Seminar on contemporary issue Named PESTER POWER (Children influencing parent’s buying decision) JECRC Business School JECRC

Business School, Sitapura, jaipur
In The Partial fulfillment of the requirement of M-207 Award of the degree of master of business administration 2010-2012 Submitted by: HIMADRI SATI MBA II SEM (JBS) Submitted to: THE DIRECTOR

Acknowledgement

I take this opportunity to thank my guide who apart from being a constant source of inspiration and encouragement also provided me with his timely help and scholarly ideas in giving final shape to this report.

I also thank the college library and Computer lab of S.I.M.C.S. which provided me many books, round the clock internet facility to satisfy my thirst of knowledge related to my subject matter.

I also express my heartily gratitude to all my friends for their kind support. It was due to their valuable guidance and support that helped me to complete the report with a lot of learning.

HIMADRI SATI MBA- II Sem.

2 Pester Power effect of Advertising

3 Pester Power effect of Advertising

CONTENTS

S. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Introduction Pester Power

Topics

Page No.
5 8 15 24 29 31 35 36 37 39

Catering to the Little Customers-the Kids Some Research findings Drivers of Pester Power How Marketers Target Kids The Age Of Pester Power Could Be Over Parenting: How to handle pester power Tips on tackling pester power Bibliography

4 Pester Power effect of Advertising

Understanding of persuasive intent Young children do not realise that a message can portray only positive information. resulting in higher trust in the advertiser. Allied to this is the authoritative status of television messages for young children. whereas older children were better at self-promotion and included only positive descriptions. Greenberg et al. (1986) claimed to have found that 80% of 4. Somewhat surprisingly.Introduction The effects of television advertising Television is a major part of children’s lives in the Western world today. are unlikely to recognise advertisers’ motives 5 Pester Power effect of Advertising . whereas the kind of healthy skepticism which is needed to resist commercial pressure requires far more sophisticated levels of understanding. A lack of this awareness in younger children. . In the UK children spend an average of two and a half hours each day watching TV and 63% have their own TV set (Livingston & Bovill. Eight year olds’ ability to selectively self promote suggests that this is the age when children are also able to appreciate that advertisers try to influence us with persuasive messages.to 13-year old children knew that advertisements ‘‘wanted to sell you something’’ with no variation by age. consumer literacy and perception of realism are discussed further here. i. Consumer literacy Young children have a limited understanding of commercial markets. Younger children. The cognitive skills which children lack. children were asked to present a description of themselves in order to get picked for a fictitious team. In making the decision not to allow advertising aimed at children. who believe that adults do not lie and the younger the child is. renders them more vulnerable to selling messages. Prior to this children regard advertisements as simply announcements designed to help. Younger children included negative as well as positive information. Levin. 1. 2.e. who do not know that selling implies an exchange of money for goods (and an opportunity for profit). Levin et al. For example. 1999). and are unaware that advertisements are motivated out of a desire for profits. entertain or inform viewers. in the Aloise-Young study. Petros & Petrella (1982) found that children as young as 3 were able to make the distinction but had no understanding of selling motives of advertisers. the more likely they are to believe that advertisements always tell the truth . say that it is not until 8 years old that children begin to understand the selling purpose of an advertisement. understanding of persuasive intent. Being able to recognize that advertisements differ from programmes appears to emerge early on in development.

