This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Composition of Petroleum Mixtures
Thomas L. Potter Kathleen E. Simmons
Composition of Petroleum Mixtures
Inc. Air Force Research Laboratory University of Massachusetts . Retec. Inc.These organizations sponsored or contributed to the completion of this technical document prepared by the TPH Criteria Working Group: American Petroleum Institute Association for the Environmental Health of Soils Association of American Railroads British Petroleum Chevron Research and Technology Company Exxon Biomedical Sciences. Shell Development Company United States Air Force.
Simmons University of Massachusetts. Potter Kathleen E. Amherst.Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group Series Volume 2 Composition of Petroleum Mixtures MAY 1998 PREPARED BY: Thomas L. Massachusetts .
with respect to the accuracy. A por tion of the proceeds from the sale of this book will be donated to the Plant-a-Tree Program.Amherst Scientific Publishers 150 Fearing Street Amherst. Massachusetts 01002 © 1998 by Amherst Scientific Publishers. expressed or implied. any information. apparatus. method. completeness or usefulness of the information contained in this repor t. ISBN 1-884-940-19-6 The material contained in this document was obtained from independent and highly respected sources. All rights reserved. a reforestation program managed by the U. or process disclosed in this repor t may not infringe privately owned rights. Ever y attempt has been made to ensure accurate. the publishers cannot be held responsible for the information or how the information is applied. Neither the Working Group nor members of the Working Group: a. or that the use of any apparatus. Assumes any liability with respect to the use of. This document may be reproduced only in its entirety for unlimited distribution.S. but neither the TPH Criteria Working Group nor the contributing individuals or their companies assume any responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use or misuse. however. or b. reliable information. Makes any warranty or representation. or for damages resulting from the use of. Forest Service. Printed in the United States of America . Opinions expressed in this book are those of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group and do not reflect those of the publisher. Every reasonable effort has been made to give reliable data and information. method or process disclosed in this report. This document was prepared by the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group.
...................2 DATA GAPS AND RESEARCH NEEDS ...........................................5 AROMATICS .... vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................ 19 5.................................................................... 12 3...2 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE SPECIFICATIONS ..... 6 2.................................. 1 2..... 21 6.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 2........ 9 3............. 9 3.. 19 5...............2 ALKANES ................................... 7 2.......3 IMPACT OF WEATHERING ON PETROLEUM PRODUCT COMPOSITION ....... 1 2...0 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE PRODUCTION ............ 18 5.............................................................0 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA ..............1 GENERAL PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY ...........................1 REFERENCES FOR SECTIONS 1 THROUGH 4 ................................................................................................ 101 INDIVIDUAL SAMPLE FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA FOR DIESEL (#2) FUEL OIL ................................................... 95 6..........................................1 INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA TABLES ...............................................................0 INTRODUCTION ..................... 9 3....................................1 DATA SOURCES DISCUSSION ............................................................................. 18 4.............. ix 1....................................3 ALKENES ................................................................................ 12 4......................................................................2 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA .................................... 2 2............................ 95 6.................................... 18 4.............1 PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESS ........................... 3 2......2 REFERENCES FOR SECTION 5 AND APPENDIX I .................................0 PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY .......................................................................................CONTENTS FOREWORD ................................................................................................0 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA SOURCES ......... 96 APPENDIX I .....................4 CYCLOALKANES ............0 REFERENCES .....................6 OTHER PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPONENTS ...................................... 102 ......................................................
and academia. Some of the active participants. the American Petroleum Institute. describing what information analytical methods can provide for risk assessment. The Working Group convened in 1993 to address the large disparity among cleanup requirements being used by states at sites contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels. with numerical standards ranging from tens to tens of thousands of milligrams of TPH per kilogram of soil. and Menzie-Cura & Associates. lubricating oils and crude oils.FOREWORD This document is second in a series from the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG. among the more than 400 involved. Environmental Protection Agency. Volume 3. several major petroleum companies (Chevron. Inc. several state governments (Washington. Exxon. Hawaii.S. Composition of Petroleum Mixtures provides the best available composition information for a variety of petroleum products. Analysis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Environmental Media discusses and critiques analytical methods for quantifying TPH. and risk assessment efforts at petroleum contaminated sites. and private consulting firms including EA Engineering. Selection of Representative Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) Fractions Based on Fate and Transport Considerations defines fractions of TPH expected to behave similarly in the environment. Identification of these fractions simplifies analysis of environmental samples. It is designed to be a reference tool for the nonchemist. the Association of American Railroads. include: the Gas Research Institute. Volume 2. The Working Group is guided by a steering committee consisting of representatives from industry. Volume 4. New Mexico. Massachusetts). the U. fate and transport modeling. The Working Group compiled their data collection and analytical efforts into five volumes: Volume 1. the University of Massachusetts. Recognizing that these standards are not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk. or “Working Group”). Working Group members established the following goal for their effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at petroleum contaminated sites. This volume provides the technical basis for the development of TPH fraction-specific RfDs and RfCs for use in the hazard vii . Colorado. Development of Fraction-Specific Reference Doses (RfDs) and Reference Concentrations (RfCs) for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). government. These requirements usually focus on total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). the Department of Defense. Science & Technology. Texas. Louisiana. petroleum mixtures and individual petroleum constituents in soil and water samples. British Petroleum and Shell).
At this web site. Operational Toxicology Branch web site (http://voyager. Air Force Research Laboratory.af. Human Health Risk-Based Evaluation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites: Implementation of the Working Group Approach. Amherst Scientific Publishers will publish these volumes in 1997 and 1998.mil). Working Group publications may be downloaded from the “recent publications” icon. In addition to these volumes. Wade H. This volume integrates the findings of Volumes 1 through 4 into a risk-based framework for development of cleanup goals at petroleum contaminated sites. It includes descriptions of demonstration sites where the Working Group method has been used successfully.wpafb. Weisman Chairman. Additional Working Group resources will be added to this web site as they become available.S. Volume 5. We hope you find these documents to be useful in your effort to evaluate and determine acceptable risk-based cleanup criteria at petroleum contaminated sites. TPH Criteria Working Group viii .assessment step of the Working Group’s risk-based approach to establishing soil cleanup levels at petroleum contaminated sites. results of projects where use of the Working Group approach has been demonstrated (demonstration sites) and a concise technical summary document are now or will soon be available on the U.
EA Engineering. Science and Technology Beth Albertson. Chevron USA Additional editorial and technical support was provided by: Donna Vorhees. Air Force. Air Force Research Laboratory Funds for the completion of this effort were provided by: British Petroleum Association of American Railroads U. Menzie-Cura & Associates. American Petroleum Institute Paul Kostecki. Air Force Research Laboratory ix . Friedman and Bruya Bruce Bauman. University of Massachusetts Robert Wilkenfeld.S. Shell Oil Ruth Keller.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The publication of this volume of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group Series would not have been possible without the hard work and dedication of individuals across public and private sectors. Wade Weisman. We would specifically like to acknowledge the following individuals for their efforts in the completion of this volume: Ileana Rhodes. Inc. The comprehensive petroleum fuel mixtures database presented in this document was crucial to the Working Group’s delineation of fate and transport fractions and corresponding toxicity criteria.
Taken together these processes are termed weathering. dissolution in water and volatilization. assumptions regarding composition are made which may be incorrect or misleading.0 INTRODUCTION Risk-based analysis of petroleum contaminated soil is hampered by the lack of readily available data describing the composition of common petroleum products and crude oil. In the absence of these data. constituent-specific chemical analysis of these mixtures is challenging. 2.0 PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY Crude oil. nitrogen and oxygen in the residual material. Crude oil and its products are highly complex and variable mixtures.(1) The principal constituents are carbon and hydrogen which in their combined form are hydrocarbons. These changes are functions of the rate at which the more soluble and volatile constituents leach or evaporate from soil. the data necessary for risk analysis are often much more detailed than that required by the petroleum industry for determining the performance characteristics of petroleum mixtures. Composition data are rare for several reasons. Each is selective for specific hydrocarbon groups. the source material of nearly all petroleum products. how weathering influences the chemistry of products after release to the environment. There is not one governmental agency.3 of this document. Once petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures are released into the environment. industry or group which compiles the data in a manner necessary to assess the risks posed by the hydrocarbon constituents. In the refining process petroleum products are strongly enriched with hydrocarbons. Consequently. contains a wide variety of elements combined in various forms. A more detailed discussion of weathering is provided in section 3. To advance risk-based analysis of petroleum contaminated soils. The data are compiled in a uniform format in this document. crude oil and lubricating oils. 1 . Generally mixtures become less water-soluble and less volatile as they weather. their composition changes due to processes such as biodegradation. a comprehensive search of the technical literature was performed to identify all available composition data for the most common petroleum-based fuels. Often assumptions are very conservative and do not take into account the impacts of weathering.1. In addition. and petroleum composition research needs. A brief discussion is provided of petroleum hydrocarbon chemistry. leaving most crude-based inorganic materials and other types of organic compounds containing sulfur.
alkanes . they are divided into two families. Another key feature of petroleum hydrocarbons is that they typically have a large number of isomers . In this sense the electrons are “delocalized” (participating in several bonds). as the carbon number increases. therefore. In the broadest sense. The large number of isomeric compounds in petroleum mixtures accounts for their high degree of complexity. are characteristic of aliphatic structures. On a molecular level. they have a large number of isomers and greater chemical complexity than petroleum products with low boiling point constituents. interaction with water) and boiling points increase.2. Within each hydrocarbon structural family and sub-family.1 GENERAL PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY Petroleum hydrocarbons are organic compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in varying structural configurations. Alkynes. Aromatic carbon-carbon bonds are termed resonance bonds in that electrons are shared between multiple carbon atoms. Aromatic molecules have ring structures and are basically flat and symmetric with clouds of electrons above and below the plane of the molecule. are not commonly found in petroleum hydrocarbons. there are homologous series. the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in the environment increases with an increase in the compound’s boiling point. The electron clouds surrounding the molecules can be deformed by the charge on adjacent molecules. The polarity of hydrocarbon structures governs the degree to which molecules interact with themselves and with water. physical properties of compounds change with the number of carbon atoms. alkenes and cycloalkanes . This results in the development of partial positive and negative charge sites on the molecule. Generally. Isomers are compounds that have the same elemental formula but have different structural configurations. the number of possible isomers increases rapidly.e. They are not discussed further in this document. Generally. The molecules are essentially free to rotate around these bonds. there is an increase in the boiling point of approximately 20oC for each carbon atom added to an n-alkane chain. Each member of the series is termed a homolog and differs from adjacent members in the series by a repeating unit such as a CH2 group. This imparts chemical stability. 2 . water solubility (i. another type of aliphatic structure. Highly directional bonds. For example. An alkane with six carbon atoms has five possible isomers. aliphatics (fatty) and aromatics (fragrant). The bonding pattern of aromatic structures contributes to their moderate polarity. thus the aliphatic structures can assume many different conformations. It follows that aromatics are more water soluble and less volatile than alkanes with a corresponding number of carbons. Within a homologous series. as polarity increases. This is in contrast to the aliphatics that are nonpolar or only slightly polar. Aliphatics are further divided into three main classes. Different types of isomers are described in the sections below. Increasing the number of carbons to ten increases the number of possible isomers to seventy-five. Petroleum mixtures with high boiling point constituents have high average carbon numbers. in which carbon atoms share electrons only with adjacent carbons. In general. Their bonding pattern does not permit nonuniform distribution of charge to the same degree. Figure 1 illustrates hydrocarbon structural relationships. aliphatic and aromatic compounds differ by the patterns of bonding between adjacent carbon atoms.
those represented by dashed lines go away from.prefix to designate the straight-chain structural configuration. The homologous series of straight-chain alkanes continues with propane (C3H8).Figure 1. there are alkanes. butane (C4H10). So “n-pentane” is a straight-chain alkane with five carbons and twelve hydrogens (C5H12) . This structural representation of methane shows the carbon atom at the center of a tetrahedron. Hydrocarbon Structural Relationships 2. These alkanes are given an n. Ethane (C2H6) consists of two carbon atoms. and that represented by a filled triangle comes out of the plane of the page. each of which participates in directional bonds with three hydrogen atoms and the other carbon atom. and the chains have two methyl (CH3) terminations. with the four hydrogen atoms at the corners. which is comprised of a single carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (Figure 2). lies in. pentane (C5H12) and so on (see Figure 3 and Table 1). where carbons are attached to no more than two other carbons in a continuous chain. alkenes. Alkanes contain only single carbon-carbon bonds.2 ALKANES Within the aliphatic structure classification (see Figure 1). Figure 2. The bond represented by a solid line. Methane is the single carbon homolog (member of a structural series). 3 . and ethane is the two-carbon homolog in the straight-chain alkane family. and cycloalkanes. The simplest alkane structure is methane (CH4).
Figure 3. Structures for the Homologous Series of Ethane. Propane. n-Butane and n-Pentane 4 .
but their structures are very different (see Figure 4). but have distinct chemical structures. and the complete nomenclature has a -yl suffix. the three-carbon substituent is named propyl. n-Heptane describes a straight-chain alkane.3-dimethylpentane and isoheptane describe branched alkanes. 3..3-Dimethylpentane has two methyl groups attached to the third atom of an npentane chain. So a single-carbon alkyl substituent is named methyl. Alkane Nomenclature and Chemical Formulas Name methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane undecane dodecane tridecane tetradecane pentadecane hexadecane heptadecane octadecane nonadecane eicosane Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 Name heneicosane docosane tricosane tetracosane pentacosane hexacosane heptacosane octacosane nonacosane triacontane hentricontane dotriacontane tritriacontane tetratriacontane pentatriacontane hexatiacontane heptatriacontane octatriacontane nonatriacontane tetracontane Formula C21H44 C22H46 C23H48 C24H50 C25H52 C26H54 C27H56 C28H58 C29H60 C30H62 C31H64 C32H66 C33H68 C34H70 C35H72 C36H74 C37H76 C38H78 C39H80 C40H82 Alkane groups that are substituted onto hydrocarbon structures have their carbon numbers described by the same prefixes of Table 1. n-Heptane.3-dimethylpentane and isoheptane are all described by C7H16. the two-carbon substituent is named ethyl. 5 . whereas 3. Isoheptane has three terminal methyl groups on one end of an n-pentane structure. Str uctural isomers are compounds that share a chemical formula.Table 1.. The iso prefix denotes a branched-chain alkane with three terminal methyl groups on one end of a straight-chain structure. and so on.. 3.
When the two double bonds are separated by one single bond. The alkene name is preceded by a number (or numbers in the case of multiple double bonds) that indicates the position of the first double-bonded carbon encountered in the chain.3 ALKENES Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain less hydrogen. 3. 2-Pentene describes a hydrocarbon that is a five-membered chain with a double bond between the second and third carbons. Rather.3-Dimethylpentane and Isoheptane 2. the corresponding alkane structure.Figure 4. This is due to the occurrence of one or more double bonds between carbon atoms in the alkene structure. The two carbon atoms of a 6 . An alkene is the unsaturated form of the corresponding saturated alkane. A carbon atom involved in a double bond lies at the center of a flat triangle. they become conjugated dienes. Alkenes that contain two double bonds are termed dienes . the electron pair density is distributed around the entire diene group so that the carbon-tocarbon bonds can be thought of as partially single bonds and partially double bonds. Conjugated dienes exhibit increased stability because of the fact that the electrons are delocalized across the two double bonds and the single bond between them. whereas butane. Alkenes are named by replacing the ending -ane of the corresponding alkane name (Table 1) with -ene. The electron pair of any conjugated double bond is not centered over a singular double bond. is described by C4H10. carbon for carbon. The Structural Isomers n-Heptane. Butene is described by the chemical formula C4H8. with the three bonds being directed toward the triangle corners. than the corresponding alkane.
