Site Investigation in the 21st Century?

Chris Clayton

FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton

Site Investigation in the 21st Century

• • • • •

Background Aims Constraints Urbanization Essential components

Issues

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FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton

Site Investigation in the 21st Century

• • • • •

Background Aims Constraints Urbanization Essential components

Issues

3

FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton

Terzaghi oedometer 1923 CPT Delft Grondmechanika 1945

SPT 1902-1947

BRE laboratory 1945

Most of the techniques we routinely use are between 60 and 100 years old
Bishop with U4 1944-45

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FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton

1906

2006

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FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton

2. soils are made by nature and not by man.Background “… engineers imagined that the science of foundations would consist in carrying out the following program: 1. Drill a hole into the ground.” Terzaghi. and compute the result” “Unfortunately. introduce them into the equations. and the products of nature are always complex. 1936 6 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . Collect the figures. 3. Send the soil samples obtained from the hole through a laboratory with standardized apparatus served by conscientious human automatons.

Cost over-run on UK highway projects Total increase in construction cost (%) 100 ? current spend Background 25 0 0 1 10 5 SI cost / construction tender cost (%) (from TRL Project Report 60) 7 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

1985) FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Cause of cost over-runs on 12 highway projects Background interpretation of SI project planning site investigation planning additional work amended work quality control variation in quantities bills of quantities specification 60 100 % net additional cost 200 8 (Tyrrell. Lake and Parsons.

Site Investigation in the 21st Century • • • • • Background Aims Constraints Urbanization Essential components Issues 9 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Realistically. i.• Ground geometry • Groundwater • Ground properties and Aims “Subsurface projects present an enormous risk for the primary project “stakeholders”. “ Hatem. not all risk for subsurface conditions can be entirely avoided or eliminated. the owner and contractor. 1998 • Hazards and risks – Geologic hazards – Geomaterial hazards – Geotechnical hazards – Land use hazards and • Residual uncertainties following GI health and safety cost geotechnical risk environment quality programme 10 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .e.

Ground geometry Aims (A ‘geological model’ from Fookes. 1997) FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton 11 .

Ground hazards and risks • Geologic hazards Aims • Geomaterial hazards • Geotechnical engineering hazards • Land use hazards Risks Vulnerability 12 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Geotechnical problems during construction 5% Soil boundaries Soil properties 4% 22% 6% Aims Ground water Contamination Obstructions Planning of SI Services Detailed design Other 9% 10% 20% 11% 13% From a survey of 28 construction projects (Clayton. 2001) 13 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Example of risk analysis (see the ICE/DETR Report on ‘Managing Geotechnical Risk’) FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton 14 .

• • • • • Background Aims Constraints Urbanization Essential components Issues 15 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Constraints • • • • Ground conditions Equipment Supervision Knowledge and experience (in local conditions) • Education • Computation techniques • Conditions of contract (?) • Money (?) 16 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

sampling and testing are done make the results very variable 17 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .variations in the ways drilling.SPT hammers Constraints U100 disturbance Most data used in design are not fundamental .

Predicted and observed settlements for spread footings on sand Constraints observed / predicted settlement 20 10 5 1 0.0 10 100 18 predicted settlement (mm) Clayton.2 0.1 0.05 0. Simons and Instone.1 1. 1988 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Predicted v. 1999 pile capacity (kN) FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . observed pile capacities shaft capacity base capacity observed pile performance Constraints A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P 0 1000 2000 predictions of pile performance 3000 4000 5000 6000 19 Wheeler.

there are things that we know we don’t know. G.The need for experience Building on dolomite damaged by subsidence (courtesy Prof. Heymann) Constraints “There are known knowns. There are things we don’t know we don’t know. That is to say. These are things that we know that we know. There are known unknowns.” Donald Rumsfeld 20 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . But there are also unknown unknowns.

Growing problems with UK education and training •Very small proportion of civil engineering graduates now take a soil mechanics or geotechnical engineering MSc •Civil Engineering MEng/PhD graduates are not adequately trained (ab initio) to practice as geotechnical engineers •Engineering geology postgraduate courses are not valued by leading geology departments •Very difficult to identify the next generation of senior geotechnical laboratory technicians •Are the working conditions of the light percussion driller compatible with high quality technical output? 21 Constraints FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

and feel part of the team. • Drillers and technicians are a most important resource.Growing problems with knowledge and experience Constraints • Few consultants (or SI engineers / geologists) understand the details of drilling and testing techniques. • GI contractors cannot afford to supervise fieldwork unless paid. • Consultant supervision is pointless unless informed and rigorous. 22 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . They need to be trained. • Specification of more complex work can be poor.

• • • • • Background Aims Constraints Urbanization Essential components Issues 23 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Urbanization • At the beginning of the 20th century 7% of the world’s population could be considered ‘urban’. and by 2000 47% was urban Urbanization 24 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . • By 1950 30% of the population lived in urban areas. Most urban dwellers lived in developed countries.

Most urban dwellers lived in developed countries. and by 2000 47% was urban • By 2030 it is expected that >60% of the world’s population will live in an urban world. FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton Urbanization .Urbanization • At the beginning of the 20th century 7% of the world’s population could be considered ‘urban’. • Most of the new urban areas will be in 25 developing countries. • By 1950 30% of the population lived in urban areas.