including a theory of mind. 1993). Thus a number of strategies and cognitive abilities need to be in place before the child is fully aware of the selling motives of the advertiser. may still have left a memory trace. usually by employing a forced choice test. may render the child more susceptible. In Flavell’s study he found that these young children believed a bowl of popcorn would spill if the set was turned upside down. Perception of realism. By watching television with their child they can help them to understand advertisers’ motives and the difference between appearances and reality. Without an awareness of production techniques and the representational nature of television. as suggested. the product. Adults know that the sparkle on the newly-cleaned floor in the TV commercial is unlikely to be matched in reality. Surveys suffer from lack of verification of the information gained and the fact that children are often overconcerned with giving the ‘right’ answers: Younger children are also likely to be unable to recall brand names which.Therefore. After the age of four children develop the cognitive skills. nonetheless. young children will believe that a product is exactly as it appears and not realise that the advertisement was created to promote it in the best possible way. And when Jaglom and Gardner (1981) showed two and three year olds an egg breaking on television. Children’s memory for advertisements is a very complex issue and one which has been investigated using a variety of methodologies. 1997). or request. Parents have a r&e to play in this. But before the age of four or five children are more heavily affected by production factors and do not understand that appearances can differ from reality. There is little reliable data available on co-viewing although it has been found that children who watch more commercial television had parents who were less concerned about the negative effects of watching television and perceived less need to control their child’s viewing (Gunter & McAleer. Studies which test recognition of products get around this problem. 3. which helps them to distinguish reality from fantasy. Evidence from psychological studies suggest that these abilities emerge at different points in development and that full understanding of advertisers’ motives is likely to be a process which takes a number of years. the children tried to clear it up. This reality perception is important because television that is perceived as real has a greater impact on children than if it is judged unreal (Berry & Asamen. Nonetheless. children’s lack of awareness about the motives of television advertisers does not prevent the. it is probably around age 13 or 14 that young people understand consumer markets and acquire a healthy skepticism towards the truthfulness of product claims. a successful advertisement is one which is memorable since there is usually a delay between seeing an advertisement and remembering to buy. but these have usually been 6 Pester Power effect of Advertising . commercial messages influencing their preferences and. Discrepancies in the results of studies into the age at which children can remember television advertisements may be due to the limitations of each of these methodologies. thus neutralizing some of the powerful messages their children are exposed to. For the advertiser. In television commercials techniques are frequently employed to enhance the appearance of a product.

conducted in laboratory settings and suffer from a lack of ecological validity. has upon children below the age of seven. Both types of studies fail to successfully emulate the time lapse that can occur between exposure to an advertisement and its recall. 7 Pester Power effect of Advertising . it is less subject to the failings of survey methods where misunderstandings about questions can produce inaccurate data. As the literature has shown. Finally. yet may feel these constraints do not apply to their requests to Santa. By comparing letters written by children in the UK with those written by Swedish children it also asks whether their ban on toy advertising means that children ask for less. Furthermore. the study also makes use of the real time frame between exposure to the advertisements and the making of requests. This would lead us to expect these children to have a high Vulnerability to advertising. this study therefore aims to discover whether there is a relationship between young children’s exposure to commercial television and requests for advertised products. lower recall and lower understanding of commercial messages than older children. The study also employs a novel method which overcomes many of the methodological limitations of earlier research. when toy advertising has been intensifying for a number of weeks. By looking at the under-sevens’ requests in their letters to Santa. The current study looks at the impact which toy advertising. since virtually all children in the UK write a letter to Santa each year. in the run-up to Christmas. and also obtaining a measure of their television viewing habits. asking for toys in a letter to Father Christmas. or to recreate the type of context in which children typically express a product preference. although perhaps with a low recall of brand names. The data on viewing habits also reveal whether children watch alone or with a parent and whether this affects their susceptibility to advertising. By collecting children’s letters at the beginning of December. Children from poorer families may have been socialised not to ask their parents for expensive toys. It assesses the effects of toy advertising by looking at a behaviour which many children engage in spontaneously. this is the age group who are likely to have higher trust. it is not complicated by the financial status of the children’s parents. It also goes beyond measuring which advertised products children recognise or recall and tells us what they actually want. Thus it overcomes the lack of ecological validity which laboratory experiments suffer from.

