GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple words, HRM means employing people, developing their capacities, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement. Features Its features include: • • •

Organizational management Personnel administration Manpower management Industrial management[2][3]

But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even employee and industrial relations are confusingly listed as synonyms,[4] although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies. The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process.

Human Resource Management(HRM) is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to
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successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have—and are aware of—personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, e.g., career development, training, organization development, etc. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, e.g., "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone major changes over the past 20–30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing an important role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.

INTRODUCTION
Tall, slender, majestic with open umbrella of fronds at the top, the coconut palm-also known as the Kalpavriksha-dominates many Indian landscapes, in particular, Kerala. Coconut forms an integral part of the state’s cuisine, culture and livelihood. There is a saying that there are as many coconut trees in Kerala as stars in the sky!

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Every part of the coconut tree is used. Coconut husk is the basic raw material for coir products. Around 50 percent of the available coir husk is used to produce coir products. Hence there is scope for growth of coir industry. Coir has unmatched advantages: it is biodegradable, environment-friendly, helps retain the natural warmth of the body, and is mothproof and resistant to fungi. Coir also provides insulation against heat and sound, is non-combustible, and easy to clean. The organic origin of coir conforms to the best environment-friendly standards. Coir fiber is a versatile hard fiber used commercially for the manufacture of wide range of coir yarn and product like mat, carpet, geo-textiles etc. Hence the development of coir industry has been in those areas where there has been coconut cultivation. The complete geo-textile coir bhoovasthra, which is now being used widely around the world, helps to prevent soil erosion. The location of the industry has been governed by various factors- historical, geographical and economic. ➢ Historical factors The coir industry in India has a very long history. Some people say that coconut palm came from Ceylon. Others say that the coconut drifted in the sea from Polencia and found new homes in many parts of the world. As early as 11 th century A.D., Arab writers mentioned coir, and referred to the use of this material as ship cable, fenders and rigging. During the 13 th century, there was evidence of coir yarn being used in the building of ships in the Persian Gulf.

Geographical factors Coconut is a tropical palm and thrives best in coastal areas. India,

Philippines, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand are the most important coconut growing countries in the world.

Economical factors There are two board sectors in the coir industry, the first is

spinning, which is essentially a cottage industry spread over the wide area and the second is manufacturing, which is an organized industry concentrated in certain
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localities only. Cost of raw materials and power, cost of labor and cost of transportation are the factors determining location. The orientation industry therefore depends largely on the type of material used and nature of their transportation in the process of production. The first stage of production, viz., and spinning is decentralized over a wide area along the back waters because at this stage a good deal of waste materials is eliminated. The second stage of manufacturing with pure materials tends to be concentrated near the source of power and the center of skilled labour where external economy can be had proximity to market and facilities for export also are important factors. The development of Alleppy as a manufacturing center for coir in the natural consequence of presence of all these factors in this area.

1.1 OBJECTIVES
    To study the coir industry. To study the structure of organization. To study the functions of department at the organization..

To conduct swot and porters analysis at Coirfed.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

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This organization study is carried out at coir industry in Coirfed. It covers the areas of organization such as its areas of operations its different departments and its activities. It also covers its strength, weakness, opportunities and threats in the organization.

1.3 METHODOLOGY
There are two types of data are used for this study primary as well as secondary data. Primary data are collected through interviews and discussions with various Managers, Employers and Workers. Secondary data are collected through the published accounts, annual reports of Coirfed, other publications and journals and also from the website of Coirfed.

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COMPANY PROFILE In this chapter there are two main parts They are: 3. The main limitation of the study was the duration of the time given for the work.2 Strategic Intent. They are : 1.5 Limitations Chapter 2 -INDUSTRY PROFILE This chapter describes the profile of industry. Chapter 4.3 Methodology.4 CHAPTERISATION Chapterisation is done on the basis of grouping of activities of various of various departments of the organization. 1.4 Chapterisation 1.ORGANISATION STRUCTURE 6 .1 History of the company.2 Scope of the study. 3. The entire project report is divided into seven chapters as described below: 1.3 Product Profile.1.5 LIMITATIONS More attention has been taken for analysis but they are subjected to certain limitations also. Chapter 1-INTRODUCTION This chapter is classified into five different parts. It will affect the entire study.1 Objectives of the study. 1. 1. Chapter 3. 3.

All the departmental structure. The diagrammatic representatives of each department are included in this chapter. its functions. and authorities are explained in this chapter.FINDINGS AND SUGGESSTIONS CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX BIBILIOGRAPHY INDUSTRY PROFILE 7 . Chapter 6.

