Virginia Henderson's Need Theory This page was last updated on March 1, 2011 Nursing theories mirror different

realities, throughout their development; they reflected the interests of nurses of that time. Introduction
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Nursing Theories QuizI

The Nightingale of Modern Nursing Modern-Day Mother of Nursing. "The 20th century Florence Nightingale." Born in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1897. Received a Diploma in Nursing from the Army School of Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D.C. in 1921. Worked at the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service for 2 years after graduation. In 1923, started teaching nursing at the Norfolk Protestant Hospital in Virginia In 1929, entered Teachers College at Columbia University for Bachelor s Degree in 1932, Master s Degree in 1934.

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Nursing Theories QuizII

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Nursing Theory QuizIII

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Nursing Theory Quiz IV

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Nursing Theory Quiz V

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Nursing Research Quiz-I

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Nursing Research Quiz-II

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Nursing Research Quiz-III

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Joined Columbia as a member of the faculty, remained until 1948. Since 1953, a research associate at Yale University School of Nursing. recipient of numerous recognitions. Her work influenced the nursing profession throughout the world.
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Nursing Research Quiz-IV

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Nursing Research Quiz-V Nursing Research Quiz-VI

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a well known nursing educator and a prolific author.
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Nursing Research Quiz-VII

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honorary doctoral degrees from the Catholic University of America, Pace University,

University of Rochester, University of Western Ontario, Yale University
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Nursing Research Quiz-VIII

In 1985, honored at the Annual Meeting of the Nursing and Allied Health Section of the Medical Library Association. Died: March 19, 1996. In 1939, she revised: Harmer s classic textbook of nursing for its 4th edition, and later wrote the 5th; edition, incorporating her personal definition of nursing (Henderson,1991)

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Nursing Management Quiz-1

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Nursing Management Quiz-2

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Nursing Education Quiz-1

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Introduction to Nursing Theories

School of thoughts in Nursing Theories-1950-1970
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Development of Nursing Theories

Need theorists King

Interaction Theorists

Outcome theorists
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Virginia Henderson s Need Theory

Orlando Abdellah Henderson Orem Peterson and Zderad Paplau Travelbee Wiedenbach

Johnson Levine Rogers Roy

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Theory if Interpersonal Relations

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Faye Glenn Abdellah's Theory

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Jean Watson's theory Johnson s behavior system model

Analysis of nursing theories according to 1st School Focus Human being A developmental being. Patient Orientation Role of nurse Need Deficit Illness, disease Dependent on medical practice. Problems A set of needs or problems.

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Theory of Goal Attainment

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Betty Neuman s system model

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Levin's Four Conservation Principles

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Nursing Theorists

1966). her work is inductive. complementary (working with the person). in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he y y Application of Nursing Theories Application Goal .Beginnings of independent functions Fulfill needs requisites Decision making Primarily health care professional y Martha Roger s Science of unitary human beings y Theories Based on Interactive Process Henderson s Theory Background y Henderson s concept of nursing was derived form her practice and education therefore. y y Notes on Nursing: What it is.. y Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory y Nursing Theories: An Overview y She called her definition of nursing her concept (Henderson1991) y Nursing Theories and Research y She emphasized the importance of increasing the patient s independence so that progress after hospitalization would not be delayed (Henderson. with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible. What it is not: Nightingale Understanding the works of Nursing Theorists: A creative beginning y y She described the nurse's role as substitutive (doing for the person).1991) y y Roy's Adaptation Model Orlando's Nursing Process y Virginia Henderson defined nursing as "assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery" (Henderson. Her definition of nursing was one of the first statements clearly delineating nursing from medicine: y y Health Promotion Model y y Health Belief Model Theories used in Community Health Nursing "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. She categorized nursing activities into 14 components. based on human needs. supplementary (helping the person). sick or well.

Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment y Application of Betty Neuman's Systems Model in Nursing Care Application of Roy's Adaptation Model in Nursing Process y Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others. needs. Communicate with others in expressing emotions. discover. Cure and Core: The Three C s of Lydia Hall y Human Becoming Theory:Rosemarie Rizzo Parse Assumption . Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. Eliminate body wastes. Worship according to one s faith. fears. Learn. or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities. Sleep and rest. Play or participate in various forms of recreation. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible" (Henderson. Select suitable clothes-dress and undress. Eat and drink adequately. y y y y Application of Peplau's Interpersonal theory in Nursing Process y y y y Application of Health Belief Model in Nursing Practice Transcultural Nursing Helping and Human Relationships Theory: Robert R. The tenth and fourteenth are psychological aspects of communicating and learning The eleventh component is spiritual and moral The twelfth and thirteenth components are sociologically oriented to occupation and recreation y y Models of Prevention Care. Carkhuff y y The first 9 components are physiological. Move and maintain desirable postures.had the necessary strength. The 14 components y y y y y y y y Attainment Theory Application Orem's Self-care Deficit Theory Application of Suchman s Stages of Illness Model y Breathe normally. or opinions. will or knowledge. 1966).

Individual y y Have basic needs that are component of health. y y Ernestine Wiedenbach's "The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing" A directory of open access nursing theory articles y y y The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs. y Human-To-Human Relationship Model by Joyce Travelbee(19261973) y y Individuals in relation to families Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the individual and family. Nurses are willing to serve and that nurses will devote themselves to the patient day and night A final assumption is that nurses should be educated at the university level in both arts and sciences. but this assumption is not explicitly stated. Supports tasks of private and public agencies y . Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated. y Maslow's Theory of Needs 2. Patients desire to return to health. y y y Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development Theory of Cognitive Dissonance by Leon Festinger Kurt Lewin's Change Theory y Henderson s theory and the four major concepts y Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Model 1. and spiritual components. Considers the biological. Environment y y Models of Nursing Care Delivery Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living. y Theories of Florence Nightingale y All external conditions and influences that affect life and development. and the patient is neither client nor consumer. sociological.The major assumptions of the theory are: y y From Novice to Expert: Patricia Benner "Nurses care for patients until patient can care for themselves once again. psychological. Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful death.

But I go on to say that the nurse makes the patient independent of y y y . In return she expects society to contribute to nursing education. and the knowledge. or "independent. Moyra Allen Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength.Society wants and expects nurses to act for individuals who are unable to function independently. cultural background. will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs. Health y y The Trajectory Model by Corbin & Strauss Definition based on individual s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components. and emotional balance Is the individual s ability to meet these needs independently? y y y Modeling and Role Modeling Theory by Erickson. Nurse serves to make patient complete whole". Tomlin & Swain Life Perspective Rhythm Model by Joyce Fitzpatrick Functional Health Patterns by Majory Gorden y y 4. y y Newman's Health As Expanding Consciousness Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided y Comfort Theory by Katharine Kolcaba y Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing New! 3. Good health is a challenge. the will. Nursing y y McGill Model of Nursing by F." Henderson's classic definition of nursing: "I say that the nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength. and intellectual capacities. Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease. Affected by age. Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of independence. physical.

help individual meet their health need." y y y y y . for these are the physicians function." y The nurse is expected to carry out physician s therapeutic plan Individualized care is the result of the nurse s creativity in planning for care. an independent practitioner and able to make independent judgments as long as s/he is not diagnosing. the will. or making a prognosis. And nurse has responsibility to assess the needs of the individual patient. and or provide an environment in which the individual can perform activity unaided Henderson's classic definition of nursing "I say that the nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength. y In the Nature of Nursing that the nurse is and should be legally. prescribing treatment for disease. Use nursing research o o y Categorized Nursing : nursing care Non nursing: ordering supplies. and the knowledge. cleanliness and serving food. to get inside the patient s skin and supplement his strength will or knowledge according to his needs. But I go on to say that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible. In the Nature of Nursing Nurse role is. Nurse should have knowledge to practice individualized and human care and should be a scientific problem solver.him or her as soon as possible.

emotional balance. Nursing evaluation Henderson s 14 components and implementation performance of activities in meeting . sick or well. cultural background. taking into consideration strength. Nursing Assist the sick or well individual in to human needs to maintain health. will or knowledge. recover from illness. Carry out treatment prescribed by the physician. Nursing plan Identify individual s ability to meet own needs with or without assistance. and physical and intellectual capacities. age. Nursing process Implementation based on the physiological principles. or to aid in peaceful death.Henderson s and Nursing Process Summarization of the stages of the nursing process as applied to Henderson s definition of nursing and to the 14 components of basic nursing care. Nursing Document how the nurse can assist Henderson s 14 components implementation the individual. Nursing Process Henderson s 14 components and definition of nursing Nursing Assessment Nursing Diagnosis Analysis: Compare data to knowledge base of health and disease.