Predicted Asian population growth 3 Urbanization URBAN RURAL Population (billions) 2 1 0 19 50 19 75 20 00 20 30 19 50 19 75 20 00 20 30 From Zlotnik (2003) 26 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Sept 2006) 27 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . In Delhi ‘some areas are blighted by daily four-hour power cuts’. ‘The shortcomings of infrastructure are a huge problem. ‘A report last week highlighted a 73km rail project in East Bengal that is still unfinished after 32 years.’ (Justin Huggler in The Independent.Urbanization Anyone who believes that India is an ‘economic powerhouse’ should ‘try living there’.

Urban vulnerability Urbanization • • • • Instability of natural slopes Mining impacts Damage to infrastructure Effects of construction on nearby structures 28 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

moving 280m in 1 minute • 1 block of flats pushed off foundations onto another • 67 people died 29 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Hong Kong. Po Shan Road Slide. 1972 • Rainfall of 700mm in 3 days prior to slide • Main slide involved 25.000m3 debris.

Merriespruit tailings dam failure. 17 died FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . failed 21 February 1994. South Africa 30 28m high tailings dam.

President signs disaster declaration. 31 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Kinzie Street Bridge. Chicago 13 April 1992 Downtown basements flooded as a result of piling work.

Heathrow Airport Central Terminal Area collapse 20 October 1994 32 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

The Straits Times 2004 33 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

London Urbanization • • • • • • Made ground Archaeological heritage Contaminated land Infrastructure Obstructions Ordnance 34 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Urban ‘ground’ .

Reconstruction of Southwark’s topography c. AD50 on modern street plan London Bridge South Bank of River Thames (2008) 200m Yule (1988) FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton 35 .

com/p_geology.londonbridgehotel.html 36 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .London Bridge Hotel lift shaft excavation http://www.

Archaeological heritage Rediscovery of the Rose Theatre in 1989 37 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

London London Underground tunnels 38 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . Trafalgar Square.Grand Buildings.

39 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Redevelopment London Bridge area John Dugleby’s map of 1792 superimposed on a 1:1250 Ordnance Survey Map of 1950 40 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

existing foundations 41 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Battersea Power Station .

Battersea foundations Desk study 42 Exhumation. examination and testing FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

not structural Blast damage. minor in area Clearance areas Post-war 1:1250 bomb damage map 43 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Bomb damage to London Bridge area Total destruction Damage beyond repair Seriously damaged. doubtful if repairable Seriously damaged but repairable at cost General blast damage.

• • • • • Background Aims Constraints Urbanization Essential components Issues 44 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Essential components Components • Competence / registration – – – – – Engineers Geologists SILC Technicians Drillers • Early involvement of geotechnical experts (hazard + risk assessment. geotechnical and land use ground models. 2006) 45 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . conceptual design) • Desk study and walkover survey • Geological. • Targetted planning of ground investigation (AGS.

Geotechnical and contaminated land models 46 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Essential components • Targetted direct investigation – – – – Accurate identification of soil boundary locations Groundwater positions / conditions Contaminated land investigation Repeatable test results Components • • • • Supervision Informed interpretation Appropriate analysis Hand-over of residual risks (risk registers) • Contribution to CDM 47 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

training. to define negligence. perhaps by peer review. • Quality driven by site investigation industry.Summary The way forward? • Definitions of content (essential components). to define necessary levels of competence. • Definitions of education. experience for all levels of staff. Distinct geotechnical design strategies for • ‘Routine’ construction • Major projects or ‘difficult ground’ 48 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Design strategy . quick. Make great use of desk study information Develop ground and land-use models (esp. repeatable ground investigation? Conservative and simple analyses Observation (and possibly monitoring) during construction 49 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . cities) Proper planning and informed interpretation of site investigations Use local and company experience.Routine construction The way forward? • • • • • • • • • • Recognise and understand current GI inadequacies. and material performance database (case records) Hazard identification and risk analysis Conceptual design to avoid or mitigate risks Limited. basic.

Windowless sampler 100mm ID 70mm ID 47mm ID 48% AR 81% AR 116% AR Drive sampling rig 50 (courtesy Dando and Archway) FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

Cone truck and Mostap sampler (courtesy Lankelma) 51 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

live.maps.The growth of web sources of information High-resolution vertical and oblique air photography of University of Southampton From www.com 52 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .

bgs.uk/geoindex) 53 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .ac.British Geological Survey borehole database (www.

de FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .Merging geotechnical & geological data Borehole data Land use Archaeology Contamination Obstructions Superficial geology Solid geology Hydrogeology Fence model 3D model 54 GSI3D from www.lithosphere.

• University collaboration? 55 FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton . • Partnering with ground investigation specialists.Design strategy – Major projects The way forward? “Project owners must recognise that there are certain types of projects that simply cry out for a more sophisticated approach to doing the subsurface portion of the work. 1998) • Use only when advanced geotechnical computation can yield major savings / gains. • Need for sophisticated sampling and testing • Advanced numerical modelling • International and flexible approach to procurement.” (from Brierley.

info FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY (c) Chris Clayton .geotechnique. Matthews and Simons from www.Download a free copy of “Site Investigation” by Clayton.

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