India and Sri Lanka. This method is commonly followed in the state of Kerala where lagoons and backwater sources are available in abundance. the global annual production of coir fiber is about 350. non woven geo-textiles etc. doormats. It is an excellent surface in all kinds of soil. carpets. a rising Chinese demand for coir. Philippians and Thailand etc. which is more suited for spinning yarn. which is the thicker. WORLD SCENARIO Currently. White fiber or retted fiber. an expanding market for coir-based erosion control products. matting. Coir pith or coir dust. geo-textiles etc for expert and for internal consumption. local coir mills process only a fraction of the available husks. Sri Lanka. rapidly growing domestic demand in India more than doubled global production benefiting exclusively the Indian coir industry. Brown fiber comprises of bristle fiber. brooms and brushes. doormats. often in the form of rubberized coir pads. Finally. as Western consumers shifted to synthetic foam and fibers. global exports of coir fiber fell by almost half. coarser and long stapled and mattress fiber. Indonesia.Coir industry is of great importance to coconut producing countries like India. which account for about 90% of global coir fiber production. The pith in combination with cement has been an excellent insulating material. In the 1980s and 90s. Coir fiber extracted from unretted husk by a process of mechanical decortications is called brown fiber.000 metric tons (MT). even in the world’s top two producers. Malaysia. which is finer and short stapled.There is two major types of fiber namely white fiber and brown fiber. combined. Then. which accrue more or less year round as a waste during coconut processing. is extracted from husk after a process known as retting. mattresses and other upholstery. Retted fiber available is converted into different varieties of coir yarn for further processing into finished products like rope. manufacture of curled coir urbanization in the rubberized coir manufacturing industry. Traditional uses for the resilient and durable coir fiber include rope and twine. a waste product in the industry constitutes as much as 70% of the husk. this renewable resource is underutilized. Brown fiber is mainly used for stuffing. since 1990. India stood first in the production of coir in the world with a production of around 70% of the total . rugs. Yet. since 2001. and the spread of coir pith as a peat moss substitute in horticulture has further pushed 8 .

i.70 crores.Karnataka. Global trade volume for coir fiber. over 1% of all exports and 0. Historically. Goa. INDIAN SCENARIO Indian coir industry is an important cottage industry contributing significantly to the economy of the major coconut growing states and union territories. Moreover. mostly spinning and weaving. mats. While in 1990 about 80% of global production was exported. Maharastra. etc. other coconut growing countries. many of them women working part-time. TamilNadu. Thailand and Vietnam are now expanding their production and export of coir fiber. improve product consistency.e. public agencies and research institutes are now addressing this challenge in multilateral projects worldwide – setting examples that global trade can be beneficial to all parties involved. whereas India exports largely value added products – yarn. These changes are also reflected in the international trade in coir.up global production and prices. In Sri Lanka. and in particular develop novel applications – jointly with their customers in importing countries. particularly in rural Southern India and coastal Sri Lanka. India accounts for more than 80% of the world population of coconut fiber. working conditions and productivity are generally poor. including Philippines. 9 . are important regional employers. growth of the Indian domestic market dropped that rate to below 40%. This may require producers to innovate production. They give work to 500. Sri Lanka had been the world’s largest exporter of various fiber grades.AndhraPradesh. Kerala. The challenge for industry is too sustainable expands markets for this versatile renewable resource while maintaining its role as employer for the rural poor. rugs – and coir pith now stands at about $140 million per year with India and Sri Lanka respectively accounting for about $70 and $60 million of that amount. In turn. coir related exports account for 6% of agricultural exports. mats. value added products – yarn.000+ people. coir milling and value addition. Businesses. This may not seem much but in the coconut regions of producing countries coir is an important economic factor.35% of GDP. Yet. and rugs.. The exports from this industry are around Rs.

particularly white fiber. It is the most important employment generators among traditional industries in the state employing around 3. training for artisans. With 10. Around 50 percent of the available coir husk is used to produce given for expansion of home market though publicity and advertisement. Apart from India. STATE SCENARIO Coir industry occupies a unique place among the rural traditional cottage industries in India. It accounts for more than 75% of the total production. product diversification. Coir industry is second to agriculture as a source of employment in Kerala. In spite of concerted efforts of the state and central governments. Coir industry in Kerala is a traditional industry. Thailand. growth of coir industry in other coastal states has been insignificant. Sri Lanka. accounting for 61% of coconut production and over 85 % of coir products. Indonesia etc are the other coir producing countries in the world. Co-operativisation scheme in the coir sector was originally started by the government of erstwhile Travancore state in 1950 and ever since then the government 10 .Coconut husk is the basic raw material for coir products. providing employment to 3. Nearly 80% of the coir workers are in the extraction and spinning sectors. Coir industry employs more than 5.25 lakh are women.83 lakh persons. including women and social welfare measures for coir workers. most of whom are SC/ST and women saltine dotted with coconut palms. The state of Kerala. the coir industry still remains as backward one. adoption of new technology.83lakh of which over 76% are women. is the largest producer of coir in India. this accounts for 45% of the net cropped area.05 lakh hectares having coconut cultivation in Kerala. also known as the land of coconuts. of whom 3. Kerala is the home of Indian coir industry.5lakh person and a majority of them are women from rural areas belonging to the economically weaker sections in the society. Besides it earns foreign exchange of over 300cores per year with a potential for phenomenal growth. due to the competition from products of other natural as well as synthetic fibers both in domestic and international market. India accounts for more than two –thirds of the world production of coir and coir products. research and development. The coconut output is estimated at 5759 million nuts annually.

11 .have been extending all helping hands to the sector for its growth through support and welfare measures for the workers.

Coir industry is the one of the traditional cottage industry concentrated in coconut producing states in the country. Orissa. The fiber extracted from coconut husks is known as coir or coco fiber. Gujarat. Unfortunately. with the expansion of coconut cultivation. West Bengal. Coir industry ranks first among the traditional industries in the state. the industry has developed fast in the states like Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh.HISTORY OF COIR INDUSTRY Coir is the precious gift and pride of Kerala. and Assam and Lakshadweep. In spite of the sincere efforts of the government. Of course there has been a change for the better in the coir industry in the co-operative sector due to the various schemes implemented and assistance given by this govt. all the way from the outer husk to the golden yarn and then to the fabrics of coir and all that. The fibrous exocarp. However. generating employment. is the coir industry. 12 . which covers the inner shell of coconut. Coir industry had its origin in Kerala. coir occupies a unique place. which enter the world market today. the coir industry is still a ‘sick traditional industry’ craving for revival for its survival in the field of competition with products of other natural as well as synthetic fibers both in domestic and international markets. Among the several natural industrial ‘Hard’ fibers. is the raw material of processing. we have a long way to go to save it from its downloaded light to serve the industry as well as the workers. Karnataka. The most important traditional industry. which is a standing monument of the toil of nearly 3. Coir industry is an integral part of the economy of Kerala.83lakhs of workers with nearly 76% of them being the women folk. Still. Goa. neither the growth of the industry nor the living condition of the coir workers has been to the desired level.