It was definitely from TV. unlike many kids her age. Pester power TV junk food advertising is being blamed for the ever increasing number of young. they influence their parents' buying decisions and they're the adult consumers of the future. oil-cooked fries and a sugary soft drink in the popular Happy Meal. According to her mother. "I wanted the whole set. It shows how powerful advertising is." This is not to say that Lauren is a junk-food addict. Image: Composite "My friend nearly had the whole collection. She was too young to have peer-pressure influence. Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power. The ad said you could put it in the water and it can glow in the dark. which came with a cheeseburger. I really wanted the squirt character. one was Nemo. One was Bruce. "When Lauren was about two years old.Pester Power! Pester Power is the name given to Marketing Techniques which encourage children to nag their parents to purchase a particular product. only orders pizza because of the "interesting vegetables on it". She has fast food just once a month and. Julia Merrington. She was just learning to speak. A lobby group is stepping up its campaign to ban the ads. Charmaine Camilleri reports. Eight-year-old Lauren Merrington had one mission on her special trip to McDonald's — to get one of the limitededition Finding Nemo toys that she had seen on TV a few nights before." Lauren got her toy." she says. 'Mac-a-don-ulds'. we drove past McDonald's and she pointed and said. TV advertising for fast food has influenced Lauren from a young age. My husband and I were horrified. 8 Pester Power effect of Advertising . obese Australians.

" she says. advertisers spend huge dollars on media campaigns worth millions in revenue for TV networks. KFC and Pizza Hut. 9 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Ten years ago. 'Yes'. "By the time children leave secondary school. When you're tired. spokesman for the Australian Medical Association. but the toys offered at fast food chains make their meals enticing.But. In that time." She says obesity is also related to conditions including heart disease. they would have seen more than 100. $25-30 million. "I'm sure there are parents who go down the easy road and say. exposing them to 30 food ads per session and around 10. they will have spent about as much time in front of the TV as they would have spent at school." Tania Ferraretto. according to the National Obesity Taskforce — that's more than triple the population of Tasmania. it's. Every time. "Advertising high-calorie foods is not responsible action. you give in. have been working full-time and want to quickly shop. I have a battle every time we go to the supermarket. according to Young Media Australia. stroke. According to Nielsen Media Research. "We're not seeing obesity contained. of Tricon Restaurants. Every year. Dr Michael Rice." he says. children watch two hours and 30 minutes of TV per day. "In my practice. McDonald's Corporation's total media expenditure for 2002 was $40-45 million." says Swinburn. I've been guilty of it. because it's easier than fighting. I have had teenagers come in who have Type 2 diabetes. says parents have a responsibility to monitor children's food intake. Only one in four will promote a healthy product.000 ads for junk food. spent $35-40 million and Cadbury Schweppes. children can be left out in their peer groups and their selfesteem can be affected.5 million young Australians under the age of 18 are now overweight or obese. "Socially. Lauren Merrington loves eating healthily. joint problems and cancer. says the impact on young people is stark. And that can be for life." Medical and health groups say such advertising is fuelling the obesity epidemic. More than 1. it has not been easy. "As a parent. of the Dietitians Association of Australia (DAA). Picture: Rebecca Hallas On average. It's out of control and increasing. a lot of it is advertised on TV. says Merrington. 'Can we get this?' and of course. but advertisers have a job to be responsible.900 per year. it was mostly in people over 40 years old.