In the molecule cis -1.4 CYCLOALKANES Cycloalkanes are alkanes where carbon atoms form cyclic structures. The structural configuration of the double bond gives rise to geometric isomers when one of the substituent groups on each of the two double-bonded carbons is not simply hydrogen.and trans-1. and trans -2-heptene has its hydrogen groups on opposing sides of the double bond.denotes that two groups (other than hydrogen) attached to the ring both lie either above or below the plane of the ring. Trans denotes that one of the two groups. For example.2-dimethylcyclopentane. The Configurational Isomers cis. Figure 6. the plane of the ring. Cycloalkane compounds can exhibit configurational isomerism in that attached groups can differ in their positions relative to the ring. The naming of cycloalkanes is the same as the naming of alkanes (see Table 1) with the addition of a cyclo . So a five-carbon alkane ring is cyclopentane. With reference to the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbons in the double bond. and the other positioned below. 2-heptene describes two geometric isomers that are further described as cis -2-heptene and trans -2-heptene (see Figure 5).2-Dimethylcyclopentane 7 .2-dimethylcyclopentane has one of the two attached methyl groups positioned above. there are two methyl groups attached to the first and second carbon of a five-carbon ring. The Geometric Isomers cis-2-Heptene and trans-2-Heptene 2. and the attached groups both lie either above or below the plane of the five-carbon ring (see Figure 6).double bond and the four groups attached to them all lie within the same plane. lies above and the other lies below the plane of the ring. trans 1. cis -2-heptene has its hydrogens situated on the same side of the double bond. The cycloalkane prefix of cis . Figure 5. By contrast.prefix.
Benzene is a six-membered carbon ring with the chemical formula C6H6. The electron pairs of the five double bonds are delocalized across both rings of the diaromatics. an Alkyl-monoaromatic. A diaromatic compound has two fused benzene rings as its basis with eight hydrogen or alkyl groups attached to the rings. since its electron clouds are easily deformed by opposite charges on other molecules. Polynuclear ar omatic hydr ocarbons (P AHs) have more than two fused benzene rings as a structural characteristic. a Diaromatic and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 8 . For example. attached to that six-carbon aromatic ring (see Figure 7). In general. Structures of a Monoaromatic. or a combination of alkyl and hydrogen groups. A monoar omatic compound has one benzene ring with either six hydrogen groups. This gives benzene more “polar” characteristics than alkanes or alkenes.5 AROMATICS Aromatic hydrocarbons have one or more benzene rings as structural components. Figure 7. PAHs can have various alkyl groups and hydrogens attached to the multi-ringed structure. There are three carbon-to-carbon single bonds that alternate with three carbon-to-carbon double bonds. The bonds of benzene have electron pairs that are delocalized across the entire six-membered ring.2. there are much higher concentrations of methylphenanthrene and dimethylphenanthrene in diesel fuel than phenanthrene. alkyl-substituted PAHs predominate in petroleum. and their structural stability results from the concomitant electron pair delocalization.
methyl-ter t-butylether (MTBE).(2) Vanadium and nickel are predominant occurring at highest concentration in crude oil and residual fuel oils.(4) Of these.2. The products of the refining process are blended to yield petroleum fuel mixtures with characteristics required for desired end uses. It is this process which accounts for the occurrence of alkenes in petroleum fuel mixtures. although they are present at much lower concentrations than the sulfur derivatives. crude oil is distilled and a variety of petroleum product fractions results. barium. They are mainly in the form of thiophenes and thiophene derivatives.6 OTHER PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPONENTS Organic compounds containing sulfur. The fractions can be used directly or their hydrocarbon composition can be altered through cracking and/or refor ming . Reforming is a process that converts aliphatics into aromatics. alkenes.0 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE PRODUCTION 3. Sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds are the major constituents. dirt and water. Alkenes are not abundant in crude oil.(3) After treatment to remove dissolved gas. only lead. Cracking is a process that converts long-chain alkanes into smaller alkanes. or as porphyrin chelates. and ethylene dibromide (EDB) are likely to be detected in environmental samples. or addition of desired components. nitrogen and oxygen may be encountered at significant concentrations in crude oil and in some heavier fuels such as No. Analytical methods for these substances are well-developed and are routinely performed in environmental laboratories. and some hydrogen. 3. 9 .6 fuel oil. Blending agents and additives used for various petroleum fuel mixtures are shown in Table 2. Metals are also encountered in petroleum fuel mixtures in the form of salts of carboxylic acids. Nitrogen heterocyclics are present as derivatives of thiazole and quinoline. Treatment can involve removal or conversion of undesirable components.1 PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESS Petroleum fuel mixtures are produced from crude oil through a variety of refining and blending processes. Composition of a distillation fraction can also be altered through treatment .
Types of Blending Agents and Additives for Petroleum Fuel Mixtures Petroleum Fuel Mixture Type Compounds Gasoline anti-knock 2.N-disalicylidene-1.2-diaminopropane lead scavengers ethylene dibromide ethylene dichloride anti-rust agents fatty acid amines sulfonates anti-icing agents alcohols glycols amides amines organophosphate salts upper-cylinder lubricants cycloalkane distillates detergents dyes aminohydroxy amide alkyl derivatives of azobenzene-4-azo-2naphthol benzene-azo-2-naphthol p-diethylaminoazobenzene 1. alkyl nitrites nitro-.2.4-di-isopropylaminoanthraquinone Diesel ignition improvers alkyl nitrates.4-trimethylpentane tetraethyl lead tetramethyl lead ter t-butyl alcohol methyl-ter t-butylether anti-oxidants or tho-alkylated phenols p-phenylenediamine aminophenols 2. peroxides 10 .compounds. nitroso.6-di-ter t-butyl-p-cresol metal activators N.Table 2.
Table 2. continued
Petroleum Fuel Mixture Type Compounds
combustion catalysts/ deposit modifiers
organometallics of Ba, Ca, Mn, Fe Mn, MnO Mg, MgO, MgO2 Al2O3
N,N-dialkylphenylenediamines 2,6-dialkyphenols, 2,4,6-trialkylphenols
cold flow improvers
ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers ethylene vinyl chloride copolymers polyolefins chlorinated hydrocarbons
alcohols amines alkylphenols carboxylic acids sulfonates succinamides
N,N-disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine N,N-disalicylidene-1,2-cyclohexanediamine N,N-disalicylidene-1,2-ethanediamine
carboxylates alcohols dimethylformamide ammonium dinonylnaphthalene
3.2 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE SPECIFICATIONS
Table 3 contains general characteristics for petroleum fuel mixtures. For each petroleum fuel mixture, the table displays an average density (g/mL), the approximate carbon number range of the predominate n-alkanes, distillate characteristics, hydrocarbon compound structural classes, and typical end uses.(4, 5, 6, 7) Low end distillates are those fractions collected from distillations conducted at approximately 40oC through 200oC, middle end distillates are collected from distillations conducted at approximately 200oC through 300oC, and heavy end distillates are collected from distillations conducted at approximately 300oC to 600oC. Residual oils are comprised of high molecular weight constituents that remain following distillation and collection of the lower molecular weight distillation fractions.
3.3 IMPACT OF WEATHERING ON PETROLEUM PRODUCT COMPOSITION
When petroleum products are released into the environment, changes in product composition take place. Collectively, these changes are referred to as weathering. The main weathering processes are dissolution in water, volatilization and biodegradation. In the case of spills on land or water surfaces, photodegradation can also be significant. Each of the weathering processes affects hydrocarbon families differently. For example, aromatics tend to be more water soluble than aliphatics, whereas aliphatics tend to be more volatile. Thus when a fuel mixture is released into the environment, the principal water contaminants are likely to be aromatics while aliphatics will be the principal air contaminants. Solubility and volatility of all compounds generally decrease with an increase in molecular weight. These topics are discussed in more detail elsewhere.(8) In general, the more water soluble and volatile compounds are lost most rapidly from contaminated soil. These compounds have the lowest molecular weight, thus there is a general shift to higher molecular weight compounds in residual materials. The rates of weathering by dissolution in water or volatilization of individual petroleum compounds are retarded by the fact that the fuels are mixtures. For example, the solubility of pure benzene in water is approximately 1800 mg/L. The equilibrium concentration of benzene in water in contact with gasoline containing 1% benzene will be approximately 20 mg/L.(9) The solubility and volatility of individual compounds in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures are proportional to the solubility or volatility of the compound in its pure state and its concentration in the mixture. Solubility and volatility of a compound decrease when the compound is present in a mixture. The effects of leaching and depletion of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from gasoline in soil have been evaluated in laboratory studies.(9) Benzene is the most soluble member of this homologous series whereas ethylbenzene and xylenes are the least soluble. Benzene was depleted relatively rapidly from the gasolinesaturated soil, while ethylbenzene and xylenes tended to increase in concentration. Leaching rates of the compounds were directly proportional to their pure-state water solubilities. Benzene is ten times more soluble than ethylbenzene or xylenes, thus it was leached ten times faster. Similar trends of increased leaching with increased water solubility would be observed for BTEX in other products and for other homologous series. If volatilization rather than dissolution were the dominant weathering process, lower molecular homologs within each series would be depleted first. The greater a compound’s volatility, the more rapid its loss from a hydrocarbon mixture. As indicated above, al-
kanes tend to be much more volatile than aromatics, thus alkanes would be lost preferentially. The trend in volatility by compound class is: alkenes = alkanes > aromatics = cycloalkanes. Considering volatilization and dissolution trends together, one can predict the composition of fuel mixtures after release in the environment.(10) Where volatilization is the dominant process, the loss of lower molecular weight alkanes will be the most significant change in the product. In situations where dissolution is the dominant weathering process (i.e. there is contact with water and limited potential for volatilization because soil pore spaces are filled with water), the aromatics will be depleted with benzene removed most rapidly. A third process that is almost always operative when petroleum mixtures are released in the environment is biodegradation. It has been widely demonstrated that nearly all soils and sediments have populations of bacteria and other organisms that are capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Degradation occurs both in the presence and absence of oxygen. Two key factors that determine degradation rates are oxygen supply and molecular structure. In general, degradation is more rapid under aerobic conditions. Trends in degradation rates according to structure are(11): (1) n-alkanes, especially in the C10 to C25 range are degraded readily, (2) isoalkanes are degraded more slowly, (3) alkenes degrade more slowly than alkanes, (4) BTEXs are metabolized when present in concentrations which are not toxic to the microorganisms, (5) PAHs degrade more slowly than monoaromatics, and (6) degradation of higher molecular weight cycloalkanes may be very slow. These trends typically result in the depletion of the more readily degradable compounds and the accumulation of the most resistant in residues. It has been shown that biodegradation strongly affects the composition of diesel fuel after a spill in soil.(9) At the initial stages of degradation, the n-alkanes are degraded selectively. Over time (weeks or months), they are completely biodegraded. The compounds most easily recognizable in the remaining diesel fuel mixture at this point are the isoprenoids, which include pristane (C19) and phytane (C20). These compounds are alkanes with highly branched structures. This branched structure greatly reduces the rate at which biodegradation occurs. Eventually these compounds are also degraded, leaving behind a complex residue. The limited composition data available for these complex mixtures indicate that there are no detectable BTEXs and the concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs are very low.(9) Weathered petroleum mixtures are complex and often do not contain significant quantities of individual carcinogenic compounds that alone are the limiting factors in site cleanups. The approach which has often been taken in the risk assessment of weathered mixtures has been based on “Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons” (TPH)measurements. TPH measurements are widely used in part because they are relatively straightforward and inexpensive. However, there are some inherent problems with using TPH measurements in risk analysis. These limitations motivated a coalition of individuals representing industry, government and academia to found the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. The Working Group efforts provide an improved approach for evaluating noncancer risk at petroleum contaminated sites. The approach establishes a way for complex petroleum mixtures to be evaluated as a combination of fractions where each fraction is treated like an individual chemical with appropriate toxicity criteria.
Table 3.80g/mL n-C6 through n-C16 middle distillate boiling point range of 150-300oC JP-4 fuel ~0. General Characteristics of Individual Petroleum Fuel Mixtures Petroleum Fuel Mixture Gasoline Density ~0.73g/mL Alkane Carbon Number Range n-C4 through n-C12 Distillate Characteristics low-end distillate boiling point range of 40-200oC Kerosene ~0.82g/mL n-C8 throug n-C17 middle distillate specially blended kerosene boiling point range of 150-275oC JP-7 fuel n-C10 through n-C17 middle distillate high flash point kerosene boiling point range of 150-275oC JP-8 fuel ~0.75g/mL n-C5 through n-C14 middle distillate mixture of gasoline (65%) and petroleum distillates (35%) boiling point range of 150-275oC JP-5 fuel ~0.81g/mL n-C7 through n-C18 middle distillate kerosene modeled on Jet A-1 boiling point range of 150-275oC 14 .
very low concentrations of BTEXs and PAHs. critical kerosene burners high concentrations of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes. BTEXs and monoaromatics. very low concentrations of PAHs. lower concentrations of monoaromatics and branched alkanes. very low concentrations of BTEXs and PAHs aviation turbine engines 15 . cycloalkanes. End Use automotive spark-ignition engine high concentrations of cycloalkanes and n-alkanes. very low concentrations of PAHs. very low concentrations of BTEXs and PAHs. aviation turbine engines high concentrations of cycloalkanes and n-alkanes. monoaromatics and branched alkanes lower concentrations of n-alkanes. and naphthalenes. aviation turbine engines shipboard engines high concentrations of cycloalkanes and n-alkanes. lower concentrations of n-alkanes. alkenes.Compound Classes high concentrations of BTEXs*. aviation turbine engines high concentrations of cycloalkanes and n-alkanes. lower concentrations of monoaromatics and branched alkanes. lower concentrations of monoaromatics and branched alkanes. lower concentrations of monoaromatics and branched alkanes. very low concentrations of BTEXs and PAHs.
90g/mL n-C8 through n-C21 middle distillate boiling point range of 200-325oC No. continued Petroleum Fuel Mixture Diesel (#2) Density ~0.94g/mL n-C1 through beyond n-C34 feedstock * BTEXs = benzene.95g/mL n-C12 through beyond n-C34 residual oil boiling point range of 350-700oC Lubricating and motor oils n-C18 through beyond n-C34 heavy end distillate boiling point range of 325-600oC Crude oil ~0.6 fuel oil ~0.2 fuel oil ~0.83g/mL Alkane Carbon Number Range n-C8 through n-C21 Distillate Characteristics middle distillate boiling point range of 200-325oC No.Table 3. xylenes and ethylbenzene 16 . toluene.
branched alkanes and cycloalkanes. lower concentrations of naphthalenes and PAHs. cycloalkanes. ver y low concentrations of BTEXs and PAHs. naphthalenes. monoaromatics. ver y low concentrations of BTEXs. high concentrations of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes. ver y low concentrations of BTEXs. lower concentrations of BTEXs. internal combustion engines high concentrations of n-alkanes. 17 . variable concentrations of sulfur heterocyclics. monoaromatics. domestic burners medium capacity commercial industrial burners commercial burners industrial burners lower concentrations of barium. ver y low concentrations of BTEXs.Compound Classes high concentrations of n-alkanes lower concentrations of branched alkanes. naphthalenes. and PAHs. and PAHs. PAHs and naphthalenes. End Use high-speed engines high concentrations of n-alkanes lower concentrations of branched alkanes. high concentrations of branched alkanes and cycloalkanes. cycloalkanes.
