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AP Human Geography Chapter 13 Examination Review

Directions: Respond to the prompts (fill-in-the-blanks, questions, and sentence completions) in complete sentences on separate sheets of paper.
1. The process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area is known as 2. An increase in the land area occupied by urban settlements, percentage of living in urban settlements, and the number of people living in urban settlements, are all elements of 3. What best describes the relationship between urbanization and the Industrial Revolution? 4. What are the ten largest urban areas (LUAs) in the world? What are the two LUAs found in MDCs today? 5. The process of legally adding land area to a city in the USA is known as 6. A city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is known as 7. In the United States, a geographical region with a relatively high population density (at least 50,000) at its core and has close economic ties throughout the area is called a 8. Higher social heterogeneity in urban settlements means that 9. What was Louis Wirth discussing when he said that these area have more density, heterogeneity, and larger size? 10. What is a megalopolis? 11. The process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment, is 12. A process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend many for improvements is 13. A process by which real estate agents convince white owners to sell their houses is 14. ________________ is housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes. 15. A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class is called 16. What are the areas called where you will find; gentrified buildings, warehouses, and public housing? 17. What type of compensation, according to U.S. law, will a family receive when forced by a city to relocate in support of a public project? 18. According to the textbook, what are the characteristics of the underclass? 19. Why do U.S. central cities face fiscal (money) problems? 20. Which socioeconomic class is clustered in the inner-city neighborhoods? 21. Compared to whites, which ethnicity in the U.S. is more than likely to be clustered in inner-city neighborhoods? 22. In which ways have American city governments sought to deal with their financial problems? 23. What is the density gradient? What are some recent changes to it? 24. As compared to United Kingdom, how would one describe the amount of sprawl in the U.S.? 25. Define sprawl: 26. British cities are surrounded by open space known as 27. The purpose of busing in many U.S. suburbs is to promote (Hint - Supreme Court Case: Brown vs the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas) 28. What is the legal form of segregation in U.S. cities called? 29. What is it about suburbs that attract most people to live there? 30. Where does the largest portion of Americans live? What portion of the concentric zone model indicates this? 31. The largest number of trips are made for what purpose? 32. How does the U.S. government encourage the use of cars? 33. What does public transportation offer that the private automobile does not? 34. What is the major exception to the canon to the decline public transit? 35. Why is public transit more extensive in Western European cities than in the United States? 36. Who shops in suburban malls? *37. Describe four attractions of shopping malls: 38. Why have factories moved to suburban locations? 39. Some employees of suburban business may suffer hardships because they do not 40. Which geographic model exemplifies the expression that cities develop in a series of rings? 41. What is it about Chicago, Illinois that makes it a good location in which to develop urban models? 42. According to the sector model, where is the best housing located? 43. According to the multiple nuclei model, an airport what type of business activity is attracted? 44. What does social area analysis attempt to explain?

45. The multiple nuclei theory best explains why different neighborhoods of a city attract people of different 46. Why do people that make a lot of money (higher income people) in the U.S. tend to live outside of the city center, which is the exact opposite of what happens in most MDC cities? 47. When one applies the models of urban structure development to Chicago and Rio de Janeiro, what difference stands out? 48. What are the ramshackle hoses that stand on the periphery of cities in LDCs called? 49. Compared to the U.S., where are poor families located in European cities? 50. The wide boulevards built in cities in less developed countries were most likely built during what era? 51. A central city and its contiguous built-up suburbs is called 52. According to Luis Wirth, cities differ from rural areas in being larger, more dense, and more socially 53. The basic building block for MSAs is the _____________, because of the ease of obtaining data. 54. Where do most urban residents in the U.S. live? 55. Land is more _________________ used in the center city than elsewhere. 56. ________ _________ comprises a large percentage of housing in the United Kingdom but only a small percentage in the United States. 57. None of the ten most populous urban areas is located in ____________. 58. The density gradient in American and European cities is getting _______________. 59. Relatively wealthy individuals live in the center of most cities in the world outside of ______ ______. 60. Suburban sprawl has resulted in the loss of most of the prime agricultural land in ___________________. 61. Cities in LDCs show signs of ____________ __________ rule. 62. While public transportation ridership has declined in the _______ _______, a number of cities have invested in new __________ _________ _________. 63. ________ ________ world-wide is projected to exceed rural settlement population for the first time in 2008. 64. Rural settlements outside European cities have been converted to _______ ________, because they are no longer needed for agriculture. 65. The supply of land for new homes is more severely restricted outside _______ cities than _______ cities. 66. In the United States, a city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is known as _____________________. 67. Historically, were the worlds largest cities generally in MDCs or LDCs? 68. Which two of these four land uses industrial, office, retail, and residential are most likely to be found in a U.S. CBD? 69. Describe the process of blockbusting, filtering, and gentrification in inner-city neighborhoods: 70. Which of the three models of the internal structure of areas does the sketch below represents?

71. One model of the internal structure of urban areas is shown above. What are the other two models representing the internal structure of urban areas? 72. In which ring (1,2, or 3) in above sketch are high-status households likely to live in: ______ North America, _____ Western Europe, _____ Latin America. 73. In which ring (1,2, or 3) in above sketch are low-status households likely to live in: ______ North America, _____ Western Europe, _____ Latin America. 74. Name the three eras of development of cities in many LDCs. 75. In what way does a typical residential suburb in a Europe urban area appear different from one in a U.S. urban area?