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th

Edition

Chapter 8. Work, Energy, and Power

Work

8-1. What is the work done by a force of 20 N acting through a parallel distance of 8 m? What

force will do the same work through a distance of 4 m?

Work = (20 N)(8 m) = 160 J ; F (4 m) = 160 J; F = 40.0 N

8-2. A worker lifts a 40 lb weight through a height of 10 ft. How many meters can a 10-kg

block be lifted by the same amount of work?

Work = (20 lb)(10 ft) = 200 ft lb;

1.356 J

200 ft lb 271 J

1 ft lb

Work

| `

· ⋅ ·

⋅

. ,

Work = Fs = mgs;

2

271 J

(10 kg)(9.8 m/s )

Work

s

mg

· ·

; s = 2.77 m

8-3. A tugboat exerts a constant force of 4000 N on a ship, moving it a distance of 15 m. What

work is done?

Work = (4000 N)(15 m); Work = 60,000 J

8-4. A 5-kg hammer is lifted to a height of 3 m. What is the minimum required work?

Work = Fs = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(3 m); Work = 147 J

8-5. A push of 30 lb is applied along the handle of a lawn mower producing a horizontal

displacement of 40 ft. If the handle makes an angle of 30

0

with the ground, what work was

done by the 30-lb force?

Work = (F cos θ )s = (30 lb) cos 30

0

(40 ft)

Work = 1040 ft lb

79

s = 40 ft

P

F

k

N

30

0

W

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

8-6. The trunk in Fig. 8-10 is dragged a horizontal distance of 24 m by a rope that makes an

angle θ with the floor. If the rope tension is 8 N, what works are done for the following

angles: 0

0

, 30

0

, 60

0

, 90

0

?

Work = (F cos θ )s = (8 N) cos 0

0

(24 m) = 192 J

Work = (8 N) cos 30

0

(24 m) = 166 J ; Work

60

= 96 J ; Work

90

= 0 J

8-7. A horizontal force pushes a 10-kg sled along a driveway for a distance of 40 m. If the

coefficient of sliding friction is 0.2, what work is done by the friction force?

Work = (F cos θ )s = (F) (cos 180

0

)s = - F s; but F = µ

k

N = µ

k

mg

Work = µ

k

mg s = (0.2)(10 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(40 m); Work = –784 J

*8-8. A sled is dragged a distance of 12.0 m by a rope under constant tension of 140 N. The

task requires 1200 J of work. What angle does the rope make with the ground?

Work = (F cos θ )s;

1200 J

cos

(140 N)(12 m)

Work

Fs

θ · ·

cos θ = 0.714; θ = 44.4

0

Resultant Work

8-9. An average force of 40 N compresses a coiled spring a distance of 6 cm. What is the work

done by the 40-N force? What work done by the spring? What is the resultant work?

Work

40

= (40 N)(0.06 m) = 2.40 J, (positive work)

Work

sp

= (-40 N)(0.06 m) = -2.40 J, (negative work)

Resultant work = Σ (works) = 2.4 J – 2.4 J = 0 J

Work is positive when force is with displacement, negative when against displacement.

80

θ

8 N

θ

140 N

12 m

0.06 m

40 N

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

8-10. A horizontal force of 20 N drags a small sled 42 m across the ice at constant speed. Find

the work done by the pulling force and by the friction force. What is the resultant force?

Work

40

= (20 N)(24 m) = 2.40 J, (positive work)

Work

sp

= (-20 N)(24 m) = -2.40 J, (negative work)

Resultant force and, hence, resultant work are zero.

*8-11. A 10-kg block is dragged 20 m by a parallel force of 26 N. If µ

k

= 0.2, what is the

resultant work and what acceleration results.

F = µ

k

N = µ

k

mg F = 0.2(10 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = 19.6 N

Work

= F

R

s = (P – F)s; Work = (26 N – 19.6 N)(20 m) Work = 128 J

F

R

= (26 N – 19.6 N) = 6.40 N;

6.4 N

10 kg

F

a

m

· ·

; a = 0.640 m/s

2

*8-12. A rope making an angle of 35

0

drags a 10-kg toolbox a horizontal distance of 20 m. The

tension in the rope is 60 N and the constant friction force is 30 N. What work is done by

the rope? What work is done by friction? What is the resultant work?

(Work)

rope

= (60 N) cos 35

0

(20 m); (Work)

r

= 983 J

(Work)

F

= (-30 N)(20 m) = -600 J; (Work)

F

= -600 J

Resultant Work = Σ (works) = 983 J – 600 J; Resultant Work = 383 J

Extra work can show that for this example, µ

k

= 0.472

*8-13. For the example described in Problem 8-12, what is the coefficient of friction between the

toolbox and the floor. (Refer to figure and information given in previous problem.)

Σ F

y

= 0; N + (60 N) sin 35

0

– (10 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = 0 ; and N = 63.6 N

0.472

k

µ · ·

F

N

µ

k

= 0.472

81

F

42 m

20 N

F

20 m

26 N

60 N

N

mg

35

0

F

20 m

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-14. A 40-kg sled is pulled horizontally for 500 m where µ

k

= 0.2. If the resultant work is

50 kJ, what was the parallel pulling force?

F = µ

k

N = µ

k

mg = 0.2(40 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

); F = 78.4 N

(P – F) s = 50 kJ; (P – 78.4 N)(500 m) = 50,000 J; P = 178 N

*8-15. Assume that m = 8 kg in Fig. 8-11 and µ

k

= 0. What minimum work is required by the

force P to reach the top of the inclined plane? What work is required to lift the 8 kg

block vertically to the same height?

Minimum work is for P = W sin 40

0

with zero acceleration.

0

12 m 12 m

sin ; 18.67 m

sin 40

s

s

θ · · · ; W = mg = 78.4 N

Work

P

= P s =(W sin 40

0

) s = (78.4 N) sin 40

0

(18.67 m); Work

P

= 941 J

(Work)

V

= W h = (78.4 N)(12 m); (Work)

V

= 941 J

*8-16. What is the minimum work by the force P to move the 8-kg block to the top of the incline

if µ

k

= 0.4. Compare this with the work to lift it vertically to the same height.

Σ F

y

= 0; N = mg cos 40

0

; N = (78.4 N) cos 40

0

= 60.06 N

F = µ

k

N = (0.4)(60.06 N); F = 24.0 N

Σ F

x

= 0; P – F – mg sin 40

0

= 0; P = F + W sin 40

0

P = 24.0 N + (78.4 N) sin 40

0

; P = 74.4 N; Recall that s = 18.67 m from Prob. 8-15.

Work

P

= (74.4 N)(18.67 m) ; Work

P

= 1390 J

From Prob. 8-15, the work to lift vertically is: (Work)

V

= 941 J

82

500 m N

F

mg

P

P

N

40

0

40

0

12 m

F

P

N

40

0

40

0

12 m

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-17. What is the resultant work when the 8-kg block slides from the top to the bottom of the

incline in Fig. 8-11. Assume that µ

k

= 0.4.

The resultant work is the work of the resultant force:

F

R

= mg sin 40

0

– F = (78.4 N)sin 40

0

– 0.4(78.4 N)cos 40

0

F

R

= 26.4 N; Work = (26.4 N)(18.67 m) = 492 J

Work and Kinetic Energy

8-18. What is the kinetic energy of a 6-g bullet at the instant its speed is 190 m/s? What is the

kinetic energy of a 1200-kg car traveling at 80 km/h? (80 km/h = 22.2 m/s)

E

k

= ½mv

2

= ½(0.006 kg)(190 m/s)

2

; E

k

= 217 J

E

k

= ½mv

2

= ½(1200 kg)(22.2 m/s)

2

; E

k

= 296 kJ

8-19. What is the kinetic energy of a 2400-lb automobile when its speed is 55 mi/h? What is

the kinetic energy of a 9-lb ball when its speed is 40 ft/s? (55 mi/h = 80.7 ft/s)

2

2400 lb

75.0 slugs

32 ft/s

a

W

m

g

· · ·

2

9.00 lb

0.281 slugs

32 ft/s

b

m · ·

E

k

= ½mv

2

= ½(75 slugs)(80.7 ft/s)

2

; E

k

= 244,000 ft lb

E

k

= ½mv

2

= ½(0.281 slugs)(40 ft/s)

2

; E

k

= 225 ft lb

8-20. What is the change in kinetic energy when a 50-g ball hits the pavement with a velocity of

16 m/s and rebounds with a velocity of 10 m/s?

Consider the upward direction as positive, then v

o

= -10 m/s and v

f

= -16 m/s.

∆ E

k

= ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

= ½(0.05 kg)(10 m/s)

2

- ½(0.05 kg)(-16 m/s)

2

∆ E

k

= 2.50 J – 6.40 J = -3.90 J ; The change represents a loss of kinetic energy.

83

mg

F

N

40

0

40

0

12 m

s = 18.67 m

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-21. A runaway, 400-kg wagon enters a cornfield with a velocity of 12 m/s and eventually

comes to rest. What work was done on the wagon?