4.2 DATA GAPS AND RESEARCH NEEDS While providing useful insights into the composition of petroleum fuel mixtures and supporting preliminary risk-based evaluations of sites. However. Department of Energy and the oil industry research centers. allowed identification of data in documents which primarily addressed topics other than product composition but which contained compound-specific data (e.S. Selected data contributed from oil and government laboratories were also included. U. Citations were checked to determine whether they were from a primary or secondary source. the data contained in the cited articles were in most cases not compound-specific. The search for data was conducted over a period of nearly one year. they were reported according to group type. U. Air Force. In addition.(9) For example. when keywords such as “composition” were added. In addition. Manual searching. They are compiled from a variety of sources 18 .0 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA SOURCES 4. such as aromatics or aliphatics. The principal sources of data reported in this volume are journal articles and book chapters identified in two bibliographic compilations.(12) The second was created by manually searching fifteen peer-reviewed analytical. the available data are not ideal for use in detailed risk-based analysis. although tedious. studies on the emissions of hydrocarbons from gasoline and diesel engines).S. less than ten citations remained.S. Wherever possible. keyword searches of the Chemical Abstracts provided thousands of citations. The Working Group searched the published technical literature and contacted government and private sector laboratories involved in petroleum hydrocarbon mixture analysis. It was comprehensive in both scale and scope. This “test” was simply a determination by experienced petroleum analytical chemists of whether the data were within an expected range for a given product type. petroleum fuel mixture composition data were compiled. Secondary source refers to data that were not produced by the authors of a study but were included by citation from another source. manuscripts published in the book series Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils published between 1987 and 1994 were similarly searched.4.S. Navy. and applying a “test of reasonableness”. environmental and petroleum chemistry journals published between 1984 and 1995. one or two sets of data were found to be reported by many different authors. reporting units.g.6 fuel oil. all data were traced to their original source. Individuals were contacted at the U. and the data were entered into a Microsoft Access® database. U. The data review also involved checking for uniformity of nomenclature. For No.1 DATA SOURCES DISCUSSION The composition data in this document were obtained through efforts of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. Each of the data-sets was carefully checked by an expert panel of petroleum and environmental chemists. The manual approach was taken in these searches since electronic keyword searches yielded few useful citations. Instead. Environmental Protection Agency. Elimination of repeated citations greatly reduced the number of citations and provided a more accurate picture of the average values reported. Copies of all cited articles were obtained. One compilation was obtained from the American Petroleum Institute.
the constituents of the weathered mixture are generally less mobile in the environment. more volatile and more easily biodegradable compounds. Thus.1 INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA TABLES The petroleum fuel mixture composition data is presented in two sets of tables. with studies occurring for different reasons at different laboratories. The data in Tables 4-14 are summations of data from the second set of tables (Appendix I) organized by petroleum fuel mixture specification. The second set of tables (Appendix I) reports petroleum constituent weight percent data and data quality information for individual samples included in the database. 5. The first set of data tables (Tables 4-14) reports summary statistics of petroleum constituent weight percent data for petroleum mixtures. Summary statistics should include weight percent values for all data points. The extent to which this reduced hazard occurs with weathering or whether toxic substances are concentrated in weathered mixtures has not been documented. the trend is toward depletion of the more water soluble. For example. There are major qualitative and quantitative differences between fresh and weathered petroleum fuel mixtures. As discussed in Section 3. Appendix I is not presented in entirety in this publication but may be obtained electronically at www.com. very few data were identified that characterized the composition of weathered petroleum fuel mixtures. The total number of data points listed in the first set of tables is a summation of the number of data point entries for all samples within the petroleum fuel mixture specification.3. standard deviation and coefficient of variation were all weighted to include the total number of data points. The summary statistic calculations for average weight percent. To account for missing individual weight percent values. More significantly. Ideally these data would be generated as part of a systematic effort to characterize the composition of the mixtures.aehs.0 PETROLEUM FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA 5. Consequently. some studies only report an average weight percent value for twenty measurements rather than the twenty individual weight percent values. where: W = weight percent (1) 19 .over a ten to fifteen year period. Minimum and maximum values for weight percents are listed when more than one data point was available. the overall environmental hazard posed by weathered petroleum mixtures may be less than that posed by fresh mixtures. average weight percent values were calculated according to Equation 1. but individual weight percent values were not always reported in the original literature sources.
where: W = weight percent D = number of data points (2) When a standard deviation value was calculated and reported. and the weight percent contribution of each compound. the compounds that were detected. and coefficient of variation values are all reported to two significant figures in scientific notation format. minimum. In most cases. and that name is preceded by a number which identifies the literature source as listed in Section 6. The tables included in Appendix I list individual sample data as reported in the specified literature sources. where: S = standard deviation A = average weight percent (3) The average weight percent. There are cases where the weight percent value is representative of more than one data point. Weight percent data are presented to two significant figures in scientific notation format. Compounds are further described by carbon number and general compound class. Each table also lists the petroleum fuel mixture.2. the weight percent value is representative of a single data point. the literature source. the standard deviation of the weight percents was calculated according to Equation 2.D = number of data points When more than two entries were made. The number of data points that contributed to the reported weight percent value is listed in the table. maximum. the coefficient of variation was also reported with the value being calculated according to Equation 3. 20 . Each table lists a “sample #” which is the name of the sample as specified in the source literature. standard deviation.
....................... 30 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR JP-5 FUEL OIL ...... TABLE 11........................... 84 21 .................. TABLE 13.... 22 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR KEROSENE FUEL OIL ............ 38 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR JP-7 FUEL OIL ................. TABLE 14....... 70 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR LUBRICATING AND MOTOR OILS . TABLE 6.......................... TABLE 10.... 26 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR JP-4 FUEL OIL ........ 52 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR NO................6 FUEL OIL ..................... 64 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR NO................................................ 76 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR CRUDE OIL . TABLE 7...........2 FUEL OIL ...2 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA TABLE 4.................. TABLE 8....................... 46 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR DIESEL (#2) FUEL OIL ... 42 SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR JP-8 FUEL OIL .. TABLE 5. TABLE 9..................... TABLE 12...5........................ SUMMARY OF COMPOSITION DATA FOR GASOLINE FUEL OIL .............................
Table 4.5-Trimethylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene Isobutane Isopentane 2.3-Butadiene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene cis-2-Pentene trans-2-Pentene Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene 1.3.2-Dimethylbutane 2. Summary of Composition Data for Gasoline Fuel Oil compound class Alkenes carbon # compound Total Alkenes 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 Alkyl-Monoaromatics 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 Branched Alkanes 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 1.4-Dimethylpentane 22 .3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.2.
2E+01 2.2E+01 6.0E-01 9.1E-01 3.7E-01 3.4E+00 1.1E+00 1.2E-01 1.2E+01 2.1E+01 2.1E-01 6.3E+00 1.2E-01 1.6E-01 4.0E-03 2.4E-01 1.9E+00 4.9E-01 coefficient of variation* 2.2E-01 8.1E-01 2.1E-01 1.1E+00 1.1E-01 2.8E-01 2.0E-02 1.3E+00 3.4E+00 3.0E-01 1.2E+01 2.4E-01 8.average wt %* 1.2E+01 2.2E+01 2.1E+01 2.0E+01 3.6E-01 4.5E-01 4.9E+00 2.4E+01 2.1E+00 5.1E-01 1.4E-01 1.5E+00 6.9E-04 6.6E+00 2.2E+01 2.0E-01 2.4E-01 5.2E+01 2.8E-01 4.3E-01 6.5E+00 2.1E+01 2.3E-01 minimum* 8.8E-01 7.2E+01 2.7E-03 3.9E-01 1.7E+00 1.3E+01 total number of data points 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 23 .9E+00 8.1E+00 4.1E+00 4.9E+00 1.3E+00 1.0E-03 4.2E+00 stdev* 2.0E+00 5.2E+00 2.0E+00 5.2E+01 2.2E+01 2.0E-01 2.6E-01 maximum* 1.8E-02 7.8E+00 6.0E+01 2.4E-01 6.6E+00 6.5E+00 1.2E+01 2.4E-01 1.9E+00 2.7E-01 3.4E+00 1.5E-01 2.5E-01 5.8E+00 3.7E+00 4.6E+00 2.1E-01 1.9E-02 1.5E-01 6.6E-01 5.6E-01 8.0E+00 9.7E-01 1.1E+01 2.2E+01 2.3E+01 2.0E+00 3.2E+00 4.8E-01 9.5E+00 8.5E-01 1.9E+00 3.6E+00 8.2E+01 2.0E-01 1.2E+01 2.4E+00 3.1E+01 2.2E+01 2.1E-01 1.1E+00 2.3E-01 4.4E+01 2.0E+00 9.2E+00 8.1E+00 3.5E+00 8.8E+00 8.7E+00 7.0E-01 7.9E-01 7.1E+00 7.1E-01 2.2E-01 1.2E-01 8.2E+01 2.2E+01 2.
2. continued compound class Branched Alkanes (continued) carbon # 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 compound 2-Methylhexane 3-Methylhexane 2.3.Table 4.4-Trimethylpentane 2. Toluene and Xylenes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I.3-Dimethylhexane 2. All summary statistic values have units of %.4-Trimethylpentane 2. 24 .3-Trimethylpentane 2.4-Dimethylhexane 3-Methylheptane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclohexane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane Total Naphthalenes Cycloalkanes 5 6 6 7 n-Alkanes 4 5 6 7 Naphthalenes 10 11 11 Oxygenates Total Aromatics Total Monoaromatics 5 Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene Methyl-tert-butylether Total Aromatics Total Benzene.3.
3E-01 2.4E-01 2.0E+01 2.0E-01 2.3E-01 3.1E+01 124 25 .9E-01 4.3E-02 4.3E+00 1.5E+00 4.0E-02 1.4E+00 1.9E-01 2.7E-01 6.5E-01 4.3E+01 2.1E-01 8.6E+01 maximum* 3.5E+01 2.8E-01 4.5E+01 2.6E+01 2.5E-01 6.2E+01 2.9E-02 9.4E+01 stdev* 6.5E-01 3.0E-01 7.6E-02 4.2E+00 7.2E+01 2.3E+01 2.2E+01 2.8E+01 2.3E+01 2.8E+00 1.7E+00 2.1E-01 9.7E-01 2.2E+01 2.5E-01 2.6E+00 8.5E+00 4.7E-01 3.2E+01 2.0E+00 1.8E-01 3.9E+01 1.9E-01 1.average wt %* 3.1E+01 2.9E+00 4.2E+01 2.2E+00 3.2E+00 1.0E-02 2.5E-01 7.2E+01 2.1E+00 1.9E-01 3.8E-01 6.7E+00 3.9E-01 7.7E+01 4.6E-01 5.0E+00 1.2E+01 2.3E+00 5.1E+00 5.1E-01 6.2E+01 total number of data points 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 4.1E+00 8.7E-01 2.4E+00 6.0E-01 1.9E+01 minimum* 2.1E-01 6.5E-01 4.4E-01 1.0E-01 1.3E+01 2.3E-01 1.2E+01 2.3E-01 1.1E+01 2.0E-01 3.6E-01 1.8E+00 5.0E+00 4.9E+00 2.1E-01 2.9E-01 1.5E+01 1.4E-01 7.8E+00 5.7E-01 5.2E+01 2.8E+00 1.5E+00 1.6E-01 9.2E+01 2.5E-01 3.6E+00 3.2E+00 1.7E+01 2.3E-02 1.7E-02 1.0E-02 1.2E+00 coefficient of variation* 2.2E-01 3.0E+01 1.3E+00 7.3E+01 2.8E+00 2.7E-02 1.4E-01 8.7E-01 3.4E+00 3.9E+00 3.5E+01 5.6E-01 1.
3.2.Table 5. Summary of Composition Data for Kerosene Fuel Oil compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics Branched Alkanes carbon # 10 10 11 12 13 14 compound 1.4-Tetramethylbenzene Isodecane Isoundecane Isododecane Isotridecane Isotetradecane Fluorene Indene Tetralin 1-Methyltetralin 2-Methyltetralin n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane n-Heneicosane Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) Monoaromatics 13 9 10 11 11 n-Alkanes 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 26 .
7E+00 4.3E+00 2.0E-01 1.6E+00 6.2E+00 5.7E+00 8.1E+00 2.8E-01 1.0E-01 2.average wt %* 1.0E-01 4.7E+00 2.1E+00 1.0E+00 2.2E+00 7.1E+00 1.2E+00 1.4E+01 5.4E+00 2.2E+00 9.4E+00 3.6E+00 2.0E-01 3.8E-01 7.2E+00 4.3E+00 3.1E+00 1.0E-01 4.0E-01 4.0E-01 3.4E+00 2.6E+00 5.6E-04 2.2E+00 1.9E+00 2.3E-01 1.0E+01 7.6E+01 2.3E+02 6.0E+00 2.3E+00 1.1E+00 5.1E+00 4.8E+00 1.2E+00 6.5E-01 6.0E-01 6.0E-01 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.0E+01 5.8E+00 3.2E-03 2.0E-01 1.7E-01 6.2E+01 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 27 .3E+00 3.6E+01 1.3E+00 1.
All summary statistic values have units of %.3-Benzofluorene Benzo(a)fluorene 7.4-Dimethylnaphthalene Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene Anthracene Phenanthrene 2-Methylanthracene 9.10-Dimethylanthracene Fluoranthene Pyrene 2.Table 5. 28 .12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Polynuclear Aromatics 12 12 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 20 *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I. continued compound class Naphthalenes carbon # 10 11 11 12 compound Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene 1.
8E+00 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 29 .4E-04 1.0E-05 2.0E-03 minimum* 1.2E-04 9.9E-01 4.1E+00 1.5E-03 1.6E-04 7.5E-01 2.6E-01 8.4E-01 1.4E-01 maximum* 4.2E-04 5.average wt %* 3.1E-01 5.8E-02 4.4E-01 1.7E-03 4.5E-01 3.1E-04 8.6E-04 2.
3-Diethylbenzene 1.5-Trimethylbenzene 1-Ethyl-3-methylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene n-Propylbenzene 1.3.4-Dimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-isopropylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-propylbenzene Isobutane 2-Methylbutane Branched Alkanes 4 5 30 .4-Trimethylbenzene 1.2.3-Dimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 1. Summary of Composition Data for JP-4 Fuel Oil compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 compound Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene 1.2.Table 6.2-Dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene 1.3.4-Tetramethylbenzene 1.
average wt %* 4.0E-01 2.5E-01 7.0E-01 6.0E-01 7.6E+00 6.9E-01 4.6E-01 9.1E-01 7.6E-01 5.0E+00 4.6E-01 6.7E-01 4.0E+00 3.9E-01 4.0E-01 1.7E-01 1.3E-01 4.6E+00 6.7E-01 2.6E-01 1.3E-01 3.5E-01 1.7E-01 maximum* 5.9E-01 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 107 107 11 1 1 1 1 1 105 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 106 31 .7E-01 1.9E-01 minimum* 4.3E+00 3.2E-01 5.1E-01 7.