while small workers supply it to the depot holders as well as exported. USA is the largest importer with a share of nearly 19%. public sector companies. coir yarn. Product manufactures Coir product manufactures include nearly 10. The major importing countries of coir products from India include USA. manufactures of producers. exporters. Canada. Tiny unit supply the products to the deport holders or the middle men. Foam matting India ltd etc. Coirfed. Exports are being done to more than 67 countries in the world. The major products exported from India include coir fiber. Public sector companies Public sector companies in the sector include Coir board. Yarn producers This is small scale as well as large scale yarn producers in the state. depot holders. coir pith etc. Russia etc. Australia. They also produce fiber themselves by immersing the husk in water and then give it to the spinners. 13 . coir rugs. coir matting. European Union countries. EXPORTS OF COIR PRODUCTS FROM INDIA Coir being an environmental friendly product has found its market in many European countries.STRUCTURE OF COIR INDUSTRY Yarn producers. geo-textiles. They buy coir fiber from the private traders and give it to the spinners along with wages. The main aim of these companies is to help in the marketing of coir products produced by the co-operative societies. coir mat. rubberized coir. coir pots. workers and co-operative societies are the major players in the coir industry.000 tiny and small units having looms ranging between one and ten.

Karnataka. The only way to handle this situation is to make low priced products with good quality. Orissa. Also the elimination of minimum export price badly affects the industry.PROBLEMS IN THE INDUSTRY Price reduction in the domestic market Products from Kerala are facing a stiff competition from the products of Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh in the domestic market where the raw materials and the production cost are cheaper when compared to Kerala. because of the impracticable conditions and limitations of specific purposes for utilization stipulated by the Govt: of India. Stoppage of rebates The stoppage of rebate scheme by the government of India has also contributed considerably to the present situation of the coir industry. All these reasons made the industry in weaker position 14 . Also non availability of the fiber and high cost of production made the competition more intense. Tardiness in the foreign market Products made from synthetic fibers and other natural fibers like jute. especially in the co-operative societies. sisal made major threats for coir industry.

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nurturing and nourishing a crafts man ship that evolved over the years. Coirfed is a federation of 600 coir cooperatives in Kerala. HISTORICAL BACK GROUND OF COIRFED Before 1979 there existed certain central coir marketing societies in Kerala at places like Kozhikode. The Kerala State coir marketing federation Ltd. it offers a wide range of products made out of 16 . Alleppey and Cochin. coir industry took it sharp. Providing gain full employment to 4Lakh directly and as many as 20Lakh in directly. Finding it ready market in the farthest corners of world in the process. its magical tenders and natural properties are brought to life in the hands of master craft mean. A tree product of Kerala. Skilled crafts men are available. No. The central coir societies have enough go downs and sales depot for the storage and sale of coir products. whose hands are capable enough to convert the raw coir into beautiful and attractive finished products. Indore. From the discovery that fiber can be entered from husk of coconut. In the early days. These societies had opened 18 sales outlets in Delhi. the marketing of coir products was not efficient hence on 1979 coir fed came in existence. But there was no over these societies. These societies were responsible for the purchase and storage of the products of the primary societies and arrange for their sales. ALAPPPUZHA Kerala. Gods own country since of time has been a land blessed with vast amount of coconut. With more than 100 showrooms across the nation. Hence it resulted in inefficient marketing of coir products. COIRFED was formed with a view to co-ordinate the working of the central societies and primary member societies and function as a single marketing with state wide jurisdiction. Kollam.KERALA STATE CO-OPERATIVE COIR MARKETING FEDERATION (COIRFED). The amalgamation of these central societies resulted the formation of COIRFED on 27-th October 1979.679 (COIRFED) is registered under co-operative society’s act 1979. and Surat etc. so as to protect the primary societies. Jaipur. Lucknow.

the touch of coir fiber on the soles of the feet improves blood circulation too. tiles and geo-textiles are some of its products. and other coir products from affiliated societies and sales made through its agencies and showrooms. delicate coir fibers are also available.  It acts as an agent of financial institutions to distribute funds to the primary member societies. It makes arrangement for the purchase of coir fiber. environment friendly and echo proof.coir. Coir is a natural product. carpets. OBJECTIVES OF COIRFED Coirfed is not a profit motive Organization This organization was formed with a view to help the people working in the coir industry The main objectives of Coirfed are      Raising of funds required for the business It aims to provide an enabling environment for the growth of the coir workers. Coir yarn. rugs. Coirfed plays a vital role in finding markets as get untapped and promoting new business opportunities. and living standards of coir workers. It helps to avoid harmful rivalry among primary societies. A variety of coir products are exported to the European Union and the United States. And of course coir products last very long. It is the moderator between government and primary societies. It has some winning advantages to. It plays a crucial role in finding markets and promoting new business opportunities. STRATEGIC INTENT 17 . Beautiful coir murals carefully crafted with soft. matting. yarn. It is biodegradable.  It aims better employment opportunities. remuneration. It helps to retain the natural warmth of the body.

