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ASSIGNMENT NO. 1
CAN PEOPLE ALWAYS RULE IN DEMOCRACY?
DEPARTMENT: COMPUTER SCIENCES. SUBJECT: PAKISTAN STUDIES. SUBMITTED TO: MISS KALSOOM FATIMA. SUBMITTED BY:
HASSAN AKHTAR (10070619-030) KASHAN ALI (10070619-071) ALI FAISAL (10070619-078) MARYAM ASHRAF (10070619-011) HINA AKRAM (10070619-008) JAWAHER KHALID (10070619-013)
AMIR MUSHTAQ (10070619-031)
SECTION: D. DATE OF SUBMISSION. 22/05/2011.
CAN PEOPLE ALWAYS RULE IN DEMOCRACY?
What is Democracy?
A government of the masses. Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of "direct" expression. Results in mobocracy. Attitude toward property is comunistic-negating property rights. Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate. whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to consequences. Results in demagogism license, agitation, discontent, anarchy. Democracy is the "direct" rule of the people and has been repeatedly tried without success. A certain Professor Alexander Fraser Tytler, nearly two centuries ago, had this to say about Democracy: " A Democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of Government. It can only exist until the voters discover they can vote
themselves largess out of public treasury. From that moment on the majority always votes for the candidate promising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that Democracy always collapses over a loose fiscal policy, always to be followed by a Dictatorship." A democracy is majority rule and is destructive of liberty because there is no law to prevent the majority from trampling on individual rights. Whatever the majority says goes! A lynch mob is an example of pure democracy in action. There is only one dissenting vote, and that is cast by the person at the end of the rope.
Authority is derived through the election by the people of public officials best fitted to represent them. Attitude toward property is respect for laws and individual rights, and a sensible economic procedure. Attitude toward law is the administration of justice in accord with fixed principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to consequences. A greater number of citizens and extent of territory may be brought within its compass. Avoids the dangerous extreme of either tyranny or mobocracy. Results in statesmanship, liberty, reason, justice, contentment, and progress.
They "made a very marked distinction between a republic and a democracy and said repeatedly and emphatically that they had founded a republic." . a judiciary to pass upon the justice and legality of their governmental acts and to recognize 4. who working together in a representative capacity. with fixed principles definitely in mind. defined a representative republican form of government. A republic is a form of government under a constitution which provides for the election of: 1. and are required to create 3. have all the power of appointment. all power of legislation all power to raise revenue and appropriate expenditures. a legislative body.Is the "standard form" of government throughout the world. certain inherent individual rights. familiar with the strength and weakness of both autocracy and democracy. Add one or more to those four elements and you are drifting into democracy. Take away any one or more of those four elements and you are drifting into autocracy. an executive and 2. Our Constitutional fathers.
Difference between Democracy and Republic. in brief: Democracy: a: government by the people. b: a government in which the in supreme power is vested in the president : a political unit (as a people directly and or exercised indirectly by them nation) having such a form of a government. Under this system of government a lynch mob is illegal.A republic is a government of law under a Constitution. whether according to law. it be based upon deliberation or periodically held free power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives . The suspected criminal cannot be denied his right to a fair trial even if a majority of the citizenry demands otherwise. through system of representation usually b: a government in which supreme involving elections. Republic a: a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch and who modern times is usually a especially : rule of the majority. Attitude toward law is that the will of responsible to them and governing the majority shall regulate. The Constitution holds the government in check and prevents the majority (acting through their government) from violating the rights of the individual.
in the Righteous Republic the law is the Law of God. and impulse. in Democracy the majority rules according to their whims. prejudice. without restraint or regard to consequences Democracy and Republic are often taken as one of the same thing. but there is a fundamental difference. whilst in the Republic the Government rule according to law. The difference between Republic and Righteous Republic is that in the Republic the Government rules according to the law set up by men. Whilst in both cases the government is elected by the people. Democracy consists of four basic elements: I want to begin with an overview of what democracy is. This law is framed in the Constitution to limit the power of Government and ensuring some rights and protection to Minorities and individuals. Only in the Righteous Republic it can truly be said "One nation under God" for it is governed under commandments of the only One True God and there is no pluralism of religions.governed by passion. We can think of democracy as a system of government with four key elements: .
