deduced from Figure 4.10 and the preceding arguments: a
continuous beam of any number of identical spans has the same fundamental
frequency as that of one simply supported span: symmetrical frequencies are
similarly linked. Also, for non-identical spans, symmetry may exist about a support
and so reduced structures may be used to estimate the frequencies of the total
structure; reductions are shown in Figure 4.10(b) and (d) for symmetrical and anti-
symmetrical modes.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 41 C. Caprani
Examples:
Example 4.1:
Calculate the first natural frequency of a simply supported bridge of mass 7
tonnes with a 3 tonne lorry at its quarter point. It is known that a load of 10 kN
causes a 3 mm deflection.
Ans.: 3.95Hz.
Example 4.2:
Calculate the first natural frequency of a 4 m long cantilever (EI = 4,320 kNm
2
)
which carries a mass of 500 kg at its centre and has self weight of 1200 kg.
Ans.: 3.76 Hz.
Example 4.3:
What is the fundamental frequency of a 3-span continuous beam of spans 4, 8
and 5 m with constant EI and m? What is the frequency when EI = 6×10
3
kNm
2
and m = 150 kg/m?
Ans.: 6.74 Hz.
Example 4.4:
Calculate the first and second natural frequencies of a two-span continuous
beam; fixed at A and on rollers at B and C. Span AB is 8 m with flexural
stiffness of 2EI and a mass of 1.5m. Span BC is 6 m with flexural stiffness EI
and mass m per metre. What are the frequencies when EI = 4.5×10
3
kNm
2
and m = 100 kg/m?
Ans.: 9.3 Hz; ? Hz.
Example 4.5:
Calculate the first and second natural frequencies of a 4-span continuous
beam of spans 4, 5, 4 and 5 m with constant EI and m? What are the
frequencies when EI = 4×10
3
kNm
2
and m = 120 kg/m? What are the new
frequencies when support A is fixed? Does this make it more or less
susceptible to human-induced vibration?
Ans.: ? Hz; ? Hz.

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D.I.T. Bolton St 42 C. Caprani
5. Practical Design Considerations

a. Human Response to Dynamic Excitation
Figure 5.1: Equal sensation contours for vertical vibration

The response of humans to vibrations is a complex phenomenon involving the
variables of the vibrations being experienced as well as the perception of it. It has
been found that the frequency range between 2 and 30 Hz is particularly
uncomfortable because of resonance with major body parts (Figure 5.2). Sensation
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D.I.T. Bolton St 43 C. Caprani
contours for vertical vibrations are shown in Figure 5.1. This graph shows that for a
given frequency, as the amplitude gets larger it becomes more uncomfortable; thus it
is acceleration that is governing the comfort. This is important in the design of tall
buildings which sway due to wind loading: it is the acceleration that causes
discomfort. This may also be realised from car-travel: at constant velocity nothing is
perceptible, but, upon rapid acceleration the motion if perceived ( F ma = ).

Figure 5.2: Human body response to vibration

Response graphs like Figure 5.1 have been obtained for each direction of vibration
but vertical motion is more uncomfortable for standing subjects; for the transverse
and longitudinal cases, the difference has the effect of moving the illustrated bands
up a level. Other factors are also important: the duration of exposure; waveform
(which is again linked to acceleration); type of activity; and, psychological factors. An
example is that low frequency exposure can result in motion sickness.

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D.I.T. Bolton St 44 C. Caprani
b. Crowd/Pedestrian Dynamic Loading

Lightweight Floors
Figure 5.3: Recommended vibration limits for light floors.

Vibration limits for light floors from the 1984 Canadian Standard is shown in Figure
5.2; the peak acceleration is got from:
( )
0
0.9 2
I
a f
M
t = (5.1)
where I is the impulse (the area under the force time graph) and is about 70 Ns and
M is the equivalent mass of the floor which is about 40% of the distributed mass.

This form of approach is to be complemented by a simple analysis of an equivalent
SDOF system. Also, as seen in Section 1, by keeping the fundamental frequency
above 5 Hz, human loading should not be problematic.
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D.I.T. Bolton St 45 C. Caprani
Crowd Loading
This form of loading occurs in grandstands and similar structures where a large
number of people are densely packed and will be responding to the same stimulus.
Coordinated jumping to the beat of music, for example, can cause a DAF of about
1.97 at about 2.5 Hz. Dancing, however, normally generates frequencies of 2 – 3 Hz.
Once again, by keeping the natural frequency of the structure above about 5 Hz no
undue dynamic effects should be noticed.

In the transverse or longitudinal directions, allowance should also be made due to the
crowd-sway that may accompany some events a value of about 0.3 kN per metre of
seating parallel and 0.15 kN perpendicular to the seating is an approximate method
for design.

Staircases can be subject to considerable dynamic forces as running up or down
such may cause peak loads of up to 4-5 times the persons bodyweight over a period
of about 0.3 seconds – the method for lightweight floors can be applied to this
scenario.

Footbridges
As may be gathered from the Case Studies of the Aberfeldy Bridge, the problem is
complex, however some rough guidelines are possible. Once again controlling the
fundamental frequency is important; the lessons of the London Millennium and the
Tacoma Narrows bridges need to be heeded though: dynamic effects may occur in
any direction or mode that can be excited by any form of loading.

An approximate method for checking foot bridges is the following:

max st
u u Kv = (5.2)
where
st
u is the static deflection under the weight of a pedestrian at the point of
maximum deflection; K is a configuration factor for the type of structure (given in
Table 5.1); and v is the dynamic response factor got again from Figure 5.4. The
maximum acceleration is then got as
2
max max
u u e = (see equations (2.30) and (3.11)
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D.I.T. Bolton St 46 C. Caprani
for example, note:
2
2 f e t = ). This is then compared to a rather simple rule that the
maximum acceleration of footbridge decks should not exceed 0.5 f ± .
Alternatively, BD 37/01 states:
“For superstructures for which the fundamental natural frequency of vibration
exceeds 5Hz for the unloaded bridge in the vertical direction and 1.5 Hz for
the loaded bridge in the horizontal direction, the vibration serviceability
requirement is deemed to be satisfied.” – Appendix B.1 General.
Adhering to this clause (which is based on the discussion of Section 1’s Case Study)
is clearly the easiest option.

Also, note from Figure 5.4 the conservative nature of the damping assumed, which,
from equation (2.35) can be seen to be so based on usual values of damping in
structures.
Table 5.1: Configuration factors for footbridges.

Table 5.2: Values of the logarithmic decrement for different bridge types.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 47 C. Caprani
Figure 5.4: Dynamic response factor for footbridges

Design Example
A simply-supported footbridge of 18 m span has a total mass of 12.6 tonnes and
flexural stiffness of 3×10
5
kNm
2
. Determine the maximum amplitude of vibration and
vertical acceleration caused by a 0.7 kN pedestrian walking in frequency with the
bridge: the pedestrian has a stride of 0.9 m and produces an effective pulsating force
of 180 N. Assume the damping to be related to 0.05 o = . Is this a comfortable bridge
for the pedestrian (Figure 5.1)?

The natural frequency of the bridge is, from equations (2.19) and (4.21):

8
2
3 10
3.17 Hz
2 18 12600/18
f
t ×
= =
×
The static deflection is:

3
8
700 18
0.2835 mm
48 3 10
st
u
×
= =
× ×

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 48 C. Caprani
Table 5.1 gives 1 K = and Figure 5.4 gives 6.8 v = and so, by (5.2) we have:

max
0.2835 1.0 6.8 1.93 mm u = × × =
and so the maximum acceleration is:
( )
2
2 3 2
max max
2 3.17 1.93 10 0.78 m/s u u e t
÷
= = × × × =
We compare this to the requirement that:
max
2
0.5
0.5
0.78 0.89 m/s
u f
f
s
s
s

And so we deem the bridge acceptable. From Figure 5.1, with the amplitude 1.93 mm
and 3.17 Hz frequency, we can see that this pedestrian will feel decidedly
uncomfortable and will probably change pace to avoid this frequency of loading.

The above discussion, in conjunction with Section 2.d reveals why, historically,
soldiers were told to break step when crossing a slender bridge – unfortunately for
some, it is more probable that this knowledge did not come from any detailed
dynamic analysis; rather, bitter experience.

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D.I.T. Bolton St 49 C. Caprani
c. Damping in Structures
The importance of damping should be obvious by this stage; a slight increase may
significantly reduce the DAF at resonance, equation (2.47). It was alluded to in
Section 1 that the exact nature of damping is not really understood but that it has
been shown that our assumption of linear viscous damping applies to the majority of
structures – a notable exception is soil-structure interaction in which alternative
damping models must be assumed. Table 5.3 gives some typical damping values in
practice. It is notable that the materials themselves have very low damping and thus
most of the damping observed comes from the joints and so can it depend on:
• The materials in contact and their surface preparation;
• The normal force across the interface;
• Any plastic deformation in the joint;
• Rubbing or fretting of the joint when it is not tightened.

Table 5.4: Recommended values of damping.

When the vibrations or DAF is unacceptable it is not generally acceptable to detail
joints that will have higher damping than otherwise normal – there are simply too
many variables to consider. Depending on the amount of extra damping needed, one
could wait for the structure to be built and then measure the damping, retro-fitting
vibration isolation devices as required. Or, if the extra damping required is significant,
the design of a vibration isolation device may be integral to the structure.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 50 C. Caprani
The devices that may be installed vary; some are:
• Tuned mass dampers (TMDs): a relatively small mass is attached to the primary
system and is ‘tuned’ to vibrate at the same frequency but to oppose the primary
system;
• Sloshing dampers: A large water tank is used – the sloshing motion opposes the
primary system motion due to inertial effects;
• Liquid column dampers: Two columns of liquid, connected at their bases but at
opposite sides of the primary system slosh, in a more controlled manner to
oppose the primary system motion.

These are the approaches taken in many modern buildings, particularly in Japan and
other earthquake zones. The Citicorp building in New York (which is famous for other
reasons also) and the John Hancock building in Boston were among the first to use
TMDs. In the John Hancock building a concrete block of about 300 tonnes located on
the 54
th
storey sits on a thin film of oil. When the building sways the inertial effects of
the block mean that it moves in the opposite direction to that of the sway and so
opposes the motion (relying heavily on a lack of friction). This is quite a rudimentary
system compared to modern systems which have computer controlled actuators that
take input from accelerometers in the building and move the block an appropriate
amount.

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D.I.T. Bolton St 51 C. Caprani
d. Design Rules of Thumb
General
The structure should not have any modal frequency close to the frequency of any
form of periodic loading, irrespective of magnitude. This is based upon the large
DAFs that may occur (Section 2.d).