2.3-Dimethylhexane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 2.3.2-Dimethylhexane 2.5-Dimethylheptane 2-Methyloctane 3.3-Dimethylpentane 3-Ethylpentane 3-Methylhexane 2.4-Dimethylheptane 3-Ethylheptane 3-Methyloctane 4-Ethylheptane 32 .3-Tetramethylbutane 2.4-Dimethylhexane 2.2-Dimethylpentane 2.Table 6.5-Dimethylhexane 2-Methylheptane 3. continued compound class Branched Alkanes (continued) carbon # 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 compound 2.3-Dimethylpentane 2-Methylhexane 3.2-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2.
7E-01 2.3E-01 1.5E+00 1.1E-01 5.5E+00 5.2E-01 1.3E+00 107 106 106 1.8E-01 minimum* 1.8E-01 3.8E-01 107 107 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 94 1 1 33 .9E-01 maximum* 1.8E-01 7.6E-01 3.9E-01 1.0E+00 9.5E-01 6.5E+00 1.3E+00 8.3E+00 2.0E-01 1.0E+00 5.4E-02 1.1E-01 7.2E-01 5.1E+00 2.2E-01 8.3E-01 1.average wt %* 1.7E+00 2.4E-01 2.4E-01 1.3E+00 9.3E-01 1.5E+00 2.1E+00 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 96 107 107 1 106 1.8E-01 4.
2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1.3-Trimethylcyclopentane 1.2-Dimethylcyclopentane cis-1.6-Dimethylundecane Cyclohexane Methylcyclopentane cis-1.3-Trimethylcyclohexane 1.4-Trimethylcyclopentane cis-126.96.36.199-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethylcyclohexane 1.3-Dimethylcyclopentane 1. continued compound class Branched Alkanes (continued) carbon # 9 12 13 compound 4-Methyloctane 2-Methylundecane 2.3.3-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-2.Table 6.5-Trimethylcyclohexane 1-Methyl-2-ethylcyclohexane 1-Methyl-3-ethylcyclohexane 1-Methyl-4-ethylcyclohexane n-Butylcyclohexane n-Butane Cycloalkanes 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 n-Alkanes 4 34 .3-Dimethylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Methylcyclohexane trans-1.1.
0E-01 1.3E+00 4.8E+00 107 107 107 106 106 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.7E-01 4.9E-01 1.2E+00 1.2E+00 1.4E+00 107 107 1 3.6E-01 2.2E+00 1.8E+00 7.6E-01 2.6E-01 2.7E-01 93 35 .5E-01 3.4E-01 4.6E-01 6.4E-01 4.5E-01 2.2E-01 1.2E-01 4.7E-01 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1 1 1.1E-01 1.2E-01 2.2E+00 1.4E-01 2.8E-01 9.8E-01 7.6E-01 2.3E-01 4.2E-01 2.5E-01 4.4E+00 5.average wt %* 8.4E-01 7.9E-01 3.
All summary statistic values have units of %. 36 .Table 6.6-Dimethylnaphthalene Naphthalenes 10 11 11 12 *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I. continued compound class n-Alkanes (continued) carbon # 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 compound n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene 2.
1E+00 2.6E+00 1.3E-01 7.0E-01 7.2E-01 maximum* 1.5E+00 1.2E-01 2.3E-02 2.0E+00 8.0E+00 1.average wt %* 9.5E+00 1.1E-02 1.3E+00 2.5E-01 3.2E+00 1.7E+00 3.2E-01 2.9E-01 7.0E+00 8.8E+00 2.5E+00 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 105 103 1 95 76 2.9E+00 1.8E-01 5.9E+00 1.3E-02 1.3E-01 1.6E-01 91 93 101 1 37 .8E+00 2.6E+00 1.4E+00 3.3E+00 2.2E+00 2.2E+00 2.2E+00 1.4E-01 5.4E-01 2.8E+00 2.4E+00 2.5E-01 4.5E-01 minimum* 9.
6-Trimethylheptane 2-Methyldecane 4-Methyldecane 2.4-Triethylbenzene 1-tert-Butyl-3.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.5-trimethylbenzene n-Heptylbenzene n-Octylbenzene 1-Ethylpropylbenzene 3-Methyloctane 2.5-Trimethylcyclohexane n-Butylcyclohexane Phenylcyclohexane Branched Alkanes 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 Cycloalkanes 9 9 10 12 38 .3.2.3-Trimethylcyclohexane 1.4.4-Tetramethylbenzene 1.4.6-Dimethylundecane 1.Table 7.1.4-Diethylbenzene 188.8.131.52.6-Dimethyldecane 2-Methylundecane 2.3-Diethylbenzene 1. Summary of Composition Data for JP-5 Fuel Oil compound class Alkenes Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # 13 8 8 9 10 10 10 12 13 13 14 15 compound Tridecene m-Xylene o-Xylene 1.
0E-02 9.2E-01 2.5E-01 1.7E-01 7.0E-02 9.8E-01 7.7E-01 1.4E+00 2.0E-01 8.4E-01 2.0E-02 3.0E-02 7.0E+00 5.1E-01 7.2E+00 7.8E-01 1.3E-01 9.7E-01 7.average wt %* 4.1E-01 7.5E+00 6.2E-01 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 39 .0E-02 6.2E-01 1.
Table 7. continued compound class Cycloalkanes (continued) Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) n-Alkanes carbon # 13 12 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 compound Heptylcyclohexane Biphenyl n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene 1-Ethylnaphthalene 2.6-Dimethylnaphthalene Naphthalenes 10 11 11 12 12 12 *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I. All summary statistic values have units of %. 40 .3-Dimethylnaphthalene 2.
8E-01 1.2E-01 3.4E+00 1.7E+00 1.7E+00 1.5E+00 2.7E-01 1.2E-01 5.2E-01 4.9E-01 7.4E+00 3.0E+00 3.6E-01 1.0E-01 1.1E+00 1.average wt %* 9.9E+00 3.8E+00 4.1E+00 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 41 .
2-Dimethyl-3-ethylbenzene 10 1.2-Dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene 10 1.4-Dimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 10 1-Methyl-2-isopropylbenzene 10 1-Methyl-2-propylbenzene 10 1-Methyl-3-propylbenzene 10 1-Methyl-4-isopropylbenzene 10 1-Methyl-4-propylbenzene 10 n-Butylbenzene 11 2-Methylbutylbenzene 11 Pentylbenzene 12 1.3-Dimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 10 1.2.Table 8.2-Diethylbenzene 10 1. Summary of Composition Data for JP-7 Fuel Oil compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # compound Total Alkyl-Monoaromatics 8 1.3-Dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene 10 1.4-Diethylbenzene 10 1.4-Triethylbenzene 42 .
6E+00 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1.9E-02 1 9.9E-01 1 4.8E-01 1 2.0E-02 1 43 .0E-02 1 5.1E-01 1 1.9E-03 1 6.9E-02 1 1.0E-02 1 2.9E-02 1 2.0E-02 1 9.average wt %* 1.8E-01 1 5.9E-02 1 4.9E-03 1 3.0E-02 1 1.0E-01 1 5.
Table 8. continued compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics (continued) carbon # 12 compound 1-ter t-Butyl-3. All summary statistic values have units of %. 44 .5-dimethylbenzene Cycloalkanes 10 n-Butylcyclohexane n-Alkanes 10 n-Decane 11 n-Undecane 12 n-Dodecane 13 n-Tridecane 14 n-Tetradecane 15 n-Pentadecane 16 n-Hexadecane 17 n-Heptadecane Naphthalenes 10 Naphthalene 11 1-Methylnaphthalene 11 2-Methylnaphthalene Total Cycloalkanes Total Cycloalkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I.
2E-01 1 4.3E-02 1 2.2E+01 1 5.7E-01 1 2.5E-01 1 8.4E-02 1 1.7E+00 1 1.5E-01 1 7.average wt %* 6.2E-02 1 7.3E+00 1 7.0E-01 1 4.1E+01 1 45 .0E+00 1 2.0E-01 1 3.9E-02 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 8.
5-Triethylbenzene 13 n-Heptylbenzene 14 n-Octylbenzene 15 1-Ethylpropylbenzene Branched Alkanes 9 3-Methyloctane 10 2.2.6-Dimethyldecane 12 2-Methylundecane 46 .2.4-Triethylbenzene 12 1. Summary of Composition Data for JP-8 Fuel Oil compound class Alkenes carbon # 13 compound Tridecene Alkyl-Monoaromatics 8 m-Xylene 8 o-Xylene 9 184.108.40.206-Trimethylbenzene 10 1.Table 9.4-Tetramethylbenzene 10 1.3.6-Trimethylheptane 11 2-Methyldecane 12 2.3-Dimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 10 1-Methyl-2-isopropylbenzene 12 1.3.
average wt %* 7.0E-02 1 7.9E-01 1 4.6E-01 1 9.2E-01 1 5.5E-01 1 6.1E-01 1 6.1E+00 1 6.7E-01 1 1.2E+00 1 47 .9E-01 1 6.0E-02 1 4.3E-01 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 6.1E-01 1 9.6E-01 1 1.0E-02 1 6.0E-01 1 2.0E-02 1 2.
6-Dimethylundecane Cycloalkanes 9 1. continued compound class Branched Alkanes (continued) carbon # 13 compound 2.Table 9.3-Trimethylcyclohexane 9 220.127.116.11-Trimethylcyclohexane 9 1-Methyl-4-ethylcyclohexane 9 Propylcyclohexane 10 n-Butylcyclohexane 12 Hexylcyclohexane 12 Phenylcyclohexane 13 Heptylcyclohexane Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) 12 Biphenyl n-Alkanes 7 n-Heptane 8 n-Octane 9 n-Nonane 10 n-Decane 11 n-Undecane 12 n-Dodecane 13 n-Tridecane 48 .
3E-01 1 8.1E+00 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 6.4E-01 1 7.1E-01 1 1.4E+00 1 49 .1E+00 1 4.0E-02 1 1.3E-01 1 3.average wt %* 2.0E+00 1 6.3E+00 1 4.0E-02 1 6.7E-01 1 1.0E-01 1 1.4E-01 1 9.0E-02 1 3.0E-02 1 9.7E+00 1 4.
Table 9. continued compound class n-Alkanes (continued) carbon # 14 compound n-Tetradecane 15 n-Pentadecane 16 n-Hexadecane 17 n-Heptadecane 18 n-Octadecane Naphthalenes 10 Naphthalene 11 1-Methylnaphthalene 11 2-Methylnaphthalene 12 1-Ethylnaphthalene 12 2. All summary statistic values have units of %.6-Dimethylnaphthalene *Summar y statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I. 50 .3-Dimethylnaphthalene 12 2.
average wt %* 3.1E+00 1 1.6E+00 1 4.6E-01 1 1.3E-01 1 3.8E+00 1 1.0E-02 1 2.5E+00 1 3.3E+00 1 51 .0E-02 1 1.0E+00 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1.5E-01 1 8.
3.5-Trimethylbenzene n-Propylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-isopropylbenzene n-Butylbenzene 3-Methylundecane 2-Methyldodecane 3-Methyltridecane 2-Methyltetradecane Pristane Phytane Total Dicycloalkanes Tota Monocycloalkanes Total Tetracycloalkanes Total Tricycloalkanes Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) 12 Total Fluorenes Biphenyl 52 .Table 10. Summary of Composition Data for Diesel (#2) Fuel Oil compound class Alkenes Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # compound Total Alkenes Total Alkyl-Monoaromatics 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 Branched Alkanes 12 13 14 15 19 20 Cycloalkanes Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene m+p-Xylenes o-Xylene Total Xylenes 1.
6E-03 6.0E-02 3.2E+01 1.5E-01 3.6E+01 1.8E-02 2.3E-01 4.2E-01 4.9E+01 1.4E+01 1.2E+00 8.1E+00 1.2E+00 4.8E-02 coefficient of variation* 5.3E-02 1.7E-01 2.6E-01 8.0E-02 6.6E-02 4.4E-01 4.4E+00 1.1E-01 8.0E-03 4.0E-02 1.8E+01 2.2E-03 1.6E+01 4.3E-01 3.9E-01 4.8E-02 1.0E-01 5.1E+01 7.5E+02 1.0E-01 5.3E+01 3 3 2 2 6.average wt %* 1.1E+01 3.1E-02 9.2E-01 3.2E+00 5.2E+00 2.5E-02 stdev* 6.8E-02 2.8E-01 2.1E+02 8.4E+01 3.0E-01 1.4E-01 3.3E+01 2.1E-01 5.0E-01 6.6E-01 6.1E-01 1.4E+01 2.3E+01 2.8E-01 3.5E-01 1.8E-02 1.2E-02 1.3E-02 5.8E+00 2.0E+01 2.8E-01 3.8E-01 6.0E-01 1.8E-01 6.0E-01 6.9E-03 7.9E-01 1.6E+00 7.0E-03 1.8E-01 5.3E-01 8.9E-02 1.7E-02 2.0E-03 3.8E+01 3.6E+02 1.3E-02 minimum* 2.0E-01 1.9E+01 total number of data points 8 20 4 6 6 5 5 1 9.1E-01 5.5E-02 3.5E-01 3.3E+01 8.0E-01 7.0E+00 3.8E-01 1.3E+01 1.3E+01 2.2E-03 maximum* 2.7E+00 1.9E-02 1.1E+00 4.3E+02 21 3 2 53 .0E-02 3.2E-01 2.8E-02 1.6E+00 3.4E+01 1.8E-02 9.6E-02 2.1E+01 6 7 7 7 7 7 21 20 1 1.0E-01 2.9E-02 3.7E-01 7.3E+00 6.
continued compound class Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) (continued) carbon # 13 13 14 15 compound Fluorene Total Methylbiphenyls Total Methylfluorenes Total Dimethylfluorenes Total Nitrogen Total Sulfur Water Inorganics Metals Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Iron Manganese Molybdenum Zinc Monoaromatics Total Benzocycloparaffins Total Benzodicycloparaffins Total Dinaphthenobenzenes Total Indenes 10 Total Indans and Tetralins n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Alkanes 8 9 10 11 12 54 .Table 10.
2E+00 1.0E+01 3.2E-04 7.6E-02 5.1E+00 5.8E-01 1.2E+01 4.0E-01 1.0E+01 4.2E-02 1.0E+00 3.0E+00 5.6E-02 4.6E+00 3.1E-01 5.3E-04 1.9E-05 1.8E-01 5.5E-04 5.9E-01 1.0E+01 total number of data points 13 1 9.8E-01 1.4E-05 3.2E-01 3.9E+00 1.1E-03 7.7E-03 3.5E-01 5.0E-02 3.1E-03 1.1E+01 9 7 7 7 55 .5E+00 2.1E-04 6.4E+01 20 27 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6.3E+02 1.3E-02 coefficient of variation* 5.3E-01 5.2E-04 1.3E-04 1.8E-01 7.2E+00 2.3E-02 2.1E-06 4.7E-01 1.0E+00 1.0E-05 4.average wt %* 8.5E-01 stdev* 4.0E+00 2 2 1 7.2E-02 5.3E+00 3.0E+00 6.0E-01 1.1E-01 3.1E-01 3.9E-01 2.3E+00 2.4E+01 17 18 2 1.9E-01 7.0E+01 1.3E-01 4.2E-01 9.6E+00 1.9E+02 4.6E+00 4.4E-01 2.0E-01 4.4E+01 6 1 7.5E+00 1.7E+00 minimum* 3.7E-04 3.4E-02 maximum* 1.4E+00 1.8E+01 4.8E+00 3.