I want to talk about each of these four elements of what democracy is. The active participation of the people. 4. . 3. 2. A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections.1. Then I will talk about the obligations and requirements of citizens in a democracy. in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens. as citizens. Protection of the human rights of all citizens. A rule of law. in politics and civic life.
Benoist Then I will conclude by talking about the obligations that we. I. have to the people of Iraq as you seek to build the first true democracy in the Arab world. A. Democracy as a Political System of Competition for Power Democracy is a means for the people to choose their leaders and to hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in office. the international community. . but rather the highest measure of participation. d.The highest measure of democracy is neither the 'extent of freedom' nor the 'extent of equality'.
. Power flows from the people to the leaders of government.The people decide who will represent them in parliament. They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular. free and fair elections. and who will head the government at the national and local levels. Elected representatives at the national and local levels should listen to the people and respond to their needs and suggestions. who hold power only temporarily. the people are sovereign¤they are the highest form of political authority. but it's something you do. and to observe how they conduct the business of government. Government is based on the consent of the governed. You participate. In a democracy. democracy crumbles. If you stop doing it. Democracy is not something you believe in or a place to hang your hat. AbbieHoffman The people are free to criticize their elected leaders and representatives. Laws and policies require majority support in parliament. but the rights of minorities are protected in various ways.
to present their proposals to the voters both directly and through the mass media. and professional body that treats all political parties and candidates equally. free of intimidation and violence. For elections to be free and fair. intimidation. they have to be administered by a neutral. Those in power cannot extend their terms in office without asking for the consent of the people again in an election. and fraud. democratic election.Elections have to occur at regular intervals. There needs to be some impartial and independent tribunal to resolve any disputes about the election results. All parties and candidates must have the right to campaign freely. . fair. as prescribed by law. This is why it takes a lot of time to organize a good. Voters must be able to vote in secret. Independent observers must be able to observe the voting and the vote counting to ensure that the process is free of corruption.
Participation: The Role of the Citizen in A Democracy The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life. petitioning the government. and then make his or her own decision on whom to support. standing as a candidate for political office. A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. electoral officials. attending community meetings. Voting in elections is another important civic duty of all citizens.Any country can hold an election. debating public issues. II. and to express their own opinions and interests. and civil society organizations who monitor the process. but for an election to be free and fair requires a lot of organization. . preparation. each citizen should listen to the views of the different parties and candidates. to watch carefully how their political leaders and representatives use their powers. and training of political parties. Participation can also involve campaigning for a political party or candidate. Citizens have an obligation to become informed about public issues. It can only exist until a majority of voters discover that they can vote themselves largess out of the publictreasury. and even protesting. Alexander Tytler But to vote wisely.
citizens are free to choose which party to support. religious believers. workers.A vital form of participation comes through active membership in independent. It is important that women participate fully both in politics and in civil society. However. teachers. non-governmental organizations. . no one should support a political party because he is pressured or threatened by others. No one should be forced to join an organization against their will. Political parties are vital organizations in a democracy. and democracy is stronger when citizens become active members of political parties. and involve them in political life. improve their political skills. business owners. In a democracy. what we call ¥civil society. human rights activists. This requires efforts by civil society organizations to educate women about their democratic rights and responsibilities. represent their common interests. In a democracy.¦ These organizations represent a variety of interests and beliefs: farmers. women. doctors. students. participation in civic groups should be voluntary.
The Rights of Citizens in a Democracy In a democracy. and tolerant of the different views of other groups and individuals.Democracy depends on citizen participation in all these ways. respectful of the law. every citizen has certain basic rights that the state cannot take away from them. No one can tell you what you must think. III. Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) . These rights are guaranteed under international law. and to say and write what you think. Every individual has the right to enjoy their own culture. Everyone is free to choose their own religion and to worship and practice their religion as they see fit. and say or not say. believe. Democracy is the government of the people. But participation must be peaceful. for the people. There is freedom of religion. along with other members of their group. by the people. even if their group is a minority. You have the right to have your own beliefs.