Work = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

=(0) - ½(400 kg)(12 m/s)

2

; Work = -28.8 kJ

*8-22. A 2400-lb car increases its speed from 30 mi/h to 60 mi/h? What resultant work was

required? What is the equivalent work in joules?

v

o

= 30 mi/h = 44 ft/s; v

f

= 60 mi/h = 88 ft/s;

2

2400 lb

75.0 slugs

32 ft/s

m · ·

Work = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

= ½(75 slugs)(88 ft/s)

2

- ½(75 slugs)(44 ft/s)

2

;

Work = 217,800 ft lb ; Work =

1 J

217,800 ft lb

0.7378 ft lb

| `

−

. ,

= 295 kJ

*8-23. A 0.6-kg hammer head is moving at 30 m/s just before striking the head of a spike. Find

the initial kinetic energy. What work can be done by the hammer head?

E

k

= ½mv

2

= ½(0.6 kg)(30 m/s)

2

; E

k

= 270 J

Work = ∆ E

k

= 0 – 200 J; Work = -270 J

*8-24. A 12-lb hammer moving at 80 ft/s strikes the head of a nail moving it into the wall a

distance of ¼ in. What was the average stopping force?

2

12 lb

0.375 slugs;

32 ft/s

m · · s = 0.250 in. (1 ft/12 in.) = 0.0203 ft; v

o

= 80 ft/s

Fs = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; F (0.0203 ft) = 0 - ½(0.375 slugs)(80 ft/s)

2

; F = 57,600 ft lb

8-25. What average force is needed to increase the velocity of a 2-kg object from 5 m/s to

12 m/s over a distance of 8 m?

Fs = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; F(8 m) = ½(2 kg)(12 m/s)

2

- ½(2 kg)(5 m/s)

2

; F = 14.9 N

84

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-26. Verify the answer to Problem 8-25 by applying Newton’s second law of motion.

To apply F = ma, we need to find a: 2as = v

f

2

– v

o

2

2 2

2 2

0

(5 m/s) (12 m/s)

;

2 2(8 m)

f

v v

a

s

−

−

· · F = (2 kg)(-7.44 m/s

2

) = -14.9 N

*8-27. A 20-g projectile strikes a mud bank in Fig. 8-12, penetrating a distance of 6 cm before

stopping. Find the stopping force F if the entrance velocity is 80 m/s.

Fs = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; F (0.06 m) = 0 - ½(0..02 kg)(80 m/s)

2

F = -1070 N

*8-28. A 1500-kg car is moving along a level road at 60 km/h. What work is required to stop the

car? If µ

k

= 0.7, what is the stopping distance? (60 km/h = 16.67 m/s)

Work = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; Work = 0 - ½(1500 kg)(16.67 m/s)

2

; Work = -208,300 J

The work is done by friction: F = µ

k

N = µ

k

mg and (Work)

F

= -(µ

k

mg)s

-(µ

k

mg)s = -208,300 J;

2

208, 300 J

-0.7(1500 kg)(9.8 m/s )

s

−

·

; s = 20.2 m

Potential Energy

8-29. A 2-kg block rests on top of a table 80 cm from the floor. Find the potential energy of the

book relative to (a) the floor, (b) the seat of a chair 40 cm from the floor, and (c) relative

to the ceiling 3 m from the floor?

For E

p

= mgh, the height h is measured from reference point:

For floor, h = 0.8 m; for seat, h = 0.4 m; for table, h = - 2.2 m

(a) E

p

= (2 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.8 m) = 15.7 J

(b) E

p

= (2 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.4 m) = 7.84 J ; (c) E

p

= (2 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(-2.2 m) = -43.1 J

85

0.4 m

0.8 m

3 m

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

8-30. A 1.2 kg brick is held a distance of 2 m above a manhole. The bottom of the manhole is

3 m below the street. Relative to the street, what is the potential energy at each location?

What is the change in potential energy?

E

p

= (1.2 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(2 m) = 23.5 J for held brick.

E

p

= (1.2 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(-3 m) = -35.3 J for brick in hole

∆ E

p

= E

f

– E

o

= -35.3 J – (23.5 J); ∆ E

p

= -58.8 J

8-31. At a particular instant a mortar shell has a velocity of 60 m/s. If its potential energy at that

point is one-half of its kinetic energy, what is its height above the earth?

E

k

= ½mv

2

and E

p

= mgh; At the instant in question, E

p

= ½E

k

2 2

1 1

or 4

2 2

mgh mv gh v

| `

· ·

. ,

and

2

4

v

h

g

·

2

2

(60 m/s)

4(9.8 m/s )

h · h = 91.8 m

*8-32. A 20-kg sled is pushed up a 34

0

slope to a vertical height of 140 m. A constant friction

force of 50 N acts for the entire distance. What external work was required? What was

the change in potential energy?

External work done by force P acting for distance s:

Σ F

x

= 0: P – mg sin 34

0

– F = 0; F = 50 N, m = 20 kg

P = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) sin 34

0

+ 50 N; P = 77.4 N

0

140 m

250 m

sin34

s · · ; (Work)

P

= (77.4 N)(250 m); (Work)

P

= 19.400 J

∆ E

p

= mgh = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(140 m); ∆ E

p

= 6860 J

The difference: 19,400 J – 6860 J = 12,540 J is the work done against friction.

86

P

F

N

mg

34

0

34

0

140 m

600 N

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-33. An average force of 600 N is required to compress a coiled spring a distance of 4 cm.

What work is done BY the spring? What is the change in potential energy of the

compressed spring?

Work done BY spring is opposite to compressing force.

Work = (-600 N)(0.04 m) = -24.0 J Work by spring = - 24.0 J

Now, E

P

= 0 initially, so that ∆ E

p

= -(Work)

SP

= -(-24 J); ∆ E

p

= +24.0 J

Conservation of Energy (No Friction)

8-34. A 64-lb weight is lifted to a height of 10 ft and then released to fall freely. What is the

potential energy, the kinetic energy and the total energy at (a) the highest point, (b) 3 ft

above the ground, and (c) at the ground? (W = 64 lb, g = 32 ft/s

2

)

(a) E

P

= Wh = (64 lb)(10 ft) = 640 ft lb; E

P

= 640 ft lb

E

k

= ½mv

2

= 0 ( v

o

= 0); E

T

= E

P

+ E

k

= 640 ft lb + 0

At 10 ft: E

P

= 640 ft lb; E

k

= 0; and E

T

= 640 ft lb

(b) E

P

= Wh = (64 lb)(3 ft) = 192 ft lb; E

P

= 192 ft lb

E

k

= E

T

– E

P

; E

k

= 640 ft lb – 192 ft lb; E

k

= 448 ft lb

At 3 ft: E

P

= 192 ft lb; E

k

= 448 ft lb; and E

T

= 640 ft lb

(c) At 0 ft h = 0 and E

T

is same: E

P

= 0 ft lb; E

k

= 640 ft lb; and E

T

= 640 ft lb

8-35. A 4-kg hammer is lifted to a height of 10 m and dropped? What are the potential and

kinetic energies of the hammer when it has fallen to a point 4 m from the earth?

At 10 m: E

k

= 0 and E

P

= mgh = (4 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(10 m); E

T

= 0 + 392 J = 392 J

E

p

= mgh = (4 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(4 m); E

p

= 157 J; E

k

= E

T

– E

P

= 392 J – 157 J

Thus at h = 4 m: E

P

= 157 J and E

k

= 235 J

87

0.04 m

h = 10 ft

h = 3 ft

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-36. What will be the velocity of the hammer in Problem 8-35 just before striking the ground?

What is the velocity at the 4-m location?

At bottom, E

p

= 0 and E

T

= 392 J so that E

k

= 392 J – 0 = 392 J;

E

k

= ½mv

2

= 392 J

2(392 J)

4 kg

v · v = 14.0 m/s

*8-37. What initial velocity must be given to a 5-kg mass if it is to rise to a height of 10 m?

What is the total energy at any point in its path?

In absence of friction, total energy at bottom must equal total energy at top:

E

T

= ½mv

o

2

+ 0 = 0 + mgh; v

o

2

= 2 gh

2

0

2 2(9.8 m/s )(10 m) v gh · · v

0

= 14.0 m/s

2

E

T

= E

p

+ E

k

at any point

At top: E

T

= 0 + mgh = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(10 m); E

T

= 490 J

*8-38. A simple pendulum 1 m long has an 8-kg bob. How much work is needed to move the

pendulum from its lowest point to a horizontal position? From energy considerations

find the velocity of the bob as it swings through the lowest point.

A force F equal to the weight mg must act through a distance equal to length of string:

Work = mgh = (8 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(1 m); Work = 78.4 J

The total energy at top(mgh) must be equal to total energy at bottom.(½mv

2

):

mgh = ½mv

2

2

2 2(9.8 m/s )(1 m) v gh · · v = 4.43 m/s

*8-39. A ballistic pendulum is illustrated in Fig. 8-13. A 40-g ball is caught by a 500-g

suspended mass. After impact, the two masses rise a vertical distance of 45 mm. Find

the velocity of the combined masses just after impact? (See Figure next page)

Total mass M = 40 g + 500 g = 540 g; M = 540 g = 0.540 kg

88

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-39. (Cont.) Find v

o

of total mass M such that M rises h = 0.045 m:

Energy conservation: ½Mv

2

+ 0 = 0 + Mgh;

2

2 2(9.8 m/s )(0.045 m) v gh · · v = 0.939 m/s

*8-40. A 100-lb sled slides from rest at the top of a 37

0

inclined plane. The original height is

80 ft. In the absence of friction, what is the velocity of the sled when it reaches the

bottom of the incline? (Not dependent on either angle or weight.)

