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Moskido & Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulators

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John Broskie's Guide to Tube Circuit Analysis & Design
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10 June 2007

Only $19.95 to keep track of your tube and part collection

TCJ My-Stock DB
MOSFET + Aikido = Moskido
Bob Prangnell, long-time TCJ reader (a “TCJer,” what do you think of the term?) in New Zealand, has coined a new word, Moskido, and I like it a great deal. In his own words: "BTW I thought of a good name for the hybrid....MOSFETaikido....mos-aikido... MOSKIDO! (without the annoying high pitched buzzing)"

Above is the schematic as it appeared in blog number 58. (Number 58 and this number 110! I am amazed both that so few blog entries have passed and that so many have passed.) If you Google the word “Moskido,” seven pages of links are displayed. Only one link leads to Bob’s amplifier, but it is the first link. As they say in Japan, Ichiban. Great work, Bob.

Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulator
Kamon, a TCJer in Thailand, was kind enough to send me some information on Audio Note's patented feedforward shunt regulator. I didn't have any luck at the Google Patent Search website for this patent, no doubt because it was originally patented in England. Kevin Covi has been kind enough to find a PDF of the patent for us. Before moving on to the Audio Note patent, however, let’s review how the series shunt regulator works.


(Feedback requires that an error exist so that it can counter it. Add part Images. where it is. If you think that this sounds a bit anti-causal. as the feedback system needs an error to be made so that it can unmake it. TCJ MyStock DB helps you to keep track of your heap of electronic parts.* http://www.tubecad. More details. the feedforward shunt regulator can completely null out the noise.Moskido & Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulators Page 2 of 6 In the above schematic. one gets the idea that they have patented all feedforward shunt regulators. you are right. and think of feedforward systems as being proactive.) A feedforward system is anticipatory. effectively nulling all of the power supply noise at the regulator’s output. Try thinking of a negative feedback system as being reactive. Reading the patent abstract. what it looks like. I do know that if you did a web search for shunt regulators back in 1997. you would have found Wenzel Associates’ website and the following schematic: TCJ My-Stock DB helps you know just what you have. we see how power supply noise is presented to the triode’s grid. not so much in the electrical-engineering sense. and what it's worth.) Now we can move on to Audio Note’s Is that possible? I imagine it all depends on how accomplished your lawyers are and how lame both the Patent Office and the jury are. (See blog 98 for more details. Version 2 Improvements List all of your parts in one DB.htm 11/06/2011 . Vertical and horizontal grids. but in the current psychological—Seven Habits of Highly Effective People—sense. so that it can be amplified and phase inverted at the triode’s plate. so it sends a countervailing signal to cancel the error when it arrives. One-click web searches for part information. what it will be used for. Unlike the conventional shunt regulator that samples the power supply noise after the series resistor and that can never completely eliminate all the noise. it knows what the error looks like before it appears at the output. as it is not a negative-feedback-based circuit.

Editable drop-down lists for location. So let’s move on to Audio Note's grand invention: Download or CD ROM Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP For more information. extra thick. know a tiny bit about feedforward shunt regulators. Help system added. Aikido PCBs for as little as $24 http://glass-ware. 2-oz traces. *User definable But thus. we know that the triode has a transconductance of http://www. please visit: www.htm 11/06/2011 . what do I know of the limitless subtleties of the Law? I do. octal and 9-pin printed circuit boards available.tubecad. here is one possible implementation. plated-through holes.* Graphs added 2D/3D: pie & bar. Stereo and styles. dual sets of resistor pads and pads for two coupling capacitors.Moskido & Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulators Page 3 of 6 This schematic and two others along with some excellent circuit explication can still be found at www. 1/gm. Rgm. projects. Create reports as PDFs. vendors and more.stores. please visit our Yahoo Store: http://store.wenzel. 100-ohm value equals the inverse of the triode’s transconductance. double-sided. This voltage reference along with an additional series resistor allows the feedforward shunt regulator to establish a fairly steady DC output voltage.* More powerful DB search. something which the feedforward shunt regulator shown above cannot do. To purchase . If the above patent schematic is too abstract for you. Designed by John Broskie & Made in USA The interesting part of this circuit is the use of a voltage reference to relay the power-supply noise to the input of the active shunting device (it doesn’t have to be a it could be a transistor or MOSFET or pentode).com/glassware New 9-Pin & Octal PCBs $29 for Full Kit Series resistor. however.html The patent-busting sentence found there is: The required transconductance is simply -1/R where R is the tiny series resistor.