to leave the country. including trade unions. with respect for the law and for the rights of others. everyone has an obligation to exercise these rights peacefully. not by individuals. and if you wish. However. and to protest government actions. and to form and join organizations of your own choice. Alastair Farrugia You can choose between different sources of news and opinion to read in the newspapers. You have the right to associate with other people. and to watch on television. Freedom is when the people can speak. then they will just have to sit on their blisters. . You are free to move about the country.There is freedom and pluralism in the mass media. democracy is when the government listens. Abraham Lincoln IV. The Rule of Law Democracy is a system of rule by laws. Elections belong to the people. You have the right to assemble freely. to hear on the radio. If they decide to turn their back on the fire and burn their behinds. It is their decision.
by courts that are independent of the other branches of government. or gender. All citizens are equal under the law. and to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to the law. imprisoned. speedy. Anyone charged with a crime has the right to a fair. . maintains order. No one is above the law. or exiled arbitrarily.Laws. No one may be discriminated against on the basis of their race. The law is fairly. religion. and public trial by an impartial court. not even a king or an elected president. you have the right to know the charges against you. Torture and cruel and inhumane treatment are absolutely forbidden. the rule of law protects the rights of citizens. like houses. No one may be arrested. If you are detained. and consistently enforced. No one may be taxed or prosecuted except by a law established in advance. lean on one another. Edmund Burke In a democracy. ethnic group. impartially. and limits the power of government.
minister. No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate. Nothing ever justifies using violence against your political opponents. Every citizen must respect the rights of his or her fellow citizens. V. People must respect the law and reject violence. No government official may violate these limits. and their dignity as human beings. or political party can tell a judge how to decide a case. The Limits and Requirements for Democracy If democracy is to work. no matter who is guilty. Office holders cannot use their power to enrich themselves. . Independent courts and commissions punish corruption. No ruler. just because they have different views. They must also observe certain principles and rules of democratic conduct. just because you disagree with them. citizens must not only participate and exercise their rights.The rule of law places limits on the power of government.
be it wise or unwise. even people you disagree with. When you make demands. Consider different interests and points of . Everyone has a right to be heard. Don¨t be so convinced of the rightness of your views that you refuse to see any merit in another position. but not reject the government¨s authority. you should understand that in a democracy. until such a time that the majority reaches another decision. A democrat need not believe that the majority will always reach a wise decision. view. you should also listen to the views of other people. but each group should accept that it is a part of a democratic state. Bertrand Russell Every group has the right to practice its culture and to have some control over its own affairs. When you express your opinions. He should however believe in the necessity of accepting the decision of the majority.People should question the decisions of the government. it is impossible for everyone to achieve everything they want.
In a democracy. Pakistan is neither sovereign nor independent. one group does not always win everything it wants. . it may turn against democracy in anger and frustration. Different combinations of groups win on different issues. power-hungry junta supported by Washington. everyone wins something. VI. ill-led. Everyone is criticising democracy and §corrupt politicians¨. What the International Community Owes *PAKISTANI* Democracy Today. Everyone who is willing to participate peacefully and respect the rights of others should have some say in the way the country is governed. From the media to those who are part of the so-called corrupt government and people in the opposition. Groups with different interests and opinions must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate. an American lackey. Over time. If one group is always excluded and fails to be heard. everyone wants §sincere military generals to save the country from the corrupt politicians¨. It is a ¥rentier state¦.Democracy requires compromise. ill-governed by a corrupt.
Democracy in the West became strong through an evolutionary process. we don¨t study their histories. Governance is not visible. I start praying for another general who would §safeguard Pakistan¨. If we want to progress we will have to be patient. Yet. We also look at Western democracies as case studies. And as critics rile against the setup. Thousands daily circulate messages criticising the present government. how much of the country¨s finances are they managing? President Asif Ali Zardari and company only control 25 per cent of the country¨s finances. . even if the politicians are corrupt. Our ¥bloody civilians¦ have yet to learn.I have heard some people argue that the people of Pakistan are not ready for democracy and only a dictator can handle this mob of §illiterate and unorganised people¨. The ¥bloody civilians¦ might be corrupt. I have to ask myself. Imran Khan and Pir Sahib Pagaro. The remaining 75 per cent is with the military. but they at least deserve to be given their five years before we start the accountability. The present government is corrupt. But interestingly. Nations are not made in hours and neither can democracy be strengthened and §purified¨ through military coups. It is not following democratic norms. Prices are rising by the day. I agree with the MQM.