Energy conservation: 0 + mgh = ½mv

2

+ 0;

2

2 2(32 ft/s )(80 ft) v gh · · v = 71.6 ft/s

*8-41. An 8-kg block in Fig. 8-14 has an initial downward velocity of 7 m/s. Neglecting

friction, find the velocity when it reaches point B?

½mv

o

2

+ mgh

o

= ½mv

f

2

+ mgh

f

v

o

2

+ 2gh

o

= v

f

2

+ 0 ; v

f

2

=

v

o

2

+ 2gh

o

2 2

0 0

2 (7 m/s) + 2(9.8 m/s)(20 m)

f

v v gh · + · ; v

f

= 21.0 m/s

*8-42. What is the velocity of the 8-kg block at point C in Problem 8-39? (Note h

f

≠ 0 this time)

½mv

o

2

+ mgh

o

= ½mv

f

2

+ mgh

f

;

v

o

2

+ 2gh

o

= v

f

2

+ 2gh

f

; v

f

2

=

v

o

2

+ 2gh

o

– 2gh

f

2 2

0 0

2 ( ) (7 m/s) + 2(9.8 m/s)(20 m - 8 m)

f f

v v g h h · + − · ; v

f

= 16.9 m/s

*8-43. An 80-lb girl sits in a swing of negligible weight. If she is given an initial velocity of 20

ft/s, to what height will she rise?

Energy conservation: 0 + mgh = ½mv

2

+ 0;

2

2

(20 ft/s)

2 2(32 ft/s )

v

h

g

· · h = 6.25 ft

89

h

h

C

B

7 m/s

8 m

20 m

h

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

Energy and Friction Forces

*8-44. A 60-kg sled slides to the bottom of a 25

0

slope of length 30 m. A 100-N friction force

acts for the entire distance. What is the total energy at the top of the slope and at the

bottom? What is the velocity of the sled at the bottom?

h = (20 m)sin 25

0

· 8.45 m; At top: E

P

= mgh; E

k

= 0

E

T

= E

P

+ E

k

= mgh + 0; E

T

= (60 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(8.45 m)

Total energy at top, E

T

= 4969 J Cons. of E: E

T

(top) = E

kf

(bottom)+Losses

Loss = (Work)

F

= F s; Loss = (100 N)(30 m) = 3000 J

Cons. of E: 4960 J = ½(60 kg)v

2

+ 3000 J; From which: v = 8.10 m/s

*8-45. A 500-g block is released from the top of a 30

0

inline and slides 160 cm to the bottom. A

constant friction force of 0.9 N acts the entire distance. What is the total energy at the

top? What work is done by friction? What is the velocity at the bottom?

W = mg = (0.5 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = 4.90 N;

h = (1.60 m) sin 30

0

= 0.800 m; E

T

= E

P

+ E

k

E

T

= Wh + 0; E

T

= (4.90 N)(0.80 m); E

T

= 3.92 J

(Work)

F

= F s = (-0.900 N)(1.60 m); (Work)

F

= -1.44 J (negative work)

Total energy at top = total energy at bottom + work done against friction

3.92 J = ½mv

2

+ F s ; 3.92 J = ½(0.5 kg) v

2

+ 1.44 J

Solving for v, we obtain: v = 3.15 m/s

Note that the work done BY friction is negative, but when applying conservation of

energy we use the work AGAINST friction (+1.44 J) to account for the LOSS

90

mg

F

N

25

0

25

0

h

s = 20 m

W

F

N

30

0

30

0

h

s = 160 m

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-46. What initial velocity must be given to the 500-g block in Problem 8-43 if it is to just reach

the top of the same slope? (See previous problem)

From Prob. 8-43: F = 0.9 N, h =0.8 m, W = 4.90 N

½mv

o

2

= Wh

f

+ F s = 3.92 J + 1.44 J ; ½mv

o

2

=5.36 J

0

2(5.36 J) 2(5.36 J)

0.500 kg

v

m

· · v

o

= 4.63 m/s

*8-47. A 64-lb cart starts up a 37

0

incline with an initial velocity of 60 ft/s. If it comes to rest

after a moving a distance of 70 ft, how much energy was lost to friction?

W = 64 lb; m = (64/32) = 2 slugs; h = 70 sin 37

0

· 42.1 m

½mv

o

2

= Wh

f

+ Loss; Loss = ½mv

o

2

- Wh

f

Loss = ½(2 slugs)(60 ft/s)

2

– (64 lb)(42.1 ft)

Loss = 3600 ft lb - 2240 ft lb; Loss = 904 ft lb

*8-48. A 0.4-kg ball drops a vertical distance of 40 m and rebounds to a height of 16 m. How

much energy was lost in collision with the floor? Conservation of energy.

mgh

o

= mgh

f

+ Loss; Loss = mgh

o

– mgh

f

= mg(h

o

– h

f

)

Loss = (0.4 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(40 m – 16 m); Loss = 94.1 J

*8-49. A 4-kg sled is given an initial velocity of 10 m/s at the top of a 34

0

slope. If µ

k

= 0.2,

how far must the sled travel until its velocity reaches 30 m/s?

mgh

o

+ ½mv

o

2

= 0 + ½mv

f

2

+ F s and h

o

= s sin 34

0

mg(s sin 34

0

) - F s = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; F = µ

k

mg cos 34

0

mg(s sin 34

0

) – (µ

k

mg cos 34

0

)s

= ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

91

F

s = 160 m

W

N

30

0

30

0

h

W = 64 lb

v

o

= 60 ft/s

F

s = 70 ft

N

30

0

30

0

h

s

10 m/s

F

N

mg

34

0

34

0

h

o

30 m/s

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-49. (Cont.) (g sin 34

0

- µ

k

g cos 34

0

)s = ½v

f

2

- ½v

o

;

2 2

0

0 0

2 (sin34 cos34 )

f

k

v v

s

g µ

−

·

−

2 2

2 0 0

(30 m/s) (10 m/s)

2(9.8 m/s )(sin34 0.2cos34 )

s

−

·

−

s = 104 m

*8-50. Assume in Fig. 8-14 that the sliding mass is 6-kg and that 300 J of energy is lost doing

work against friction. What is the velocity when the mass reaches point C?

½mv

o

2

+ mgh

o

= ½mv

c

2

+ mgh

f

+ 300 J

½mv

c

2

= ½mv

o

2

+ mgh

o

– mgh

c

– 300 J

v

c

2

= v

o

2

+ 2g(h

o

– h

c

) -

2(300 J)

m

2 2

0

2(300 J)

(7 m/s) 2(9.8 m/s )(20 m - 8 m)

6 kg

v · + − v

c

= 13.6 m/s

*8-51. A bus slams on brakes to avoid an accident. The tread marks of the tires are 80 feet long.

If µ

k

= 0.7, what was the speed before applying brakes?

F = µ

k

mg; Work = F s = µ

k

mgs

Work = ∆ E

k

; -µ

k

mgs = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

2

0

2 2(0.7)(32 ft/s )(80 ft)

k

v gs µ · · v

o

= 59.9 ft/s

Power

8-52. A power-station conveyor belt lifts 500 tons of ore to a height of 90 ft in one hour. What

average horsepower is required? (W = 500 tons = 1 x 10

6

lb; 1 hp = 550 ft lb/s)

6

(1 x 10 lb)(90 ft)

; =

3600 s

Work Wh

Power P

t t

· · ; P = 25,000 ft lb/s = 45.5 hp

92

0

C

B

7 m/s

8 m

20 m

v

f

= 0

v

o

= ?

F = µ

k

N

s = 80 ft

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

8-53. A 40-kg mass is lifted through a distance of 20 m in a time of 3 s. Find average power.

2

(40 kg)(9.8 m/s )(20 m)

;

3 s

Fs mgs

P P

t t

· · · ; P = 2610 W

8-54. A 300-kg elevator is lifted vertical distance of 100 m in 2 min. What is the output power?

2

(300 kg)(9.8 m/s )(100 m)

;

120 s

Fs mgs

P P

t t

· · · ; P = 2.45 kW

8-55. A 90 kW engine is used to lift a 1200-kg load. What is the average velocity of the lift?

Fs

P Fv

t

· · ;

2

90, 000 W

(1200 kg)(9.8 m/s )

P P

v

F mg

· · ·

; v

= 7.65 m/s

8-56. To what height can a 400 W engine lift a 100-kg mass in 3 s?

2

(400 W)(3 s)

;

(100 kg)(9.8 m/s )

Fs mgh Pt

P h

r t mg

· · · ·

; h = 0.122 m

8-57. An 800-N student runs up a flight of stairs rising 6 m in 8 s. What is the average power?

(800 N)(6 m)

; =

8 s

Fs Wh

P P

r t

· · ; P = 600 W

*8-58. A speedboat must develop a 120 hp in order to move at a constant speed of 15 ft/s through

the water. What is the average resistive force due to the water?

550 ft lb/s

(120 hp) 66,000 ft lb/s;

1 hp

P P Fv

| `

· · ·

. ,

66, 000 ft lb/s

15 ft/s

P

F

v

· · ; F = 4400 lb

93

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

Challenge Problems

*8-59. A worker lifts a 20-kg bucket from a well at constant speed and does 8 kJ of work. How

deep is the well?

Work = Fs ;

2

8000 J

(20 kg)(9.8 m/s )

Work

s

mg

· ·

; s = 40.8 m

*8-60. A horizontal force of 200 N pushes an 800-N crate horizontally for a distance of 6 m at

constant speed. What work is done by the 200-N force. What is the resultant work?