If the regulator’s output voltage strays from 300V.. as it would allow easy idle current adjustments to the shunting triode. the zener that takes the cathode resistor’s place can (and should) be bypassed with a large-valued capacitor.95 to start designing tube-based crossovers and much more. In addition. it can be used anywhere a high-quality attenuator is needed. not what happens on the other side of resistor Rgm.htm 11/06/2011 . I know that the negative power supply is a bit of a drag.tubecad. wire-wound. creating a volume control and balance control in one easy-to-use stepped attenuator. Designed by John Broskie & Made in USA Visit our Yahoo Store for more details: http://glass-ware. I know that some readers are troubled by the extra series resistor and zener. Note that the DC error signal is fed to a negative feedback system.01. whether passive or active. with the two If only it didn’t require a negative power supply… Who says that we need a stinking negative power supply? http://www. The TCJ Stepped Attenuator This specially designed stereo attenuator uses three rotary switches and 32 resistors to yield 36 volume positions. Of course. so that the triode sees the largest DC error signal possible. a 3V error is reduced to a 0. which against the 100-ohm resistor equals a 10V voltage drop and against the 1K resistor. TCJ Filter Design In the above Altogether. The more interesting question is: Why wasn’t a cathode resistor used? Tighter DC regulation is the answer. the attenuator is just a ladder attenuator. one wide and one narrow. or put in Siemens. as the two zeners maintain fixed voltage drops. so that axial (composition. the flanking knobs offer six fine decrements for each channel. for example. Alternatively. and offers six large decrements. with -1dB decrements. it would make a first-rate foundation to an excellent passive line box. This clever attenuator uses fewer resistors (only 32) than would be expected from a conventional 32-position stepped attenuator. What is the voltage division now?) In contrast. With -1dB or -2dB decrements..1V error at the grid. I would prefer the negative-bias version. Although designed to go with the Aikido amplifier. any DC error on the output is voltage divided by 30:1. the load draws 80mA and the triode draws 20mA. the attenuator uses both a ladder and series configurations.Moskido & Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulators Page 4 of 6 10mA/V. a 100V with no more than two resistors in the signal path. the PCB holds dual sets of resistor pads. I would do it a bit differently.and series-stepped attenuators. bringing the total to 100mA. (Here is a thought experiment: replace the bottom 10k resistor with a 1mA constant-current source. Still. 0. while the AC error signal is fed to a feedforward system. but there is no reason that we cannot use cathode bias instead. As you might expect. thereafter. as two series attenuators would need a total of 72 resistors. a maximum of -70dB of attenuation is possible. and two ladder attenuators would require 140 resistors. not a bad design (Audio Note’s regulator that is). with never more than eight resistors in the signal path. as I do not like passing AC signals through zener diodes and I would prefer that the zener relay the regulator’s actual output. we get the full 3V error. In the first six positions. The center knob controls both channels. But the following feedforward shunt regulator would work just the same in AC terms. Only $12. a maximum of -35dB of attenuation. This hybrid attenuator uses a combination of both ladder. the DC shift is relayed to the triode and it increases or decreases its conduction to counter the shift. Of course. For example. and film) and radial (thick-film and bulk-foil) resistors can be used without extra lead bending. just using a zener at the triode’s cathode also results in less DC error signal making it to the triode’s grid.

just electrical relativity. My God. solid-state and tube. By the way. These friends believe tube audio is only art. the zener setting the DC output voltage and the cathode simply following. not reason. In fact. as it strives to maintain its specified DC output voltage. And I know that they believe that Audio Note is the premier practitioner of audio artistry. (Did you know that if you visit your local electronic store and ask where they keep the high-quality grounds. but not lightweight. it can be used to calculate passive crossovers for use with speakers by entering 8 ohms as the terminating resistance. solid-state or tube) without having to check out thick textbooks from the library and without having to breakout the scientific calculator. not really. Linkwitz-Riley. While the program’s main concern is active filters. calculation. holding over 60 different filter topologies and up to four filter alignments: Bessel.htm 11/06/2011 . it can be viewed as shunt regulator. it also does passive filters. I hope no one thinks that I am poking fun at Audio Note. or. I am quite tickled by the discovery that they are using a feedforward shunt regulator. Click on the image below to see the full screen capture. TCJ Filter Design lets you design a filter or crossover (passive. which might prove helpful. we see that the 1k series resistor has spun around to the bottom of the circuit. Magic? No. and measurement. Gaussian. but also of the resistor and capacitor values for a passive and active filters and crossovers. really doesn’t weep at night for the poor of America. they will just blankly stare at you?) The August 1999 and December 2000 issues of the Tube CAD Journal hold articles on electronic relativity. must be a huge disappointment. unbesmirched by rational thought and unsullied by careful analysis. Butterworth. So. //JRB The Tube CAD Journal's first companion program. Theirs is a truly romantic viewpoint that sees no need for formulas. the prettiest presidential candidate.tubecad. Ground is where we say it is. This program's goal is to provide a quick and easy display not only of the frequency response. connecting to ground and what is now effectively a negative power supply voltage. http://www. TCJ Filter Design is easy to use. You see many of my friends are irked by my overly cerebral take on tube electronics. that it draws only on emotion. In fact. Now there are two ways of looking at the above circuit: it can be seen as a simple cathode follower not science. with the triode’s plate pulling and letting go of the floating power supply.Moskido & Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulators Page 5 of 6 In the above schematic. did you know that their patent is filled with formulas? How their feet must be made of clay—it’s like someone saying that John Edwards. finding that Audio Note is using the same technical approach that I favor to design their products.

htm 11/06/2011 Download or CD ROM Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP For more Copyright © 1999-2007 GlassWare All Rights Reserved Next > Available on a CD-ROM and a downloadable version (4 Megabytes). To purchase . please visit our Yahoo Store: < Back www. both buffered and unbuffered tube based filters along with mono-polar and bipolar power supply topologies are covered.Moskido & Audio Note's Feedforward Shunt Regulators Page 6 of 6 Tube crossovers are a major part of this program.