3-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.4-Dimethylnaphthalene 1. continued compound class n-Alkanes (continued) carbon # 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 compound n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane n-Heneicosane n-Docosane n-Tetracosane Total Naphthalenes Naphthalenes 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 Other Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene Total Methylnaphthalenes 1.Table 10.5-Dimethylnaphthalene Total Dimethylnaphthalenes Total Trimethylnaphthalenes 2-Azapyrene Total Thioaromatics 10 Ethylhexyl nitrate 56 .
0E+00 1.0E-01 1.4E+01 3.9E-01 6.0E+01 5.0E-04 2.4E+00 1.7E-01 1.0E+00 8.4E-04 3.1E-01 1.5E+00 1.1E-03 1.9E+01 2.1E-01 3.6E-01 4.5E+00 1.0E-01 8.1E-02 1.0E+01 2.3E-01 3.3E-01 2.3E-01 3.9E-01 4.5E-05 8.1E+01 3.0E+01 5.1E+01 3.average wt %* 2.9E+00 2.6E-01 1.3E+01 2.0E+00 6.9E-01 9.8E-01 8.8E-01 2.0E-04 4.0E+01 2.4E-01 1.8E+01 5.0E-01 2.4E+01 1.7E+00 1.6E-01 3.2E+00 7.6E-01 1.0E-01 2.7E-01 1.0E-01 2.2E+00 1.9E+00 2.9E-02 2.2E-01 4.4E-01 4.0E-04 1.1E-01 1.6E+00 2.6E+01 2.6E+00 1.2E-02 6.8E+01 7.1E-01 1.6E-01 3.5E-01 1.2E-01 5.1E+00 2.4E-01 2.6E-01 2.7E+00 3.0E-02 7.6E-01 1.3E-01 4.1E+00 2.9E+01 4.4E-01 5.9E-01 2.0E-01 minimum* 1.2E+01 4.5E+01 3.4E-01 stdev* 4.3E-01 coefficient of variation* 2.8E+00 2.8E+00 2.0E+01 8.5E+00 6.6E-01 1.1E+01 2.4E-01 3.9E+01 22 29 8 8 5 7 7 7 5 6 5 2 1 57 .8E-01 2.1E-01 1.3E-01 6.9E-01 2.6E-01 4.1E-01 1.4E-01 maximum* 2.9E+00 1.1E+00 1.6E-01 4.9E-01 2.3E+00 2.5E+01 2.6E-01 9.2E+01 total number of data points 7 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 1 4.5E+01 5.6E-01 4.5E-01 3.3E+00 2.5E-01 4.5E+00 4.1E-01 2.
Table 10.4-Dimethylcarbazole 1.6-Dimethyldibenzothiophene 2. continued compound class Other (continued) carbon # 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 compound Dibenzothiophene 1-Methylcarbazole 2-Methylcarbazole 3-Methylcarbazole 4-Methylcarbazole 1.6-Dimethyldibenzothiophene and 2-Ethyldibenzothiophene 2-Phenylindole 6-Phenylquinoline 2-Ethyldibenzothiophene Benzo[def]carbazole 9-Phenylcarbazole Total Acenaphthenes Total Acenaphthylenes Total Biphenyls and Acenaphthenes Total Phenanthrenes Total Triaromatics 14 15 16 16 18 Polynuclear Aromatics 14 14 14 2-Aminoanthracene 2-Aminophenanthrene 3-Aminophenanthrene 58 .3-Dimethylcarbazole 1.2-Dimethylcarbazole 1.
6E-04 4.6E+00 3.9E-04 7.3E-02 3.1E+02 9.5E+01 6.0E+01 7.4E-04 2.0E-01 1.0E-04 4.0E-04 1.7E-02 2.6E-04 1.0E-04 3.0E-01 4.1E-03 8.3E+01 4.0E-04 7.0E-04 1.8E-04 1.0E-04 1.8E-04 7.1E-03 6.0E-04 5.3E-02 maximum* 1.0E-04 2.6E+01 5.8E+01 5.0E-01 3.8E+01 3.2E-02 5.average wt %* 1.7E-04 1.4E-04 1.0E+01 3.0E-04 1.0E-04 1.5E+01 4.0E-04 3.3E-03 1.5E-02 1.5E+00 2.9E-04 3.4E+01 3.3E-02 9.1E-02 1.4E-04 1.0E-04 5.0E-02 1.7E+01 5.9E+01 4.0E-04 1.6E-04 2.0E-04 6.7E-03 2.2E-02 stdev* 2.0E-03 6.1E-01 5.0E-01 1.0E-04 1.0E-04 2.6E+00 5.7E+01 5.1E-05 1.0E-04 1.0E-02 6.0E-04 2.9E+00 1.3E-04 2.5E-01 5.4E-04 1.1E+01 4.0E-04 1.0E-04 2.0E-02 minimum* 1.6E+01 6.8E-04 3.6E-03 4.0E-04 2.9E+01 total number of data points 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3.8E+01 5 5 5 5 5 24 20 1 1.9E-03 1.7E-02 7.8E-04 3.4E+01 4.7E-03 coefficient of variation* 1.5E+01 3 10 5 5 5 59 .5E-04 1.0E-04 1.4E+00 3.4E+01 3.0E-04 3.0E-04 6.0E-04 3.7E-02 3.5E+00 9.6E-04 5.1E-04 7.7E-04 1.7E+01 7.0E-03 8.0E+01 5.0E-04 6.4E-04 2.8E-04 7.0E-03 7.0E-04 1.1E-03 3.9E+00 1.0E-04 6.0E-04 4.5E-03 1.
h. continued compound class Polynuclear Aromatics (continued) carbon # 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 compound 4-Aminophenanthrene Anthracene Phenanthrene 1-Methylphenanthrene 2-Methylanthracene 2-Methylphenanthrene 3-Methylphenanthrene 4.i)fluoranthene Chr ysene Chr ysene and Triphenylene Triphenylene 60 .& 9-Methylphenanthrene 9-Cyanoanthracene 9-Cyanophenanthrene Total Methylanthracenes Total Methylphenanthrenes Fluoranthene Pyrene Total Dimethylphenanthrenes 1-Methylpyrene 2-Methylpyrene Benzo(a)fluorene 1-Methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene Benz(a)anthracene Benzo(g.Table 10.
4E-04 6.8E-02 1.4E-06 3.8E-04 9.8E-04 coefficient of variation* 5.0E-06 2.0E-02 1.1E-02 2.0E-04 1.8E-03 8.6E-01 3.6E-03 5.4E+01 4.8E-04 6.4E-03 1.3E-04 1.2E-04 1.4E-01 1.5E-04 1.5E-01 5.7E+01 1.8E-02 5.0E+02 2.3E-05 3.8E-01 1.0E-04 maximum* 6.0E-03 6.7E-06 5.5E-03 9.7E-02 2.3E+02 1.8E-05 2.0E-02 2.1E-03 1.1E-02 3.0E-02 3.5E-05 1.1E+01 total number of data points 5 14 20 8 8 6 8 8 5 5 1 1.6E+02 1.0E-04 3.2E+02 8.3E-03 1.6E-05 9.7E-04 1.0E-01 2.5E-05 1.8E-03 6.1E+02 1.1E-05 1.5E-02 4.3E-05 1.3E-04 minimum* 1.6E-04 9.1E-03 5.0E-03 6.average wt %* 3.2E+02 1.7E-03 6.2E-02 8.4E-03 1.3E-02 4.3E-03 1.3E-03 4.4E+02 6 15 15 6 8 8 8 8 9 8 1 8.4E-02 1.9E-04 1.9E-04 7.7E-05 1.0E-06 2.0E-03 7.5E+02 2.3E+02 1.4E-07 1.3E+02 1.3E-01 8.0E-04 4.4E-02 9.9E-04 2.6E-01 6.4E+02 1.2E-04 3.3E-04 5.1E-01 1.8E-04 2.4E+02 8 1 61 .4E-03 2.5E-02 2.7E-04 3.0E-03 6.3E-05 4.7E+02 4.7E-04 3.3E+02 1.8E-04 2.8E-07 1.9E-03 4.2E+00 1.6E+02 1.0E-04 2.4E-07 4.0E-01 2.0E-03 stdev* 1.4E-04 5.8E-04 4.3E+02 1.3E-04 2.2E+01 1.5E-06 2.5E-07 5.
Table 10. 62 . continued compound class Polynuclear Aromatics (continued) carbon # 20 20 20 21 22 22 22 compound Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b+k)fluoranthene Benzo(e)pyrene Cyclopenta(cd)pyrene Benzo(g.3-cd)pyrene Picene Total Aromatics Total Aromatics by HPLC Total Aromatics Total Cycloalkanes Total Diaromatics (IncludingNaphthalenes) Total Cycloalkanes Total Diaromatics (Including Naphthalenes) Total Monoaromatics Total n-Alkanes Total Polynuclear Aromatics Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes by HPLC Total Monoaromatics Total n-Alkanes Total Polynuclear Aromatics Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I. All summary statistic values have units of %.2.h.i)perylene Indeno(1.
5E-05 2.6E+00 8.6E+01 6.2E+01 2.7E+01 6.1E+01 3.0E-05 8.2E-04 3.0E+02 3.1E-05 3.7E-04 4.0E-06 3.5E-07 2.3E+00 7.4E+01 5.5E+01 5.1E+02 2.8E+02 1.5E+01 2.9E+01 3.0E+00 9.3E-05 3.7E+00 1.3E+01 2.4E+01 26 19 10 29 6.9E+00 4.average wt %* 2.6E-01 4.2E-05 1.4E-04 1.7E+00 9.6E+01 7.3E+01 3.3E+00 7.8E-05 6.0E+02 1.2E+01 3.8E+01 3.4E-07 3.7E+01 2.4E-06 1.1E+00 4.8E-05 1.6E-01 9.9E+00 7.5E-04 2.9E-04 2.0E+01 19 63 .5E+01 2.0E+02 2.8E+01 5.7E-05 8.6E+01 1.7E+00 5.0E-05 9.5E-04 6.6E+02 2.3E-02 maximum* 8.3E+01 3.4E+01 2.2E-04 1.6E-06 9.2E+01 3.6E-05 1.0E+01 total number of data points 5 8 9 8 8 8 7 28 19 28 27 1.4E+02 2.4E+00 1.4E+00 coefficient of variation* 1.3E-05 3.6E-05 1.0E+00 8.3E+00 minimum* 5.1E-07 5.1E+02 2.0E+01 stdev* 3.4E-04 3.7E-05 7.1E-07 6.6E-05 3.9E+00 3.1E+01 7.
Summary of Composition Data for No.Table 11. 2 Fuel Oil compound class Alkenes Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # compound Total Alkenes Total Alkyl-Monoaromatics 7 8 8 Cycloalkanes Toluene Ethylbenzene Total Xylenes Total Dicycloalkanes Total Monocycloalkanes Total Tricycloalkanes Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) 12 13 14 15 16 Metals Total Fluorenes and Acenaphthylenes Biphenyl Fluorene Total Methylfluorenes Total Dimethylfluorenes Total Trimethylfluorenes Nickel Vanadium Monoaromatics Total Dinaphthenobenzenes Total Dinaphthenobenzenes and Indenes Total Indenes 9 10 Indene Total Indans and Tetralins n-Decane and n-Undecane 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Alkanes 64 .
2E+01 4.8E+00 5.6E+01 5.6E-01 1.5E-01 1.0E-01 3.4E-01 9.0E+02 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1.0E-01 8.7E-01 8.1E-02 2.4E+00 1.9E-03 4.1E-01 4.0E-01 3.2E-02 3.3E+01 8.1E+00 1.0E+01 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 65 .8E+01 7.5E-02 1.1E+00 1.7E+00 1.0E-01 1.7E-02 1.5E-04 4.4E-01 5.3E+00 2.8E+00 1.9E-02 5.8E+00 1.5E-02 2.5E-01 1.6E+01 5.0E-01 5.1E-01 5.9E+01 3.0E+00 8.5E-02 3.average wt %* 2.1E+01 1.6E+00 1.8E-02 5.6E-02 2.2E-01 5.0E+00 1.1E+00 7.0E+00 2.4E-02 2.5E+00 1.5E-02 3.5E+00 2.0E-01 5.6E+00 2.0E-05 1.0E+00 1.5E+01 4.2E+00 2.2E+00 2.0E+01 7.0E+00 2.3E+00 2.1E+00 1.2E-01 1.8E+01 4.1E+00 1.3E+00 2.0E+00 8.1E+00 1.2E+00 3.5E-02 2.4E+00 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 5.8E-01 4.3E-01 9.0E-01 3.3E+00 1.9E-02 1.3E+01 4 6 6 6 3 2 1.5E+00 3.2E+00 5.5E-01 4.3E-01 7.2E+00 1.8E+01 2.0E-01 8.4E+01 6 1 1.0E-01 9.0E-01 5.0E+01 1.3E-03 1.4E-02 2.1E+01 6 3 2 1.0E+00 6.2E-03 1.0E-01 8.9E+00 6.0E+00 5.2E+00 1.7E-03 4.9E-02 7.0E+00 4.0E+00 1.5E-02 3.4E+00 8.9E-02 1.6E-03 4.2E+00 2.8E-02 1.3E+00 1.0E-02 4.9E-02 1.3E-01 1.4E+00 2.6E+01 3 2 2 1.
Table 11. continued
compound class n-Alkanes (continued)
carbon # 17 18 19 20 21 22
compound n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane n-Heneicosane n-Docosane Total Naphthalenes
Naphthalenes 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 14 Other 8 12 13 14 15 Polynuclear Aromatics
Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene Total Methylnaphthalenes 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene Total Dimethylnaphthalenes Total Trimethylnaphthalenes Total Tetramethylnaphthalenes Total Benzothiophenes Dibenzothiophene Total Methyldibenzothiophenes Total Dimethyldibenzothiophenes Total Trimethyldibenzothiophenes Total Acenaphthalenes Total Acenaphthenes Total Biphenyls and Acenaphthenes Total Methylfluoranthenes and Pyrenes Total Phenanthrenes Total Tricyclicaromatics
12 12 14 14 15
Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene Anthracene Phenanthrene 1-Methylphenanthrene
average wt %* 2.4E+00 1.8E+00 8.8E-01 3.6E-01 2.0E-01 1.0E-01 1.0E+01 2.2E-01 3.9E-01 6.8E-01 1.2E+00 4.4E-02 1.7E+00 6.9E-01 3.3E-01 9.0E-01 1.7E-02 4.9E-03 9.4E-03 8.7E-03 2.1E+00 2.1E+00 1.9E+00 5.4E-03 6.7E-01 3.0E-01 1.8E-02 6.0E-03 2.8E-03 7.9E-02 1.7E-02
minimum* 6.5E-01 5.5E-01 3.3E-01 1.8E-01 9.0E-02
maximum* 3.6E+00 2.5E+00 1.3E+00 6.0E-01 4.0E-01
stdev* 1.6E+00 1.0E+00 5.0E-01 2.2E-01 1.8E-01
coefficient of variation* 6.5E+01 6.0E+01 5.7E+01 6.0E+01 9.0E+01
total number of data points 3 3 3 3 3 1
8.5E+00 9.0E-03 2.9E-01 3.6E-01 6.4E-02 4.3E-02 1.5E-01 1.1E-01 6.3E-02
1.2E+01 4.0E-01 4.8E-01 1.0E+00 2.7E+00 4.5E-02 3.2E+00 1.8E+00 5.9E-01
3 10 2
4 4 2
4 3 2 1 1
2.5E-03 9.1E-03 7.1E-03 3.0E-01 1.1E+00 1.6E+00 1.7E-03 2.9E-01 2.0E-01 1.3E-02
7.4E-03 9.6E-03 1.0E-02 5.4E+00 3.8E+00 2.3E+00 9.1E-03 1.0E+00 4.0E-01 2.2E-02 3.7E-01 5.5E+01 2.9E+00 1.5E+00 1.4E+02 7.0E+01
2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 1
6 10 1
Table 11. continued
compound class Polynuclear Aromatics (continued)
carbon # 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 22
compound 2-Methylanthracene 2-Methylphenanthrene Methylanthracene Total Methylphenanthrenes 9,10-Dimethylanthracene Fluoranthene Pyrene Total Dimethylphenanthrenes Total Trimethylphenanthrenes Benz(a)anthracene Chr ysene Total Tetramethylphenanthrenes Triphenylene Total Methylchrysenes Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(e)pyrene Benzo(g,h,i)pyrene Total Dimethylchr ysenes Total Trimethylchr ysenes Benzo(g,h,i)perylene Total Aromatics Total Branched Alkanes Total n-Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes
Total Aromatics Total Branched Alkanes Total n-Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes
*Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I. All summary statistic values have units of %.