So just before I fall asleep. I have started shopping for myself. I might not be able to see Pakistan as a strong nation while these corrupt people lead. with the alternative systems of monarchy (rule by one individual). PML and ANP might not be ideally democratic. my children will see it. The philosopher Plato contrasted democracy. HISTORY OF DEMOCRACY Ancient origins The term democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought. 40 years from now. my mother did not let me buy clothes for myself while I lived at home. Since moving to Karachi. As a case in point. I argue that she never gave me a chance to learn. the system of "rule by the governed". Originally it had two distinguishing features: first the allotment (selection by lot) of ordinary . but I am sure. Today Classical Athenian democracy is considered by many to have been a direct democracy. I decide to support the ¥bloody civilians¦ and their corrupt government. PPP. She scolds me for paying too much for what she calls bad quality clothes. but they are part of a system that is going through evolution. oligarchy (rule by a small élite class) and timocracy (ruling class of property owners).
However. The (elected) generals often held influence in the assembly. slaves. A possible example of primitive democracy may have been the early Sumerian city-states. which existed as . and secondarily the assembly of all the citizens. during his many years of defacto political leadership. but which came to an end after the Achaemenid (Persian) Emperor Darius the Great declared that the best monarchy was better than the best oligarchy or best democracy. once elected general 15 years in a row. Pericles was.000 inhabitants only a small plurality were citizens. foreigners ( / metoikoi) and males under 20 years old. Although the term "democracy" is not often used for civilizations outside of Europe in ancient times there were organizations of government very akin to democracy in some African societiessuch as the Igbo nation of what is now Nigeria. sanghas and ganas. born from parents who were born in Athens. All citizens were eligible to speak and vote in the assembly. and excluded women. Athenian citizens were all-male. Of the perhaps 250. A similar proto-democracy or oligarchy existed temporarily among the Medes (ancient Iranian people) in the 6th century BC.citizens to the few government offices and the courts. which set the laws of the city-state. A serious claim for early democratic institutions comes from the independent "republics" of India.
Even though the Roman Republic contributed significantly to certain aspects of democracy. there were various systems involving elections or assemblies. including members of the Senate.early as the 6th century BC and persisted in some areas until the 4th century AD. the . The votes of the powerful were given more weight through a system of Gerrymandering. The lack of the concept of citizen equality across caste system boundaries has led many scholars to believe that the true nature of ganas and sanghas would not be comparable to that of truly democratic institutions. The evidence is scattered and no pure historical source exists for that period. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Middle Ages During the Middle Ages. However. so most high officials. without offering any detail. only a minority of Romans were citizens with votes in elections for representatives. modern scholars note that the word democracy at the 3rd century BC and later had been degraded and could mean any autonomous state no matter how oligarchic it was. However. although often only involving a small amount of the population. many notable exceptions did occur. mentions that independent and democratic states existed in India. the election of Gopala in Bengal. In addition. Diodorus (a Greek historian at the time of Alexander the Great's excursion of India). came from a few wealthy and noble families.
and so may be better classified as oligarchy. Because these states were very militarised. The States in Tirol and Switzerland and the autonomous merchant city of Sakai in the 16th century in Japan. The Kouroukan Fouga or Kurukan Fuga is purported to be the constitution of the Mali Empire (mid-thirteenth century to c. the Veche in Novgorod and Pskov Republics of medieval Russia. the tuatha system in early medieval Ireland. However.Althing in Iceland. However. certain medieval Italian city-states such as Venice. ou la Epoupée Mandingue. 1645 CE). The highest post £ the Hetman £ was elected by the representatives from the country's districts. Scandinavian Things. created after the Battle of Krina by an assembly of notables to create a government for the newly established empire. the Løgting in the Faroe Islands. the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic. Soundjata. A little closer to modern democracy were the Cossack republics of Ukraine in the 16th£17th centuries: Cossack Hetmanate and Zaporizhian Sich. Most regions in medieval Europe were ruled by clergy or feudal lords. It was first alluded to in print in Djibril Tamsir Niane's book. participation was often restricted to a minority. the right to participate in Hetman's elections was largely restricted to those who served . The Kouroukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans (lineages) that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara.