For normal floors of span/depth ratio less than 25 vibration is not generally a
problem. Problematic floors are lightweight with spans of over about 7 m.

Human loading
Most forms of human loading occur at frequencies < 5 Hz (Sections 1 and 5.a) and
so any structure of natural frequency greater than this should not be subject to undue
dynamic excitation.

Machine Loading
By avoiding any of the frequencies that the machine operates at, vibrations may be
minimised. The addition of either more stiffness or mass will change the frequencies
the structure responds to. If the response is still not acceptable vibration isolation
devices may need to be considered (Section 5.c).

Approximate Frequencies
The Bolton Method of Section 4.b is probably the best for those structures outside
the standard cases of Section 4.a. Careful thought on reducing the size of the
problem to an SDOF system usually enables good approximate analysis.

Other methods are:
• Structures with concentrated mass:
1
2
g
f
t o
=
• Simplified rule for most structures:
18
f
o
=
where o is the static deflection and g is the acceleration under gravity.

Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 52 C. Caprani
Rayleigh Approximation
A method developed by Lord Rayleigh (which is always an upper bound), based on
energy methods, for estimating the lowest natural frequency of transverse beam
vibration is:

2
2
2
2 0
1
2
0
L
L
d y
EI dx
dx
y dm
e
| |
|
\ .
=
í
í
(5.3)
This method can be used to estimate the fundamental frequency of MDOF systems.
Considering the frame of Figure 5.5, the fundamental frequency in each direction is
given by:

2
1 2 2
i i i i
i i
i i i i
i i
Qu mu
g g
Qu mu
e = =
¯ ¯
¯ ¯
(5.4)
where
i
u is the static deflection under the dead load of the structure
i
Q , acting in the
direction of motion, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the first mode is
approximated in shape by the static deflection under dead load. For a building, this
can be applied to each of the X and Y directions to obtain the estimates of the
fundamental sway modes.

Figure 5.5: Rayleigh approximation for the fundamental sway frequencies of a
building.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 53 C. Caprani
Figure 5.6: Rayleigh method for approximating bridge fundamental frequencies.

Likewise for a bridge, by applying the dead load in each of the vertical and horizontal
directions, the fundamental lift and drag modes can be obtained. The torsional mode
can also be approximated by applying the dead load at the appropriate radius of
gyration and determining the resulting rotation angle, Figure 5.6.

This method is particularly useful when considering the results of a detailed analysis,
such as finite-element. It provides a reasonable approximate check on the output.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 54 C. Caprani
6. Appendix

a. References
The following books/articles were referred to in the writing of these notes; particularly
Clough & Penzien (1993), Smith (1988) and Bolton (1978) - these should be referred
to first for more information. There is also a lot of information and software available
online; the software can especially help intuitive understanding. The class notes of
Mr. R. Mahony (D.I.T.) and Dr. P. Fanning (U.C.D.) were also used.
1. Archbold, P., (2002), “Modal Analysis of a GRP Cable-Stayed Bridge”,
Proceedings of the First Symposium of Bridge Engineering Research In
Ireland, Eds. C. McNally & S. Brady, University College Dublin.
2. Beards, C.F., (1983), Structural Vibration Analysis: modelling, analysis and
damping of vibrating structures, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
3. Bhatt, P., (1999), Structures, Longman, Harlow, England.
4. Bolton, A., (1978), “Natural frequencies of structures for designers”, The
Structural Engineer, Vol. 56A, No. 9, pp. 245-253; Discussion: Vol. 57A, No. 6,
p.202, 1979.
5. Bolton, A., (1969), “The natural frequencies of continuous beams”, The
Structural Engineer, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp.233-240.
6. Case, J., Chilver, A.H. and Ross, C.T.F., (1999), Strength of Materials and
Structures, 4th edn., Arnold, London.
7. Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J., (1993), Dynamics of Structures, 2nd edn.,
McGraw-Hill, New York.
8. Cobb, F. (2004), Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book, Elsevier, Oxford.
9. Craig, R.R., (1981), Structural Dynamics – An introduction to computer
methods, Wiley, New York.
10. Ghali, A. and Neville, A.M., (1997), Structural Analysis – A unified classical
and matrix approach, 4th edn., E&FN Spon, London.
11. Irvine, M., (1986), Structural Dynamics for the Practising Engineer, Allen &
Unwin, London.
12. Kreyszig, E., (1993), Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 7th edn., Wiley.
13. Smith, J.W., (1988), Vibration of Structures – Applications in civil engineering
design, Chapman and Hall, London.
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 55 C. Caprani
b. Important Formulae
Section 2: SDOF Systems
Fundamental equation of motion
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) mu t cu t ku t F t + + =
Equation of motion for free vibration
2
( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 0 u t u t u t ce e + + =
Relationship between frequency, circular frequency,
period, stiffness and mass: Fundamental frequency
for an SDOF system.
1 1
2 2
k
f
T m
e
t t
= = =
Coefficient of damping 2
c
m
ce =
Circular frequency
2
k
m
e =
Damping ratio
cr
c
c
c =
Critical value of damping 2 2
cr
c m km e = =
General solution for free-undamped vibration
( ) ( ) cos u t t p e u = +
2
2 0
0
;
u
u p
e
| |
= +
|
\ .

0
0
tan
u
u
u
e
÷
=

Damped circular frequency, period and frequency
2
1
d
e e c = ÷
2
;
d
d
T
t
e
=
2
d
d
f
e
t
=
General solution for free-damped vibrations
( ) ( ) cos
t
d
u t e t
ce
p e u
÷
= +
2
2 0 0
0
;
d
u u
u
ce
p
e
| | +
= +
|
\ .

0 0
0
tan
d
u u
u
ce
u
e
÷
=

Logarithmic decrement of damping
ln 2
n
n m d
u
m
u
e
o tc
e
+
= =
Half-amplitude method
0.11
m
c ~ when 0.5
n m n
u u
+
=
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 56 C. Caprani
Amplitude after p-cycles
1
p
n
n p n
n
u
u u
u
+
+
| |
=
|
\ .
Equation of motion for forced response (sinusoidal)
0
( ) ( ) ( ) sin mu t cu t ku t F t + + = O
General solution for forced-damped vibration
response and frequency ratio
( ) ( ) sin
p
u t t p u = O ÷
( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2 0
1 2 ;
F
k
p | c|
÷

= ÷ +



2
2
tan
1
c|
u
|
=
÷
|
e
O
=
Dynamic amplification factor (DAF)
( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2
DAF 1 2 D | c|
÷

÷ = ÷ +


Section 3: MDOF Systems
Fundamental equation of motion Mu +Cu +Ku = F
Equation of motion for undamped-free
vibration
Mu + Ku = 0
General solution and derivates for free-
undamped vibration
( ) sin t e o + u = a
( )
2 2
sin t e e o e ÷ + = ÷ u = a u
Frequency equation
2
e ÷

K M a = 0
General solution for 2DOF system
1 1 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 2
0 0
0 0
m u k k k u
m u k k u
+ ÷ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
+ =
´ ` ´ ` ´ `

÷
¹ ) ¹ ) ¹ )

Determinant of 2DOF system from
Cramer’s rule
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2
0 k k m k m k e e e ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ =

K M =
Composite matrix
2
e = ÷

E K M
Amplitude equation Ea = 0
Section 4: Continuous Structures
Equation of motion
( ) ( )
( )
4 2
4 2
, ,
,
v x t v x t
EI m p x t
x t
c c
+ =
c c

Assumed solution for free-undamped
vibrations
( ) ( ) ( ) , v x t x Y t o =
Structural Dynamics

D.I.T. Bolton St 57 C. Caprani
General solution
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
3 4
sin cos
sinh cosh
x A x A x
A x A x
o o o
o o
= +
+ +

Boundary conditions for a simply
supported beam
( ) ( )
2
2
0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t EI t
x
c
= =
c
( ) ( )
2
2
, 0 and , 0
v
v L t EI L t
x
c
= =
c
Frequencies of a simply supported beam
2
n
n EI
L m
t
e
| |
=
|
\ .

Mode shape or mode n: (A
1
is normally
unity)
( )
1
sin
n
n x
x A
L
t
o
| |
=
|
\ .
Cantilever beam boundary conditions
( ) ( ) 0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t t
x
c
= =
c
( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
, 0 and , 0
v v
EI L t EI L t
x x
c c
= =
c c

Frequency equation for a cantilever
cos( ) cosh( ) 1 0 L L o o + =
Cantilever mode shapes ( )
( )
1
sin( ) sinh( )
sin( ) sinh( )
cos( ) cosh( )
cosh( ) cos( )
n
x x
L L
x A
L L
x x
o o
o o
o
o o
o o

÷ +

+

= ×

+

÷

Bolton method general equation
1
2
E
E
K
f
M t
=
Section 5: Practical Design
Peak acceleration under foot-loading
( )
0
0.9 2
I
a f
M
t =
70 Ns I ~ 40% mass per unit area M ~
Maximum dynamic deflection
max st
u u Kv =
Maximum vertical acceleration
2
max max
u u e =
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Structural Dynamics

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Structural Dynamics

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Structural Dynamics

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Structural Dynamics

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Structural Dynamics

Contents
1. Introduction to Structural Dynamics 2. Single Degree-of-Freedom Systems
a. Fundamental Equation of Motion b. Free Vibration of Undamped Structures c. Free Vibration of Damped Structures d. Forced Response of an SDOF System

1 8

3. Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems
a. General Case (based on 2DOF) b. Free-Undamped Vibration of 2DOF Systems

20

4. Continuous Structures
a. Exact Analysis for Beams b. Approximate Analysis – Bolton’s Method

28

5. Practical Design
a. Human Response to Dynamic Excitation b. Crowd/Pedestrian Dynamic Loading c. Damping in Structures d. Rules of Thumb for Design

42

6. Appendix
a. References b. Important Formulae c. Important Tables and Figures

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D.I.T. Bolton St

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Structural Dynamics

1. Introduction to Structural Dynamics
Modern structures are increasingly slender and have reduced redundant strength due to improved analysis and design methods. Such structures are increasingly responsive to the manner in which loading is applied with respect to time and hence the dynamic behaviour of such structures must be allowed for in design; as well as the usual static considerations. In this context then, the word dynamic simply means “changes with time”; be it force, deflection or any other form of load effect. Examples of dynamics in structures are: Soldiers breaking step as they cross a bridge to prevent harmonic excitation; The Tacoma Narrows Bridge footage, failure caused by vortex shedding; the London Millennium Footbridge: lateral synchronise excitation.