Despite calls from health experts. the ads don't talk about nutritional value. In Australia. "Adults can make informed decisions. Massachusetts. aged about 12." Others question whether a ban would work. CFAC — whose members include the Australian Medical Association." study author Renee Boyton-Jarrett recently told Health on the Net Foundation. "As the television viewing increased over time. there's actually no fruit in it." she says. The report points out that there is about an 80 per cent chance of an overweight or obese child being overweight or obese at the age of 20. of Young Media Australia. at this stage. It also quotes a 2003 study commissioned by the British Food Standards Authority that found food promotion affected children's preferences. but then when you look at the product. has no concrete evidence that TV food advertising has an effect on children's obesity levels. published in last December's Pediatrics.) "Taking ads off TV is not considered the most valuable thing to do. They determined that the more hours children spent watching TV. over a 19-month period. followed by the children (13 per cent).In one of the newest studies on the topic. The messages are about fun." says Mehta. cool giveaways. "Generally. (The Federal Government set up the taskforce in November 2002 to combat Australia's worsening childhood obesity problem. that was associated with further declines in fruit and vegetable consumption." says spokeswoman Kay McNiece. Mehta says children are seduced into buying products. traced almost 550 ethnically diverse students. purchase behaviour and consumption. The coalition stepped up pressure on Australian governments last November with the release of its report Children's Health or Corporate Wealth?. 10 Pester Power effect of Advertising . which says that large volumes of TV ads contribute to an obesity-promoting environment. sugar and salt to be rescheduled in adult viewing times. Nutrition Australia and the Australian Consumers Association — wants ads for products high in fat. "The taskforce. researchers at the Harvard Medical School in Boston. "The ad says the product is fruit-flavoured and it shows pictures of fruit. with mothers at the top of the list (20 per cent). Critics also claim that some food advertisements are simply misleading. The Australian Association of National Advertisers (AANA) says a 1994 UK study found that TV advertising influenced just 5 per cent of family food choices. getting friends — and that's what children take literally. the worse their diet was. no recommendation for bans or restrictions was made in the Obesity Taskforce's final report released late last year. whereas children are manipulated." says Barbara Biggins.

McDonald's last year launched a new range of salads and reduced TV advertising to children by 40 per cent. 'No' to your child. parents are more oriented to investing in children. "A change for good. The downside is that their involvement with a particular brand becomes temporary. the brainchild behind the campaign. 'They made me buy it'. hence marketers will have to offer paths of continuous upgradation to retain them. In most US homes for instance. Companies are using this segment to rake in profits “Britannia Khao. "Let the parents make the choice. Kids want more and they want it now! The middle class family is value-oriented." she says. What does all this imply? Where are marketers heading? The kids’ market has grown by leaps and bounds – an indicator being the increased usage of basic need categories." says AANA chairman Ian Alwill. Russo says. Britannia’s products were picked up from the shelves like hot cakes. the choice of computer is dependent on kids.a campaign that was a rage. and titled The Myth about Children's Dietary Choice. Kids being the centre of a family’s aspirations. especially among the kids during the 1999 cricket World Cup." says Guy Russo. in food choice and family diet. Not only that." Marketing to the kids could be your passport to growth. the usage has reached beyond the basic need categories. Whether they are successful or not is due to the decisions the parents make. ‘Lego’ has understood this very well and introduced the concept of continuous innovation in their products with building blocks. "Advertisers have a right to advertise. says Julia Merrington. CEO of McDonald's Australia. Britannia even launched a new biscuit called Multi-vita just for the kids aged between one to three years. but you can always say. older siblings and peers are far more influential than advertising. They have the purchasing power." About 80 per cent of the company's media expenditure has gone to promote the healthy range since August. upwardly mobile. World Cup Jaao . whether they want their child to have an apple or fries. "It's all very well for the parents to say." Some food companies have listened to concerns. and harbours big ambitions for its little ones. "Factors including mothers. Thanks to Kidstuff’s Promotions and Events (KPE). "Advertising censorship would not impact on obesity trends. Kids change dramatically as they grow and are notoriously unpredictable. But educating children about healthy lifestyles is useless unless the family supports it.The study was reported in an article in the international advertising industry magazine Admap. 11 Pester Power effect of Advertising .