The power of Parliament increased in stages over the succeeding centuries. as many so-called rotten boroughs. with a handful of voters electing a Member of Parliament.in the Cossack Army and over time was curtailed effectively limiting these rights to higher army ranks. The Parliament of England had its roots in the restrictions on the power of kings written into Magna Carta. (less than 3% as late as 1780). As the franchise was increased. The franchise was slowly increased and Parliament gradually gained more power until the monarch became largely a figurehead. Parliament was elected by only a few percent of the population. . whether free or fettered ¤ and implicitly supported what became English writ of habeas corpus. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688. and the power to call parliament was at the pleasure of the monarch (usually when he or she needed funds). it also was made more uniform. The first elected parliament was De Montfort's Parliament in England in 1265. safeguarding individual freedom against unlawful imprisonment with right to appeal. which codified certain rights and increased the influence of Parliament. were eliminated in the Reform Act of 1832. However only a small minority actually had a voice. the English Bill of Rights of 1689 was enacted. explicitly protected certain rights of the King's subjects.
Democracy was also seen to a certain extent in bands and tribes such as the Iroquois Confederacy. However. An interesting detail is that there should be consensus among the leaders. 18th and 19th centuries . farming village communities have traditionally been egalitarian and lacking in a rigid. and entitled to participate in communal decisions. that influence was conditional on a continued demonstration of leadership skills. This excluded most of the population. However. In Melanesia. authoritarian hierarchy. Band societies. not majority support decided by voting. which usually number 20-50 people in the band often do not have leaders and make decisions based on consensus among the majority. when making decisions. such as the Bushmen. and on the willingness of the community. Only the oldest females from the same clans could choose and remove the leaders. Although a "Big man" or "Big woman" could gain influence. in the Iroquois Confederacy only the males of certain clans could be leaders and some clans were excluded. Every person was expected to share in communal duties. strong social pressure encouraged conformity and discouraged individualism.
adopted in 1788. particularly in eleven states in the American South. democracy became a way of life.Number of nations 1800£2003 scoring 8 or higher on Polity IV scale. economic and political equality. and for some time after. slavery was a social and economic institution. provided for an elected government and protected civil rights and liberties for some. another widely used measure of democracy. enslaved Africans. that a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people . the United States founders shared a determination to root the American experiment in the principle of natural freedom and equality . The United States Constitution. free black people and women were not extended the franchise. In the colonial period before 1776. On the American frontier. only adult white male property owners could vote. Although not described as a democracy by the founding fathers. with widespread social.[ However.
In the 1860 United States Census the slave population in the United States had grown to four million.S. During the 1820s and 1830s the American Colonization Society (A.By the 1840s almost all property restrictions were ended and nearly all white adult male citizens could vote. assisting thousands of former African-American slaves and free black people to move there from the United States. and in Reconstruction after the Civil War (late 1860s) the newly freed slaves became citizens with (in the case of men) a nominal right to vote. and in 1821 the A.from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom and equality. state and national officials. . Full enfranchisement of citizens was not secured until after the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955£1968) gained passage by the United States Congress of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.C.) was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to freedom in Africa. and turnout averaged 60£80% in frequent elections for local. from Jeffersonian Democracy to Jacksonian Democracy and beyond.S.C. The system gradually evolved. established the colony of Liberia.
which was not unreasonable. with South Australia being the first government in the world to introduce women's suffrage in 1861. Universal male suffrage was definitely established in France in March 1848 in the wake of the French Revolution of 1848. this essentially gave married men two votes. the National Convention was elected by all males in 1792.The establishment of universal male suffrage in France in 1848 was an important milestone in the history of democracy. In 1789. although short-lived. (It was argued that as women would vote the same as their husbands. several revolutions broke out in Europe as rulers were confronted with popular demands for liberal constitutions and more democratic government. Revolutionary France adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and. In 1848.) . The Australian colonies became democratic during the mid-19th century.