MISSION “Enduring an appropriate place for ‘golden fiber and the stock holders of the sectors in all walks of life. industrial consulting and knowledge dissemination globally”. The ability of skilled labors. 18 . availability of raw materials and enviable craftsmanship had led to the shifting centers of coir products manufacturing to the coast of Alappuzha.VISION AND MISSION OF THE COMPANY VISION “To acts as a nodal agency of co-coordinating the technological. and to consistently pursue. 2. training and extensive application”. Coirfed is situated at Alappuzha which is blessed with bounty of coconuts and inland water ways. FUTURE EXPANSIONS 1. innovation and improvements in coir and coir related products Through continuous research. commercial and academic developments in the entire gamut of activities related to the coir sector in Kerala and emerge as a center of excellence. LOCATION OF COIRFED Alappuzha district is known as the traditional home of coir industry in Kerala. education. Launch new showrooms. for research and developments. Upgrading the present amount of production by the newly introduced machines.

2.. The RCP unit and the RB unit are located near the head office.M) Five defibering units. 4. 1. Thrissur Ananthapuram. 3. Production is being carried out at the following places.B) or Rubber backed coir car mats and tiles unit R.The area of operation is interstate and its head office is at Alleppey.B. Thavam. Kollam. Coirfed is responsible for the procurement and marketing coir products produced by the primary societies. These offices have go downs attached to it and they are responsible for purchases. yarn and sale of finished products.P) Rubber backing unit (R.C. Kozhikode Vandoor. The purchase price of 19 . Cochin and Kozhikode.C. Malappuram COIRFED has four regional offices at Alleppey. They have their own sales depots for marketing coir products. ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Rubberized coir products (R. storage of coir. 5. Kasarkode Manpatta. Kannur Thampur. The administrative staffs are working in the head office. The defibering units are located at the following places. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF COIRFED Government of Kerala promotes Coirfed and director board governs it since it is the apex federation of primary societies.

ADMINISTRATIVE RULE According to the order of Kerala state Government on 07/06/2002 administrative rule came into existence in Coirfed. Also assistance from government in the form of loans. The payments for the societies are made through the regional offices. Managing Director and 3 other members from board of members. certain changes were made in the functioning of the federation. and Director of coir development. After its formation the Coirfed has taken up the tremendous responsibility of procuring the entire products from primary societies and marketing these products. Out of these 100 showrooms 50 are own showrooms and 50 are agency showrooms. WORKING CAPITAL The working capital consists of 98% share position to Government of Kerala and 2% to the primary societies. subsidies contribute to the functioning of Coirfed. Vice President. Vice President. It includes President. The board of directors meets at least once in three months and the executive committee meets at least once in every month. The products are stored in the Coirfed depots and distributed to various showrooms. The main institutions providing financial assistance are NABARD.  Foreign market selling 20 . government nominees. Alappuzha district Co-operative Bank etc. There is no direct sale from the head office.the products from the primary societies is fixed based on the cost of production. Kochi. Central bank. As a result of this administrative Committee. Kerala State Co-operative bank. The board of directors selects an executive committee of 7 members. It consists of President. sales and marketing. MANAGEMENT OF COIRFED The board of directors’ consisting of 21 members management of Coirfed. and Nominees from primary societies. Coirfed sets up 100 showrooms and four regional offices (Alappuzha. Some of these changes are mentioned below. Kozhikode and Kollam) for the procurement.

As a result nearly 85. the shares capital of members’ societies was increased. 500 was collected as excess share capital  Hired go downs The coir stocked in the hired go downs have been shifted to the go downs of state warehousing cooperation.  Pay back of the debt A total credit of 10 crores has been taken from the branches of state co operative banks at Trivandrum. The credit amount along with the balance amount of government loan was completely paid. and Alleppey of 8 crores and 2 crores respectively.21.The exports that vanished for years were restarted.10 lakh was exported. This reduced the huge rentals paid to the hired go downs 21 .55 ton coir amounting to Rs.  Increase in share capital On the advice of NABARD. As a result an amount of Rs.50.

The Carnatic mats are a combination of jute and coir. Coirfed specializes in the finest varieties. fiber mats are available with stenciled or inlaid designs and any number of made to order designs.PRODUCT PROFILE Coirfed is engaged in marketing of coir yarn. To ensure quality it has double inspection. diabetes. The most popular and widely used manufactured goods are. AYUR RAKSHA Coirfed presents Ayur raksha coir products matting. the coir product of Coirfed follow coir board standard. It helps to cure various diseases. COIR YARN The largest supplier of quality of coir yarn.. There is brush and non brush mats. The skilled workers. coir doormats. i. Ayur raksha products are made with coconut fiber dyed using various ayurvedic herbs of medicinal value. asthma. using their traditional skill Tarippu make the best in Anjenjo.e. mattresses. back pain and many other ailments. Aratory and Vycome. pillows. Coirfed products are of various qualities and grades. cushions etc. mats etc. 22 . internal inspection and final product inspection. mattings which purchase from primary societies and in manufacturing and marketing of rubberized coir products like mattresses. DOOR MATS Coir mats come in different sizes and patterns wit different brushes and it is economical and easy to maintain.

golf courses. Soil erosion by water has been a matter of serious concern especially for the degraded hill slopes of Kerala washing away of the fertile top soil destabilizes the slop and also reduce the nutrient content of the soil. 23 . soil reinforcement.COIR TILES Coir tiles are an innovative design that gives the look of a tiled floor with the natural goodness of coir. Woven into small and large size meshes depending on the nature of the soil. air fields. rail and river embankments. the degree of participation etc. The accumulation of the pith in the premises of coir industry has become a problem. When used in the soil mixture the plants were found growing more vigorously. A wide range of pattern is available. Stabilization of the soil along the hill slopes using naturally and locally available materials such as coir. On the domestic front the coir Geo-textiles fabric have vast and varied application. ski slopes. COIR PITH Extraction of fiber from coconut husks the major industrial activity in the coconut growing parts of our country. Most of the research efforts have been concentrated to make it has a row material for another industrial use. It have been effectively used in road.pith. Pith manure has the capacity to hold moisture up to 600% coconut pith manure is excellent organic manure for all ornamental plants. in the form of retting. mining fields and waste dump areas. After the separation of the fiber 70% of the husk remains waste. noise control banks and many more. COIR GEO TEXTILES A recent development of great significance to Indian coir industry is the use of coir in the field of Soil engineering for erosion control.