k

m
(a) Figure 1.1 The most basic dynamic system is the mass-spring system. An example is shown in Figure 1.1(a) along with the structural idealisation of it in Figure 1.1(b). This is known as a Single Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) system as there is only one possible displacement: that of the mass in the vertical direction. SDOF systems are of great D.I.T. Bolton St 1 C. Caprani (b)

2) D. Bolton St 2 C. and we denote it T. denoted f.3. equation (2.Structural Dynamics importance as they are relatively easily analysed mathematically.T. and is measured in Hertz (cycles per second).2 If we consider a spring-mass system as shown in Figure 1. it is the time taken for a single oscillation.19)) for a spring-mass system that: f = 1 2 k m (1.2 for example).3 with the properties m = 10 kg and k = 100 N/m and if give the mass a deflection of 20 mm and then release it (i. Figure 1. set it in motion) we would observe the system oscillating as shown in Figure 1. and structures usually dealt with by Structural Engineers can be modelled approximately using an SDOF model (see Figure 1. Caprani .e.I. are easy to understand intuitively.1) We will show (Section 2. Thus we can say: f = 1 T (1. From this figure we can identify that the time between the masses recurrence at a particular location is called the period of motion or oscillation or just the period.b. The number of oscillations per second is called the frequency.

to the full 2 N load.5 4 k = 100 N/m m = 10 kg Period T Figure 1.Structural Dynamics In our system: f = And from equation (1.503 We can see from Figure 1. Bolton St 3 C. 3.3 that this is indeed the period observed.5 1 1. D. the rate at which this load is applied will have an effect of the dynamics of the system.987 secs f 0.I.503 Hz 10 T= 1 1 = = 1.1): 1 2 100 = 0. As noted previously. given that the spring stiffness is 100 N/m. 5 and 10 seconds. Would you expect the system to behave the same in the following cases? If a 2 N weight was dropped onto the mass from a very small height? If 2 N of sand was slowly added to a weightless bucket attached to the mass? Assuming a linear increase of load.T. the deflections of the system are shown in Figure 1.4. 25 20 15 Displacement (mm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 Tim e (s) 0 0. Caprani . over periods of 1.3 To reach the deflection of 20 mm just applied.5 2 2. we had to apply a force of 2 N.5 3 3.

D. large dynamic effects occur. that is.1 Hz load. a 0. 0.5 Hz in our case). or above the natural frequency of the system (0. when the frequency of loading is less than the natural frequency of the system little dynamic effects are noticed – most clearly seen via the 10 second rampup of the load.2 and 0.Structural Dynamics Dynamic Effect of Load Application Duration 40 35 30 Deflection (mm) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim e (s) 12 14 16 18 20 1-sec 3-sec 5-sec 10-sec Figure 1.T. when the frequency of loading (1. Bolton St 4 C.4 Remembering that the period of vibration of the system is about 2 seconds.3.I. 0. we can see that when the load is applied faster than the period of the system. Caprani . we can see that the dynamic effects are large. Conversely.1 Hz for our sample loading rates) is close to. Stated another way.

Scotland Aberfeldy footbridge is a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) cable-stayed bridge over the River Tay on Aberfeldy golf course in Aberfeldy. tests have shown that the natural frequency of this bridge is 1.T.I. also. this often results in dynamically lively structures. Caprani .52 Hz.5). Pedestrian loading D.658 seconds.Structural Dynamics Case Study – Aberfeldy Footbridge. Bolton St 5 C. Its main span is 63 m and its two side spans are 25 m.6: Force-time curves for walking: (a) Normal pacing. (b) Fast pacing Footbridges are generally quite light structures as the loading consists of pedestrians. Figure 1. Scotland (Figure 1. giving a period of oscillation of 0.5: Aberfeldy Footbridge Figure 1.

35 seconds. from about 0.8 Hz) is slower than the natural period of vibration of 0. Figure 1. in other words the loading may be considered to be applied statically.7: Mid-span deflection (mm) as a function of distance travelled (m). D. Figure 1.6). Bolton St 6 C.I.2 seconds (5 Hz) and hence there will not be much dynamic effect resulting. When we compare this to the natural frequency of Aberfeldy footbridge we can see that pedestrian loading has a higher frequency than the natural frequency of the bridge – thus.86 Hz (Figure 1.65 to 1.35 seconds load application (or 2. a period of 0.Structural Dynamics varies as a person walks. The reasons for this are apparent after our discussion: a 0.2 seconds.3 times the weight of the person over a period of about 0.T. that is. that is. a loading frequency of about 2. from our previous discussion we would expect significant dynamic effects to results from this. Design codes generally require the natural frequency for footbridges and other pedestrian traversed structures to be greater than 5 Hz.7 shows the response of the bridge (at the midspan) when a pedestrian crosses the bridge: significant dynamics are apparent. Caprani .

fortunately theoretical damping has been shown to match real structures quite well. Bolton St 7 C. it can be seen that the oscillations die out quite rapidly – this obviously depends on the level of damping. Examples are friction losses at any connection to or in the system and internal energy losses of the materials due to thermo-elasticity.7 shows the vibrations dying down quite soon after the pedestrian has left the main span of Aberfeldy bridge . Figure 1.8 shows the Undamped response of our model along with the Damped response. D.3 and 1. If you have ever cantilevered a ruler off the edge of a desk and flicked it you would have seen it vibrate for a time but certainly not indefinitely. the frog should oscillate indefinitely. buildings do not vibrate indefinitely after an earthquake.Structural Dynamics Look again at the frog in Figure 1. according to the results obtained so far which are graphed in Figures 1.clearly there is another action opposing or “damping” the vibration of structures. Caprani .T.1. Figure 1.I. The exact nature of damping is difficult to define.4. Damped and Undamped Response 25 20 15 Displacement (mm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 Time (s) Undamped Damped 0 5 10 15 20 k = 100 N/m m = 10 kg Figure 1.8 Damping occurs in structures due to energy loss mechanisms that exist in the system. hysteresis and intergranular bonds.

1) Noting that: Fstiffness = ku Fdamping = cu Finertia = mu (2. stiffness × displacement. we write the alternative formulation: D. Bolton St 8 C.T. we have the fundamental equation of motion: mu (t ) + cu (t ) + ku (t ) = F (t ) (2. F (t ) . We can write the following symbolic equation: Fapplied = Fstiffness + Fdamping + Finertia (2. noting that the displacement. a force proportional to acceleration (D’Alambert’s inertial force).2) that is. Caprani .1.I. damping coefficient × velocity and mass × acceleration respectively. 3. (b) Free-body diagram of forces Considering Figure 2. Thus. In the case of free vibration when there is no external force. 2. a force proportional to displacement (the usual static stiffness). velocity and acceleration are all functions of time.3) This is the standard form of the equation. Note also that u represents displacement from the equilibrium position and that the dots over u represent the first and second derivatives with respect to time. a force proportional to velocity (the damping force). the forces resisting the applied loading are considered as: 1. Single Degree-of-Freedom Systems a. Fundamental Equation of Motion u(t) k m c (a) mu F (t ) cu ku F (t ) (b) Figure 2.Structural Dynamics 2.1: (a) SDOF system.

No oscillatory response occurs.11) the solutions to this equation are the two roots: 1.2 = = 2 ± ± 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 (2. 3.7) and (2.6) where = c . In considering free vibration only.4) is of a form u = Ce t (2. m 2 u (t ) + 2 u (t ) = 0 (2. 2 = c . No oscillatory response occurs.I.12) 1 Therefore the solution depends on the magnitude of 1. ccr = 2m = 2 km ccr (2.10) For this to be valid for all values of t. 2. we will see what these terms physically mean.4) = k m (2. to the critical value of the damping coefficient ccr .9) and its derivates into (2. We have: Oscillatory response only occurs when this is the case – as it is for almost all structures.9) =0 When we substitute (2. the general solution to (2. Caprani .8) is called the undamped circular natural frequency and its units are radians per second (rad/s). D. is the damping ratio which is the ratio of the damping coefficient. < 1 : Sub-critical damping or under-damped. = 1 : Critical damping.5) and (2. c . > 1 : Super-critical damping or over-damped. we get the characteristic equation: 2 +2 + =0 (2. Bolton St 9 C. relative to 1.T.Structural Dynamics u (t ) + 2 which uses the following notation.4) we get: ( 2 +2 + 2 ) Ce 2 t (2.

we see that ( t1 + T ) = system is: t1 + 2 (Figure 2.Structural Dynamics b. where i = 1 . The importance of this equation is that it shows the natural frequency of structures to be proportional to k m .T.14) (2.4).12) which then become: u (t ) + 2 2 u (t ) = 0 2 (2.16) where A and B are constants to be obtained from the initial conditions of the system and so: u ( t ) = u0 cos t + u0 sin t (2.1 so = 0 in equations (2. (2.18) and (2.13) (2. Noting that cosine and sine are functions that repeat with period 2 .13) and by using Euler’s equation we get the general solution: u ( t ) = A cos t + B sin t (2.2). problems with dynamic behaviour can be minimized.18) The natural frequency of the system is got from (1. D. Bolton St 10 C.6): f = 1 1 = = T 2 2 k m (2.15) + =0 1.19) and so we have proved (1.11) and (2.I. This knowledge can aid a designer in addressing problems with resonance in structures: by changing the stiffness or mass of the structure.3) and so the undamped natural period of the SDOF T= 2 (2.1). Free Vibration of Undamped Structures We will examine the case when there is no damping on the SDOF system of Figure 2.2 = ±i respectively. Caprani . Using these roots in (2. (2.17) where u0 and u0 are the initial displacement and velocity of the system respectively.

u0 = 50mm/s . Using A and B as calculated earlier for the A initial conditions. both given by: (2. Figure 2.5 2 2. D.2 shows the free-vibration response of a spring-mass system for various initial states of the system.T. The cosine addition rule may also be used to show that equation (2.5 4 m = 10 kg -20 (a) Time (s) (b) (c) -30 Figure 2.20) where C = A2 + B 2 and tan = B .2: SDOF free vibration response for (a) u0 = 20mm . this is obviously an important characteristic to calculate. (b) u0 = 0 .23) u0 2 .Structural Dynamics 30 20 k = 100 N/m Displacement (mm) 10 0 0 -10 0.I. Figure 2. we then have: u (t ) = where cos ( t + ) u0 u0 (2. tan = The phase angle determines the amount by which u (t ) lags behind the function cos t .5 3 3.16) can be written in the form: u (t ) = C cos ( t + ) (2. and (c) u0 = 20mm . u0 = 0 .21) is the amplitude of displacement and = u + 2 0 is the phase angle.5 1 1. Bolton St 11 C. It can be seen from (b) and (c) that when u0 0 the amplitude of displacement is not that of the initial displacement. Caprani .3 shows the general case.22) and (2. u0 = 50mm/s .