They might buy a product if it shows promise of satisfying or quietening them temporarily. brands that try to dislodge conventional wisdom should be careful while targeting conservative mothers. by her mother and grandmother was wrong. so that next time they are out with their parents. a marketer must try to develop a strategy. Women may be a marketer’s delight. 350 crore. preferring to recycle old stuff when needed. This was done by using a renowned paediatrician in its advertising. Parents prefer safe toys that last long. translates into destruction of toys. Parents react hysterically to brands that try to hook their little ones. However. estimated at Rs. Build brand equity and you will build profits!.For most marketers. a greater degree of creative freedom is given to the child. No mother would like to be told that the knowledge imparted to her down the years. The toy market in India is huge. Wise parents allow their babies to follow their instincts.friendly and of superior quality.The marketer must capitalise on this aspect and design baby/kids’ products. are eco. With the increase in number of working couples. but with the arrival of the second child she becomes a budget-conscious housewife. achieving a high involvement relationship with both parents and the kid is a priority. Considering the above. to explore his hidden talent. within safe boundaries. This unfortunately for parents. where the children harass their parents to purchase products they want. Though the result often is boredom and breakage. 12 Pester Power effect of Advertising . which targets the kids and influences them totally. Children being vulnerable are easily influenced by ads on television and this activates “pester power”. This is one sector that will boom further. Sometimes. leading to more purchases. Wipro’s ‘Baby Soft’ proved doomsayers wrong in its ability to compete against Johnson & Johnson. education and variety. i. too. Montu wears the clothes that his older brother. ‘Lego’ claims to provide all this and more. The toys in demand are ones that offer fun.e. Raju has outgrown. Advice to young mothers helps sell baby products especially when endorsed by a doctor. which offer value for money. the child’s pester power becomes inversely proportional to the time available with parents. to dispense advice on teething problems in infants. they get what they want! Impulse purchases due to POP promotions also play an important role.

Ravichandran. Nobody had done animation films for a serious product like motorcycles. managing to save his son and also trap the lion back into its cage. "We have used animation to break through the clutter. 13 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Lowe." Continuing with the father-son emotional bond from its previous Hoodibabaa films. Bajaj Auto Ltd. this is the first time that an animation film has been made for the rather `serious' motorcycle category. The purpose was to leverage pester power to an extent that the child could convince adults into buying the brand. "Animation films are possibly seen in children's categories. Bajaj's Caliber 115cc has always been positioned on the emotional platform and Hoodibabaa was a new term to express the `wow!' qualities of the brand. decided to try it out for the first time in the motorcycle category. so we. L. Created by Lowe Mumbai. According to R. Added Indraneel Ghosh. TAKING the Hoodibabaa campaign for Bajaj's Caliber 115 cc forward is an animation commercial. Vice-President (Business Development & Marketing). along with our agency. such as biscuits. explains Lowe. the TV commercial shows the father as the hero riding the bike to rescue his son from a lion which has escaped from its cage. Brand Services Director." In fact.For more pester power Purvita Chatterjee Bajaj hopes its animation campaign building on the Hoodibabaa promise for Caliber will help it add volumes.

The advertising account moved to Lowe last March with the re-launch of the Caliber 115 cc motorcycle in the form of the Hoodibabaa campaign. Bajaj Auto has been trying to gather prominence in the executive segment of motorcycles with its Caliber 115 cc and Wind 125 cc models. With the increase in the number of working couples. There is an untiring wish list of food. Kids seem to want virtually ‘more’ of everything. there has to be in place the entire collection of Barbie. be they in terms of what to watch over TV or what to buy for themselves or what a household buys. While the Hoodibabaa phrase has caught on and Bajaj Auto has managed to gather a combined 12 per cent share in the executive segment for both its brands. T 14 Pester Power effect of Advertising . the ‘Nag’ Factor and ‘Pester Power’ “Mom I want this. Frontline. television. fuelled by marketing tactics that erode the adult wallets. trendiest watch. by repeated nagging. Their day begins with Tom and Jerry and ends with Dexter.Barbara A Martino (Advertising executive) Kids rule. It has already allocated an ad budget of Rs 50 crore. The marketers are relying on the kids to pester the mom to buy the product. fun. it also wants to upgrade the users of low-end bikes (the 100 cc segment) to the executive segment with its superior product-led features such as that of extra mileage and a quick pick-up.co. gadgets and brands. Hero Honda dominates the segment with a 60 per cent share with brands such as Splendour and Passion. "Through this campaign we want to move a notch above our rivals. the PBS documentary series. frequenting at Mc Donalds.uk.raisingkids." says Ravichandran. The influence that the kids wield over purchase decisions in a household along with the nagging effect that they have on their parents is growing day by day. according to a new survey by www. school bag with Power Puff Girls on it. The power children have. Playstation. it believes the new campaign will add more volumes in this segment. With the executive segment (the Rs 40. Besides. As of now. notes that Millennial Teens influence more than $50 billion adult spending every year and pester an adult 25 times on an average before the desired product or experience is finally bequeathed. Bajaj intends spending lavishly on its two brands in this segment. rather than going straight to the mom. of influencing their parents to buy advertised or fashionable items is called as Pester power. collectibles. The bug is none other than Pester Power. an independent mobile. Kid-fluence.000-plus range) being the fastest growing segment in motorcycles today. Besides. PC and that too ‘cool’ branded ones. their pester power is inversely proportionate to the time available with parents. Dad I want this” are the demands. Over 95% of kids have pestered their parents for a product promoted on TV.