It is the official organizational structure conceived and built by top management.ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Organizational structure is the formal decision making framework by which job tasks are divided. An organizational chart displays the organizational structure and shows job titles. lines of authority and relationship between departments 24 . Formalization is an important aspect of structure. The formal organization can be seen and represented in chart form. grouped and coordinated. It is the extent to which the units of the organization are explicitly defined and its policies. procedures and goals are clearly stated.

No. With more than 100 showrooms across the nation. Coirfed is a federation of 600 coir cooperatives in Kerala. The Kerala State coir marketing federation Ltd. It plays a crucial role in finding markets and promoting new business opportunities. 25 .679 (COIRFED) is registered under co-operative society’s act 1979. Now the company is in loss due to the excess involvement of government hence it takes long time to achieve its goals . Even though there is stiff competition it hold third position in the industry.INFERENCE . it offers a wide range of products made out of coir.

FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS An organizational structure refers to machine through which management works to accomplish its object. It is primarily concerned with the organizational departmentalization based on function. On the basis of function following are the important departments in Coirfed. On the basis of function. On the basis of function following are the important departments in Coirfed.  FINANCE DEPARTMENT  PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT  PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT   MARKETING DEPARTMENT ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING DEPARTMENT 26 .

no enterprise can possibly accomplish its objectives. Sales register. Bankbook. He puts great effort for the functioning for this department. finance is defined as the provision of money at the time when it is required . medium or small. whether big. Similarly purchase is mainly coir yarn and products. Cashbook. need finance to carry on its operations and to achieve its target s. finance is so indispensable today that it is rightly said to the life blood of an enterprise. Assets register. Without adequate finance. Purchase register. Since Coirfed is following its activities through agencies/showroom system. Sundry Dr & Cr. In fact.4. 27 . The Coirfed maintain Day book. it requires maintenance of detailed separate account. This dept prepares periodical report and submitted to the Managing Director. Every financial dealings of business on the basis of an accounting plan are recorded and is known as book-keeping. Finance Manager controls finance department and this department is responsible for all financial matters.2 FINANCE DEPARTMENT To our present day economy. General ledger. There is a Deputy Finance Manager who provides a god support to the Financial Manager.Every enterprise. from large number of societies spread all over the state. separate register is required for its purchase as well as debtor and creditor.

DEPARTMENTAL CHART ASSISTANT FINANCE MANAGER DEPUTY LDUD CLERK FINANCE MANAGER FINANCE MANAGER CLERK 28 .

MAIN FUNCTIONS • • • • • • To inspect the showrooms To check the financial records To verify stock in depots To verify the receipt and disbursement To find and rectify clerical mistakes.Coirfed is not a profit motive company but a society motive company.3 PERSONNEL AND ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT 29 . After that they give the report to the Managing Director. They can find out mistakes and malpractices and can take steps to correction 4. . To give suggestions to the Board. Internal audit department verifies all the documents. Cashbook. The Coirfed maintain Day book. Bankbook. shares from government and primary societies also form a part of working capital. INFERENCE Finance Manager controls finance department and this department is responsible for all financial matters. Sundry Dr & Cr. Sales register. Assets register. Internal audit department verifies all the documents. district co-operative bank etc. state co-operative bank. General ledger. They check sales statements and seller’s bill from marketing department and bank statement from financial department. The working capital for Coirfed are obtained in the form of loan from NABARD. Purchase register. They can find out mistakes and malpractices and can take steps to correct it.

The Personnel department is a specialist service department concerned with formulating and introducing schemes. maintaining party in the implementation of schemes. attracting. salary etc. The Personnel department would need to identify the critical problem areas with respect to people and accomplishment of organizations tasks and goals and suggest innovations or creative approaches to solve problems. administration. work allocation & design. Human resource management is the process of developing and motivating the human resources of an organization in a planned manner. selection.Human resource is one of the inputs of management and it is the most dynamic one when compared to other inputs-money machines and materials does not pose as many dynamic issues as that of human resource and hence the practice relating to human resources management have assumed alarming importance. The mission of human resource management is to attain high Personnel department is responsible for recruitment. Personnel manager heads the personnel department 30 . monitoring the progress of the scheme & modifying or introducing new schemes. retaining and controlling people. particularly in the areas like organization structure. appraisal. training.

DEPARTMENT CHART SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT PERSONNELCLERK SENIOR CLERK U D D MANAGER L ASSISTANT 31 .