nursing and appropriate laws related to the practice of nursing. Successful outcomes of nursing care are based on the speed with which or degree to which the patient performs independently the activities of daily living Comparison with Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Maslow's Henderson Breathe normally Eat and drink adequately Eliminate by all avenues of elimination Move and maintain desirable posture Sleep and rest Select suitable clothing Maintain body temperature Keep body clean and well groomed and protect the integument Avoid environmental dangers and avoid injuring other Communicate with others worship according to one's faith Physiological needs Safety Needs Belongingness and love needs . The quality of care is drastically affected by the preparation and native ability of the nursing personnel rather that the amount of hours of care.definition of nursing Use the acceptable definition of .

e. communication are borrowed from other discipline. or satisfy curiosity Characteristic of Henderson s theory y There is interrelation of concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon. Maslow s Hierarchy of human needs. concept of interaction-communication i. Theories should be relatively simple yet generalizable. However some questions to investigate the definition of nursing and the 14 components may be useful. discover. Her definition of nursing cannot be viewed as theory. Her work can be applied to the health of individuals of all ages. therefore. it is impossible to generate testable hypotheses. Theories contribute to and assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the y y y y y y y . biophysiology. and interaction. culture. Concepts of fundamental human needs. Theories can be the bases for hypotheses that can be tested.Eg. nurse-patient relationship Her definition and components are logical and the 14 components are a guide for the individual and nurse in reaching the chosen goal..Work at something providing a sense of accomplishment Esteem needs Play or participate in various forms of recreation Learn.

y . The principles of Henderson s theory were published in the major nursing textbooks used from the 1930s through the 1960s.discipline through the research implemented to validate them. y y y Usefulness y Nursing education has been deeply affected by Henderson s clear vision of the functions of nurses. However. Theories can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve their practice. and the principles embodied by the 14 activities are still important in evaluating nursing care in thee21st centaury. y Her ideas of nursing practice are well accepted throughout the world as a basis for nursing care. the impact of the definition and components has not been established through research. Ideally the nurse would improve nursing practice by using her definition and 14 components to improve the health of individuals and thus reduce illness. No concept of the holistic nature of human being. 1996) y y Limitations y Lack of conceptual linkage between physiological and other human characteristics. Others concepts that Henderson (1966) proposed have been used in nursing education from the 1930s until the present O'Malley.

y y y PURPOSES OF NURSING THEORIES In Practice: y Assist nurses to describe. Lacks inter-relate of factors and the influence of nursing care. y y y y y y In Education: y Provide a general focus for curriculum design . Help build a common nursing terminology to use in communicating with other health professionals. Help to describe criteria to measure the quality of nursing care. but there is little explanation of what the nurse does. and predict everyday experiences. Enhance autonomy (independence and selfgovernance) of nursing through defining its own independent functions. which are essential for effective decision making and implementation. explain. Assisting the individual in the dying process she contends that the nurse helps. and evaluation of nursing care. Ideas are developed and words are defined. interventions. Serve to guide assessment. the relationship among the components is unclear. Peaceful death is curious and significant nursing role.y If the assumption is made that the 14 components prioritized. Provide a rationale for collecting reliable and valid data about the health status of clients.

Deductively looking for the compatibility of a general nursing theory with nursing practice. In Research: y Offer a framework for generating knowledge and new ideas. and validate nursing interventions. Assist in discovering knowledge gaps in the specific field of study. Inductively looking at nursing practice to discover theories/concepts to explain phenomena. Questions from practicing Nurse about using Nursing theory y y y y y y y Practice y Does this theory reflect nursing practice as I know it? Will it support what I believe to be excellent nursing practice? Can this theory be considered in relation to a wide range of nursing situation? Personal Interests. Abilities and Experiences What will it be like to think about nursing theory in nursing practice? Will my work with nursing theory be worth the y y y y y . Offer a systematic approach to identify questions for study.y Guide curricular decision making. Approaches to developing nursing theory Borrowing conceptual frameworks from other disciplines. interpret findings. select variables.