100 kN Example 2. and (d) the time at which the third maximum peak occurs.3 Undamped free-vibration response Examples Example 2. (a) Find the natural frequency. (c) the amplitude of vibration. 8 m wide single-bay single-storey frame is rigidly jointed with a beam of mass 5.666 Hz. Ans: 4.502 sec. 3.Structural Dynamics Figure 2.222 sec. Given that the mass of the tank is 150 tonnes.T.1 A harmonic oscillation test gave the natural frequency of a water tower to be 0. Caprani . 25.91 mm.41 Hz. 1. k = 350 N/m) is given an initial displacement of 10 mm and initial velocity of 100 mm/s.000 kg and columns of negligible mass and stiffness of EIc = 4.I. (b) the period of vibration.285 sec. Bolton St 12 C.2 mm Example 2. Find the force required to deflect the frame 25 mm laterally. 0. Calculate the natural frequency in lateral vibration and its period.3 An SDOF system (m = 20 kg. Ans: 0.502 Hz.5×103 kNm2. Ans: 50. D. what deflection will result if a 50 kN horizontal load is applied? You may neglect the mass of the tower.2 A 3 m high.

fd = d 2 (2. Free Vibration of Damped Structures Figure 2. cases but only when < 1 does an oscillatory response ensue.29) D. We will not examine the critical or super-critical cases.9).25) which has a corresponding damped period and frequency of: Td = 2 d .4. Examples are shown in Figure 2.I. Caprani . we noted previously that there are 3. Bolton St 13 C.Structural Dynamics c.T. when < 1 (2.26) and (2.4: Response with critical or super-critical damping When taking account of damping.27) The general solution to equation (2. using Euler’s formula again. To begin.12) becomes: 1.2 = ±i d (2.24) where d is the damped circular natural frequency given by: d = 1 2 (2. becomes: u (t ) = e t ( A cos d t + B sin d t) (2.28) and again using the initial conditions we get: u (t ) = e t u0 cos d t+ u0 + d d u0 sin d t (2.

5 1 1.Structural Dynamics Using the cosine addition rule again we also have: u (t ) = e In which t cos ( d t+ ) u0 u0 u0 d (2. and (d) = 0. the damped and undamped properties of the systems are very similar for these structures.5 shows the dynamic response of the SDOF model shown.32) correspond to those of the undamped case looked at previously when 25 20 15 Displacement (mm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 Time (s) (a) (b) (c) (d) 0 0.32) Equations (2.28) to (2.T. tan = (2.31) and (2. (c) = 0.1 .5 . Caprani .5 3 3. Bolton St 14 C. Thus.I. D. It may be clearly seen that damping has a large effect on the dynamic response of the system – even for small values of . m = 10 kg k = 100 N/m varies Figure 2.30) = u + 2 0 u0 + d u0 2 . Figure 2.05 .5 4 = 0. We will discuss damping in structures later but damping ratios for structures are usually in the range 0.5 to 5%.6 shows the general case of an under-critically damped system.5 2 2.5: SDOF free vibration response for: (a) = 0 . (b) = 0. Figure 2.

36) and so.37) D.I. un and un + m . Bolton St 15 C. m cycles apart. Using equation (2. occur at times nT and ( n + m ) T respectively.30) we can get the ratio of these two peaks as: un 2m = exp un + m (2.Structural Dynamics Figure 2.35) ) " 1 + 2m (2. normal in structural engineering. Taking the natural log of both sides we get the logarithmic decrement of damping.33) d where exp ( x ) e x . Caprani . un = e! " exp ( 2m un + m (2. " un un + m 2m u n + m (2. defined as: ! = ln un = 2m un + m (2. ! .34) d for low values of damping.6: General case of an under-critically damped system. we see that two successive peaks.6. we can approximate this: ! " 2m thus.T. Estimating Damping in Structures Examining Figure 2.

2.488 Hz.6 Workers’ movements on a platform (8 × 6 m high.236 Hz.T. and (c) calculate the undamped natural frequency and period. Assuming that the stiffness of the columns cannot change. On the first return swing a deflection of 19.5un m (2. m = 200 kN) are causing large dynamic motions. 0. (b) use the half amplitude method to calculate the damping ratio. Ans: 5. Then.447 sec. we can find the amplitude after p cycles from two instances of equation (2.I. 11. 7. (b) the damping ratio.3 sec.367 kg·s/m. and (e) the amplitude after 5 cycles. a jack applied a load of 100 kN and then instantaneously released. Caprani . Example 2. (c) the coefficient of damping. 0. using (2. known as the Half-Amplitude Method.4 For the frame of Example 2.2 ) when the amplitudes of peaks m cycles apart is known. What tie diameter is required? Ans: 28. A quick way of doing this.0512.5 From the response time-history of an SDOF system given. (d) the undamped frequency and period. if we know the amplitudes of two successive cycles (and so m = 1 ). find (a) the effective weight of the beam. 0. D.04.36): un + p u = n +1 un p un (2.2228 sec. that is un + m = 0.11 mm. Bolton St 16 C.38) Further.1 mm.9 sec. The period of motion was measured at 0.039 kg. 0.11 when un + m = 0.24 Hz. is to count the number of peaks it takes to halve the amplitude. Diagonal remedial ties (E = 200 kN/mm2) are to be installed to reduce the natural period to 0. 4. (a) estimate the damped natural frequency. An engineer investigated and found the natural period in sway to be 0. 2. Ans: 2.39) Examples Example 2.223 sec.5un . (see handout sheet for figure) Example 2.44 mm was noted.Structural Dynamics This equation can be used to estimate damping in structures with light damping ( < 0.37) we get: " 0.

representing the steady-state harmonic response of the system to the applied load. To begin. We will now consider the case when a time varying load is applied to the system.I. Forced Response of an SDOF System k c u(t) m F (t ) = F0 sin #t Figure 2. This is the response we will be interested in as it will account for any resonance between the forcing function and the system. We will confine ourselves to the case of harmonic or sinusoidal loading though there are obviously infinitely many forms that a time-varying load may take – refer to the references (Appendix .6.42) C.41) After substitution in (2.40) has two parts: • (2. u p ( t ) . • The particular solution. The transient response may be thought of as the vibrations caused by the initial application of the load. the structure has been set vibrating by an initial displacement for example.40) and separating the equation by sine and cosine terms. similar to (2.3) we have: mu (t ) + cu (t ) + ku (t ) = F0 sin #t The solution to equation (2. Caprani .a) for more.28). we u p (t ) = D.40) The complementary solution.Structural Dynamics d. Bolton St sin ( #t 17 ) (2. The particular solution will have the form u p ( t ) = A cos #t + B sin #t solve for A and B to get and follow the procedure of (2.7: SDOF undamped system subjected to harmonic excitation So far we have only considered free vibration. we note that the forcing function F ( t ) has excitation amplitude of F0 and an excitation circular frequency of # and so from the fundamental equation of motion (2. which represents the transient response of the system which damps out by exp ( t ) .21) to get: (2.T.

45) the maximum response of the system will come at sin ( #t ) =1 and dividing (2.I. tan = 2 % 1 %2 (2. Caprani . D. Bolton St 18 C.46) (2.44) where the phase angle is limited to 0 < < and the ratio of the applied load frequency to the natural undamped frequency is: %= # (2.8: Variation of DAF with damping and frequency ratios.T.43) and (2.Structural Dynamics In which = F0 k ( 1 %2 ) 2 + (2 % ) 2 12 .47) D% =1 = 1 2 Figure 2.42) by the static deflection F0 k we can get the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) of the system as: DAF D = 1 %2 ( ) + (2 % ) 2 2 12 (2.

D.92 mm.Structural Dynamics Figure 2.5 kN at a frequency of 1. this phase relationship allows the accurate measurements of the natural frequencies of structures. It can also be seen that for low values of damping.1 gave the natural frequency based on this type of test. (a) What is the steady-state amplitude of vibration if the damping ratio is 4%? (b) What would the steady-state amplitude be if the forcing frequency was in resonance with the structure? Ans: 2.600 kg is place in the middle (point C) of an 8 m long simply supported beam (EI = 8×103 kNm2) of negligible mass.66 mm. % = 1 .47).75 Hz.34 mm. That is. 22.44) that when % = 1 . Measurement of Natural Frequencies It may be seen from (2.7 rpm. Examples Example 2.7 The frame of examples 2.I.8 shows the effect of the frequency ratio % on the DAF. 36. For the case of no damping.8 An air conditioning unit of mass 1. The machine exerts a periodic force of 8. 206. The mass of this machine is 4 tonnes and is in addition to the mass of the beam. Resonance is the phenomenon that occurs when the forcing frequency coincides with that of the natural frequency. Bolton St 19 C. determine the steady-state amplitude and deflection at C. Example 2.4 has a reciprocating machine put on it. normal in structures. equation (2.56 mm. Assuming a damping ratio of 5%.02 then the dynamic amplification factor will be 25. for example if = 0.41 mm. 26. What rpm will result in resonance and what is the associated deflection? Ans: 1. we change the input frequency # in small increments until we can identify a peak response: the value of # at the peak response is then the natural frequency of the system.2 and 2.T. Caprani . Example 2. = 2 . very high DAFs occur. The motor runs at 300 rpm and produces an unbalanced load of 120 kg. the DAF goes to infinity theoretically at least.