FUNCTIONS OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT        To allocate and design the work To maintain manpower requirements To ensure stationary compliance of PF. temporary.EPF etc To claim salary. Temporary recruitments are made through Employment Exchange. part-time probationary. 32 . part-time and substitutes. The personal details of each employee are recorded in this department. apprentice. casual. Skilled employees are appointed on contract basis TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Coir board conducts certain training programs for the employees and officers. A service book contains the designation and other details regarding the employees are kept here. probationary.ESI. RECRUITMENT The recruitment in Coirfed is mainly through PSC. wages and TA To maintain the attendance and punctuality of employees To attend all legal matters relating to the organization To solve problems in the areas like organization structure ABOUT EMPLOYEES The employees of Coirfed include permanent. The attendance of employees is recorded through the punching system.

1000. Employee State Insurance (ESI) Employees with a salary below Rs.3500 will get a festival allowance of Rs. The wage fixation in Coirfed done in every four years. skill and efficiency of workers. Among them 20 casual leave and 20 half pay leave 33 . suitability for the post. Employees with a salary above Rs. Bonus Employees with a salary below Rs. variable DA and HRA. Employees who are above this limit will get medical allowance of Rs.3500 are eligible for a bonus of 8.33%. For permanent employees salary is given. Also allowances are given for overtime work.PROMOTION Promotion of employees is based on the seniority. Provident fund Employer and employees contribute 12% of their salary for provident fund. EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION Salary Salary structure comprises of basic pay.1000 are eligible for ESI. For temporary workers piece rate system and wage for their work is prevalent. Leave There will be 40 leaves for an employee.1000.

benevolent fund. overtime payments. Employee becomes conscious of the importance of labor welfare at work.TRADE UNIONS Trade unions play a vital role in Coirfed. till the next referendum. They stand for the protection and welfare of the employees. In Coirfed various labor welfare measures are introduced for the satisfaction of employees. 34 . housing loans. retirement benefits etc. The recognized trade unions are. These include canteen. labor welfare fund. for a period of 3 years with effect from 15/01/2003. • • • Kerala State Coirfed Employees congress (INTUC) Coirfed Employees Association (CITU) All India Coirfed Showroom Employees Union LABOUR WELFARE IN COIRFED The progress of a factory largely depends on the material and mental satisfaction of its work force. As the referendum held on 15/01/2003 certain trade unions were awarded the status of a recognized trade union. employees co-operative societies. Also they have a role in wage fixation. All the disputes in Coirfed are settled through the negotiations between management and trade unions. The criterion for the recognition of trade union is 17% or more of the valid votes of the electorate. house rent allowances.

28%are not too satisfied with the allowances and 4%are not too satisfied with the allowances Fig.1 20% 28% 4% 100% Number of Respondents 24 Percentage 48% Table 4. 20%are somewhat satisfied with their allowances. Out of 50respondents 48% are very satisfied with their allowances provided in FACT.2 Work Satisfaction in life Opinion Strongly agree 35 Number of Respondents 6 Percentage 12% . 4.1 Allowances Opinion Very Satisfied Some what Satisfied Not too satisfied Not at all satisfied Total 10 14 2 50 Source: Primary data The table contains the analysis showing the employees allowances.ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table 4.

Fig.3 Job Security Opinion Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 2 50 4% 100% Number of Respondents 22 24 2 Percentage 44% 48% 4% 36 . The table shows that 68%agree to the statement that main satisfaction in life comes from work.2 Table 4. 12% strongly agree to it. and 4% strongly disagree to it. 4. 16%disagree to it.Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 34 8 68% 16% 2 50 4% 100% The above table shows the employees work satisfaction in life.

Fig 4. 42% agree. 4.3 Table 4. 4% disagree to the statement and 4%strongly disagree Fig. 48% agree.The table contains the analysis showing the employees job security .4 37 . 12% disagree to the statement and 10%strongly disagree that being an employee of FACT gives them better social status.From the above table out of 50 respondents 36%are strongly agree .4 Better social status being an employees of FACT Opinion Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 5 50 10% 100% Number of Respondents 18 21 6 Percentage 36% 42% 12% The table contains the analysis showing that being an employee of FACT gives them better social status .From the above table out of 50 respondents 44%are strongly agree that job security is there at FACT .

20% disagree to the statement and 12%strongly disagree. Out of 50 respondents 20% strongly agree for the statement that chances for promotion are good. Fig.Table 4.5 Number of Respondents 10 24 10 Percentage 20% 48% 20% Table 4.5 Chances for Promotion are good Opinion Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 6 50 12% 100% Sources: Primary data The table contains the analysis showing the employees promotion chances are good. 48% agree.6 Work Stressful 38 .4.

and remaining 8% said never. 4% said rarely. From above table we can see that 32% said often.7 Relationship between management and employees Opinion Very good Quite good Neither good nor bad Quite bad Very bad 6 1 39 No: of Respondent 10 27 6 Percentage 20% 54% 12% 12% 2% . Fig.6 Table 4. 56%said sometimes they find their work stressful. 4.Opinion Often Some times Rarely Never Total Number of Respondents 16 28 2 4 50 Sources: Primary data Percentage 32% 56% 4% 8% 100% The table shows the employees find their work stressful.

4.Total 50 100% Source: Primary data The table contains the analysis showing the relationship between management and employees. 12% said quite bad and 2% said very bad. Fig.7 Table 4. 12% said neither good nor bad. Fig.4. 8% are not too satisfied and 2%are not at all satisfied on present communication channel. 20% said that there is very good relationship between management and employees.8 Employees Satisfaction on Present Communication Channel Opinion Very Satisfied Some what Satisfied Not too satisfied Not at all satisfied Total 23 4 1 50 Source: Primary data 46% 8% 2% 100% Number of Respondents 22 Percentage 44% The table contains the analysis showing the employees satisfaction on present communication channel. Out of 50 respondents. 54% said quite good.8 40 . Out of 50respondents 44% are very satisfied with the present communication channel. 46% are somewhat satisfied.