Timber BK. McEwen Melanie (2002). LWW. Lippincott.The base for professional Nursing Practice . Lippincott Williams& wilkins. Theoretical Basis for Nursing Philadelphia.Evelyn. Taylor Carol. 6. 3rd ed. 3. Perry G Anne (1992) .Lillis Carol (2001)The Art & Science Of Nursing Care 4th ed. Her definition of nursing and the 14 components of basic nursing care are uncomplicated and selfexplanatory. Meleis Ibrahim Afaf (1997) . Wills M. Lippincott. She didn t intend to develop a theory of nursing but rather she attempted to define the unique focus of nursing. 4. 5. Fundamental skills and concepts in Patient Care. Philadelphia. 7th edition. Appleton & Lange. Norwalk. Nursing Theories. Theoretical Nursing : Development & Progress 3rd ed. Julia . George B. N 2. Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the person and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs. Potter A Patricia.effort? Conclusion y Henderson provides the essence of what she believes is a definition of nursing. y y y References 1. Philadelphia.

19(3):225 9. 27(6) : 605-15 8. The force of nursing theory guidedpractice.M. Awareness of self & expanding consciousness: using Nursing theories to prepare nurse therapists Ment Health Nurs. Nurs Sci Q.. Delaune SC. London Mosby Year Book.Fundamentals Of Nursing Concepts Process & Practice 3rd ed. Thomson. Fundamental of nursing. standard and practice. 2006 Jul. 2006 Jul. 2nd edition. Ladner PK.html .com/nursing_theory/Henderson. 2002 http://currentnursing. Reed PG. Vandemark L. NY. 7.

avoid danger. communicate. play and learn. or knowledge. 2010 0 COMMENTS Person/Client: A whole. Environment: The aggregate of the external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of an organism Health: Viewed in terms of the individuals ability to perform 14 components of nursing care unaided (eg. breathe normally. and independent being who has 14 fundamental needs to breathe. eliminate. APR. dress and undress. Health is quality of life basic to human functioning and requires independence and interdependence. Individuals will achieve or maintain health if they have necessary strength. in performing those activities contributing to health. eat and drink adequately). complete. 1969. move and maintain posture. work. maintain body temperature. 1978) 25. Nursing: The unique function of the nurse is to assist clients.Virginia Henderson (1955. 1966. worship. sleep and rest. keep clean. sick or well. its recovery. eat and drink. It is the quality of health rather life itself that allows people to work most effectively and to teach their highest potential level of satisfaction in life. or peaceful death ± activities that client would perform unaided if they had the necessary strength. . will.

The nurse¶s focus is to thelp individuals and families (which she viewed as a unit) to gain independence in meeting 14 fundamental needs (Henderson 1966): 1. 6. a substitute for the patient. Al.will. Henderson cenceptualized the nurse¶s role as assisting sick or well individuals in a supplementary or complementary way. Avoiding dangers in the environment and avoiding inhuring others. to do so in such a way as to help clients gain independence as rapidly as possible. when necessary. that the individual (a) needs to maintain physiologic and emotional balance. The nurse needs to be a partner with the patient. This definition was a major stepping-stone in the emergence of nursing as a discipline separate from medicine. or knowledge to achieve or maintain health. 9.so. Virginia Henderson formulated a definition of the unique function of nursing. 8. . Eating and drinking adequately. and. Sleeping and resting. a helper to the paitent. 2. These needs give direction to the nurse¶s role. will. 4. Eliminaitng body wastes. Keeping the body clean and well-groomed to protect the integument. Basic to her definition are various assumptions about the individual: namely. and (c) needs the necessary strength. Breathing normally. or knowledge. death. Selecting suitbale clothes. maintianing body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environamnet. 5. (b) requires assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful. 3. Henderson¶s Definition of Nursing: In 1955. Moving and maintining a desirable position. 7.

or oipinions. Inc. Description The Henderson theory of nursing was developed by Virginia Henderson.com/2010/04/25/virginia-henderson1955196619691978/ Henderson Theory of Nursing Definition The Henderson theory of nursing encompasses a definition of nursing. it has had a wide influence on concept and practice of nursing. . 47 http://www. 11. 14. Playing or participating in various forms of recreations.10. 5th edition Addison-Wesley Publishing company. worshiping according to one¶s faith. and using available health facilities. Kozier. working in such a way that one feels a sense of accomplishment. a description of the function of a nurse. or satisfying the curiosity that leads to normal development and health. 1998. needs. and preferred it to be thought of as a definition. and the enumeration of the 14 components that make up basic nursing care. 12. Learning. p.nursingbuddy. 13. fears. Barbara et. Coomunicating with others in expressing emotions. Whether it is considered a definition or a theory. discovering. She did not believe that she was setting out a theory.al Fundamentals of Nursing.