General Case (based on 2DOF) u1 (t ) k1 c1 m1 u2 (t ) F1 (t ) k2 c2 m2 F2 (t ) (a) m1u1 c1u1 k1u1 m1 F1 c2 k2 u u m2u2 c2 u k2 u m2 F2 (b) (c) Figure 3. Re-arranging we get: u1m1 u2 m2 +u1 ( c1 + c2 ) +u1 ( c2 ) +u2 ( c2 ) +u2 ( c2 ) +u1 ( k2 ) +u1 ( k1 + k2 ) +u2 ( k 2 ) +u2 ( k 2 ) = F1 = F2 (3. Fx = 0 . forces and deflections may all differ in properties. from the same figure.2) u and u to In which we have dropped the time function indicators and allowed absorb the directions of the interaction forces. (b) and (c) Free-body diagrams of forces Considering Figure 3.1: (a) 2DOF system.3) D.T. Also. hence: m1u1 + c1u1 + k1u1 + c2 ( u1 u2 ) + k2 ( u1 u2 ) = F1 m2u2 + c2 ( u2 u1 ) + k2 ( u2 u1 ) = F2 (3.1) (3. Bolton St 20 C. we can see the interaction forces between the masses will result from the relative deflection between the masses. the change in distance between them.I. Caprani . we can see that the forces that act on the masses are similar to those of the SDOF system but for the fact that the springs.1. For each mass. masses.Structural Dynamics 3. Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems a. dashpots.

is the vector of displacements for each DOF. is the vector of velocity for each DOF. is the vector of the accelerations for each DOF.4) Or another way: Mu + Cu + Ku = F (3.T.5) where: M u C u K is the mass matrix (diagonal matrix). is the load vector. Bolton St 21 C. is the damping matrix (symmetrical matrix). is the stiffness matrix (symmetrical matrix).7) (3.8) (3. D.6) (3. Caprani .9) Undamped free vibration: Mu + Ku = 0 Undamped forced vibration: Mu + Ku = F Static analysis: Ku = F We will restrict our attention to the case of undamped free-vibration – equation (3.I.Structural Dynamics This can be written in matrix form: m1 0 0 m2 u1 c +c + 1 2 u2 c2 c2 c2 u1 k +k + 1 2 u2 k2 k2 k2 u1 F = 1 u2 F2 (3. u F Equation (3.5) is quite general and reduces to many forms of analysis: Free vibration: Mu + Cu + Ku = 0 (3.7) as the inclusion of damping requires an increase in mathematical complexity which would distract from our purpose.

in order for (3.13) We note that in a dynamics problem the amplitudes of each DOF will be non-zero. this means there are two values of 2 ( 2 1 and 2 2 ) that will satisfy the relationship.14) For the 2DOF system. we will not know the absolute values of the amplitudes as it is a free-vibration problem. so following that method (equation (2.11) Then. substitution of (3. The solutions of called the characteristic polynomial of 2 to this equation are the eigenvalues of K M . However. In addition we see that the problem is a standard 2 eigenvalues problem.42)). This means that each frequency will have its own characteristic displaced shape of the degrees of freedoms called the mode shape. a 0 in general.T.11) into (3.7) follows the same methodology as for the SDOF case. For each 2 n substituted back into (3. by Cramer’s rule.15) leads to an equation in the system.15) Expansion of (3.I.13). There will be two solutions or roots of the characteristic polynomial in this case and an n-DOF system has n solutions to its characteristic polynomial. hence. Free-Undamped Vibration of 2DOF Systems The solution to (3. From 2 u= a sin ( t + )= 2 u (3. Caprani .10) where a is the vector of amplitudes corresponding to each degree of freedom.10) and (3. we will get a certain amplitude vector a n .13) to hold the determinant of K M must then be zero: K 2 M =0 (3.12) Since the sine term is constant for each term: K M a=0 (3.Structural Dynamics b. Hence. we propose a solution of the form: u = a sin ( t + this we get: ) (3. In our case. Bolton St 22 C.7) yields: 2 Ma sin ( t + ) + Ka sin ( 2 t+ )=0 (3. hence we D. thus there are two frequencies for this system (the lowest will be called the fundamental frequency). we have: K 2 M = ( k2 + k1 ) 2 2 m1 2 k2 2 m2 2 k2 = 0 (3.

3: 2DOF model of the shear frame. As we will see in the following example. Figure 3.3. relative to. From our analysis of SDOF systems it’s apparent that should any loading coincide with any of these harmonics. normally.T. but also in higher harmonics. Thus.I. large DAF’s will result (Section 2. Caprani . The lateral.2) has very stiff floor slabs relative to the supporting columns. some modes may be critical design cases depending on the type of harmonic loading as will be seen later. u1 (t ) k1 m1 k2 m2 u2 (t ) Figure 3. the implication of the above is that MDOF systems vibrate. Calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Bolton St 23 C.2: Shear frame problem. Example of a 2DOF System The two-storey building shown (Figure 3. EI c = 4.Structural Dynamics express the mode shapes as a vector of relative amplitudes.5 × 103 kNm 2 n . the first value in a n . or shear stiffness of the columns is: D. We will consider the free lateral vibrations of the two-storey shear frame idealised as in Figure 3.d). not just in the fundamental mode.

we will use the appropriate form of the equation of motion.8735 4 × 106 4 2. form In general. b = 4.15) so we have: 8 ×106 15 × 106 2 4 5000 4 × 106 2 2 3000 16 × 1012 = 0 4.5 × 106 33 = 4 × 106 N/m The characteristic polynomial is as given in (3.97 2 To solve for the mode shapes.3 hence 2508 = 20. we have: .Structural Dynamics 12 EI c h3 k1 = k2 = k = 2 k= 2 ×12 × 4.3 and 2 2 = 2508 .13): K 2 M a = 0 . This may be written: n = 425.28 rad/s and f = n = Hz 50. Then.T.7241 a1 0 = a2 0 Taking either equation.6 3.4 × 1010 and c = 16 × 1012 in the usual expression 2 = b ± b 2 4ac 2a Hence we get 2 n 2 1 = 425.4 × 1010 2 + 16 × 1012 = 0 This is a quadratic equation in and so can be solved using a = 15 × 106 . for a 2DOF system. Caprani . Bolton St 24 C.3 : E1 = Hence 5.7241 E1a1 = 106 5. we calculate: D.I.1 7. First solve for the E = K n 2 M matrix and then solve Ea = 0 for the amplitudes a n .8735 4 4 2. equation (3. En = For 2 1 k1 + k2 k2 k2 k2 2 n m1 0 0 k +k = 1 2 m2 k2 2 n m1 k2 k2 2 n m2 = 425.

again taking either equation. Bolton St 25 C. D.8735a1 4a2 = 0 4a1 + 2.I.881a2 a1 = 0.7241a2 = 0 Similarly for 2 2 a1 = 0. Figure 3.881 1 The complete solution may be given by the following two matrices which are used in further analysis for more complicated systems.135 For our frame.881a2 2 = 1 0.Structural Dynamics 5.54 4 4 × 106 3.524 Hence.681a2 a1 = 0. 2 n = 425.3 and 2508 = 1 1. we can sketch these two frequencies and associated mode shapes: Figure 3. we calculate: 4.54a1 4a2 = 0 4a1 3.468 1 1.T.4.681 1 = 2508 : E2 = 4.524a2 = 0 a1 = 0. Caprani .681a2 1 = 1 0.4: Mode shapes and frequencies of the example frame.

The mode shapes are shown in Figure 3. lateral and vertical for example.Structural Dynamics Larger and more complex structures will have many degrees of freedom and hence many natural frequencies and mode shapes. Caprani . Mode 1 Mode 2 Figure 3. consider a 2DOF idealisation of a cantilever which assumes stiffness proportional to the static deflection at 0. In Section 4(a) we will see the exact mode shape for this – it is clear that the approximation is rough.I. There are different mode shapes for different forms of deformation. Bolton St 26 C. with more DOFs it will approach a better solution. higher harmonics may also be important.T. As an example.5L and L as well as half the cantilever mass ‘lumped’ at the midpoint and one quarter of it lumped at the tip.5: Lumped mass. D. 2DOF idealisation of a cantilever.5. but. Periodic loads acting in these directions need to be checked against the fundamental frequency for the type of deformation. torsional.

91 4. Also note that the overall fundamental mode is lateral – this was the reason that this bridge has been analysed –it is similar to the Millennium footbridge in this respect. It can be seen that the predicted frequencies differ slightly from the measured.63 +4% V6 3.40 4. formerly of University College Dublin.49 2.11 +3% V5 3.29 5. V is vertical and T is torsional.45 +1% V8 4.Structural Dynamics Case Study – Aberfeldy Footbridge.T.73 3. L is lateral. We can see now that (from Section 1) as a person walks at about 2.93 4. Figure 1. Several pertinent mode shapes are given in Figure 3. Bolton St 27 C.04 +11% V4 3. This is taken from a paper by Dr. Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Measured Predicted Frequency Frequency (Hz) (Hz) L1 0.48 4.17 20% V7 4.6: Undeformed shape Table 1 gives the first 14 mode and associated frequencies from both direct measurements of the bridge and from finite-element modelling of it.20 +21% L3 5.07 +19% Table 1: Modal frequencies Mode Type Figure 3.62 +5% L2 2.94 +4% V3 2.98 1.72 +0% T3 5.63 +7% V2 1.86 1.90 -1% T2 4.72 5. we will look at the results of some research conducted into the behaviour of this bridge which forms part of the current research into lateral synchronise excitation discovered on the London Millennium footbridge.14 +16% V1 1.01 3. Scotland Returning to the case study in Section 1.00 +2% T1 3. The type of mode is also listed.7. however. Caprani . the modes have been estimated in the correct sequence and there may be some measurement error.7 illustrates the dynamic motion due to a person walking on this bridge – this is probably caused by the third or fourth mode.I.8 Hz.50 3.72 6. Paul Archbold. there are a lot of modes that may be excited by this loading. D.52 1.

Bolton St 28 C.Structural Dynamics Mode 1: 1st Lateral mode 1.I.17 Hz st Figure 3.94 Hz Mode 9: 1 Torsional mode 4.63 Hz Mode 3: 2nd Vertical mode 1.7: Various Modes of Aberfeldy footbridge.T. D. Caprani .14 Hz Mode 2: 1st Vertical mode 1.

it may be seen that any differential element will have an associated stiffness and deflection – which changes with time – and hence a different acceleration. In examining Figure 4.T.Structural Dynamics 4. as with any continuous structure. Exact Analysis for Beams General Equation of Motion Figure 4.1.1: Basic beam subjected to dynamic loading: (a) beam properties and coordinates. Bolton St 29 C. Discretization into an MDOF structure is certainly an option and is the basis for finite-element dynamic analyses. For some basic structures though.I. any continuous structure has an infinite number of degrees of freedom. We will limit ourselves to free-undamped vibration of beams that are thin in comparison to their length. D. Thus. Caprani .b). several usual cases may be established. the more DOF’s used the more accurate the model (Section 3. A general expression can be derived and from this. (b) resultant forces acting on the differential element. Continuous Structures a. the exact behaviour can be explicitly calculated.

T.1) p ( x. The resultant transverse inertial force is (mass × acceleration. t ) t2 (4. in addition to the relationship M = EI 2 v x2 (which assumes that the beam is of constant stiffness): 4 EI v ( x. By taking moments about the point A on the element. assuming constant mass): f I ( x.2: Instantaneous dynamic deflected position. t ) = M ( x. with no acceleration.4) Differentiating this with respect to x and substituting into (4. t ) x (4. Caprani . Consider the element A of Figure 4. Bolton St 30 C. t ) (4. t ) t2 = p ( x.5) With free vibration this is: 4 EI v ( x. is the usual static relationship between shear force and applied load.2) Thus we have. and dropping second order and common terms. Fy = 0 .I. t ) t2 =0 (4. we get the usual expression: V ( x. t ) x = p ( x. t ) dx = 0 (4.1(b). t ) x 4 2 +m v ( x. t ) dx = mdx 2 v ( x. t ) dx V ( x. after dividing by the common dx term: V ( x.3) which.Structural Dynamics Figure 4. hence: dx f I ( x. t ) x4 2 +m v ( x. t ) m 2 (4. t ) shear term.3).6) D. t ) t2 v ( x. t ) x after having cancelled the common V ( x.