Work = Fs = (200 N)(6 m); Work = 1200 J

Speed is constant, so F

R

= 0, and Resultant work = 0 J

*8-61. A 10-kg mass is lifted to a height of 20 m, and released. What is the total energy of the

system? What is the velocity of the mass when it is located 5 m from the floor?

In absence of friction, total energy is constant, so that: E

T

(Top) = E

T

(5 m)

E

T

= mgh + 0 = (10 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(20 m); E

T

= 1960 J

When h = 5 m, (10 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(5 m) + ½(10 kg)v

f

2

= 1960 J

490 J + (5 kg)v

f

2

= 1960 J; v

f

= 17.1 m/s

*8-62. A crate is lifted at a constant speed of 5 m/s by an engine whose output power is 4 kW.

What is the mass of the crate?

2

4000 W

;

(9.8 m/s )(5 m/s)

P

P Fv mgv m

gv

· · · ·

; m = 81.6 kg

94

0

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-63. A roller coaster boasts a maximum height of 100 ft. What is the maximum speed in miles

per hour when it reaches its lowest point? (Conservation of Energy)

mgh + 0 = 0 + ½mv

2

;

2

2 2(32 ft/s )(100 ft) v gh · · ; v = 80.0 ft/s or 54.4 mi/h

*8-64. A 20-N force drags an 8-kg block a horizontal distance of 40 m by a rope at an angle of

37

0

with the horizontal. Assume µ

k

= 0.2 and that the time required is one minute. What

resultant work is done?

Resultant work = work of the resultant force

F

R

= (20 N)cos 37

- F) F = µ

k

N Σ F

y

= 0

N + 20 sin37

0

– (8 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

) = 0; N = 66.4 N; F = 0.2(66.4 N) = 13.3 N

F

R

= 20 cos 37

0

– 13.3 N = 2.70 N; Work = F

R

s = (2.70 N)(40 m); Work = 108 J

*8-65. What is the velocity of the block in Problem 8-60 at the end of the trip? What resultant

power was expended? (Assume block starts from rest, then apply work-energy

theorem.)

Work = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; 108 J = ½(8 kg)v

2

+ 0;

2(108 J)

8 kg

v

]

·

]

]

; v = 5.20 m/s

108 J

60 s

Work

P

t

· · P = 1.80 W

*8-66. A 70-kg skier slides down a 30 m slope that makes an angle of 28

0

with the horizontal.

Assume that µ

k

= 0.2. What is the velocity of the skier at the bottom of the slope?

mgh

o

+ ½mv

o

2

= 0 + ½mv

f

2

+ F s and h

o

= s sin 28

0

mg(s sin 28

0

) - F s = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

; F = µ

k

mg cos 28

0

mg(s sin 28

0

) – (µ

k

mg cos 28

0

)s

= ½mv

f

2

95

20 N

N

mg

F

37

40 m

30 m

F

N

mg

28

0

28

0

h

o

v

f

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-66. (Cont.) (g sin 28

0

- µ

k

g cos 28

0

)s = ½v

f

2

;

2 0 0

2 (sin 28 cos 28 )

f k

v gs µ · −

2 0 0

2(9.8 m/s )(30 m)(sin 28 0.2cos 28 )

f

v · − v

f

= 13.1 m/s

*8-67. A 0.3 mg flea can jump to a height of about 3 cm. What must be the takeoff speed? Do

you really need to know the mass of the flea?

½mv

o

2

= mgh ;

2

0

2 2(9.8 m/s )(0.03 m) v gh · · ;

v = 0.767 m/s ; The mass is not needed.

*8-68. A roller coaster goes through a low point and barely makes the next hill 15 m higher.

What is the minimum speed at the bottom of the loop?

½mv

o

2

= mgh ;

2

0

2 2(9.8 m/s )(15 m) v gh · · ; v = 17.1 m/s

*8-69. The hammer of a pile driver weighs 800 lb and falls a distance of 16 ft before striking the

pile. The impact drives the pile 6 in. deeper into the ground. What was the average force

driving the pile? m = W/g = (800/32) = 25.0 slugs; s = 6 in. = 0.5 ft

The work done by the pile driver Fs is determine from the change in kinetic energy, so

we need to find the velocity of the driver just before striking the stake:

½mv

f

2

= mgh

o

;

2

0

2 2(32 ft/s )(16 ft)

f

v gh · · ; v = 32.0 ft/s

Work to stop driver = change in kinetic energy of driver

Fs = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

;

2 2

0

(25 slugs)(32 ft/s)

2 2(0.5 ft)

mv

F

s

· − · − F = -25,600 lb

96

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

Critical Thinking Questions

*8-70. An inclined board is used to unload boxes of nails from the back of a truck. The height

of the truck bed is 60 cm and the board is 1.2 m in length. Assume that µ

k

= 0.4 and the

boxes are given an initial push to start sliding. What is their speed when they reach the

ground below. What initial speed would they need at the bottom in order to slide back

into the truck bed? In the absence of friction would these two questions have the same

answer? [ h = 0.6 m; s = 1.2 m ; sin θ = 0.6/1.2; θ = 30

0

]

(a) (Work)

F

= F s = µ

k

N = µ

k

mg cos 30

0

s

mgh = ½mv

2

+ µ

k

mg cos 30

0

s; 2gh = v

2

+2µ

k

gs cos 30

0

v

2

= 2gh – 2gµ

k

s cos 30

0

= 2(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.6 m) – 2(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.4)(1.2 m)(0.866)

v

2

= 11.76 – 8.15 = 3.61 m

2

/s

2

;

2 2

3.61 m /s v ·

; v = 1.90 m/s

(b) Going up the plane, the initial speed must provide the energy to overcome the

friction force which would now be directed DOWN the plane.

½mv

2

= mgh + µ

k

mg cos 30

0

s (Note the difference in this equation from that

above.)

v

2

= 2gh +2µ

k

gs cos 30

0

= (2)(9.8)(0.6) + 2(0.4)(9.8)(1.2)(0.866)

v

2

= 11.76 + 8.15 = 19.9 m

2

/s

2

;

2 2

19.9 m /s v ·

; v = 4.46 m/s

In the downhill case, the initial potential energy was lost to friction and what little

remained appeared in the form of a small velocity at the bottom. In the uphill case, the

initial kinetic energy (high velocity) was used to gain the height h, but more energy was

needed to overcome friction. In the absence of friction, height is transferred into velocity

97

mg

F

N

θ

θ

h=0.6 m

s = 1.20 m

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

going down, and velocity is transferred to height going up. Thus, absent friction, the

same velocities would be found for each of the above cases. (v = 3.43 m/s)

*8-71. A 96-lb safe is pushed with negligible friction up a 30

0

incline for a distance of 12 ft.

What is the increase in potential energy? Would the same change in potential energy

occur if a 10-lb friction force opposed the motion up the incline? Why? Would the same

work be required? [ h = 12 sin 30

0

= 6.00 ft ]

(a) E

p

= Wh = (96 lb)(6 ft) E

p

= 576 ft lb

(b) E

p

is a function only of weight and height, so the same change

in potential energy occurs regard less of friction or the path taken.

(c) With a 10-lb

friction force, a work of (10 lb)(12 ft) = 120 ft lb is needed in addition

to the work of 576 ft lb just to lift the weight. The total work is 696 ft lb.

*8-72. A 2-kg ball is suspended from a 3-m cable attached to a spike in the wall. The ball is

pulled out, so that the cable makes an angle of 70

0

with the wall, and then released. If 10 J

of energy are lost during the collision with the wall, what is the maximum angle between

the cable and the wall after the first rebound?

y

o

= (3 m) cos 70

0

= 1.026 m

h

o

= 3 m – 1.026 m; h

o

= 1.974 m

mgh

o

= mgh

f

+ 10 J; mgh

f

= mgh

o

– 10 J

2

10 J

1.974 m

(2 kg)(9.8 m/s )

f

h · −

; h

f

= 1.464 m ; y

f

= 3 m – 1.464 m = 1.536 m

1.536 m

cos

3.00 m

f

y

L

θ · · ; θ = 59.2

0

98

mg

F

N

30

0

30

0

h=6 ft

s = 12 ft

h

o

70

0

θ

h

f

3 m

3 m

y

o

y

f

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-73. A 3-kg ball dropped from a height of 12 m has a velocity of 10 m/s just before hitting the

ground. What is the average retarding force due to the air? If the ball rebounds from the

surface with a speed of 8 m/s, what energy was lost on impact? How high will it rebound

if the average air resistance is the same as before?

First apply E conservation to the falling portion of the problem:

mgh

o

= ½mv

2

+ F s ; F s = mgh

o

- ½mv

2

F (12 m) = (3 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(12 m) - ½(3 kg)(10 m/s)

2

; F = 16.9 N

The loss or work done on impact equals the change in E

k

: Loss = Work = ½mv

f

2

- ½mv

o

2

Work = ½(3 kg)(8 m/s)

2

- ½(3 kg)(10 m/s)

2

; Work = - 54 J; Impact loss = 54 J

To find rebound height, apply conservation of energy with losses to air and to impact:

mgh

o

= mgh

f

+ (F s)

Air

+ Impact loss; ( s = 12 m + h

f

)

(3 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(12 m) = (3kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)h

f

+ (16.9 N)(12 m + h

f

) + 54 J

353 J = (29.4 N)h

f

+ 203 J + (16.9 N)h

f

+ 54 J; h

f

= 2.07 m

*8-74. Consider a roller coaster where the first hill is 34 m high? If the coaster losses only 8%

of its energy between the first two hills, what is the maximum height possible for the

second hill?

mgh

o

= mgh

f

+ 0.08 mgh

o

; h

f

= (1 – 0.08)h

o

= 0.92 (34 m) h

f

= 31.3 m

99

h

f

12 m

8 m/s

10 m/s

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power Physics, 6

th

Edition

*8-75. A 4-kg block is compressed against a spring at the bottom the inclined plane in Fig. 8-15.