ICICI has made a presence across the entire life cycle of a person. Thanks to Kidstuff’s Promotions and Events (KPE). Novartis dropped the exaggerated promotional campaign it was conducting inside schools. Along with the account.a campaign that was a rage. especially among the kids during the 1999 cricket World Cup. It also allows kids to swipe their cards to see a customized version of themselves on a plasma screen at the entry of every store. so they get the feeling that they are shopping for themselves. hotels and airlines. Ashley. giving each member an individual experience through special events. Doctors are of the view that calcium Sandoz contained salts in addition to calcium carbonate and its reckless use by children who did not suffer from calcium deficiency might lead to kidney stones because of excessive intake of salts. • ICICI has launched a special account for kids in association with cartoon network. • Magazines such as Time. • Novartis India tells school children that they need two calcium tablets (Calcium Sandoz) a day to develop healthy bones and sharp brain. Mumbai. 15 Pester Power effect of Advertising . 000 crore kids wear market with ZAPP! The first store in Ahmedabad followed by another in Bandra. Each of the stores comes with lots of space for kids to move around and choose from. Britannia even launched a new biscuit called Multi-vita just for the kids aged between one to three years. the child can now avail of a personalized debit card.27. Britannia’s products were picked up from the shelves like hot cakes. • Horlicks repositioned itself as a ‘pleasurable nourisher for the entire family’. World Cup Jaao . Doing this. A membership card records preferences such as styles and colors. Sports Illustrated and People have all launched kid and teen editions—which boast ads for adult related products such as minivans. • The rising fad among kids towards toiletries and cosmetics has given birth to products targeted at children like L'Oréal Kids.)ZAPP! has tied up with Warner Brothers for the ‘Superman’ brand of clothing in India. • Raymond eyes the Rs.T Catering to the Little Customers-the Kids There are numerous examples where the marketers are either innovating their offerings for the kids or re-positioning themselves to cater to the segment that is becoming influential in the family purchase decisions. the brainchild behind the campaign. The clothes are kept in such a way that kids of any height can pick them up. (The name ZAPP! comes from the initials of the four cartoon characters — Zion. The company wants to create an open communication channel through a website and build upon the relationship through it and the ZAPP! Club. • Britannia Khao. Posh and Pixel — who have a different world on planet Zuto. After complaints by the Consumer Education and Research Centre of Ahmedabad. This is to cater to the aspirational and demanding kids by catching them young.