3E-04 1.0E+01 5 2 2.5E+00 2.6E-04 4.3E+02 9 9 2 2 5.7E-02 7.0E-06 4.4E+01 2.1E-02 5.9E-03 8.2E-06 2.0E-06 4.9E-03 1.5E-03 3.5E+00 1.3E+02 8.7E-06 2.2E+01 1.2E+02 9.7E-01 6.9E-04 2.8E-03 4.0E+02 7 5 4 2 2 1 1.7E+01 2.6E-05 9.2E-01 4.2E-04 3.9E-01 3.9E-06 1.2E+01 8 8 2 5.4E+01 minimum* 9.1E-01 8.1E+01 4.4E-04 2.6E+01 7.0E-05 1.8E+01 6 1 8.3E-05 9.5E-05 1.1E-02 1.7E-01 2.7E-05 8.8E-04 6.8E+01 7.4E-03 2.0E+01 3 7 69 .2E-02 2.1E-06 maximum* 1.5E-05 5.4E+01 1.7E-01 1.8E-06 2.2E-02 1.3E-02 7.8E-03 1.1E+01 6.3E-04 9.4E-04 6.7E-03 2.7E-04 4.5E-05 1.8E+01 3.0E-06 3.1E-03 7.1E-03 7.1E-02 4.2E-02 1.8E-04 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 2 2 6.1E-05 1.1E+02 1.9E-04 3.4E+02 4 3 2 1.6E-03 2.7E-05 4.0E-06 1.0E-06 2.0E-04 3.1E+00 3.0E-05 7.4E-06 2.0E-03 3.4E-02 2.0E-05 5.0E-02 1.2E+01 1.2E-02 1.7E-03 1.9E-01 6.average wt %* 1.1E-05 5.5E-05 5.7E+01 5.2E-04 1.7E-05 4.5E+01 2.
6 Fuel Oil compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics Branched Alkanes carbon # compound Total Alkyl-Monoaromatics 19 20 Pristane Phytane Total Dicycloalkanes Total Hexacycloalkanes Total Monocycloalkanes Total Pentacycloalkanes Total Tetracycloalkanes Total Tricycloalkanes Cycloalkanes Metals Nickel Vanadium Monoaromatics n-Alkanes 10 Total Indans and Tetralins Total n-alkanes n-C32 and larger 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane n-Heneicosane n-Docosane n-Tricosane n-Tetracosane n-Pentacosane n-Hexacosane 70 .Table 12. Summary of Composition Data for No.
0E-02 1.4E+01 3.7E-02 4.0E-02 5.7E-02 4.0E-02 1.5E-02 2.4E-02 6.3E-02 3.4E-02 3.0E-01 8.9E-02 6.1E-02 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9.4E-01 1.5E-01 1.4E-02 2.9E+01 6.9E-03 1.1E+00 5.0E-01 2.7E+00 2.0E-01 3.4E-02 3.5E-02 4.3E-02 3.7E-02 2.average wt %* 1.0E-01 9.8E-02 4.0E-01 1.7E-03 5.7E-02 6.1E-02 5.2E-02 7.3E+01 3.2E+01 6.4E-01 1.9E+00 5.7E-03 1.5E-02 3.6E+01 4.2E-02 5.2E-02 7.0E-02 6.3E-01 1.3E-02 6.9E+00 1.6E-02 9.7E+01 4.4E-02 5.2E-01 1.4E+01 4.6E-02 4.8E-02 6.2E+01 5.6E+01 3.7E-02 6.3E+01 3.4E-02 4.2E-01 1.3E-03 2.3E-02 8.0E-02 3.3E-01 1.3E-01 1.4E+01 4.9E-03 7.1E-01 1.1E-02 6.4E+01 3.4E-01 1.5E-02 6.2E-01 1.4E-02 3.4E+00 4.4E-02 7.2E-02 4.0E-01 1.1E-02 5.9E+00 8.4E-03 8.5E-02 2.8E-02 2.0E-02 4.8E-03 1.3E-02 3.3E-02 7.1E-02 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 4.1E-01 1.0E-01 1.0E-02 1.2E-02 4.0E-04 2.4E-02 3.0E+01 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 71 .9E+00 2.3E-02 9.8E-02 1.5E-02 6.3E+01 3.
continued compound class n-Alkanes (continued) carbon # 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 compound n-Heptacosane n-Octacosane n-Nonacosane n-Triacontane n-Hentricontane n-Dotriacontane n-Tritriacontane n-Tetratriacontane n-Pentatriacontane n-Hexatriacontane n-Heptatriacontane n-Octatriacontane n-Nonatriacontane n-Tetracontane Total Naphthalenes Naphthalenes 10 11 Other Naphthalene Total Methylnaphthalenes Asphaltenes and Polars Insolubles Polar Materials 12 Polynuclear Aromatics Total Dibenzothiophenes Total Chrysenes Total Fluoranthenes Total Phenanthrenes 14 14 15 15 16 16 18 Anthracene Phenanthrene 1-Methylphenanthrene 2-Methylphenanthrene Fluoranthene Pyrene Benz(a)anthracene 72 .Table 12.
3E+02 12 1 1 2.4E-02 1.8E-03 4.0E-01 2.7E+01 total number of data points 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.2E-02 coefficient of variation* 4.3E-03 7.6E-03 7.0E-02 3.2E-03 2.8E-02 6.5E-02 minimum* 4.0E-02 2.6E-03 4.6E-02 4.3E-02 4.2E+02 5 1 1 1 1 2.1E-02 3.3E-02 1.2E-01 1.8E-02 2.0E-02 2.7E+02 12 4 1 7.2E-02 1.9E-03 1.5E-02 1.5E-02 1.1E-02 9.8E-03 9.1E-04 maximum* 9.0E-02 1.1E-02 2.1E-02 5.0E-02 5.3E-02 2.0E-04 2.8E+00 1.2E-02 2.4E+01 7.0E-04 2.1E-02 9.5E+02 3 73 .3E-02 2.0E-03 1.0E-02 4.7E-02 3.5E-02 1.6E+00 5.0E-02 5.8E-02 4.6E-02 3.0E+01 3.8E-01 7.3E-03 3.8E+00 1.3E-03 8.2E-03 4.6E+01 3.5E-02 stdev* 3.6E-02 6.4E-02 1.7E+02 1.7E-03 7.average wt %* 6.6E-02 5.8E-02 1.7E-02 3.7E-03 6.5E-01 1.5E-03 9.6E+01 13 12 12 13 1 2.6E-01 7.4E-02 2.1E-03 4.6E-03 5.1E-02 9.5E-02 6.5E+01 4.3E-03 5.6E-02 1.0E+01 9.4E+01 3.0E-02 1.6E-02 2.1E-02 3.0E-04 1.3E-02 2.6E-02 5.8E-02 5.5E-01 8.9E-03 8.9E-02 9.1E-02 4.0E-02 4.7E+01 2.2E-02 8.2E-03 6.0E-03 2.8E-02 1.9E+02 4.0E-02 1.0E+01 6.5E+01 7.2E-03 4.0E-03 2.5E-02 7.
3-cd)pyrene Total Aromatics Total n-Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes Total Aromatics Total n-Alkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I.2.Table 12. 74 . continued compound class Polynuclear Aromatics (continued) carbon # 18 18 20 20 20 20 22 compound Chr ysene Triphenylene Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b+k)fluoranthene Benzo(e)pyrene Per ylene Indeno(1. All summary statistic values have units of %.
9E-03 maximum* 3.0E+02 total number of data points 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5.3E-01 coefficient of variation* 2.7E+00 1.0E-02 3.1E-03 4.1E+01 2 75 .9E-02 3.2E-03 1.average wt %* 6.4E+01 1.0E+00 2.4E-03 4.4E-02 1.3E+01 minimum* 2.1E-01 stdev* 1.0E-03 2.
Table 13.1-Trichloroethane Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) Trichloroethylene (TCE) Trichlorotrifluoroethane Total Dicycloalkanes Total Hexacycloalkanes Total Monocycloalkanes Total Pentacycloalkanes Total Tetracycloalkanes Total Tricycloalkanes 15 16 Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) Nonylcyclohexane Octylcyclohexane TotalBiphenyls/Acenapthenes/Fluorenes Total Fluorenes 12 13 13 13 14 15 16 Inorganics Metals Biphenyl 4-Phenyltoluene Fluorene Total Methylbiphenyls Total Methylfluorenes Total Dimethylfluorenes Total Trimethylfluorenes Total Chlorine Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium 76 . Summary of Composition Data for Lubricating and Motor Oils compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # compound Total Alkyl-Monoaromatics 6 7 8 Branched Alkanes 10 19 20 Chlorinated Solvents 1 2 2 2 2 Cycloalkanes Benzene Toluene Total Xylenes trans-Decalin Pristane Phytane Dichlorodifluoromethane 1.1.
7E-02 2 2 87 4.8E-01 1.4E-03 6.1E-02 3.3E-02 3.8E-01 1.3E-04 2.3E+00 1.1E-04 2.9E+00 6.3E-03 1.0E-04 1.7E+00 5.8E-03 minimum* 1.4E-01 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 2 237 243 236 1 1.0E-03 1.0E-01 1.4E-01 1.2E-01 3.2E-01 1.1E-04 2.2E+00 9.4E-04 1.7E-03 2.3E-03 6.8E-04 1.6E-03 2.4E+00 9.6E-02 2.4E-01 1.average wt %* 4.0E-04 4.0E-01 5.0E-02 1.8E-02 2.0E-02 2.7E-02 3.4E-01 617 600 609 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 9.3E-04 5.1E-02 5.0E-03 2.9E+00 7.1E-03 2 2 1 1 4.7E-02 2.0E-01 2.0E-04 1.4E-01 1.2E-03 1.1E-03 6.2E+02 2 2 5 1 1 1 1 1.0E-01 maximum* 8.7E-03 1.8E-02 2.0E-03 2.6E+00 1.0E+01 1.2E-02 1.0E+00 3.8E-03 591 538 753 745 757 77 .2E-01 3.9E-02 1.7E-04 1.0E-04 1.5E-03 1.5E-04 2.7E-04 8.5E-03 2.0E-01 1.6E-02 2.4E+00 3.8E-02 3.3E-02 1.4E-01 6.1E-04 5.4E-03 4.
3.5-Trimethylnaphthalene Total Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s) Total Sulfur Containing Heterocyclics 12 13 14 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 Dibenzothiophene Total Methyldibenzothiophenes Total Dimethyldibenzothiophenes Total Trimethyldibenzothiophenes Benzo(b)naptho(2.5-bcd)thiophene Total Benzonaphthofurans Total Methylbenzonaphthothiophenes 78 .4a.1-d)thiophene Benzonaphthothiophene Other Benzonaphthothiophenes Phenanthro(4. continued compound class Metals (continued) carbon # compound Lead Zinc Monoaromatics 10 14 Tetralin Total Napthenobenzenes n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane Total Naphthalenes n-Alkanes 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Naphthalenes 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 Other Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene Total Methylnaphthalenes 1.Table 13.4b.5-Dimethylnaphthalene 2-Ethylnaphthalene Total Dimethylnaphthalenes 1.
2E-05 minimum* 6.6E-03 1.3E-02 2.1E-05 6.2E-04 3.3E-02 1.5E-01 3.8E-01 5.1E-01 3.7E-02 5.6E-03 5.7E-01 2.0E-03 1.0E-04 3.4E-02 1.4E-02 2.8E-02 7.4E-03 stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 836 811 2 1 1 2.9E-05 1.3E-02 1.9E-04 4.8E-02 1.8E-02 2.4E-02 2.2E-02 1.2E-01 6.4E-04 4.3E-02 6.5E-02 1.7E-02 5.2E-02 2.8E-02 5.8E+00 1.7E-03 6.4E-02 1.1E-02 2.average wt %* 6.9E-03 3.2E-02 3.2E-01 2.1E-02 1.8E-03 4.0E-01 4.7E-02 6.6E-02 5.0E-03 5.6E-04 4.5E-01 5.4E-04 2.7E-03 1.0E-03 3.0E-05 2.6E-01 9.6E-05 2.3E-03 9.4E+00 2.0E-05 2.0E-02 5.3E-02 1.4E-02 8.9E-03 2.0E-05 maximum* 2.0E-04 2.1E-05 5.7E-02 1.9E-02 3.0E-04 4.1E-02 7.2E+00 5.3E-01 1.0E-04 3.2E-03 9.8E-04 3.0E-01 3.8E-04 8.1E-02 3.9E+01 81 1 1 1 1 1 79 .0E+02 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 29 2 2 2 2 2 2 754 1 1 1 1 1 1.3E-01 5.4E-02 2.
4a. continued compound class Other (continued) Polynuclear Aromatics carbon # 22 compound Triphenylene(4.Table 13.5-bcd)thiophene Terphenyl Total Benzanthracenes/Chrysenes/ Triphenylenes Total Fluoranthenes Total Perylenes Total Phenanthrenes 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 Anthracene Phenanthrene Total Methylanthracenes Total Methylphenanthrenes Fluoranthene Phenylnaphthalene Pyrene Total Dimethylanthracenes Total Dimethylphenanthrenes 1-Methylpyrene 4-Methylpyrene Benzo(a)fluorene Benzo(b)fluorene Benzo(c)fluorene TotalBenzofluorenes Total Dihydromethylpyrenes Total Methylpyrenes Total Trimethylanthracenes Total Trimethylphenanthrenes Benz(a)anthracene Benzo(c)phenanthrene Chr ysene Chr ysene and Triphenylene Total Chrysenes and Benzanthracenes Total Chrysenes and Triphenylenes Total Diethylphenanthrenes Total Dimethylpyrenes 80 .4b.