Welfare Activities As the standard of life and income levels of the employees increased. Canteen Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied No: of Respondents 7 28 6 8 1 Percentage 14% 56% 12% 16% 2% 41 . 46% are satisfied. The employees compare the welfare measures adopted in the domestic firm will be welfare measures in other competing firms. 2% are highly dissatisfied and remaining 4%are not respondent. canteen. 6% are dissatisfied.9 Quarters Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Not respondent Total No: of Respondents 2 23 19 3 1 2 50 Percentage 4% 46% 38% 6% 2% 4% 100% Source: Primary data The table shows employees satisfaction level on welfare activities (quarters). medical benefits. 38%are neutral. FACT provides some welfare activities like quarters.9 Table 4. Out of 50 respondents. Employees perception on welfare activities are given below: TABLE 4. the expectation of the employees also raises. 4% are highly satisfied with the quarters. Therefore it is important to know how satisfied the employees are on the existing facilities. clubs and drinking water etc.

12%are neutral. 42 . 6% are highly satisfied with the quarters.2 shows employees satisfaction level on welfare activities (canteen). 52% are satisfied. 56% are satisfied. Medical Benefits Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Not respondent Total No: of Respondents 3 26 12 8 1 0 50 Percentage 6% 52% 24% 16% 2% 0% 100% The table shows employees satisfaction level on welfare activities (medical benefits). Out of 50 respondents. 2% are highly dissatisfied and none of them are not respondent.Not respondent Total 0 50 0% 100% The table4. 2% are highly dissatisfied and none of them are not respondent. 16% are dissatisfied.7. 14% are highly satisfied with the quarters. 16% are dissatisfied. 24%are neutral. Out of 50 respondents.

6% are highly satisfied with the quarters.-Clubs Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Not respondent Total No: of Respondents 3 26 15 5 1 0 50 Percentage 6% 52% 30% 10% 2% 0% 100% The table4. 30%are neutral. Drinking Water Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Not respondent No: of Respondents 4 28 9 8 1 0 43 Percentage 8% 56% 18% 16% 2% 0% . Out of 50 respondents. 52% are satisfied.7. 10% are dissatisfied.4 shows employees satisfaction level on welfare activities (clubs). 2% are highly dissatisfied and none of them are not respondent.

10 Treated with Respect at Work Place Opinion Number of Respondents 44 Percentage . 16% are dissatisfied. 2% are highly dissatisfied and none of them are not respondent.Total 50 100% The table shows employees satisfaction level on welfare activities (drinking water). Table 4. 8% are highly satisfied with the quarters. 18%are neutral. Out of 50 respondents. 56% are satisfied.

4.Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 4 30 10 8% 60% 20% 6 50 Sources: Primary data 12% 100% The table shows the employees at work place were treated with respect.11 Job satisfaction Opinion Very satisfied Somewhat Satisfied Not too satisfied Not at all Satisfied 45 No: of Respondents 20 16 Percentage 40% 32% 12 2 24% 4% . 20%disagree. 12% strongly disagree and 8%strongly agree. From the above table we can infer that 60% of employees agree that they are treated with respect at work place.10 Table 4. Fig.

Mutual Respect drives to better relations. In Coirfed employees are treated with respect by their supervisors and colleagues. For a healthy working environment Respect is an important factor. 32% is somewhat satisfied.11 contains the analysis showing the employees job satisfaction. • • • 46 . Fig. Out of 50 respondents we can see that 40% is very satisfied with their job. 4. The allowances provided are satisfactory as it was framed as a result of meetings and discussions with Trade Unions and Management.11 FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS • Employees in Coirfed are satisfied with their work schedule as the prevailing work schedule seem to be effective. Canteen and Restroom facilities provided are very satisfactory. 24% not too satisfied and 4% is not at all satisfied.Total 50 100% Source: Primary data The table 4.

Discussions with colleagues is essential in an industrial about day to day work. • Feedback systems should be implemented in respective departments so as to make Quality of Work Life effective. May it be productivity wise or financially.• Work environment and the assigned work is always easy when Teams are assigned a job. For this government policies affect drastically. • • • • SUGGESTIONS: • Regular meeting with co-workers and supervisors should be there so as to discuss work related problems. • • Proper training according to the different level of employees should be provided. There are training taking place regularly for different level of employees also the job security is seen high as it is a central govt: initiative company. Young talent work force is the strength of a company so more employment opportunities for recruiting young talents should be made. The work load is not high and also the stress related to work is low. Team work is seen more in Coirfed rather than individual work. • • Given more motivation to employees and make it a routine to appreciate good work so that subordinates will obey superiors and work efficiently. Proper feedback helps to review the whole work environment. The relationship existing between the employees and management is fair also the supervisor gives needed motivation and appreciation for his employees. So public sectors should be given more freedom in their functioning. 47 . Fringe benefits provided are good. Decision making involving work and other important events is a crucial part of management but employees agree that decision making right is not given to them always. QWL is breadth proportional to the progress the company makes. • • Promotions are handled fairly and also the chances for promotions are good.