A force of 4000 N was required to compress the spring a distance of 6 cm. If it is then

released and the coefficient of friction is 0.4, how far up the incline will the block move?

Work to compress spring = (4000 N)(0.06 m) = 240 J = E

p

E

p

(spring) = mgh

+ F s; F s = µ

k

mg cos 30

0

s

F s = (0.4)(4 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(0.866) s = (13.6 N) s

240 J = (4 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)h + (13.6 N) s h = s sin 30

0

= 0.5 s

240 J = (4 kg)(9.8 m/s

2

)(2 s) + (13.6 N) s; s = 2.61 m

100

F

N

mg

34

0

34

0

h

Chapter 8 Work, Energy, and Power

Physics, 6th Edition

8-6. The trunk in Fig. 8-10 is dragged a horizontal distance of 24 m by a rope that makes an angle θ with the floor. If the rope tension is 8 N, what works are done for the following 8N 0 0 0 0 θ angles: 0 , 30 , 60 , 90 ? Work = (F cos θ )s = (8 N) cos 00 (24 m) = 192 J Work = (8 N) cos 300 (24 m) = 166 J ; Work60 = 96 J ; Work90 = 0 J 8-7. A horizontal force pushes a 10-kg sled along a driveway for a distance of 40 m. If the coefficient of sliding friction is 0.2, what work is done by the friction force? Work = (F cos θ )s = (F) (cos 1800)s = - F s; but Work = µ kmg s = (0.2)(10 kg)(9.8 m/s2)(40 m); F = µ kN = µ k mg Work = –784 J

*8-8. A sled is dragged a distance of 12.0 m by a rope under constant tension of 140 N. The task requires 1200 J of work. What angle does the rope make with the ground? Work = (F cos θ )s; cosθ = Work 1200 J = Fs (140 N)(12 m) θ = 44.40 140 N 12 m

θ

cos θ = 0.714;

Resultant Work

8-9. An average force of 40 N compresses a coiled spring a distance of 6 cm. What is the work done by the 40-N force? What work done by the spring? What is the resultant work? Work40 = (40 N)(0.06 m) = 2.40 J, (positive work) Worksp = (-40 N)(0.06 m) = -2.40 J, (negative work) Resultant work = Σ (works) = 2.4 J – 2.4 J = 0 J Work is positive when force is with displacement, negative when against displacement. 40 N 0.06 m

80

and Power Physics. A horizontal force of 20 N drags a small sled 42 m across the ice at constant speed.6 N) = 6. A 10-kg block is dragged 20 m by a parallel force of 26 N. (positive work) Worksp = (-20 N)(24 m) = -2. Resultant Work = 383 J Extra work can show that for this example. (Work)F = (-30 N)(20 m) = -600 J. resultant work are zero. (negative work) Resultant force and.40 N.) Σ Fy = 0. N + (60 N) sin 350 – (10 kg)(9.8 m/s ) = 19. If µ k = 0.Chapter 8 Work.640 m/s2 *8-12. What is the resultant force? Work40 = (20 N)(24 m) = 2.6 N µk = F = 0.8 m/s2) = 0 . (Refer to figure and information given in previous problem. Find the work done by the pulling force and by the friction force.40 J.6 N 2 42 m F 20 N 20 m F 26 N Work = FR s = (P – F)s. *8-11. a= F 6. 0 N (Work)r = 983 J (Work)F = -600 J 20 m F 60 N 350 mg Resultant Work = Σ (works) = 983 J – 600 J. What work is done by the rope? What work is done by friction? What is the resultant work? (Work)rope = (60 N) cos 35 (20 m). 6th Edition 8-10. hence.40 J.472 *8-13.2(10 kg)(9. µ k = 0.2.472 N µ k = 0. A rope making an angle of 350 drags a 10-kg toolbox a horizontal distance of 20 m.6 N)(20 m) FR = (26 N – 19. Energy. what is the coefficient of friction between the toolbox and the floor. m 10 kg Work = 128 J a = 0. The tension in the rope is 60 N and the constant friction force is 30 N. F = µ kN = µ kmg F = 0. and N = 63. what is the resultant work and what acceleration results. Work = (26 N – 19.472 81 .4 N = . For the example described in Problem 8-12.

67 m .4 N s sin 400 WorkP = P s =(W sin 400) s = (78. WorkP = 1390 J (Work)V = 941 J WorkP = (74.2(40 kg)(9.4 N)(18. what was the parallel pulling force? F = µ kN = µ k mg = 0.67 m).0 N + (78. 8-15. Assume that m = 8 kg in Fig. Energy.4)(60.67 m from Prob.0 N Σ Fx = 0. the work to lift vertically is: 82 .4 N) cos 400 = 60. 12 m P N F 400 400 P = 74. From Prob.4 N.8 m/s2). s= = 18. Recall that s = 18.Chapter 8 Work. 8-15. and Power Physics.06 N F = µ kN = (0. 6th Edition *8-14.000 J. N = mg cos 400.06 N). F = 78.4 N) sin 400.4. N = (78. What is the minimum work by the force P to move the 8-kg block to the top of the incline if µ k = 0.4 N (P – F) s = 50 kJ. If the resultant work is 50 kJ. What minimum work is required by the force P to reach the top of the inclined plane? What work is required to lift the 8 kg block vertically to the same height? Minimum work is for P = W sin 40 with zero acceleration. 8-11 and µ k = 0.2.4 N) sin 400 (18.4 N)(500 m) = 50. P = 178 N 500 m F mg N P *8-15. P = F + W sin 400 P = 24.67 m) . F = 24. Σ Fy = 0. 12 m 12 m sin θ = . (Work)V = W h = (78.4 N)(12 m). W = mg = 78. A 40-kg sled is pulled horizontally for 500 m where µ k = 0. (Work)V = 941 J 12 m 400 400 0 P N WorkP = 941 J *8-16. P – F – mg sin 400 = 0. (P – 78. Compare this with the work to lift it vertically to the same height.

05 kg)(10 m/s)2 . What is the kinetic energy of a 6-g bullet at the instant its speed is 190 m/s? What is the kinetic energy of a 1200-kg car traveling at 80 km/h? Ek = ½mv2 = ½(0.006 kg)(190 m/s)2.4 N)cos 400 FR = 26.0 slugs g 32 ft/s 2 mb = 9. 6th Edition *8-17.½mvo2 = ½(0. 8-11. The change represents a loss of kinetic energy. What is the change in kinetic energy when a 50-g ball hits the pavement with a velocity of 16 m/s and rebounds with a velocity of 10 m/s? Consider the upward direction as positive.4(78.2 m/s) Ek = 217 J Ek = 296 kJ 8-19.Chapter 8 Work.67 m) = 492 J mg 12 m F 400 400 N s = 18.4 N. 8-20.4 N)sin 400 – 0. (80 km/h = 22.½(0.4 N)(18.000 ft lb Ek = 225 ft lb Ek = ½mv2 = ½(75 slugs)(80. What is the resultant work when the 8-kg block slides from the top to the bottom of the incline in Fig. Work = (26.50 J – 6.05 kg)(-16 m/s)2 ∆ Ek = 2.4.7 ft/s) ma = W 2400 lb = = 75.90 J .2 m/s)2. Assume that µ k = 0. Ek = ½mv2 = ½(1200 kg)(22. 83 . then vo = -10 m/s and vf = -16 m/s. ∆ Ek = ½mvf 2.281 slugs 32 ft/s 2 Ek = 244. Energy.67 m Work and Kinetic Energy 8-18. What is the kinetic energy of a 2400-lb automobile when its speed is 55 mi/h? What is the kinetic energy of a 9-lb ball when its speed is 40 ft/s? (55 mi/h = 80. The resultant work is the work of the resultant force: FR = mg sin 400 – F = (78.281 slugs)(40 ft/s)2.40 J = -3.00 lb = 0.7 ft/s)2. Ek = ½mv2 = ½(0. and Power Physics.

vf = 60 mi/h = 88 ft/s.½(0. Energy.375 slugs)(80 ft/s)2.½mvo2.½(2 kg)(5 m/s)2. F(8 m) = ½(2 kg)(12 m/s)2 .½mvo2. Work = -28. and Power Physics.½mvo2 = ½(75 slugs)(88 ft/s)2 .9 N 84 . A 2400-lb car increases its speed from 30 mi/h to 60 mi/h? What resultant work was required? What is the equivalent work in joules? vo = 30 mi/h = 44 ft/s. s = 0.0203 ft. What work was done on the wagon? Work = ½mvf2 . 6th Edition *8-21. Find the initial kinetic energy.) = 0. What was the average stopping force? m= 12 lb = 0.Chapter 8 Work.250 in. 32 ft/s 2 F (0.½(400 kg)(12 m/s)2. vo = 80 ft/s F = 57. What work can be done by the hammer head? Ek = ½mv2 = ½(0.800 ft lb = 0.600 ft lb Fs = ½mvf2 . Work = 217. A 0.800 ft lb . A runaway. 400-kg wagon enters a cornfield with a velocity of 12 m/s and eventually comes to rest. 8-25.7378 ft lb 295 kJ *8-23.8 kJ *8-22.0 slugs 32 ft/s 2 Work = ½mvf2 . (1 ft/12 in.½mvo2 =(0) .375 slugs.½(75 slugs)(44 ft/s)2. m= 2400 lb = 75. F = 14.0203 ft) = 0 . Ek = 270 J Work = ∆ Ek = 0 – 200 J. A 12-lb hammer moving at 80 ft/s strikes the head of a nail moving it into the wall a distance of ¼ in. 1J Work = −217. Work = -270 J *8-24.6 kg)(30 m/s)2.6-kg hammer head is moving at 30 m/s just before striking the head of a spike. What average force is needed to increase the velocity of a 2-kg object from 5 m/s to 12 m/s over a distance of 8 m? Fs = ½mvf2 .