4E-05 7.4E+01 1.4E+02 86 1 1 1 1 1.1E-04 2.8E-03 1.4E-04 8.0E-02 3.0E-03 1.0E-05 6.9E-04 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1 1 1 1 2.9E-04 1.0E-05 3.5E-02 3.2E+02 9.6E-05 4.3E-03 1.6E+01 1.8E-04 5.1E-03 3.9E-02 2.3E-04 2.9E-04 1.7E+00 2.6E-04 5.1E-03 2.3E-03 8.3E-03 7.8E-04 3.4E-05 3.4E-03 6.3E+02 3 86 1 1.4E-03 2.0E-04 7.7E-03 1.8E-03 77 1 1 81 .9E-04 6.4E-04 1.2E+00 2.1E-05 4.7E-02 9.4E-05 3.0E-05 1.8E-03 1.0E+00 3.average wt %* 1.1E+02 2 4 6 1 1.1E-03 8.7E-04 1.4E+00 4.8E-03 1.7E-03 9.8E-04 5.7E-02 3.6E-02 3.2E-03 7.8E-05 6.4E-02 3.5E-03 1.7E-04 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3.2E-03 1.3E-04 1.9E-03 6.4E-03 4.4E+02 32 1 1.7E-03 1.0E+01 4 5 1 2.5E-03 3.2E-03 1.0E-04 1.8E-05 4.3E-03 1.2E-05 1.
Table 13.c)anthracene Indeno(1. All summary statistic values have units of %. 82 .2.3-cd)pyrene Coronene Total Benzperylenes Total Aromatics Total Cycloalkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes Total Aromatics Total Cycloalkanes Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I.h.i)perylene Dibenz(a. continued compound class Polynuclear Aromatics (continued) carbon # 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 24 24 compound Triphenylene Total Ethylmethylpyrenes Total Methylbenzo(a)anthracenes Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(e)pyrene Benzo(k)fluoranthene Ethylbenz(a)anthracene Per ylene Total Benzofluoranthenes (b+j+k) Total Benzpyrenes and Benzfluoranthenes Cyclopenta(cd)pyrene Methylbenzo(mno)fluoranthene Total Ethylcyclopenta(def)phenanthrenes Total Methylbenzo(e)pyrenes Total Methylbenzofluoranthenes Total Methylbenzopyrenes Benzo(g.
6E-05 1.7E-05 2.7E-03 6.1E-05 7.6E-04 2.0E-03 7.3E+01 5.4E+01 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1 1 3.1E-03 1.7E-03 4.2E-04 1.9E+02 1.0E-01 4.2E-05 4.9E+01 4.0E-05 2.9E-05 3.7E-03 2.6E-05 2.0E-04 1.2E-05 5.4E-05 3.1E-06 8.0E-06 2.7E+01 6.7E-03 2.2E+01 2.0E-06 4.8E-04 1.4E+02 84 1 1.1E-03 1.8E-03 8.1E-05 4.5E+02 1.2E+01 1.8E+02 151 2 1.1E-03 1.6E-05 2.5E-03 4.4E-05 1.7E-05 2.average wt %* 2.1E-04 7.3E-05 3.1E+01 2.1E-04 1.0E-05 1.7E+02 1.7E-03 3.5E-07 6.0E-06 4.3E-03 8.6E-04 7.5E-04 1.4E+02 82 81 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7.8E-03 1.0E-06 3.5E-03 8.1E-04 2.3E+01 3 83 .5E-03 2.4E+02 84 3 1 8.0E+02 3 1 1.0E-06 1.9E+02 82 27 1 2.5E+01 2.5E-04 1.6E-03 2.
Summary of Composition Data for Crude Oil compound class Alkyl-Monoaromatics carbon # 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 compound Benzene Toluene 1.5-Trimethylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene n-Propylbenzene 1.4-Trimethylbenzene 1.4.4-Dimethylpentane 2-Methylhexane 3-Ethylpentane 3-Methylhexane Branched Alkanes 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 84 .2.3.5-Tetramethylbenzene 1.3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2.Table 14.2-Dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene 1.2.3-Trimethylbenzene 1.3-Dimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-isopropylbenzene Indane sec-Butylbenzene ter t-Butylbenzene 2.2-Dimethylbutane 2.3-Dimethylpentane 2.5-Tetramethylbenzene 18.104.22.168.2-Diethylbenzene Ethylbenzene m+p-Xylenes m-Xylene o-Xylene p-Xylene 1.
0E-01 1.1E+01 9.2E-02 maximum* 4.8E-01 6.4E-02 7.9E-02 7.0E+01 9 2 6.2E-02 1.4E-02 8.1E+01 5.1E-01 8.3E-01 9.0E-01 5.2E-03 4.6E-01 6.0E-02 1.7E+01 5.3E-01 1.0E-01 1.9E+01 1.0E-02 3.2E-03 6.1E-01 2.0E-02 5.7E-01 2.3E-02 1.0E-02 3.0E-02 3.4E-02 5.0E-03 4.5E+01 9.9E-01 9.5E+01 9.0E-02 2.4E-01 minimum* 4.6E-01 1.2E-01 6.0E-01 4.5E+00 stdev* 1.8E+01 6 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1.4E-01 4.0E-01 8.4E-01 9.0E-02 8.0E-02 4.3E-02 1.5E-01 4.0E-01 6.0E-02 4.4E-01 1.1E-01 3.0E-01 2 85 .0E-01 3.8E-01 5.4E-02 2.2E-02 6.1E+02 total number of data points 8 9 1 5.8E-01 8.6E-01 2.0E-02 3.0E+00 6.7E-01 2.0E-02 3.5E-01 3.4E-02 2.9E-01 5.1E+02 6.4E-01 6.0E-02 4.7E-02 3.6E-02 2.8E-02 7.0E-02 1.1E-02 1.1E+01 7 9 8 1 5.7E-02 1.6E-01 2.0E-01 2.6E-02 2.4E-02 1.0E-02 1.1E-01 6.6E-02 2.7E-02 1.8E-02 2.0E-01 4.1E+01 1.3E-01 7.average wt %* 1.0E-01 1.7E-01 5.0E-01 2.4E-02 6.6E-01 1.0E-02 4.1E-01 coefficient of variation* 7.7E-01 3.9E-01 2.0E+01 8 9 7 7 7 9 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2.6E+01 7.0E-02 9.3E-01 3.0E-02 8.6E-01 3.
3-Dimethylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane trans-1.3.6-Dimethylheptane 2-Methyloctane 3-Methyloctane 4-Methyloctane Pristane Phytane Cyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclopentane 1.Table 14.4-Trimethylpentane 2.2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1.3-Dimethylheptane 2.5-Dimethylhexane 2-Methyl-3-heptane 3.4-Dimethylhexane 2.2-Dimethylhexane 2.2-Trimethylcyclopentane 1.1. continued compound class Branched Alkanes (continued) carbon # 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 19 20 compound 22.214.171.124-cis-4-Trimethylcyclopentane trans-1.4-Trimethylcyclohexane Biphenyl Fluorene Cycloalkanes 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 Diaromatics (Except Naphthalenes) 12 13 86 .2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1.3-Trimethylcyclopentane trans-1.3-Dimethylcyclopentane 1.3-Dimethylhexane 2.1.3-Trimethylpentane 2.2.1-Dimethylcyclopentane cis-1.3-Trimethylpentane 2.3-Dimethylhexane Ethylcyclohexane 2.
0E-01 2.5E-01 4.0E-02 1.5E-01 2 1 1.0E-02 1.6E-01 2.1E-01 6.3E+02 4 87 .0E-01 2.5E-02 2 1 1 1 1 5.1E-01 1.0E-01 5.3E-02 9.0E-02 7.0E-01 1.0E-01 5.0E-01 2.9E-01 3.0E-02 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 1.8E-02 7.0E-03 6.0E-02 2.7E-01 6.0E-01 3.0E-01 2 2 2 1 2.0E-01 6.0E-01 3.0E-02 9.6E-01 2 1 6.0E-02 2.0E-01 1.0E-03 1.0E-02 2.6E-01 1.9E-01 1.5E-01 3.0E-02 3.0E-02 2.0E-01 4.0E-02 1.0E-01 9.2E-01 2 1 1 1 4.0E-01 6.4E-02 6.0E-01 4.average wt %* 4.7E-02 4.0E-01 4.3E-01 5.0E-01 2 1 5.0E-01 3.7E-02 1.2E-01 2 1 1 6.0E-01 2 2 1 1.0E-02 2.0E-02 2 1 3.6E-01 2 2 1 2.5E-01 2.3E-01 2.9E-03 6.3E-01 2.0E-03 5.4E-01 2.6E-02 5.0E-01 2.
4-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.6-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.5-Dimethylnaphthalene 126.96.36.199.& 1.3-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.& 1.& 2. continued compound class Monoaromatics n-Alkanes carbon # 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 compound Tetralin n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane n-Heneicosane n-Docosane n-Tricosane n-Tetracosane n-Pentacosane n-Hexacosane Naphthalene 1-Methylnaphthalene 2-Methylnaphthalene 5-Methyltetralin 6-Methyltetralin 1.2-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.Table 14.5-Dimethylnaphthalene Naphthalenes 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 88 .
9E-01 1.1E+00 4.5E-01 4.0E+01 7.0E-01 7.3E-02 2.6E-01 1.5E-02 1.1E-02 5.0E-03 1.1E+01 6.2E-01 4.1E-02 6.6E-01 8.4E-02 2.8E-02 8.1E+00 9.4E-01 4.7E+00 7.8E+00 1.0E-01 3.8E+00 1.3E-01 1.0E-02 1.4E-01 1.2E-01 8.3E+01 7.7E+00 1.3E-02 2.6E-02 2.5E-01 7.1E-01 8.3E+01 4 9 9 1 1 1.0E-02 9.5E-01 3.7E-02 8.average wt %* 9.5E-01 4.8E-02 8.9E+01 7.6E+01 6 1 7.4E-02 3.2E-02 7.9E-02 1.7E-01 1.2E-01 4.0E-02 3.0E-02 2.5E+01 6 6 89 .2E-02 2.5E-01 7.8E+00 2.1E+00 1.4E-01 2.3E-03 9.7E-01 4.6E-02 6.9E-01 4.1E+00 1.6E-02 minimum* maximum* stdev* coefficient of variation* total number of data points 1 7.1E-01 6.7E+01 7 1 4.1E-01 5.7E-01 3.3E+00 1.9E-01 1.0E-02 1.3E+00 1.0E-02 9.0E-01 1.2E-02 3.5E-01 2.6E-01 1.9E-02 5.3E-01 2.7E-02 9.9E+01 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3.9E+00 1.4E-01 4.6E+00 1.
6-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.5-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.6-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.5-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.8-Dimethylphenanthrene 1.7-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.2.Table 14.& 2.6-Trimethylnaphthalene Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene 2-Methylfluorene Anthracene Phenanthrene 1-Methylphenanthrene 2-Methylphenanthrene 3-Methylphenanthrene 9-Methylphenanthrene 1.3.7-Trimethylnaphthalene 2.2.6-Dimethylnaphthalene 188.8.131.52.6-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.5-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.3-Dimethylnaphthalene 184.108.40.206-Dimethylnaphthalene 1.6-Dimethylphenanthrene 1.7-Dimethylnaphthalene 2.2.4-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.& 220.127.116.11-Dimethylnaphthalene 2-Ethylnaphthalene 1.6-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.9-Dimethylphenanthrene Polynuclear Aromatics 12 12 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 90 . continued compound class Naphthalenes (continued) carbon # 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 compound 18.104.22.168.7-Dimethylphenanthrene 1.7-Trimethylnaphthalene 1.& 2-Ethylnaphthalene 1-Ethylnaphthalene 2.
3E-02 1.3E-02 1.2E-01 1.0E-03 6.1E+01 7.3E-02 2.7E-03 1.0E+01 9.4E-02 6.6E-02 3.6E-02 6.3E-01 2.2E-02 coefficient of variation* 5.2E-02 3.6E-02 8.3E-02 5.2E-02 1.9E-02 5.4E-02 4.5E-02 5.average wt %* 3.7E-03 1.8E-02 5.8E-02 3.2E+01 5.0E-02 7.8E-02 2.2E-01 9.1E-02 3.3E-02 4.2E-02 2.3E-03 minimum* 1.9E-03 1.6E-02 8.4E-02 7.0E-04 5.7E-02 1.1E-03 6.5E-02 2.6E-02 1.9E-02 3.5E-02 4.5E-02 9.2E-02 5.8E-01 1.6E-02 1.0E-02 maximum* 5.0E+01 5 6 1 5.9E-02 9.4E-02 2.5E-02 8.2E+01 5.2E-02 7.0E+01 6.0E+01 6.0E-02 4.2E-02 1.1E-02 7.0E-02 1.0E-02 4.7E-02 6.8E-03 7.7E-02 3.4E-02 1.7E-02 6.7E-02 4.0E-01 6.4E-01 5.3E-02 2.4E-01 6.1E-01 stdev* 1.8E-02 4.6E-02 6.1E+01 5.4E-03 6.8E-01 1.2E+01 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 6 2 3.3E-03 1.1E-02 1.7E-02 4.9E-02 1.4E-01 5.7E-01 2.7E-02 8.3E+01 4 6 7 1 1 1 1 2.1E-01 4.1E+01 6.2E-02 7.0E-01 1.2E-03 4.1E+01 7.7E+01 6.1E-03 2.0E-02 1.8E-03 6.7E-02 1.9E-02 5.3E-02 2.0E+01 5.6E-03 3.5E-01 3.6E-02 2.4E+01 5.5E+01 5.0E-02 2.5E+01 6.7E-01 5.2E-02 1.9E-02 1.3E-02 2.6E-03 1.0E-03 2.9E-02 1.0E-03 4.6E-02 2.2E-03 1.2E-03 1.8E+01 6 6 6 91 .2E-03 3.0E-04 7.7E+01 total number of data points 6 7 1 7.1E-02 1.5E-02 1.5E-02 9.3E+01 5.6E-02 1.5E-02 1.2E-03 6.7E-02 9.3E-02 2.8E+01 13 8 8 6 6 2 3.7E-02 1.2E+01 5.5E+01 4.9E+01 7.3E-02 3.1E-03 2.7E+01 5.
All summary statistic values have units of %.h.i)fluoranthene Chrysene Chrysene and Triphenylene Triphenylene 2-Methylchrysene 3-Methylchrysene 4.6-Dimethylphenanthrene 2.2.i)perylene Indeno(1.9-Dimethylphenanthrene 9-Ethylphenanthrene Fluoranthene Pyrene 1-Methylpyrene 4-Methylpyrene Benz(a)anthracene Benzo(g.h.& 6-Methylchrysene Benzo(a)pyrene Benzo(b)fluoranthene Benzo(e)pyrene Benzo(k)fluoranthene Per ylene 2-Methylcholanthene Benzo(g. continued compound class Polynuclear Aromatics (continued) carbon # 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 22 22 24 compound 2.7-Dimethylphenanthrene 2.6-Dimethylphenanthrene 3.9-Dimethylphenanthrene 3.3-Dimethylphenanthrene 2.3-cd)pyrene Coronene *Summary statistics are a compilation of the data listed in the individual mixture composition data tables which are presented in Appendix I.Table 14. 92 .