and Japan. as well as nondemocratic regimes in the Baltics. . decolonization. the Balkans. Cuba. Spain and Portugal. China. However. 20th and 21st centuries 20th century transitions to liberal democracy have come in successive "waves of democracy. Liberal democracies were few and often short-lived before the late 19th century. and most of the countries of Europe." variously resulting from wars. and various nations and territories have also claimed to be the first with universal suffrage. Brazil. World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires resulted in the creation of new nation-states from Europe. religious and economic circumstances. and women in 1893. but the Great Depression brought disenchantment. among others. women were not eligible to stand for parliament until 1919. thus becoming the first major nation to achieve universal suffrage. white men in 1879.New Zealand granted suffrage to (native) M ori men in 1867. Latin America. Fascism and dictatorships flourished in Nazi Germany. and Asia turned to strong-man rule or dictatorships. In the 1920s democracy flourished. most of them at least nominally democratic. revolutions. Italy.
British. and other forms of subterfuge (particularly in Communist nations and the former colonies. India emerged as the world's largest democracy and continues to be so. and the occupied Japan served as a model for the later theory of regime change. most of Eastern Europe. including the Soviet sector of Germany was forced into the non-democratic Soviet bloc. although the majority of the world's populations lived in nations that experienced sham elections. the vast majority of country-states were nominally democracies. However. Italy. 1972£2005 .World War II brought a definitive reversal of this trend in western Europe. Austria.) This graph shows Freedom House's evaluation of the number of nations in the different categories given above for the period for which there are surveys. By 1960. The war was followed by decolonization. and French sectors of occupied Germany (disputed]). and again most of the new independent states had nominally democratic constitutions. The successful democratization of the American.
the associated end of the Cold War. and Chile in the early 1990s). Brazil in 1985. Uruguay in 1984.A subsequent wave of democratization brought substantial gains toward true liberal democracy for many nations. This was followed by nations in East and South Asia by the mid-to-late 1980s. . The most successful of the new democracies were those geographically and culturally closest to western Europe. and the democratization and liberalization of the former Eastern bloc countries. Bolivia. and several of the military dictatorships in South America returned to civilian rule in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Argentina in 1983. and the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia. most prominently in South Africa. Portugal (1974). along with resentment of communist oppression. the Cedar Revolution in Lebanon. Some researchers consider that in contemporary Russia there is no real democracy and one of forms of dictatorship takes place. Spain. and they are now members or candidate members of the European Union. contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Some recent examples of attempts of liberalization include the Indonesian Revolution of 1998. the Orange Revolution in Ukraine. the Rose Revolution in Georgia. Economic malaise in the 1980s. spread to some nations in Africa in the 1990s. the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan. the Bulldozer Revolution in Yugoslavia.
in 2007 there were 123 electoral democracies (up from 40 in 1972). These theories are criticized by those who fear an evolution of liberal democracies to postdemocracy. it has been speculated that this trend may continue in the future to the point where liberal democratic nation-states become the universal standard form of human society. implying that only under this constitution do men participate in liberty. At the same time liberal democracies i. for . countries Freedom House regards as free and respectful of basic human rights and the rule of law are 85 in number and represent 38 percent of the global population. As such. According to World Forum on Democracy. electoral democracies now represent 120 of the 192 existing countries and constitute 58. This prediction forms the core of Francis Fukayama's "End of History" controversial theory. Now I will like to conclude by saying that a fundamental principle of the democratic form of constitution is liberty¤that is what is usually asserted.According to Freedom House. and others who point out the high number of illiberal democracies. CONCLUSION.e.2 percent of the world's population.
inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a slave. and this is the way in which the second principle contributes to equalitarian liberty ____________________________________________________________ . or failing that. the multitude must of necessity be sovereign and the decision of the majority must be final and must constitute justice. not worth. preferably not by anybody.they assert this as the aim of every democracy. This is the second principle of democracy. for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number. so that it results that in democracies the poor are more powerful than the rich. for they say that each of the citizens ought to have an equal share. But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn. because there are more of them and whatever is decided by the majority is sovereign. and from it has come the claim not to be governed. to govern and be governed in turns. And one is for a man to live as he likes. This then is one mark of liberty which all democrats set down as a principle of the constitution. and if this is the principle of justice prevailing. for they say that this is the function of liberty.
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