for table.8 m/s2)(0.7 J 7.8 m/s2)(-2.2 m (a) Ep = (2 kg)(9.7(1500 kg)(9.2. and (c) relative to the ceiling 3 m from the floor? For Ep = mgh. To apply F = ma. 8-12.½(1500 kg)(16. F (0. h = .2 m) = -43. h = 0.67 m/s)2. what is the stopping distance? (60 km/h = 16. Work = 0 . Verify the answer to Problem 8-25 by applying Newton’s second law of motion. (b) the seat of a chair 40 cm from the floor. for seat.2 m Potential Energy 8-29.67 m/s) Work = ½mvf2 .8 m 3m 85 . Work = -208.Chapter 8 Work.½(0.½mvo2 . Energy.4 m 0. Find the potential energy of the book relative to (a) the floor. (c) Ep = (2 kg)(9. and Power Physics. penetrating a distance of 6 cm before stopping.8 m/s 2 ) s = 20..300 J.8 m) = (b) Ep = (2 kg)(9.8 m. -0. A 20-g projectile strikes a mud bank in Fig.9 N 2(8 m) *8-27. the height h is measured from reference point: For floor. Fs = ½mvf2 .06 m) = 0 .300 J The work is done by friction: F = µ kN = µ k mg and (Work)F= -(µ k mg)s -(µ k mg)s = -208.1 J 0. F = (2 kg)(-7. we need to find a: a= 2 v 2 − v0 f 2as = vf2 – vo2 2s = (5 m/s)2 − (12 m/s) 2 . 6th Edition *8-26. Find the stopping force F if the entrance velocity is 80 m/s. A 2-kg block rests on top of a table 80 cm from the floor. A 1500-kg car is moving along a level road at 60 km/h.300 J .84 J .02 kg)(80 m/s)2 F = -1070 N *8-28. h = 0.4 m) = 15. s= −208.4 m.½mvo2. What work is required to stop the car? If µ k = 0.7.8 m/s2)(0.44 m/s2) = -14.

A 1. At a particular instant a mortar shell has a velocity of 60 m/s.Chapter 8 Work.8 m *8-32. 6th Edition 8-30. Ep = (1.8 m/s2) sin 340 + 50 N. Energy.2 kg brick is held a distance of 2 m above a manhole.5 J for held brick.8 J 8-31.400 J ∆ Ep = 6860 J The difference: 19. What external work was required? What was the change in potential energy? External work done by force P acting for distance s: F 340 mg N P 340 140 m Σ Fx = 0: P – mg sin 340 – F = 0. and Power Physics.3 J – (23. A constant friction force of 50 N acts for the entire distance. m = 20 kg P = (5 kg)(9.4 N 140 m = 250 m .400 J – 6860 J = 12. sin 340 ∆ Ep = mgh = (5 kg)(9.5 J).540 J is the work done against friction. what is its height above the earth? Ek = ½mv2 and Ep = mgh.8 m/s2)(-3 m) = -35. F = 50 N.4 N)(250 m).3 J for brick in hole ∆ Ep = Ef – Eo = -35. what is the potential energy at each location? What is the change in potential energy? Ep = (1.8 m/s2)(140 m). If its potential energy at that point is one-half of its kinetic energy.2 kg)(9. ∆ Ep = -58. s= P = 77. Relative to the street.8 m/s2)(2 m) = 23. A 20-kg sled is pushed up a 340 slope to a vertical height of 140 m.8 m/s 2 ) h = 91. Ep = ½Ek 11 mgh = mv 2 22 h= or 4 gh = v 2 and h= v2 4g (60 m/s) 2 4(9. The bottom of the manhole is 3 m below the street. (Work)P = 19. (Work)P = (77. 86 . At the instant in question.2 kg)(9.

0 J 0.8 m/s2)(4 m). and ET = 640 ft lb (b) EP = Wh = (64 lb)(3 ft) = 192 ft lb. (b) 3 ft above the ground. and (c) at the ground? (W = 64 lb. EP = 192 ft lb Ek = ET – EP.04 m Work by spring = . Ep = 157 J. 6th Edition *8-33. g = 32 ft/s ) (a) EP = Wh = (64 lb)(10 ft) = 640 ft lb.0 J Now. Ek = 640 ft lb – 192 ft lb. A 64-lb weight is lifted to a height of 10 ft and then released to fall freely. What work is done BY the spring? What is the change in potential energy of the 600 N compressed spring? Work done BY spring is opposite to compressing force. Ek = 448 ft lb. so that ∆ Ep = -(Work)SP = -(-24 J).8 m/s2)(10 m).24.04 m) = -24. EP = 640 ft lb h = 10 ft 2 ET = EP + Ek = 640 ft lb + 0 At 10 ft: EP = 640 ft lb. Ek = 448 ft lb h = 3 ft At 3 ft: EP = 192 ft lb. the kinetic energy and the total energy at (a) the highest point. Energy. A 4-kg hammer is lifted to a height of 10 m and dropped? What are the potential and kinetic energies of the hammer when it has fallen to a point 4 m from the earth? At 10 m: Ek = 0 and EP = mgh = (4 kg)(9. Ek = 640 ft lb. What is the potential energy. and Power Physics. Work = (-600 N)(0. and ET = 640 ft lb 8-35. Ek = 0. and ET = 640 ft lb (c) At 0 ft h = 0 and ET is same: EP = 0 ft lb. Ek = ½mv2 = 0 ( vo = 0). Conservation of Energy (No Friction) 8-34. EP = 0 initially.Chapter 8 Work. An average force of 600 N is required to compress a coiled spring a distance of 4 cm. ET = 0 + 392 J = 392 J Ep = mgh = (4 kg)(9. Ek = ET – EP = 392 J – 157 J Thus at h = 4 m: EP = 157 J and Ek = 235 J 87 .0 J ∆ Ep = +24.

8 m/s2)(1 m). Ek = ½mv2 = 392 J v= 2(392 J) 4 kg v = 14. 8-13. A force F equal to the weight mg must act through a distance equal to length of string: Work = mgh = (8 kg)(9. A 40-g ball is caught by a 500-g suspended mass. Find the velocity of the combined masses just after impact? Total mass M = 40 g + 500 g = 540 g. A simple pendulum 1 m long has an 8-kg bob. v0 = 2 gh = 2(9. A ballistic pendulum is illustrated in Fig. What initial velocity must be given to a 5-kg mass if it is to rise to a height of 10 m? What is the total energy at any point in its path? In absence of friction.43 m/s *8-39. Work = 78. the two masses rise a vertical distance of 45 mm. 6th Edition *8-36. After impact.8 m/s2)(10 m). Ep = 0 and ET = 392 J so that Ek = 392 J – 0 = 392 J. How much work is needed to move the pendulum from its lowest point to a horizontal position? From energy considerations find the velocity of the bob as it swings through the lowest point. *8-38.0 m/s *8-37.(½mv2): mgh = ½mv2 v = 2 gh = 2(9.0 m/s2 At top: ET = 0 + mgh = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(10 m) vo2 = 2 gh ET = Ep + Ek at any point ET = 490 J v0 = 14. (See Figure next page) M = 540 g = 0.Chapter 8 Work. What will be the velocity of the hammer in Problem 8-35 just before striking the ground? What is the velocity at the 4-m location? At bottom.4 J The total energy at top(mgh) must be equal to total energy at bottom.8 m/s 2 )(1 m) v = 4. total energy at bottom must equal total energy at top: ET = ½mvo2 + 0 = 0 + mgh. and Power Physics. Energy.540 kg 88 .

The original height is 80 ft. 6th Edition h *8-40.8 m/s)(20 m) . An 8-kg block in Fig.939 m/s Physics. v = 2 gh = 2(9. what is the velocity of the sled when it reaches the bottom of the incline? (Not dependent on either angle or weight.) Energy conservation: 0 + mgh = ½mv2 + 0. h= v2 (20 ft/s) = 2 g 2(32 ft/s 2 ) h = 6.) Find vo of total mass M such that M rises h = 0. Neglecting friction. 8-14 has an initial downward velocity of 7 m/s.25 ft h 89 . v = 2 gh = 2(32 ft/s 2 )(80 ft) v = 71.8 m) . What is the velocity of the 8-kg block at point C in Problem 8-39? (Note hf ≠ 0 this time) ½mvo2 + mgho = ½mvf2 + mghf .045 m: Energy conservation: ½Mv2 + 0 = 0 + Mgh. *8-43. C 8m 2 v f = v0 + 2 g (h0 − h f ) = (7 m/s) 2 + 2(9.045 m) v = 0. An 80-lb girl sits in a swing of negligible weight.9 m/s 7 m/s 2 v f = v0 + 2 gh0 = (7 m/s) 2 + 2(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.6 ft/s h *8-41.8 m/s)(20 m . vf2 = vo2 + 2gho – 2ghf vf = 16. vo2 + 2gho = vf2 + 2ghf . (Cont. In the absence of friction. Energy. vf2 = vo2 + 2gho 20 m vf = 21. A 100-lb sled slides from rest at the top of a 370 inclined plane.0 m/s B *8-42.Chapter 8 Work. find the velocity when it reaches point B? ½mvo2 + mgho = ½mvf2 + mghf vo2 + 2gho = vf2 + 0 . If she is given an initial velocity of 20 ft/s. and Power *8-39. to what height will she rise? Energy conservation: 0 + mgh = ½mv2 + 0.

