This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The peripheral circulation system can be divided into the systemic and the pulmonary vessels. This system is regulated to maintain sufficient blood flow to tissues.
y y y y y Carry blood Exchange nutrients and gases Transport hormones Regulate blood pressure And direct blood flow
General Features of Blood Vessel Structure
1. Blood is pumped from the heart through the elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles to the capillaries. 2. Blood returns to the heart from the capillaries through venules, small veins, and large veins. 3. Except for capillaries and venules, blood vessels have 3 layers: y The tunica intima consists of endothelium, basement membrane, and connective tissue.
The outer tunica adventitia is a connective tissue. . Large elastic arteries have many elastic fibers but little smooth muscle in their walls and carry blood from the heart to smaller arteries with little decrease in pressure. the middle layer. Venules are endothelium surrounded by a basement membrane. 3. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow to capillary networks. Arteries 1. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the veins. Nutrient and waste product exchange is the principal function of capillaries. 2. 4. Medium-sized and large veins contain less smooth muscle and elastic fibers than arteries of the same size. and pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. Capillaries consist of only endothelium and are surrounded by a basement membrane and loose connective tissue. Blood is supplied to capillaries by arterioles. 3. Arterioles are the smallest and have smooth muscle cells and a few elastic fibers and undergo vasodilation and vasoconstriction to control blood flow to local areas. Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation The pulmonary circulation moves blood to and from the lungs. Small veins are venules covered with a layer of smooth muscle and a layer of connective tissue. 3. 2. Veins 1. The pulmonary trunk carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs. contains circular smooth muscle and elastic fibers. Muscular arteries have much smooth muscle and some elastic fibers and undergo vasodilation and vasoconstriction to control blood flow to different regions of the body. 2. Capillaries 1.y y The tunica media.
thorax. which supply the abdominal wall. Arteries of the Pelvis Branches of the internal iliac arteries supply the pelvis. Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: VEINS The superior vena cava drains the head. Arteries of the Upper Limbs The subclavian artery continues as the axillary artery and then as the brachial artery.Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: ARTERIES Aorta The aorta leaves the left ventricle to form the ascending aorta. which branches as to form the radial and ulnar arteries. and the external iliac artery continues as the femoral artery and then as the popliteal artery in the leg. and upper limbs. The common arteries divide to form the external carotids( which supply the face and mouth) and the internal carotids(which supply the brain). The Abdominal Aorta and Its Branches The abdominal aorta has visceral branches. and parietal branches. Arteries of the Head and Neck 1. 2. and lower limbs. . which supply the abdominal organs. Arteries of the Lower Limbs The common iliac arteries give rise to the external iliac arteries. which supply the thoracic organs. and left subclavian arteries branch from the aortic arch to supply the head and the upper limbs. The inferior vena cava drains the abdomen. anterior head. The common carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries supply the head. The brachiocephalic. and anterior neck. The popliteal artery divides to form the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. neck. and parietal branches. which supply the thoracic wall. The Thoracic Aorta and Its Branches The Thoracic aorta has visceral branches. pelvis. which consists of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. and descending aorta. left common carotid. Veins of the Head and Neck 1. The internal jugular veins drain the brain. aortic arch.
Blood pressure is a measure of the force exerted by blood against the blood vessel wall. which transports blood to the liver for processing. Blood pressure moves blood through vessels. Blood pressure can be measured by listening for Korotkoff sounds produced as blood flows through arteries partially constricted by a blood pressure cuff. Veins from the stomach. Pressure and Resistance Blood pressure fluctuates between 120 mmg Hg (systolic) and 80 mm Hg ( diastolic) in the aorta. . Pulse Pressure 1. axillary. Veins of the Lower Limbs 1. the superficial veins are the basilic. and pancreas connect with the hepatic portal vein. cephalic. Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis 1. The external jugular veins drain the porterior head and posterior neck. 2. and gonads directly enter the inferior vena cava. If constriction of blood vessels occurs. resistance to blood flow increases. adrenal glands. The Physiology of Circulation Blood Pressure 1. and blood flow decreases. Veins of the Upper Limbs The deep veins are the brachial. The hepatic veins form the liver join the inferior vena cava. The superficial veins are the small and great saphenous veins. The deep veins course with the deep arteries and have similar names. A pulse can be detected when large arteries are near the surface of the body. Pulse Pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure. 2. Pulse pressure increases when stroke volume increases. 3. 2. Veins from the kidney. Veins of the Thorax The left and right brachiocephalic veins and the azygos veins return blood to the superior vena cava. Posterior abdominal wall veins join the azygos veins. 2. intestines. and subclavian. spleen.2. and median cubital.