The definition of nursing is the fundamental part of Henderson's theory of nursing. Virginia Henderson also believed that it was important that nursing be based on evidence. Columbia University. Nursing helps the patient become healthy or die peacefully. and to this end. 1996. The nurse should help the patient to perform the following functions: eat and drink y breathe y move y sleep y dress y work to gain a sense of accomplishment y maintain normal body temperature y eliminate wastes y keep clean y communicate y participate in recreation y worship y avoid dangers or hurting others y learn and discover y When the patient was able to perform all the functions by him or herself then the patient could be considered independent and no longer required the aid of a nurse. She began her nursing education in the U. that is if they were physically able or had the required knowledge. and how it was possible to focus on developing a good nurse-patient relationship. Henderson defined nursing as doing things for patients that they would do for themselves if they could. when she was 98 years old. The Sigma Theta Tau International Nursing Library is named in her honor. Missouri. she worked to develop an index of nursing. . Army School of Nursing during World War I. and that research was a critical component of improving nursing practice. and also helps people work toward independence. in Kansas City. Henderson also enumerated the 14 functions she believed to be part of basic nursing care. This deeply affected her and she believed strongly that patient-focused nursing was the most beneficial kind of nursing for the patient. She believed all nurses should have access to literature on nursing and current nursing research to help better their practices. from which she graduated in 1921. so that they can begin to perform the relevant activities for themselves as quickly as possible. She also taught at Teacher's College. She also received a Bachelors of Science degree in 1932 and a Masters degree in 1934 from Teachers College. Henderson focused on the patient.S. Rather than focus on a particular task. She saw how nursing could focus on the patient. and at the Yale School of Nursing. She died March 19. 1897.Virginia Henderson was born on November 30.

Sudbury.aahn.A. are considered so important that Sigma Theta Tau's International Nursing Library has been named in her honor. MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2004.org. Virginia." was published in 1960 and has since been translated into more than 20 languages. NJ 08734. called "Basic Principles of Nursing Care. prescription. Davis Company. Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice. Understanding the Work of Nurse Theorists. She also believed that a nurse should be considered an independent member of the total health care team. 600 Maryland Ave. DC 20024.http://www. 100 West. 2001. and that the nurse should take a patient centered approach to nursing to be based in evidence and research. and prognosis functions of a physician or any tasks such as serving food and cleaning that were not directly related to helping the patient with the fourteen basic nursing functions. Professional implications The booklet that Virginia Henderson wrote outlining her definition of nursing.http://www. Sitzman. Washington . "Excellence in Nursing. Marilyn E. Resources BOOKS Parker. especially to evidence based nursing practice. (800) 274-4ANA. Lanoka Harbor. . Ste. Her contributions. (609) 693-7250. PO Box 175. ORGANIZATIONS American Association for the History of Nursing. and that the nurse should only perform nursing functions.org/.nursingworld. Henderson believed that the nurse should help the individual achieve independence as much as possible. Kathleen. SW. Philadelphia: E.Viewpoints Virginia Henderson played a very important role in the development of modern nursing. and Lisa Wright Eichelberger." American Journal of Nursing 100 (October 2000): 961. PERIODICALS Henderson. It is a widely read and widely used booklet that has had a significant impact on many nurses. neither performing the diagnosis. American Nurses Association.

Reproduced by permission." USD Hahn School of Nursing 2003. 2005). Henderson Theory of Nursing © Ariel Skelley/CORBIS. http://www.http://www.sandiego.org/Portal/Main. .OTHER Nursing library. 2006).nursinglibrary.aspx?PageID=4002 (February 22. "Nursing Theory Page.edu/nursing/theory/ (November 10.

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