90 N)(0. A 60-kg sled slides to the bottom of a 250 slope of length 30 m.92 J (Work)F = -1.44 J v = 3.80 m).60 m).800 m. of E: ET(top) = Ekf (bottom)+Losses Loss = (Work)F = F s. and Power Physics.900 N)(1. Ek = 0 ET = EP + Ek = mgh + 0. At top: EP = mgh. ET = (60 kg)(9. ET = EP + Ek ET = 3.44 J) to account for the LOSS 90 . but when applying conservation of energy we use the work AGAINST friction (+1. Loss = (100 N)(30 m) = 3000 J Cons. 6th Edition Energy and Friction Forces *8-44.Chapter 8 Work.8 m/s )(8. 3. What is the total energy at the top of the slope and at the bottom? What is the velocity of the sled at the bottom? h = (20 m)sin 25 = 8. (negative work) Total energy at top = total energy at bottom + work done against friction 3. From which: v = 8.10 m/s *8-45.45 m. of E: 4960 J = ½(60 kg)v2 + 3000 J.90 N. ET = (4.60 m) sin 300 = 0.9 N acts the entire distance. What is the total energy at the top? What work is done by friction? What is the velocity at the bottom? W = mg = (0. A constant friction force of 0.8 m/s2) = 4.5 kg)(9. h = (1.5 kg) v2 + 1. A 500-g block is released from the top of a 300 inline and slides 160 cm to the bottom.45 m) Total energy at top. we obtain: Note that the work done BY friction is negative.92 J = ½(0. ET = 4969 J 2 0 F h 250 N s = 20 m mg 250 Cons.92 J = ½mv2 + F s .15 m/s Solving for v. A 100-N friction force acts for the entire distance. (Work)F = F s = (-0. Energy.44 J h F 300 30 0 N s = 160 m W ET = Wh + 0.

1 J Loss = (0.Whf 2 2 vo = 60 ft/s Loss = ½(2 slugs)(60 ft/s) – (64 lb)(42. W = 4. and Power Physics. How much energy was lost in collision with the floor? Conservation of energy. mgho = mghf + Loss.8 m. v0 = 2(5. A 64-lb cart starts up a 370 incline with an initial velocity of 60 ft/s. A 4-kg sled is given an initial velocity of 10 m/s at the top of a 340 slope.Chapter 8 Work. 2 0 s = 70 ft N h F 30 0 Loss = ½mvo .2240 ft lb. h =0. If µ k = 0. m = (64/32) = 2 slugs. What initial velocity must be given to the 500-g block in Problem 8-43 if it is to just reach the top of the same slope? (See previous problem) From Prob.9 N.36 J) = m 0.36 J) 2(5. Energy.8 m/s2)(40 m – 16 m).4-kg ball drops a vertical distance of 40 m and rebounds to a height of 16 m. A 0.4 kg)(9.1 m ½mvo = Whf + Loss.½mvo . If it comes to rest after a moving a distance of 70 ft.2. F = µ k mg cos 34 mg(s sin 340) – (µ kmg cos 340)s = ½mvf2 . how far must the sled travel until its velocity reaches 30 m/s? mgho + ½mvo2 = 0 + ½mvf2 + F s 0 2 2 10 m/s N F s 30 m/s 340 mg 340 and ho = s sin 340 0 mg(s sin 34 ) . *8-49.90 N ½mvo2 = Whf + F s = 3. Loss = mgho – mghf = mg(ho – hf) Loss = 94. 6th Edition *8-46.92 J + 1. 8-43: F = 0.1 ft) Loss = 3600 ft lb .F s = ½mvf .½mvo2 ho 91 .44 J . h = 70 sin 37 = 42. Loss = 904 ft lb 300 W = 64 lb *8-48. how much energy was lost to friction? W = 64 lb.500 kg ½mvo2 =5.63 m/s *8-47.36 J h s = 160 m N 300 F 300 W vo = 4.

µ kg cos 34 )s = ½v .9 ft/s vf = 0 v0 = 2 µ k gs = 2(0.½mvo2 F = µ kN s = 80 ft vo = 59.000 ft lb/s = 45. Work = ∆ Ek .½vo .5 hp (1 x 106 lb)(90 ft) . 8-14 that the sliding mass is 6-kg and that 300 J of energy is lost doing work against friction. 0 0 2 f s= 2 g (sin 340 − µ k cos 340 ) s= (30 m/s) 2 − (10 m/s) 2 2(9. 6th Edition 2 v 2 − v0 f *8-49.2 cos 340 ) s = 104 m *8-50.) (g sin 34 . What is the velocity when the mass reaches point C? ½mvo2 + mgho = ½mvc2 + mghf + 300 J ½mvc2 = ½mvo2 + mgho – mghc – 300 J vc2 = vo2 + 2g(ho – hc) 2(300 J) m 2 7 m/s 20 m B vc = 13. t t (W = 500 tons = 1 x 106 lb. If µ k = 0.Chapter 8 Work.8 m) − 6 kg 2 *8-51. P= 3600 s 92 . A power-station conveyor belt lifts 500 tons of ore to a height of 90 ft in one hour.6 m/s C 8m 2(300 J) v0 = (7 m/s) + 2(9.7)(32 ft/s 2 )(80 ft) Power 8-52. Work = F s = µ kmgs 0 -µ kmgs = ½mvf2 .8 m/s 2 )(sin 340 − 0. Assume in Fig. The tread marks of the tires are 80 feet long. What average horsepower is required? Work Wh Power = = . Energy. what was the speed before applying brakes? vo = ? F = µ kmg.7. A bus slams on brakes to avoid an accident. (Cont. and Power Physics. 1 hp = 550 ft lb/s) P = 25.8 m/s )(20 m .

65 m/s 8-56. h= = . t t (300 kg)(9. A speedboat must develop a 120 hp in order to move at a constant speed of 15 ft/s through the water.8 m/s 2 ) t v = 7. An 800-N student runs up a flight of stairs rising 6 m in 8 s. t t (40 kg)(9. P= . r t 8s P = 600 W *8-58. What is the average velocity of the lift? P= P P 90. Find average power. What is the average resistive force due to the water? 550 ft lb/s P = (120 hp) = 66. 6th Edition 8-53. and Power Physics.122 m 8-57. A 90 kW engine is used to lift a 1200-kg load.8 m/s 2 )(20 m) . P = F v 1 hp F= P 66.45 kW 8-55. F mg (1200 kg)(9. A 40-kg mass is lifted through a distance of 20 m in a time of 3 s. Fs mgs P= = .Chapter 8 Work. Energy. What is the output power? Fs mgs P= = .8 m/s 2 )(100 m) . v 15 ft/s F = 4400 lb 93 . What is the average power? P= Fs Wh (800 N)(6 m) = . P= 3s P = 2610 W 8-54. P= 120 s P = 2. r t mg (100 kg)(9.000 ft lb/s. v = = . 000 W Fs = = Fv .8 m/s 2 ) h = 0. 000 ft lb/s = . A 300-kg elevator is lifted vertical distance of 100 m in 2 min. To what height can a 400 W engine lift a 100-kg mass in 3 s? P= Fs mgh Pt (400 W)(3 s) = .