17)): Y ( t ) = Y0 cos t + In order to evaluate Y0 sin t (4. Inserting the assumed solution into (4.14) C. To begin.7) ( x) will define the deformed shape of the beam and Y ( t ) the amplitude of vibration. • It is a second order differential in t and so we will need two temporal initial conditions to solve – initial deflection and velocity at a point for example. assume the solution is of a form of separated variables: v ( x. substitution into (4.6) yields several aspects: • It is separated into spatial ( x ) and temporal ( t ) terms and we may assume that the solution is also. Hence.6) and collecting terms we have: EI m 1 ( x) 4 x ( x) = 4 1 Y (t ) 2 Y (t ) t 2 = constant = 2 (4.8) This follows as the terms each side of the equals are functions of x and t separately and so must be constant.Structural Dynamics General Solution for Free-Undamped Vibration Examination of equation (4.T.9) and we introduce: 4 = m EI 2 (4. each function type (spatial or temporal) is equal to 2 and so we have: 4 EI x ( x) = 4 2 m ( x) (4. hence we will need four spatial boundary conditions to solve – these will come from the support conditions at each end.10) is the same as for an SDOF system (equation (2.13) There are then four roots for s and when each is put into (4. Caprani . t ) = where ( x )Y (t ) (4.9) (4.12) And assuming a solution of the form ( x ) = G exp(sx) .4)) and so the solution must be of the same form (equation (2. Bolton St x) (4.I.9) gives: 4 (s 4 ) G exp ( sx ) = 0 i x ) + G3 exp ( x ) + G4 exp ( 31 (4.11) we will use equation (4. • It is a fourth-order differential in x .10) Y (t ) + 2 Y (t ) = 0 Equation (4.13) and added we get: ( x ) = G1 exp ( i x ) + G2 exp ( D.

the fourth however is arbitrary and will depend on . t ) = 0 and EI v ( L.16) (4.3: First three mode shapes and frequency parameters for an s-s beam. t ) = 0 x2 2 2 (4. sinh and cosh we get: ( x ) = A1 sin ( x ) + A2 cos ( x ) + A3 sinh ( x ) + A4 cosh ( x) (4. The boundary conditions consist of zero deflection and bending moment at each end: v ( 0. t ) = 0 and EI v ( 0. by using Euler’s expressions for cos. Similarly.I.18) C. (4.14) we find A2 = A4 = 0 . sin.15) where the A ’s are now real constants. we get two possibilities: D. t ) = 0 x2 v ( L. but.17) Substituting (4.16) into equation (4. three of which may be evaluated through the boundary conditions. Bolton St 32 L) = 0 (4.T. Simply-supported Beam Figure 4.Structural Dynamics In which the G ’s may be complex constant numbers.17) gives: ( L ) = A1 sin( L) + A3 sinh( L) = 0 '' ( L ) = 2 A1 sin( L) + 2 A3 sinh( from which. Caprani .

24) EI 3 v v L.23) into equation (4. t ) = 0 and 2 v ( 0. The boundary conditions consist of: v ( 0.19) however. Bolton St 33 C.23) (4. since sinh( x) is never zero. (4. Similarly.24) gives: '' ( L ) = ''' ( L ) = 2 3 A1 sin( L) A1 cos( L) + 2 A2 cos( L) + A2 sin( L) + 2 3 A3 sinh( L) + A3 cosh( L) + 2 A4 cosh( L) = 0 A4 sinh( L) = 0 3 3 (4.26) D. t ) = 0 and EI 3 ( L.22) where A1 is arbitrary and normally taken to be unity. Caprani .Structural Dynamics 0 = 2 A3 sinh( L) 0 = A1 sin( L) (4. and so we find: A1 ( sin( L) + sinh( L) ) + A2 ( cos( L) + cosh( L) ) = 0 A1 ( cos( L) + cosh( L) ) + A2 ( sin( L) + sinh( L) ) = 0 (4. t ) = 0 2 ( x x Which represent zero displacement and slope at the support and zero bending moment and shear at the tip. from which is the frequency equation and is only satisfied when (4. Cantilever Beam This example is important as it describes the sway behaviour of tall buildings. t ) = 0 x (4.21) and the corresponding modes shapes are therefore: n ( x ) = A1 sin n x L (4.12) we get: n = n L 2 EI m (4.I.20) L = n .3.T. The first three mode shapes and frequencies are shown in Figure 4.25) where a prime indicates a derivate of x . Hence.14) we get A4 = A2 and A3 = A1 . We can see that there are an infinite number of frequencies and mode shapes ( n ) as we would expect from an infinite number of DOFs. A3 must be. Substituting (4. and so the non-trivial solution A1 0 must give us: sin( L) = 0 (4.

29) and the modes shapes are therefore: n ( x ) = A1 sin( x) sinh( x) + sin( L) + sinh( L) ( cosh( x) cos( x) ) cos( L) + cosh( L) (4.4: First three mode shapes and frequency parameters for a cantilever.28) The mode shape is got by expressing A2 in terms of A1 : A2 = sin( L) + sinh( L) A1 cos( L) + cosh( L) (4.I. the expression in the brackets must be zero and we are left with the frequency equation: cos( L) cosh( L) + 1 = 0 (4. Caprani .4.27) ( cos( L) + cosh( L) ) 2 ( sin( L) + sinh( L) )( sin( L) + sinh( L) ) = 0 In order that neither A1 and A2 are zero. Bolton St 34 C. The first Figure 4. D.21) with the substitution of three mode shapes and frequencies are shown in Figure 4. We can see from (4.28) that it must be solved numerically for the corresponding values of frequencies are then got from (4.T. L The natural L for n .30) where again A1 is arbitrary and normally taken to be unity.Structural Dynamics Solving for A1 and A2 we find: A1 ( cos( L) + cosh( L) ) A2 2 ( sin( L) + sinh( L) )( sin( L) + sinh( L) ) = 0 (4.

and f E = 3 M1 x 2 3EI . Approximate Analysis – Bolton’s Method We will now look at a simplified method that requires an understanding of dynamic behaviour but is very easy to implement.2): f = 1 2 KE ME (4.5: Equivalent dynamic mass distribution for a cantilever. Bolton St 35 C. through various manipulations of mass and stiffness.34) and integrating: L ME = 0 x L 3 mdx (4.35) = 0. The idea is to represent. the frequencies of the two cantilevers of Figure 4.5 are: f1 = 1 2 3EI 1 .T. Figure 4. Therefore.25mL D. and considering M 1 as the mass of a small element dx when the mass per metre is m . M E L3 (4. if the two frequencies are to be equal.5: Figure 4. The end deflection of a cantilever loaded at its end by a force P is well known to be PL3 3EI and hence the stiffness is 3EI L3 .31) in which we have equivalent SDOF stiffness and mass terms.32) and (4. any complex structure as a single SDOF system which is easily solved via an implementation of equation (1. the corresponding part of M E is: dM E = x L 3 mdx (4.I.33) And so. Caprani . Consider a mass-less cantilever which carries two different masses.Structural Dynamics b.

Proceeding in a similar way we can find equivalent spring stiffnesses and masses for usual forms of beams as given in Table 1. This answer is not quite correct but is within 5%. it ignores the fact that every element affects the deflection (and hence vibration) of every other element. we see that. Bolton St 36 C. we have an expression for the deflection at a point: x = Px 2 ( L x ) 3EIL 2 (4. The answer is reasonable for design though. also includes a D.T.Structural Dynamics Therefore the cantilever with self-mass uniformly distributed along its length vibrates at the same frequency as would the mass-less cantilever loaded with a mass one quarter its actual mass.I. from (4. Table 4. Figure 4.1 however.31): 3EIL x ( L x ) M1 2 2 = 48 EI L3 M E (4.39) = 8 /15mL which is about half of the self-mass as we might have guessed.6.37) Considering Figure 4.36) and so its stiffness is: Kx = 3EIL x ( L x) 2 2 (4. Caprani .38) and as the two frequencies are to be equal: L M E = 16 x 0 2 (L x) L4 2 mdx (4.6: Equivalent dynamic mass distribution for an s-s beam Similarly for a simply supported beam.

Figure 4.Structural Dynamics refinement of the equivalent masses based on the known dynamic deflected shape rather than the static deflected shape.1: Bolton’s table for equivalent mass. (b) including relative amplitude. D. Caprani .I.7: Effective SDOFs: (a) neglecting relative amplitude. Table 4.T. Bolton St 37 C. stiffnesses and relative amplitudes.

T.I.30.7(a).7(b) which would be more accurate – especially when there is a significant difference in the member stiffnesses and masses: long heavy members will have larger amplitudes than short stiff light members due to the amount of kinetic energy stored.10. if we allowed for the relative amplitude between the different spans. Consider the following examples of the beam shown in Figure 4.82 ) 1 2 EI mL4 The multiplier in the exact answer is 10. we would have the model of Figure 4. the stiffness and mass of each span must be weighted by its relative amplitude before summing. and L3 M E = mL 3 × 8 1 + .30: an error of 5%. Example 2: Including relative amplitude and refined ME From Table 4. we have: KE = 3× 48 EI 101. Figure 4.8.67. 15 2 and applying (4. Bolton St 38 C.1.4108 = 185.9 EI EI ×1 + × 0. Example 1: Ignoring relative amplitude and refined ME From Table 4. 40.31) we have: f = (10.1 and the previous discussion. Thus. Caprani . 46.72.8: Continuous beam of Examples 1 to 3.9 3 3 3 L L L D. the exact multipliers are known to be 10.89 and 60.32.53 for the first eight modes. 13. the continuity over the supports requires all the spans to vibrate at the same frequency for each of its modes.9 ) . But. It is equivalent to the SDOF model of Figure 4. Thus we may consider summing the equivalent masses and stiffnesses for each span and this is not a bad approximation.Structural Dynamics In considering continuous beams. 17. 53.45. and the previous discussion: KE = EI ( 48 × 3 + 101. 21.