4E+02 4 1 1 1 1.9E-03 stdev* 1.average wt %* 3.0E-04 5.9E+01 5.4E+01 5 5 2 1 1.6E-03 3.9E-03 3.7E+01 total number of data points 6 6 6 2 2.1E-02 9.2E-03 7.4E-04 4.8E-04 1.3E-03 3.5E-05 3.0E-04 7.9E-03 6.5E-03 4.0E-04 3.2E+01 3 1 5.1E-03 7.4E-02 6.8E+01 3 2 2 2.3E-04 7.7E-03 3.9E-04 2.2E-04 1.0E-03 5.6E-03 3.0E-04 2.5E-04 1.5E-04 6.4E+01 4 1 6.4E-04 7.7E-04 2.4E-04 3.4E-03 1.0E-03 1.0E-04 1.2E-04 1.0E-04 2 1 1 93 .3E+01 5.9E-03 1.8E-03 7.9E-04 3.2E-04 3.2E+01 3 2 2 1 1 1 7.0E-05 2.6E-04 5.0E-03 2.7E-04 3.4E-03 1.6E-03 4.5E-03 1.7E-03 6.2E-03 maximum* 6.6E-04 1.4E-04 2.1E-03 3.0E-03 5.3E-03 9.1E-03 8.6E-03 2.3E-03 1.7E-04 6.0E-05 minimum* 7.9E-03 4.7E-03 8.8E-04 5.4E-04 4.0E-04 1.9E-04 7.7E-03 6.5E-03 6.5E-03 1.9E-03 coefficient of variation* 6.6E-03 7.0E-04 9.8E-03 4.5E-03 3.0E+01 7.4E-03 1.4E-03 1.
Selected Literature Regarding Composition. American Petroleum Institute. Bauman. Amherst. Washington. (1988). SpringerVerlag. J. and Y. Hanley & Belfes. B.P.A.Tell. Risk-Based Determination of Soil Clean-Up Goals for Diesel-Contaminated Sites in the Railroad Industry. Microbiological Reviews. 10. D.P. Philadelphia.L. Philadelphia. Analysis and Processing in Occupational Medicine. (1990).Welte (1984). Numerical Solution. 23:201-243. and D. New York. Petroleum: Its Composition.. John Wiley.L. Nakles.0 REFERENCES 6. D. API Publication Number 4593. PA. 4. 8. 45:180-209. Baehr.H. American Society of Testing Materials (1994).C. (1981). J. 7. Compilation of Data on the Composition. Atlas. 95 . Annual Book of ASTM Standards. E. D. Res.. A Compositional Multi-Phase Model for Ground Water Contamination by Petroleum Products . Transport and Fate of Non-BTEX Petroleum Chemicals in Soils.. 6. King. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group Volume 3: Selection of Representative TPH Fractions Based on Fate and Transport Considerations.. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence.B. M.Clarke. New York.K. B.Potter and R. Fuel-processing.W. and Groundwater. edited by N. (1993).Strong (1978).. ABB-Environmental Services. Academic Press. Tissot. D.II. and Product Applications in Hydrocarbon Fuels. R. Inc.R. Washington. 11. J.Andes (1996).. S.6.Orem (1997). DC. American Petroleum Institute (1994).M.Krause. A. DC. Washington. T. (1975).Ferris. Lubricants and Fossil Fuels. New York. Water Resour.V. prepared for MADEP. H. MA. R.6042-04. Association of American Railroads. Health and Sciences Department.G.Weaver. 12.M.Corapcioglu (1987). 3. Amherst Scientific Press. Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Coal in Chemistry of the Environment. 5. 9. PA Gustafson.1 REFERENCES FOR SECTIONS 1 THROUGH 4 1. 2. R.Edwards. Goodger. Physical Characteristics and Water Solubility of Fuel Products. Bailey.P. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective. Section 5: Petroleum Products. Solubility and Identification of Petroleum Fuels and Oils in Soil and Groundwater. Job No.
Requejo (1989).D. Methods of Analysis for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Samples.L. EPA Symposium on Waste Testing and Quality Assurance. 10. Job No. Inc. and A. Proceedings. Searl and R. Brown. Fossil Fuel Chemistry and Energy Workshop. P. and R. American Petroleum Institute. T. (1990).T. Heating Oils. pp.A. Washington. London. Engelhart. American Petroleum Institute. R. edited by F. (1974). I-259 to I-273. and E. Davani et al. 4.J. In Drilling Wastes.. DC. Washington. 7. R. Residual Fuel Oil as a Potential Source of Groundwater. Wyoming. Pancirov. J. Washington DC.. edited by L. Pancirov. Brown (1980). Symposium on Analytical Chemistry 2. CA. July 24-27 1989. The Fate and Partitioning of Hydrocarbon Additives to Drilling Muds as Determined in Laboratory Studies. Washington. B. U.. DC. 103-113.A. Pancirov. 96 . Oil Heat Task Force (1987). Compilation of Data on the Composition. Laramie. PNL-5002. prepared for MADEP. UC-90d.S. Physical Characteristics and Water Solubility of Fuel Products. In Petroleum in the Marine Environment. Proceedings of a Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Pollution.P. (1978). R. pp.J. DC.G. Pancirov. 11. Editors.. Compositional Data on API Reference Oils Used in Biological Studies: a No.R. 6.. Analysis of Potential Hazards Posed by No. Pacific Northwest Laboratory. 1987. Weiss. Gillman. 5.D. Searl and R.D. and South Louisiana Crude Oil. (1984). Methods of Analysis for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Environmental Samples. American Petroleum Institute. 1994. Washington DC. 9. American Chemical Society.S. a Bunker C. Boehm.J. Comprehensive Analytical Analysis of API Generic Refinery Streams. 3.D. ABB-Environmental Services. unpublished data.2 REFERENCES FOR SECTION 5 AND APPENDIX I 1.. Ray and A. 2 Fuel Oil. University of Wyoming Science Summer Camp. Brown. July 23-27. Hill. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Petroleum Products. R. (1974). San Francisco. 8. Brown. Determination of Oil/Water and Octanol/Water Distribution Coefficients from Aqueous Solutions from Four Fossil Fuels.6.A. and Marine Tissues. American Chemical Society. Norris. 12. Thomas. Elsvier Applied Science Publishers. 1974.J. Master’s Thesis. (1989).J. Petrakis and F. M. 2 Fuel Oil Contained in Underground Storage Tanks. Analytical Methods for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crude Oils. J. American Petroleum Institute.6042-04. Kuwait Crude Oil. Prepared by ENVIRON Corp. (1975). T.
TN. Beckman (1988). TN. Energy Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 18.C. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 37-45. J. Fingas. Petroleum: Its Composition. Philadelphia.F. Distribution and Fate of Oil Spill Related Hydrocarbons. unpublished results. 13. 855-869. P. September 10-15.W. R. King. Soluble Hydrocarbons Analysis from Kerosene/Diesel Type Hydrocarbons. M.. Dunlap. Oak Ridge. (1985). Oak Ridge National Laboratory. W. and H. Edited by N. Higgens.D. Kennicutt. Antarctica. and Processing. Fuel. (1989). 1. Guerin. 1-78. and S. pp. 24.R. Dublin.W. Li. (1980). Fraser. 22. 3(3)409-430.. Quinlivan.. Sergy. In Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Environmental Science & Technology. (1988). Comparison of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Shale Oil Fuels and Analogous Petroleum Products. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry. Occupational Exposures in Petroleum Refining. Comparative Chemical Characterization of Shale Oil and Petroleum-derived Diesel Fuels. Chevron Corporation. (1991). Environmental Science & Technology. 16. Combustion-generated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Emissions. Proceedings of the Conference on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals. and G.T. Marine Environmental Research. A Multivariated Statistical Analysis of Fuelrelated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles. R.L. (1984). Nelson. Riley. M. M..E. Detection and Restoration. Study of 22-year Old Arrow Oil Samples Using Biomarker Compounds by GC/MS. Hanley and Belfus Inc. Wang. 68:283-286. R. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 20.Anderson. 23. H. 28(9):1733-1746. Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso at Arthur Harbor.R. Sweet.. 19.. Weaver. 21. 17. 3:511-535. (1994). Crude Oil and Major Petroleum Fuels. Guerin. R. Stockton and M. W. (1991). M.Bean. Changes in the Volatile Hydrocarbon Content of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil Treated Under Different Simulated Weathering Conditions. 4(2):109-119. Ghassemi. 25(3):509-518. Panahloo. 851027-5. 1978. A. 14. pp.. 45:1-322. (1994). and M. 97 . S. (1989). Analysis. 28(5) 965-972. L. and D. National Water Well Association. PA.M. E. pp. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Z. In Groundwater: Prevention. 770130-2. OH. 15. Diesel Fuel No.G.. 2 Composition. E. Culver.L. B. Griest. and R. Westerholm. Environmental Science & Technology.of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine/Aquatic Environment. Oak Ridge. W. American Chemical Society.Thomas. (1977). K.
Sediment Chemistry Studies Related to the 1986 Bahia las Manas (Panama) Oil Spill. Quinn. OH. Grimmer G. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Mutagenicity of Used Crankcase Oil.-W. P.Nulholland. (1990). Washington. Jr. 35. Profile of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Used Engine Oil .E. Part 2.J. Hoffman. Environmental Science and Technology. and K. J. 33. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.W.J. Prepared for EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response by Franklin Associates. Parker. Cleanup. Proceedings of the 1991 International Oil Spill Conference. The Installation Restoration Program Toxicology Guide. K. 27. (1984). (1988). 98 .T. and G. 309:13-19. K. Fresenius Zeitschrift fur Analytical Chemistry. Williams. K.Yelle and D. Pruell..Inventory by GCGC/MSPAH in Environmental Materials. and J. W.MacPherson. Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crankcase Oil. Columbus.Bryner.94-5. 65:11501158. Embryotoxic and Biochemical Effects of Waste Crankcase Oil on Birds’ Eggs. Peake. R.25.. (1988). J. 34.Tierney. pp. E. J.. 26. Eisenberg. Prevention. Lepinske.L. Benner. Jacob.A. In Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Chemistry and Biological Effects.Wise. Dennis Battelle Press. L. Fresenius Zeitschrift fur Analytical Chemistry..F. (1994). K. S. R. document number 530-SW-013.Inventory by GCGC/MS. Fuel. (1991). CPPI Report No. (1981). Profile of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Used Engine Oil . Bartle and G.. Little. 63:230-241. 306:347-355.J. 24:1218-1427. K. Arthur D. Naujack.G. Behavior. Vol. Eastin. W.J. 31. Andrews (1986).Stoelting. (1987). 30. Cambridge. 1025-1039.C. Composition of Canadian Summer and Winter Gasolines 1993. (1980). Burns. The Relation between Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Diesel Fuels and Exhaust Particulates. Gay (1982). edited by M. Analysis of Polcyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Naphthenic Distillate Oils by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. 36. J.Fingas. 29. and G.P. Grimmer G. Bider. et al. N. American Petroleum Institute.C. 49:89-97. Environmental Pollution. M. Dettbarn.Lao and M. B.L. 28. MA. In Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Decade of Progress. Jacob.PAH in Environmental Materials Part 1..W. Alberta Research Council. DC. Taylor..A. Installation Restoration Program (IRP).Jr. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from the Combustion of Crude Oil on Water.D. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute.Jorissene. Composition and Management of Used Oil Generated in the United States. and M. W. Ltd. Control.. 3. (1981). 32.C. D. Cooke and A. Naujack. G.
Inc. National Technical Information Services. The MERA BORG Incident.Masuck. J. (1991). Kostecki. P. Part 3.110:437-445.F... 99 . Carcinogenic Effects of Benzene as a Major Component of Gasoline and Jet Fuel. eds.Inventory by GCGC/MS.Melman (1993). 39. 42.2 Fuel Oil.. NTIS #AD A115949/ LP. Grimmer.Harbison. Organic Geochemistry 15:17-34. et. (1986).L. Analysis and Environmental Fate of Air Force Distillate and High Density Fuels. Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum. Final report #ESL-TR-81-54. PAH in Environmental Materials.J. M.W. Wright Patterson Fuel Research Laboratory.D. Methylated Dicyclic and Tricyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Crude Oils from the Handil Field. Fawn. Trans. 43. Profile of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Crude Oils .D. Smith. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. J.T. In Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils. 1994. 38.al (1981).Wilson. (1990). Harper. Amer. Springfield. AK. Marcel Dekker. Kerosene and No.A. Woodward. 44. Goodman.150.R. 40. Little Rock. pp 215-241.. Texas Water Commission.C.TX. J. (1983). 41. 2nd edition.K. Calabrese and P.M. Fresenius Zeitschrift fur Analytical Chemistry 309:13-19. Unpublished Data.Mehrie.Faroon. D. P.Garrigues and H. Accumulation and Sublethal Effects of a Wyoming Crude Oil in Cutthroat Trout. Fish. and D. Toxicity of the Major Constituents and Additives of Gasoline.37.Naujack. pp. Soc.. 45.C. LP91-05. Speight. R.Jacob and K. Radke..H.Barker. Volume 3 edited by E. Indonesia. Department of the Air Force..D.. VA. and W. Jr. O. (1981). New York. Division of Interdisciplinary Toxicology.G. Austin. M.
This table. and an additional 138 tables describing the composition of the eleven petroleum fuel mixtures addressed in this document can be found on the world wide web site for the Association for the Environmental Health of Soils.com. 101 .APPENDIX I: The following page presents an individual sample fuel mixture composition data table for Diesel (#2) fuel oil. www.aehs.
1E-05% 1.h.6E-04% 1 4.8E-06% 6.INDIVIDUAL SAMPLE FUEL MIXTURE COMPOSITION DATA fuel mixture: Diesel (#2) Fuel Oil sample #: 24/D1 Swedish Sample from: Westerholm.9E-04% 1.5E-07% 2.3E-02% # of data points flag(s) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 21 15 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 14 21 7 6 21 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 20 20 21 22 22 22 Total Aromatics Total Cycloalkanes Total Diaromatics (Including Naphthalenes) Total Polynuclear Aromatics Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes Anthracene Phenanthrene 1-Methylphenanthrene 2-Methylanthracene 3-Methylphenanthrene 4.4E+00% 1.867g/mL.i)perylene Indeno(1. and H. Li.olefins)=0. 5. 14 Assuming 30% PAHs and 70% monoaromatics.0E+00% 5.26mg/L.73mg/L.0E-06% 1.6E-05% 1.0E-02% 3.0E-06% 3. d(PAHs)=1.3-cd)pyrene Picene Total Aromatics Total Cycloalkanes Total Diaromatics (Including Naphthalenes) Total Polynuclear Aromatics Total Straight-Chain and Branched Alkanes 1.& 9-Methylphenanthrene Fluoranthene Pyrene 1-Methylpyrene 2-Methylpyrene Benzo(a)fluorene 1-Methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene Benz(a)anthracene Benzo(g.h. Data was conver ted using formula WT%=vol%*d(analyte)/d(product).0E-05% 2. d(lube oil)=0.1E-05% 2. Vol 28. 1994 compound class Alkenes Inorganics Polynuclear Aromatics carbon # compound Total Alkenes Total Sulfur Water Total Triaromatics weight percent 1. d(fuel#2.4E-07% 4.2.8E-05% 6.8762)*10-4. 21 no flag 102 . No.8E-07% 5.4E-07% 3.5E-04% 7.5E-06% 4. R.0E-02% 1.i)fluoranthene Chr ysene and Triphenylene Benzo(b+k)fluoranthene Benzo(e)pyrene Cyclopenta(cd)pyrene Benzo(g.5E-07% 1. 965-972.1E-07% 6. pp.6E+01% 1 flag(s) 6 7 Data was conver ted using formula WT%=mg/L*(1/0.89mg/L.5E-06% 6.9E-06% 5. Environmental Science & Technology. d(alkanes)=0.6E-06% 9.4E-06% 4. assuming d(aromatic.4E-05% 1. 15 Data was conver ted using formula WT%=ppm*10-4.4E+01% 7.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.