What is the total energy of the system? What is the velocity of the mass when it is located 5 m from the floor? In absence of friction. A crate is lifted at a constant speed of 5 m/s by an engine whose output power is 4 kW.Chapter 8 Work. A horizontal force of 200 N pushes an 800-N crate horizontally for a distance of 6 m at constant speed. and Work = 1200 J Resultant work = 0 J *8-61. gv (9. m= P 4000 W = . A 10-kg mass is lifted to a height of 20 m.8 m/s2)(5 m) + ½(10 kg)vf2 = 1960 J vf = 17.1 m/s 490 J + (5 kg)vf2 = 1960 J. 6th Edition Challenge Problems *8-59. Speed is constant. What is the mass of the crate? P = F v = mgv .8 m *8-60. s= Work 8000 J = . and released. total energy is constant.8 m/s 2 ) s = 40. A worker lifts a 20-kg bucket from a well at constant speed and does 8 kJ of work.8 m/s2)(20 m).6 kg 94 .8 m/s 2 )(5 m/s) m = 81. *8-62. ET = 1960 J (10 kg)(9. and Power Physics. What is the resultant work? Work = Fs = (200 N)(6 m). so that: ET (Top) = ET(5 m) ET = mgh + 0 = (10 kg)(9. How deep is the well? Work = Fs . mg (20 kg)(9. What work is done by the 200-N force. so FR = 0. Energy. When h = 5 m.

and Power Physics. *8-64.0 ft/s or 54. Assume µ k = 0. (Conservation of Energy) v = 80. Work = FRs = (2. F = µ k mg cos 280 mg(s sin 28 ) – (µ kmg cos 28 )s = ½mv 95 0 0 2 f N F 30 m 28 0 ho vf 28 0 mg .½mvo2 . A 20-N force drags an 8-kg block a horizontal distance of 40 m by a rope at an angle of 370 with the horizontal. What resultant work is done? Resultant work = work of the resultant force FR = (20 N)cos 37 .) Work = ½mvf2 . N = 66.4 mi/h v = 2 gh = 2(32 ft/s 2 )(100 ft) . A roller coaster boasts a maximum height of 100 ft. Work = 108 J *8-65. A 70-kg skier slides down a 30 m slope that makes an angle of 280 with the horizontal.2(66. Assume that µ k = 0. Energy.70 N)(40 m). 6th Edition *8-63.4 N) = 13. 8 kg v = 5. 108 J = ½(8 kg)v2 + 0.2.4 N.20 m/s P= P = 1. What is the velocity of the block in Problem 8-60 at the end of the trip? What resultant power was expended? (Assume block starts from rest.3 N = 2.8 m/s2) = 0. F = 0.80 W *8-66.70 N.3 N FR = 20 cos 370 – 13. What is the velocity of the skier at the bottom of the slope? mgho + ½mvo2 = 0 + ½mvf2 + F s and ho = s sin 280 0 mg(s sin 280) .½mvo2 .2 and that the time required is one minute. Work 108 J = t 60 s 2(108 J) v= .Chapter 8 Work. then apply work-energy theorem.F) F = µ kN Σ Fy = 0 40 m N 20 N 37 F mg N + 20 sin370 – (8 kg)(9. What is the maximum speed in miles per hour when it reaches its lowest point? mgh + 0 = 0 + ½mv2 .F s = ½mvf2 .

The hammer of a pile driver weighs 800 lb and falls a distance of 16 ft before striking the pile.8 m/s 2 )(30 m)(sin 280 − 0.) (g sin 280 . 6th Edition v 2 = 2 gs (sin 280 − µ k cos 280 ) f vf = 13.0 slugs.03 m) . *8-68. deeper into the ground.767 m/s .2 cos 280 ) *8-67. Energy. so we need to find the velocity of the driver just before striking the stake: ½mvf2 = mgho . v = 0. Physics.½mvo2. A roller coaster goes through a low point and barely makes the next hill 15 m higher. v0 = 2 gh = 2(9.Chapter 8 Work. (Cont.3 mg flea can jump to a height of about 3 cm. v = 17. = 0. v f = 2 gh0 = 2(32 ft/s 2 )(16 ft) . s = 6 in.5 ft) F = -25. What must be the takeoff speed? Do you really need to know the mass of the flea? ½mvo2 = mgh . The impact drives the pile 6 in.µ kg cos 280)s = ½vf2. What was the average force driving the pile? m = W/g = (800/32) = 25. The mass is not needed.0 ft/s Work to stop driver = change in kinetic energy of driver Fs = ½mvf2 . F =− 2 mv0 (25 slugs)(32 ft/s) 2 =− 2s 2(0. v0 = 2 gh = 2(9. A 0.1 m/s *8-69.8 m/s 2 )(0. and Power *8-66. v = 32.600 lb 96 .1 m/s v f = 2(9.5 ft The work done by the pile driver Fs is determine from the change in kinetic energy. What is the minimum speed at the bottom of the loop? ½mvo2 = mgh .8 m/s 2 )(15 m) .

2 m)(0.6 m F θ (Work)F = F s = µ kN = µ k mg cos 300 s N s = 1.866) v2 = 11.8)(0.6 m.2 m in length. In the uphill case.8)(1.76 + 8. In the absence of friction.20 m mg θ mgh = ½mv2 + µ k mg cos 300 s.46 m/s In the downhill case. v = 3. the initial speed must provide the energy to overcome the friction force which would now be directed DOWN the plane.6) + 2(0. height is transferred into velocity 97 . 6th Edition Critical Thinking Questions *8-70. What initial speed would they need at the bottom in order to slide back into the truck bed? In the absence of friction would these two questions have the same answer? [ h = 0.8 m/s2)(0. and Power Physics. the initial kinetic energy (high velocity) was used to gain the height h.866) v2 = 11. sin θ = 0.61 m 2 /s 2 .4 and the boxes are given an initial push to start sliding. but more energy was needed to overcome friction.15 = 19.6/1. Energy.8 m/s2)(0.4)(1.2 m . Assume that µ k = 0. 2gh = v2 +2µ kgs cos 300 v2 = 2gh – 2gµ k s cos 300 = 2(9.4)(9. v = 1. ½mv2 = mgh + µ kmg cos 300 s (Note the difference in this equation from that above.15 = 3.) v2 = 2gh +2µ kgs cos 300 = (2)(9.61 m2/s2.90 m/s (b) Going up the plane.9 m 2 /s 2 .2)(0.6 m) – 2(9.2. An inclined board is used to unload boxes of nails from the back of a truck.9 m2/s2. s = 1. (a) θ = 300 ] h=0. the initial potential energy was lost to friction and what little remained appeared in the form of a small velocity at the bottom. v = 4.Chapter 8 Work. What is their speed when they reach the ground below. The height of the truck bed is 60 cm and the board is 1.76 – 8. v = 19.

464 m .464 m = 1. (v = 3.20 98 . If 10 J of energy are lost during the collision with the wall. What is the increase in potential energy? Would the same change in potential energy occur if a 10-lb friction force opposed the motion up the incline? Why? Would the same work be required? [ h = 12 sin 300 = 6. 3.974 m mgho = mghf + 10 J. A 96-lb safe is pushed with negligible friction up a 300 incline for a distance of 12 ft. A 2-kg ball is suspended from a 3-m cable attached to a spike in the wall. so that the cable makes an angle of 700 with the wall. ho = 1. Energy.43 m/s) *8-71. *8-72. absent friction.00 ft ] (a) Ep = Wh = (96 lb)(6 ft) Ep = 576 ft lb h=6 ft s = 12 ft N 300 F mg 30 0 (b) Ep is a function only of weight and height. Thus. The total work is 696 ft lb.536 m 3m 700 yo 3m θ yf hf 1. (2 kg)(9. the same velocities would be found for each of the above cases. and velocity is transferred to height going up. mghf = mgho – 10 J h f = 1. The ball is pulled out.026 m ho = 3 m – 1.974 m − 10 J . so the same change in potential energy occurs regard less of friction or the path taken.026 m.00 m θ = 59. a work of (10 lb)(12 ft) = 120 ft lb is needed in addition to the work of 576 ft lb just to lift the weight.536 m . ho yf = 3 m – 1. what is the maximum angle between the cable and the wall after the first rebound? yo = (3 m) cos 700 = 1.8 m/s 2 ) cosθ = yf L = hf = 1. 6th Edition going down. and then released. (c) With a 10-lb friction force.Chapter 8 Work. and Power Physics.

hf = (1 – 0. apply conservation of energy with losses to air and to impact: mgho = mghf + (F s)Air + Impact loss. A 3-kg ball dropped from a height of 12 m has a velocity of 10 m/s just before hitting the ground.½mvo2 Work = ½(3 kg)(8 m/s)2 . ( s = 12 m + hf ) (3 kg)(9. 6th Edition *8-73.07 m *8-74.4 N)hf + 203 J + (16.Chapter 8 Work.54 J.½(3 kg)(10 m/s)2. F s = mgho .½(3 kg)(10 m/s)2. what is the maximum height possible for the second hill? mgho = mghf + 0. Work = .9 N)(12 m + hf) + 54 J 353 J = (29. F = 16.3 m 99 .8 m/s2)(12 m) . what energy was lost on impact? How high will it rebound if the average air resistance is the same as before? First apply E conservation to the falling portion of the problem: mgho = ½mv2 + F s .08)ho = 0.92 (34 m) hf = 31. Impact loss = 54 J To find rebound height.8 m/s2)hf + (16. What is the average retarding force due to the air? If the ball rebounds from the surface with a speed of 8 m/s.9 N 8 m/s h 12 m f 10 m/s The loss or work done on impact equals the change in Ek: Loss = Work = ½mvf2 .08 mgho.½mv2 F (12 m) = (3 kg)(9. Consider a roller coaster where the first hill is 34 m high? If the coaster losses only 8% of its energy between the first two hills. and Power Physics. Energy.9 N)hf + 54 J.8 m/s2)(12 m) = (3kg)(9. hf = 2.

61 m 100 . A force of 4000 N was required to compress the spring a distance of 6 cm.4)(4 kg)(9.Chapter 8 Work. h = s sin 300 = 0.6 N) s 240 J = (4 kg)(9.06 m) = 240 J = Ep Ep(spring) = mgh + F s.5 s s = 2.4.8 m/s2)(2 s) + (13. If it is then released and the coefficient of friction is 0. 6th Edition *8-75.8 m/s2)h + (13. Energy.6 N) s. 8-15. F s = µ kmg cos 300 s F 340 340 mg N h F s = (0.8 m/s2)(0. A 4-kg block is compressed against a spring at the bottom the inclined plane in Fig. how far up the incline will the block move? Work to compress spring = (4000 N)(0.866) s = (13.6 N) s 240 J = (4 kg)(9. and Power Physics.

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