heart rate. The fluid gained by the tissue is removed by the lymphatic system. and stroke volume in response to changes in blood pressure. Hormonal Mechanisms 1. carbon dioxide and Ph. 2. Other brain areas can excite or inhibit the vasomotor center. and osmosis affect movement of fluid across the wall of the capillaries. Baroreceptors are sensory receptors that are sensitive to stretch. 3. Most exchange across the wall of the capillary is by diffusion. Renin promotes the production of angiotensin II. Regulation of Arterial Pressure Mean Arterial Preassure (MAP) is proportional to cardiac output times the peripheral resistance. Chemoreceptor Reflex 1. Chemoreceptors are sensitive to changes in blood oxygen. Epinephrine released from the adrenal medulla as a result of sympathetic stimulation increases heart rate. 3. The nervous system is responsible for routing the flow of blood. Local Control of Blood Vessels Blood flow through a tissue is usually proportional to the metabolic needs of the tissue and is controlled by precapillary sphincters. and vasoconstriction. Blood pressure. There is a net movement of fluid from the blood into the tissues. and is responsible for maintaining blood pressure. The chemoreceptor reflex increases peripheral resistance in response to low oxygen levels. Nervous Control of Blood Vessels 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. except in the capillaries and precapillary sphincters. Chemoreceptors are located in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies. 2. Baroreceptor Reflexes 1. The baroreceptor reflex changes the peripheral resistance. Baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinuses and the aortic arch. Renin is released by the kidneys in response to low blood pressure. Vasomotor tone is a state of partial contraction of blood vessels. and reduced blood ph. high carbon dioxide levels.Capillary Exchange 1. The vasomotror center(sympathetic division) controls blood vessel diameter. capillary permeability. which causes vasoconstriction and an increase in . stroke volume.
Blood is involved with temperature regulation and protects against foreign substances such as microorganisms and toxins. Blood Functions of Blood 1. fluid. 2. It stimulates an increase in urine production.aldosterone secretion. . causing a decrease in blood volume and blood pressure. Atrial Natriuretic Hormone is released from the heart when atrial blood pressure increases. Angiotensin II can also cause vasoconstriction. ADH released from the posterior pituitary causes vasoconstriction ad reduces urine output. The baroreceptor mechanisms are most important in short-term regulation of blood pressure. Hormonal mechanisms. and ion balance. 3. 2. 4. and regulatory molecules. Aldosterone reduces urine output. 3. waste products. such as the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic hormone. Blood regulates ph. Blood transport gases. Short-Term and Long-Term Regulation 1. processed molecules. nutrients. Blood clotting prevents fluid and cell loss and is part of tissue repair. 4. are more important in long-term regulation of blood pressure.
WBCs protect the body against mmicroorganisms and remove dead cells and debris. and there are 3 types of granulocytes: neutrophils are small phagocytic cells. Red blood cells are disk-shaped cells containing hemoglobin. which is involved with carbon dioxide transport. Worn-out red blood cells are phagocytised by macrophages in the spleen or liver. Plasma is 91% water and 9% suspended or dissolved substances. 2. prevents blood loss. Agranulocytes have very small granules and are of two types: lymphocytes are involved in antibody production and other immune system responses. Formed Elements The formed elements are cells( red blood cells and white blood cells) and cell fragments(platelets). 3. and eosinophis reduce inflammation. In response to low oxygen levels. 4.4 million/uL Men: 4. Normal levels: y y y Women: 4. 2.7 to 6. Hemoglobin is broken down. Granulocytes contain cytoplasmic granules. 3. Red blood cells also contain carbonic anhydrase.6 to 4. Plasma maintains osmotic pressure. iron and amino acids are reused. Total blood volume is approximately 5 L.8 million/uL White Blood Cells (leukocytes) 1. 2. basophils promote inflammation. is involved in immunity.Composition of Blood 1.1 million/uL Children: 4.monocytes become macrophages that ingest microorganisms and cellular debris. . Plasma 1. Blood is a connective tissue consisting of plasma and formed elements. which stimulates red blood cell production in red bone marrow. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) 1. and transports molecules. and heme becomes bilirubin that is secreted in bile. which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. 2. Production of Formed Elements Formed elements arise (hematopoesis) red bone marrow from stem cells. the kidneys produce erythropoietin.2 to 5.
Control of Clot Formation Anticoagulants in the blood. 2. . Preventing Blood Loss Vascular Spasm Blood vessels constrict in response to injury. 2. Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin. Platelet adhere to collagen. Normal level: 4.000 platelets per microliter of blood 3.000 to 450. Serum is plasma without clotting factor. release chemicals(ADP and thromboxanes) that activate other platelets. Platelet Plugs 1. resulting in decreased blood flow. resulting in the formation of prothrombinase. Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by prothrombinase. There are 3 steps in the clotting process: Activation of clotting factors by connective tissue and chemicals. pulling the edges of damaged tissue closer together. is formation of a clot( a network of protein fibers called fibrin). 2. Platelets are cell fragments involved with preventing blood flow.000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) Platelets (thrombocytes) 1. Clot Retraction and fibrinolysis 1. Blood clotting. Fibrinolysis(clot breakdown) is accomplished by plasmin.500-10. Clot retraction condenses the clot. Minor damage to blood vessels is repaired by platelet plugs. Normal level: 150. 3. 2.4. such as antithrombin and heparin. and connect to one another with fibrinogen to form platelet plugs. or coagulation. prevent clot formation. Blood Clotting 1.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.