65 per cent of the business is estimated because of kids. the toddler crawls up with a tube of Boroline in its cute hands. cars and soaps to noodles and potato chips. for they are exposed to a lot of advertising both on television and outdoors. Pinkis of every home. marketers are realising that the road to a customer's heart (and mind) is the child at home.88 billion) toothpaste market. 41 per cent of the purchases are influenced by kids -.62 billion) . "Generation Next kids are well aware of what is happening in the marketplace. Millions are being splurged on striking the right chord with the Chunu. CEO. So. Hence. whenever mom hears "mummy. who else would decide between Barbie and GI Joe? But children can be quite persuasive even in more adult areas. mummy. But what has changed in the last 10 years? Why are marketers suddenly concentrating on kids so much? Says Suhel Seth.Pester power: Can children influence papa's decisions? Nokia has a naughty eight-year-old girl looming large from the billboards thrusting the 3210 in your face. Equus Advertising. how real is pester power? A recent study by AC Nielsen reveals that children do have the ability to influence their parents's decisions. After all. Papa finds it hard to decline his six-year-old's request to give half the school a ride back home in his squeaky new Fiat Uno. the moot question is how far does the child's word go in the buying decision. bhook lagi hain'' she knows what's cooking. children are well educated about the brands available and the prices. Marketing minds are finally taking kids seriously. At times the line is ambiguous in the kids-specific market too 16 Pester Power effect of Advertising . However. it is the adult parent who spends the money and actually buys the product. From cell phones. For instance. Of course. The pester power is best displayed when it comes to toys and games. it is very important for a marketer to understand the buying pattern before they really target the ads at children. cellphones or the new video game in town. Munnu.48 billion) worth of business. where in a market of Rs 362 crore (Rs 3. toothpaste. In the Rs 988 crore (Rs 9. Onida's salesman goes blue in the face (literally) trying to convince his 10-year-old customer that the Candy brand does not come in a vanilla flavour. This may not be such a surprise -. children seem to have a say in it all. In other words. When papa nicks his chin while shaving.i e Rs 148 crore (Rs 1. So be it television sets.after all.

about 43 per cent of Indian kids said Ruff 'n' Tuff. very often you will see children using our phones to play a game while their parents are busy with something else. You see. The company re-launched its Kids brand in a new star-shaped avatar in August to attract the little ones. a local brand from Arvind Mills. Nestle or Candico find it easy to sell their products targeted at children because they are low-priced fast-moving consumables. "We need to create a lot of excitement around the brand. Explains marketing guru Shunu Sen.because these products may be premium priced and the parent my not be in a position to yield to the child's whims. it is not totally foolish to target a bit of the ad spend at children. It would be a good idea for a toothpaste marketer to address the children. "We want to stress on our human technology aspect." Market studies have also shown that children are more tuned to swadeshi brands. It is easy for a parent to decide on X candy because his child wants it." Hence. though for a consumer durables marketer children may not be the right bet. AC Nielsen found that kids aged between 7 and 18 in India were definitely inclined towards swadeshi in terms of brand preferences. especially when your product is priced as high as Rs 28 for 75 gm. You see. Says Duncan Morris. Consider this: To the question 'Which is your favourite jeans brand'. and hence brands such as Onida. be it career. But it is quite another issue if the child insists on Z brand of television." Despite apprehension from market gurus. our study shows that Indian children are the most decisive in their preferences. client services controller. Johnson & Johnson realised a couple of years ago that selling kids soap is not exactly child's play. consumer durables marketers are trying hard to influence children. China. Ammirati Puris Lintas. "In India. Says Seth." Nokia defends its using a child in its 3210 advertisement saying. J&J could not strike the right chord with kids despite the use of jazzy colours. or Y brand of soap because his daughter likes it. J&J now plans to have intensive advertising and numerous activities involving kids to generate top of mind recall for its brand. BPL. As far as their favourite sport shoe was concerned the choice was swadeshi again: 'Action'. associate director (media research division) A C Nielsen. "Children are an important part of the 'family' for a marketer. However. We want to show the ease of use and the add-on features that make it exciting. companies such as Frito Lays." says Anita Pande. this is not always true. Videocon in consumer durables or Ruff n Tuff in apparel would do well to talk to the kids. "It is here that market behaviour becomes ambiguous. 17 Pester Power effect of Advertising .