Hence for the progress of every organisation is highly depends upon the quality of work life provided by the organization. job satisfaction. High Quality of Work Life leads to increase in productivity.CONCLUSION A happy employee is the real asset in an organization. From the questionnaire survey it was found that majority of the employees are satisfied with their work environment. so there is a relationship between QWL and productivity. If the employees is not happy that may be because the quality of work environment is not good. job security. as a result the work done by him also not good. They suggested that training 48 . The sample size for the study was 50 employees and the duration of the project work was 30 days. Primary data was collected through questionnaire with the employees of Coirfed. The secondary data was collected through the companies past records. and will decrease the voluntary absenteeism. The data analysis and interpretation was done based on the data collected through primary and secondary data. Thus overall degree of job satisfaction may differ from person to person. The old view that a happy worker is a productive worker. The tools used for the study was percentage analysis and the representation is with the help of tables and pie charts. The sampling method used for the study was simple random sampling for the collection of the data. Some workers may be satisfied with certain aspects of their work and dissatisfied with other aspects. websites and from various human resources textbooks. work and non work balance & competency of the employees. From this study it was found that factors such as individual factors. social factors and organizational factors affect Quality of Work Life. Quality of Work Life is the sum of health and well being of the employees. Dissatisfied employees show their dissatisfaction mainly in training programme and promotional opportunities in the company.

S. (2006) Research Methodology Methods and Techniques. New Delhi : Tata Mc Graw. the role of appraisal. remuneration and training in improving staff relations in the western Australian. Fact sheet on employee turnover and retention. ➢ Davies D. 49 . Journal of European Industrial Training. (2001). New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.25 ➢ Rao V. Inorder to motivate the employees work satisfaction the management should think about new promotion policies in the company and management should adopt a common policy to all the division.R. & Savery L. “ Human Resource Management” Himalaya Publishing house Mumbai. “ Principles of Mnagement” 1976 ➢ Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development(2004).programme should be conducted on the need basis after evaluation or assessment of each individual requirement. ➢ Kothari C. accommodation industry : a comparative study’ . Human Resource Management. ➢ Aswathappa K(2004). Taylor R. Edvin B. ➢ Subbarao P “ Essentials of human resource management” Himalaya Publishing house Mumbai. vol.P.Hill. Bibliography: ➢ Flippo.

How satisfied are you with the salary and allowances provided? Satisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 2.Being an employee of coirfed has given me abetter social status? Good Average Very good Poor 50 .APPENDIX 1.Are yousatisfied with the existing working condition? Satisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 4.Company is providing proper job security? Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 5.Are you satisfied with your work schedule? Yes NO 3.

Do you have freedom to decide how to do your work? Yes No 8.How often do you find your work stressful? Often Really Sometimes Never 9.6.Does your company provides enough training opportunities to perform job safely and competetently? Yes No 11. Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree 7.How would you describe relations in your work place between management and employees? Good Average Very Good Poor 51 .The chances for my promotion are good.What is your satisfaction level with the welfare activities? Satisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 10.

52 .

The secondary data was collected through the companies past records. social factors and organizational factors affect Quality of Work Life. The tools used for the study was percentage analysis and the representation is with the help of tables and pie charts. High Quality of Work Life leads to increase in productivity. Inorder to motivate the employees work satisfaction the management should think about new promotion policies in the company and management should adopt a common policy to all the division. and will decrease the voluntary absenteeism. The old view that a happy worker is a productive worker. job security. work and non work balance & competency of the employees. Some workers may be satisfi d with e certain aspects of their work and dissatisfied with other aspects. Primary data was collected through questionnaire with the employees of Coirfed. The sampling method used for the study was simple random sampling for the collection of the data. websites and from various human resources textbooks. Dissatisfied employees show their dissatisfaction mainly in training programme and promotional opportunities in the company. They suggested that training programme should be conducted on the need basis after evaluation or assessment of each individual requirement. Thus overall degree of job satisfaction may differ from person to person. The sample size for the study was 50 employees and the duration of the project work was 30 days. so there is a relationship between QWL and productivity. If the employees is not happy that may be because the quality of work environment is not good. The data analysis and interpretation was done based on the data collected through primary and secondary data.CONCLUSION A happy employee is the real asset in an organization. Quality of Work Life is the sum of health and well being of the employees. 53 . From the questionnaire survey it was found that majority of the employees are satisfied with their work environment. Hence for the progress of every organisation is highly depends upon the quality of work life provided by the organization. job satisfaction. From this study it was found that factors such as individual factors. as a result the work done by him also not good.

³ Principles of Mnagement´ 1976  Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development(2004).Bibliography:  Flippo. vol.  Aswathappa K(2004).S.  Subbarao P ³ Essentials of human resource management´ Himalaya Publishing house Mumbai. Taylor R. Journal of European Industrial Trainin g.Hill. Human Resource Management. 54 . (2001). (2006) Research Methodology Methods and Techniques. New Delhi : Tata Mc Graw.P.  Kothari C. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. remuneration and training in improving staff relations in the western Australian. accommodation industry : a comparative study¶ .  Davies D.R. Edvin B. the role of appraisal. ³ Human Resource Management´ Himalaya Publishing house Mumbai. & Savery L.25  Rao V. Fact sheet on employee turnover and retention.

Strongly Agree Disagree Agree Strongly Disagree 7.Are yousatisfied with the existing working condition? Satisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 4.Being an employee of coirfed has given me abetter social status? Good Average Very good Poor 6.Do you have freedom to decide how to do your work? Yes No 55 .Company is providing proper job security? Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 5.APPENDIX 1.How satisfied are you with the salary and allowances provided? Satisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 2.The chances for my promotion are good.Are you satisfied with your work schedule? Yes NO 3.

How often do you find your work stressful? Often Really Sometimes Never 9.What is your satisfaction level with the welfare activities? Satisfied Highly Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 10.How would you describe relations in your work place between management and employees? Good Average Very Good Poor 56 .8.Does your company provides enough training opportunities to perform job safely and competetently? Yes No 11.

57 .

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