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TCP/IP service programs and applications

TCP/IP service programs and applications

Contents
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 3 4 5 6 TCP/IP service programs Ping Tracert PathPing Remarks on TCP Slow start and congestion avoidance Remarks on FTP WWW Exercise Solution 3 4 6 8 11 12 15 21 25 29

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© 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks

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TCP/IP service programs and applications

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© 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks

TCP/IP service programs and applications

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TCP/IP service programs

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© 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks

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4 packets. and lost packets as well as the ping delay is given.TCP/IP service programs and applications 1. An Echo Reply is expected from the host (this is an IP packet with Protocol = 1. As a default. after 1 second a new packet is sent again. Type field = 8) which is sent to the host. The command runs an application which generates an ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Echo Request data packet (this is an IP packet with Protocol = 1. In the Windows Ping. are sent.1 Ping The command Ping can be used to check the network connection to one or several remote hosts. The length of the data sent can be modified with the command ping [–l] to maximum 65527 bytes. The following figure shows an example: 4 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks . The sent and received data are compared. each having 32 bytes data. received. Type field = 0). In the output of the ping command the number of sent.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 An example for the ping command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TCP/IP service programs and applications 1.2 Tracert The Tracert (trace route) tool checks the route to a destination by sending ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) Echo Request data packets with different TTL (time to live) values starting with TTL=1 for the first packet. If the TTL value of a data packet reaches value 0. The following figure shows an example: 6 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks . the Tracert tool checks the route to the destination. then TTL=2 for the next packet. the corresponding node sends back an error message ("time exceeded"). By checking these error messages.… Each node decreases the TTL value by 1 before further transmitting the data packet.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 An example for the tracert command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 7 . . . . . . . . . . . .

this command can be used to localize those nodes and/or connections making problems. Since the PathPing command shows losses of packets for each of the nodes and each connection. The following figure shows an example: Fig.3 PathPing The tool PathPing extends the features of the Ping and Tracert commands and offers more information than those commands do. Statistics are calculated based on the data packets which are sent back from these nodes.TCP/IP service programs and applications 1. During a certain time. data packets are sent to each node contained in the path to a certain destination. 3 Part 1 of an example for the pathping command 8 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Part 2 of an example for the pathping command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TCP/IP service programs and applications 2 Remarks on TCP RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 11 .

the congestion window is increased by 1 step. i. the initial size of the so called congestion window. when the congestion window becomes too large. The initial slow start threshold. If now the congestion window is less or equal to this reset slow start threshold. the slow start threshold is reset to half of its actual value and the congestion window is reset to 1 segment. Each time an acknowledgement is received by the sender.e. congestion occurs and data packets are discarded. 2. is usually one segment only. which is used by the sender for flow control. In this phase.1 Slow start and congestion avoidance In TCP the transmission performance in the beginning of a data transmission and after a congestion situation is characterized by the so called slow start phase. 12 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks . If the congestion window size reaches the slow start threshold again. but cannot be increased more than the value suggested by the receiver. At a certain point.TCP/IP service programs and applications Since many applications are running based on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) we want to shortly mention in this chapter some problems arising from the usage of TCP. TCP changes from the slow start to the so called congestion avoidance phase. In case of congestion. is reset to one half of the receiver's window size. the size of the congestion window is doubled during slow start phase. which is set to 65535 bytes. then TCP restarts with slow start. During slow start. the amount of transmitted data starts exponentially. the congestion window is not increased exponentially but linearly: Each time an acknowledgement is received.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TCP/IP service programs and applications Slow start threshold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .760 receiver’s window seize congestion occurs readjustment of slow start threshold third phase: congestion avoidance. . . RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 13 . . . . . exponential growth Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . linear growth Slow start threshold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Slow start and congestion avoidance . . . . start value = 65535 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exponential growth first phase: slow start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . readjusted value cwnd second phase: slow start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TCP/IP service programs and applications 3 Remarks on FTP RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 15 .

FTP is standardized in RFC 959. is available under the command "ftp". On the client side: A FTP client program which. A FTP session requires two programs: On the server side: A FTP server implementation. The server requires an identification and authentication from the client and therefore prompts the client for the username and password.TCP/IP service programs and applications With FTP (File Transmission Protocol) . 16 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks . A FTP session is started from the client side by the ftp command with the name or the IP number of the (remote) server. After the login procedure has been successful. on most PC systems. the client can access the servers file system and enter commands for the transfer of files. files can be transferred between computers.

TCP/IP service programs and applications User command User dir ls Pwd Cd get put mget mput send receive binary text ? ! rmdir open quit bye status remotehelp hash meaning login with user name show directory content list directory content print working directory change dir get file put file get several files(*) put several files(*) send file receive file use transparent transmission use text transmission (ascii) show available commands (help) go to local shell remove directory open connection to host end connection end connection show current status help from remote server generates a # symbol on the screen for every 2 kbytes transmitted RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 17 .

TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig. 6 Download of a file with 100 KBytes using FTP and CS2 18 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Download of a file with 500 KBytes using FTP and CS2 (3 timeslots) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Download of a file with 1Mbyte using FTP and MCS9 (2 timeslots) 20 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks .TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig.

TCP/IP service programs and applications 4 WWW RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 21 .

Scientists developed the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) which allows an easy transmission of information containing not only text.TCP/IP service programs and applications The success of the Internet during the last years arises mainly from one application called WWW (World Wide Web). One has to distinguish the application WWW from the internet itself. An example for the download of an Internet page using a (3+1) GPRS mobile is given in the following picture: 22 RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks . programs. sound files links to other information etc. The WWW as a protocol standard was developed in the CERN research center in Geneva. but also pictures.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TCP/IP service programs and applications Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Example for the download of an Internet page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TCP/IP service programs and applications 5 Exercise RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 25 .

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89 seconds? Consider the screenshot of Figure 7.75 seconds? Concerning FTP. How many bytes are received by the (3+1) GPRS mobile in 133.TCP/IP service programs and applications Exercise Title: Objectives: Pre-requisite: Task Answer the following questions Throughput when using FTP Understanding of different throughput rates when using FTP none Query Consider the screenshot of Figure 6. why is the throughput usually higher when downloading larger files? RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 27 . How many bytes are received by the (3+1) GPRS mobile in 28.

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How many bytes are received by the (3+1) GPRS mobile in 133.75 seconds? 500000Bytes Concerning FTP. RA22236EN10GLS0 © 2009 Nokia Siemens Networks 31 . The influence of slow start is higher when the amount of data to be transferred is smaller. why is the throughput usually higher when downloading larger files? This arises from the slow start of TCP. How many bytes are received by the (3+1) GPRS mobile in 28.TCP/IP service programs and applications Solution Title: Objectives: Pre-requisite: Task Answer the following questions Throughput when using FTP Understanding of different throughput rates when using FTP none Query Consider the screenshot of Figure 6.89 seconds? 100000Bytes Consider the screenshot of Figure 7.

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