9%.813mL again.4108 EI L3 M E = 7 × 0.4299m ( 0.T.4928m ( 0.5L ) 3 ×1 + 101. Hence we have seven simply supported half-spans and one cantilever half-span.d described how the DAF is very large when a force is applied at the natural frequency of the structure.5 L ) × 0. Caprani .45: and error of 0.60 ) 1 2 EI mL4 The multiplier in the exact answer is 10.4108 = 3022.4299mL × 0.I. we have: f = ( 40.30: a reduced error of 2.4108 = 1.9: Assumed mode shape for which the frequency will be found.5 L ) ×1 + 0.655mL and applying (4.7.Structural Dynamics M E = 3 × 0.31).9 = 1.9%. Mode Shapes and Frequencies Section 2. We can assume supports at the midpoints of each span as they do not displace in this mode shape.9 EI ( 0. so for any structure we can say that when it is vibrating at its natural frequency it has very low stiffness – and in the case of no D. so from Table 4.8 ) 1 2 EI mL4 The multiplier in the exact answer is 40. Bolton St 39 C.5 L ) 3 × 0. Example 3: Calculating the frequency of a higher mode Figure 4.31) we have: f = (10.4928mL ×1 + 0.1 we have: KE = 7 × 48 EI ( 0. The mode shape for calculation is shown in Figure 4. applying (4.

Noting that a member in single curvature (i. we can distinguish modes by deflected shapes. reductions are shown in Figure 4. symmetry may exist about a support and so reduced structures may be used to estimate the frequencies of the total structure.3 and 4.e. Also. Higher modes will have higher stiffnesses but stiffness may also be recognised in one form as M 1 = EI R (4. Caprani . no point of contraflexure) has a larger R than a member in double curvature (1 point of contraflexure) which in turn has a larger R than a member in triple curvature (2 points of contraflexure). smaller stiffnesses have a larger R and larger stiffnesses have a smaller R . Figures 4.I.Structural Dynamics damping: zero stiffness. This enables us to distinguish between modes by their frequencies.4 illustrate this clearly. for non-identical spans.10: Typical modes and reduced structures. Figure 4.40) where R is the radius of curvature and M is bending moment.T. An important fact may be deduced from Figure 4.10(b) and (d) for symmetrical and antisymmetrical modes. lower modes have a larger R and higher modes have a smaller R . Bolton St 40 C. D. Similarly then.10 and the preceding arguments: a continuous beam of any number of identical spans has the same fundamental frequency as that of one simply supported span: symmetrical frequencies are similarly linked. Therefore.

Ans. 8 and 5 m with constant EI and m? What is the frequency when EI = 6×103 kNm2 and m = 150 kg/m? Ans.320 kNm2) which carries a mass of 500 kg at its centre and has self weight of 1200 kg. 5.3 Hz.1: Calculate the first natural frequency of a simply supported bridge of mass 7 tonnes with a 3 tonne lorry at its quarter point.Structural Dynamics Examples: Example 4. fixed at A and on rollers at B and C.: 9. ? Hz. Span AB is 8 m with flexural stiffness of 2EI and a mass of 1. Example 4. 4 and 5 m with constant EI and m? What are the frequencies when EI = 4×103 kNm2 and m = 120 kg/m? What are the new frequencies when support A is fixed? Does this make it more or less susceptible to human-induced vibration? Ans.76 Hz. Ans.I.: 3.95Hz. Example 4.: 6. Bolton St 41 C.5m. Example 4.5: Calculate the first and second natural frequencies of a 4-span continuous beam of spans 4.T. D. What are the frequencies when EI = 4. It is known that a load of 10 kN causes a 3 mm deflection. Example 4. Span BC is 6 m with flexural stiffness EI and mass m per metre. ? Hz. Caprani .: ? Hz.2: Calculate the first natural frequency of a 4 m long cantilever (EI = 4.74 Hz.5×103 kNm2 and m = 100 kg/m? Ans.4: Calculate the first and second natural frequencies of a two-span continuous beam.3: What is the fundamental frequency of a 3-span continuous beam of spans 4.: 3.

Practical Design Considerations a.I.1: Equal sensation contours for vertical vibration The response of humans to vibrations is a complex phenomenon involving the variables of the vibrations being experienced as well as the perception of it. Caprani . Bolton St 42 C.2). Human Response to Dynamic Excitation Figure 5.Structural Dynamics 5. Sensation D. It has been found that the frequency range between 2 and 30 Hz is particularly uncomfortable because of resonance with major body parts (Figure 5.T.

Bolton St 43 C. as the amplitude gets larger it becomes more uncomfortable. thus it is acceleration that is governing the comfort. Caprani .1 have been obtained for each direction of vibration but vertical motion is more uncomfortable for standing subjects. This is important in the design of tall buildings which sway due to wind loading: it is the acceleration that causes discomfort. psychological factors.1.T. waveform (which is again linked to acceleration). Other factors are also important: the duration of exposure.2: Human body response to vibration Response graphs like Figure 5. This may also be realised from car-travel: at constant velocity nothing is perceptible. D. type of activity.Structural Dynamics contours for vertical vibrations are shown in Figure 5. upon rapid acceleration the motion if perceived ( F = ma ). but. for the transverse and longitudinal cases. Figure 5. the difference has the effect of moving the illustrated bands up a level.I. An example is that low frequency exposure can result in motion sickness. and. This graph shows that for a given frequency.

T. D.1) where I is the impulse (the area under the force time graph) and is about 70 Ns and M is the equivalent mass of the floor which is about 40% of the distributed mass. Crowd/Pedestrian Dynamic Loading Lightweight Floors Figure 5. Also. as seen in Section 1. This form of approach is to be complemented by a simple analysis of an equivalent SDOF system. the peak acceleration is got from: a0 = ( 0.Structural Dynamics b. Vibration limits for light floors from the 1984 Canadian Standard is shown in Figure 5. human loading should not be problematic. by keeping the fundamental frequency above 5 Hz.I.3: Recommended vibration limits for light floors.2. Caprani .9 ) 2 f I M (5. Bolton St 44 C.

3 seconds – the method for lightweight floors can be applied to this scenario.2) where ust is the static deflection under the weight of a pedestrian at the point of maximum deflection. by keeping the natural frequency of the structure above about 5 Hz no undue dynamic effects should be noticed.3 kN per metre of seating parallel and 0.1). Footbridges As may be gathered from the Case Studies of the Aberfeldy Bridge. however.15 kN perpendicular to the seating is an approximate method for design.97 at about 2.30) and (3. Once again. normally generates frequencies of 2 – 3 Hz. Caprani . Once again controlling the fundamental frequency is important. can cause a DAF of about 1. An approximate method for checking foot bridges is the following: umax = ust K (5. Staircases can be subject to considerable dynamic forces as running up or down such may cause peak loads of up to 4-5 times the persons bodyweight over a period of about 0. allowance should also be made due to the crowd-sway that may accompany some events a value of about 0.I.4.Structural Dynamics Crowd Loading This form of loading occurs in grandstands and similar structures where a large number of people are densely packed and will be responding to the same stimulus. K is a configuration factor for the type of structure (given in Table 5. the problem is complex. the lessons of the London Millennium and the Tacoma Narrows bridges need to be heeded though: dynamic effects may occur in any direction or mode that can be excited by any form of loading. In the transverse or longitudinal directions. Dancing.T. however some rough guidelines are possible.11) D. and is the dynamic response factor got again from Figure 5. for example. The 2 maximum acceleration is then got as umax = umax (see equations (2. Coordinated jumping to the beat of music. Bolton St 45 C.5 Hz.

Structural Dynamics for example, note:
2

= 2 f ). This is then compared to a rather simple rule that the

maximum acceleration of footbridge decks should not exceed ±0.5 f .

Alternatively, BD 37/01 states: “For superstructures for which the fundamental natural frequency of vibration exceeds 5Hz for the unloaded bridge in the vertical direction and 1.5 Hz for the loaded bridge in the horizontal direction, the vibration serviceability requirement is deemed to be satisfied.” – Appendix B.1 General. Adhering to this clause (which is based on the discussion of Section 1’s Case Study) is clearly the easiest option. Also, note from Figure 5.4 the conservative nature of the damping assumed, which, from equation (2.35) can be seen to be so based on usual values of damping in structures.

Table 5.1: Configuration factors for footbridges.

Table 5.2: Values of the logarithmic decrement for different bridge types. D.I.T. Bolton St 46 C. Caprani

Structural Dynamics

Figure 5.4: Dynamic response factor for footbridges Design Example A simply-supported footbridge of 18 m span has a total mass of 12.6 tonnes and flexural stiffness of 3×105 kNm2. Determine the maximum amplitude of vibration and vertical acceleration caused by a 0.7 kN pedestrian walking in frequency with the bridge: the pedestrian has a stride of 0.9 m and produces an effective pulsating force of 180 N. Assume the damping to be related to for the pedestrian (Figure 5.1)? The natural frequency of the bridge is, from equations (2.19) and (4.21): f = The static deflection is: ust = D.I.T. Bolton St 700 × 183 = 0.2835 mm 48 × 3 × 108 47 C. Caprani 2 × 182 3 × 108 = 3.17 Hz 12600 /18
= 0.05 . Is this a comfortable bridge

Structural Dynamics Table 5.1 gives K = 1 and Figure 5.4 gives
= 6.8 and so, by (5.2) we have:

umax = 0.2835 × 1.0 × 6.8 = 1.93 mm and so the maximum acceleration is:
umax =
2

umax = ( 2 × 3.17 ) × 1.93 × 10 3 = 0.78 m/s 2
2

We compare this to the requirement that: umax 0.5 f 0.5 f 0.78 0.89 m/s 2 And so we deem the bridge acceptable. From Figure 5.1, with the amplitude 1.93 mm and 3.17 Hz frequency, we can see that this pedestrian will feel decidedly uncomfortable and will probably change pace to avoid this frequency of loading. The above discussion, in conjunction with Section 2.d reveals why, historically, soldiers were told to break step when crossing a slender bridge – unfortunately for some, it is more probable that this knowledge did not come from any detailed dynamic analysis; rather, bitter experience.

D.I.T. Bolton St

48

C. Caprani

the design of a vibration isolation device may be integral to the structure. Rubbing or fretting of the joint when it is not tightened. The normal force across the interface.4: Recommended values of damping. Depending on the amount of extra damping needed.47). D. Any plastic deformation in the joint. It is notable that the materials themselves have very low damping and thus most of the damping observed comes from the joints and so can it depend on: • • • • The materials in contact and their surface preparation. retro-fitting vibration isolation devices as required. if the extra damping required is significant. Caprani . Or. Damping in Structures The importance of damping should be obvious by this stage. Table 5. one could wait for the structure to be built and then measure the damping.T. Bolton St 49 C. It was alluded to in Section 1 that the exact nature of damping is not really understood but that it has been shown that our assumption of linear viscous damping applies to the majority of structures – a notable exception is soil-structure interaction in which alternative damping models must be assumed. equation (2.Structural Dynamics c.3 gives some typical damping values in practice.I. a slight increase may significantly reduce the DAF at resonance. Table 5. When the vibrations or DAF is unacceptable it is not generally acceptable to detail joints that will have higher damping than otherwise normal – there are simply too many variables to consider.

This is quite a rudimentary system compared to modern systems which have computer controlled actuators that take input from accelerometers in the building and move the block an appropriate amount. D.T.I. connected at their bases but at opposite sides of the primary system slosh. In the John Hancock building a concrete block of about 300 tonnes located on the 54th storey sits on a thin film of oil.Structural Dynamics The devices that may be installed vary. Liquid column dampers: Two columns of liquid. in a more controlled manner to oppose the primary system motion. The Citicorp building in New York (which is famous for other reasons also) and the John Hancock building in Boston were among the first to use TMDs. Bolton St 50 C. particularly in Japan and other earthquake zones. Sloshing dampers: A large water tank is used – the sloshing motion opposes the primary system motion due to inertial effects. When the building sways the inertial effects of the block mean that it moves in the opposite direction to that of the sway and so opposes the motion (relying heavily on a lack of friction). Caprani . some are: • Tuned mass dampers (TMDs): a relatively small mass is attached to the primary system and is ‘tuned’ to vibrate at the same frequency but to oppose the primary system. • • These are the approaches taken in many modern buildings.

Approximate Frequencies The Bolton Method of Section 4.d).c). D.I. The addition of either more stiffness or mass will change the frequencies the structure responds to. irrespective of magnitude. Other methods are: • Structures with concentrated mass: f = Simplified rule for most structures: f = 1 2 g • 18 where is the static deflection and g is the acceleration under gravity.Structural Dynamics d. Machine Loading By avoiding any of the frequencies that the machine operates at. If the response is still not acceptable vibration isolation devices may need to be considered (Section 5. Design Rules of Thumb General The structure should not have any modal frequency close to the frequency of any form of periodic loading. For normal floors of span/depth ratio less than 25 vibration is not generally a problem.b is probably the best for those structures outside the standard cases of Section 4. Problematic floors are lightweight with spans of over about 7 m.a) and so any structure of natural frequency greater than this should not be subject to undue dynamic excitation. Careful thought on reducing the size of the problem to an SDOF system usually enables good approximate analysis. This is based upon the large DAFs that may occur (Section 2.a. Bolton St 51 C. vibrations may be minimised. Human loading Most forms of human loading occur at frequencies < 5 Hz (Sections 1 and 5. Caprani .T.

acting in the direction of motion.5: Rayleigh approximation for the fundamental sway frequencies of a building.4) where ui is the static deflection under the dead load of the structure Qi . Figure 5. Bolton St 52 C.I. based on energy methods. for estimating the lowest natural frequency of transverse beam vibration is: L 2 2 1 = d2y EI dx 2 0 L dx (5. this can be applied to each of the X and Y directions to obtain the estimates of the fundamental sway modes. D. For a building.T. the first mode is approximated in shape by the static deflection under dead load.3) y dm 0 2 This method can be used to estimate the fundamental frequency of MDOF systems.5. Caprani . Considering the frame of Figure 5. Thus. and g is the acceleration due to gravity. the fundamental frequency in each direction is given by: 2 1 =g Qi ui i Qi ui2 i =g mi ui i mi ui2 i (5.Structural Dynamics Rayleigh Approximation A method developed by Lord Rayleigh (which is always an upper bound).

Bolton St 53 C. It provides a reasonable approximate check on the output. D. Caprani . This method is particularly useful when considering the results of a detailed analysis. by applying the dead load in each of the vertical and horizontal directions.Structural Dynamics Figure 5. the fundamental lift and drag modes can be obtained. Figure 5.I.6.6: Rayleigh method for approximating bridge fundamental frequencies. Likewise for a bridge.T. such as finite-element. The torsional mode can also be approximated by applying the dead load at the appropriate radius of gyration and determining the resulting rotation angle.

and Ross. (2002). New York. London. M.. and Neville.C. (1993). Cobb. 4. Elsevier.I. Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book. Brady. Caprani . (1969). England. Ghali. Wiley. Clough.Structural Dynamics 6. and Penzien. Craig. pp. A. Structural Dynamics – An introduction to computer methods. (1993). Dynamics of Structures. McNally & S. Kreyszig. C. particularly Clough & Penzien (1993). Bhatt. D... 2nd edn. P. No. 3. Beards. “The natural frequencies of continuous beams”.. (1981). 7. 7th edn. (1983). 5. New York.) were also used. Smith (1988) and Bolton (1978) . C.D. Smith. R.. 9. Structural Dynamics for the Practising Engineer. Chapman and Hall. Bolton. A.W. Bolton St 54 C. No. Vol. 8. Wiley. Archbold. Case. Advanced Engineering Mathematics.I. Vol. A.. University College Dublin.) and Dr. Irvine. Allen & Unwin. 12. J. 1979. 6..these should be referred to first for more information.. (1999).... 245-253. Mahony (D.W.202. (1986). 13. (1997). No. Vibration of Structures – Applications in civil engineering design.F.233-240. 57A. Chichester. R. 1. Longman. 4th edn. p.T. “Modal Analysis of a GRP Cable-Stayed Bridge”. Ellis Horwood. Strength of Materials and Structures. 56A.. London. The Structural Engineer. Structural Analysis – A unified classical and matrix approach. Oxford.R. Harlow. R. “Natural frequencies of structures for designers”. 11.T. Structures. (1988). Structural Vibration Analysis: modelling.. 6. A. J. 2. 9. Proceedings of the First Symposium of Bridge Engineering Research In Ireland.. analysis and damping of vibrating structures. References The following books/articles were referred to in the writing of these notes. Arnold. E. England. F.T.. J. C.. Fanning (U.M. pp. 6. the software can especially help intuitive understanding. 47. Chilver. (1978). The class notes of Mr. (2004). Eds. Discussion: Vol. E&FN Spon. London. P. 4th edn. London.. There is also a lot of information and software available online. P. A. The Structural Engineer.F. 10. (1999). Appendix a. McGraw-Hill.H. Bolton.

Important Formulae Section 2: SDOF Systems Fundamental equation of motion Equation of motion for free vibration Relationship between frequency. tan = d 1 2 Damped circular frequency. Coefficient of damping Circular frequency Damping ratio Critical value of damping 2 2 mu (t ) + cu (t ) + ku (t ) = F (t ) u (t ) + 2 u (t ) + 2 u (t ) = 0 f = 1 1 = = T 2 2 = c m k m = k m = c ccr ccr = 2m = 2 km u (t ) = cos ( t + 2 0 ) u0 u0 General solution for free-undamped vibration = u + = 2 d u0 2 . circular frequency.5un m D. u0 + d u0 General solution for free-damped vibrations tan = = ln u 0 u0 u0 d Logarithmic decrement of damping Half-amplitude method un = 2m un + m d 0. fd = t d 2 d u (t ) = e = u + 2 0 cos ( t+ 2 ) .Structural Dynamics b.11 when un + m = 0. stiffness and mass: Fundamental frequency for an SDOF system. period and frequency Td = . Bolton St 55 C. Caprani .I.T. period.

Caprani . Bolton St 56 C.T.Structural Dynamics p Amplitude after p-cycles Equation of motion for forced response (sinusoidal) un + p u = n +1 un un mu (t ) + cu (t ) + ku (t ) = F0 sin t u p (t ) = General solution for forced-damped vibration response and frequency ratio = F0 k sin ( t ) + (2 ( 1 2 ) 2 ) 2 12 .I.u = a sin ( t + undamped vibration Frequency equation General solution for 2DOF system Determinant of 2DOF system from Cramer’s rule Composite matrix Amplitude equation E= K Ea = 0 2 ) )= 2 u= K 2 a sin ( t + M a=0 u 2 m1 0 K 0 u1 k +k + 1 2 m2 !u2 " k2 2 k2 u1 0 = k2 !u2 " !0 " 2 M = ( k2 + k1 ) M m1 k2 2 m2 2 k2 = 0 Section 4: Continuous Structures Equation of motion Assumed solution for free-undamped vibrations EI # 4 v ( x. t ) #x 4 +m # 2 v ( x. t ) = ( x )Y (t ) D. t ) #t 2 = p ( x. t ) v ( x. tan = 2 1 2 = 2 Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) DAF D= 1 ( ) 2 + (2 ) 2 12 Section 3: MDOF Systems Fundamental equation of motion Equation of motion for undamped-free vibration Mu + Cu + Ku = F Mu + Ku = 0 General solution and derivates for free.

t ) = 0 #x n ( x ) = A1 sin v ( 0.T. t ) = 0 and EI v ( L.I. t ) = 0 #x 2 Frequencies of a simply supported beam Mode shape or mode n: (A1 is normally unity) n EI m n x L #v ( 0. Caprani . Bolton St 57 C.Structural Dynamics General solution ( x ) = A1 sin ($ x ) + A2 cos ($ x ) + A3 sinh ($ x ) + A4 cosh ($ x ) v ( 0.9 ) 2 f I M Peak acceleration under foot-loading I & 70 Ns M & 40% mass per unit area Maximum dynamic deflection Maximum vertical acceleration BD37/01 requirement for vertical acceleration umax = ust K' umax = 2 umax ±0. t ) = 0 and Cantilever beam boundary conditions # 2v # 3v EI 2 ( L. t ) = 0 and EI 3 ( L. t ) = 0 and EI n = L 2 Boundary conditions for a simply supported beam # 2v ( 0. t ) = 0 #x #x cos($ L) cosh($ L) + 1 = 0 Frequency equation for a cantilever Cantilever mode shapes sin($ x) sinh($ x) + sin($ L) + sinh($ L) × n ( x) = A 1 cos($ L) + cosh($ L) ( cosh($ x) Bolton method general equation cos($ x) ) f = 1 2 KE ME Section 5: Practical Design a0 = ( 0.5 f D. t ) = 0 #x 2 # 2v ( L.

T.c. Bolton St Variation of DAF with damping and frequency ratios Section 2: SDOF Systems Structural Dynamics Undamped free-vibration response 58 C. Important Tables and Figures D. Caprani General case of an under-critically damped system .I.

I.T. Caprani Equivalent dynamic mass distributions . Bolton St Bolton’s table Section 4: Continuous Structures Structural Dynamics 59 First three modes for an s-s beam and cantilever C.D.

I.T. Section 5: Practical Design Structural Dynamics 60 C.D. Bolton St Recommended vibration limits for light floors. Caprani Equal sensation contours for vertical vibration .

Bolton St Dynamic response factor for footbridges Section 5: Practical Design Structural Dynamics 61 Configuration factors for footbridges. C.T. Caprani .I.D.

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