whether advertisements really prompt children to buy a product is still ambiguous. "Kids may be confused. children from all over Asia responded 'vegetables'. But. but they are confused pests and that makes them important and powerful!" 18 Pester Power effect of Advertising ." Adds he. the kids were very specific and said 'idli'. during our survey. when we asked what was the most hated food. "Children can be really specific in their tastes and preferences and sure have strong likes and dislikes. For instance. a majority of the children voted the Pepsi ad as their favourite. For instance. and this is important. and advertising has an impact on them. but said Coca-Cola was their favourite drink!" As Seth puts it.most hated food or favourite drink. but in India.

and McDonald's was the clear winner of this award with more complaints than any other food manufacturer. purchased in July 2002.one of nine characters which children are encouraged to collect... mother of two. advertisers use famous pop stars such as S Club 7 and footballers such as David Beckham to entice children into wanting their products. This McDonald's Happy Meal. The members of The Parents Jury were particularly critical of companies using Pester Power. It is difficult when so many children eat there not to visit as well. from Hailsham in East Sussex 19 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Link-ups with children's films and cartoon characters are another enormous money-spinner. Read what the parents had to say.and the award goes to: McDonald's Happy Meals! The Children's Food Awards Pester Power is the name given to marketing techniques which encourage children to nag their parents to purchase a particular product. mother of two.there is such a strong advertising campaign and the offer of Happy Meal toys. from Stevenage in Hertfordshire I have a particular problem with McDonald's . came with a free Smurf character . below: McDonald's bribe children by giving away nasty toys to go with the latest Disney film.. For instance. Children love collecting toys and McDonald's in particular have made this a key element in encouraging children to eat their food. Once inside there aren't really any healthy options.

children want the food and pester to get it purely to have the free toy.they just want the toy. Kids want the current toys . Explaining to a four-year-old why she can't have a toy that lots of other kids will have is very difficult.particularly with McDonald's and children's cereals. from Isleworth in Middlesex What is the attraction of McDonald's? My children get so excited about it. mother of one My son gets sad that he can't eat at McDonald's when he sees the TV adverts which depict free toys with every kids meal.g.e. KFC. from Teesside in Cleveland With free gifts and toys. mother of one. McDonald's. mother of two. Burger King. other of one. from London McDonald's. from Stone Cross in East Sussex The Happy Meals adverts are all too persuasive.all part of a large collection that encourages kids to keep going back to get all the toys. all use children's movies to attract kid to their restaurants. McDonald's do an 'amazing' selection of toys linked to films.e. mother of one. to attract children to pester and pester parents. they link up with toy companies to offer collectable ranges. from Brecon in Powys Happy meals at McDonald's are a problem.and sold that as well as they do burgers?! mother of two. Wouldn't it be nice if they harnessed all their skills to create a healthy. Pooh. Burger King. mother of three. from London My children have both admitted recently that they don't like the food . You have to eat more of the product to collect the set . father of one. from Harpenden in Hertfordshire Children choosing food products because of the "free" gift . etc. The chips are very popular but I think that is the salt. Tigger. Piglet or the Tweenies. But there is the toy and the novelty of the packaging.. mother of two. from Olney 20 Pester Power effect of Advertising .I dislike the use of pester power marketed to create demand for unhealthy food i. We don't go very often and they don't like the actual food that much. nutritious meal with a toy .

He always asks to go to McDonald's because he sees other children with the Happy Meal toys (in fact. the judge ruled that the company does 'exploit children by using them as more susceptible subjects of advertising. to pressure their parents into going to McDonald's' (Justice Bell. 1997) McDonald's Happy Meals . And no fresh fruit or vegetables.frequent consumption of meals like these could compromise your future health. 21 Pester Power effect of Advertising . A Happy Meal consists of either a Hamburger. High Court. We haven't given up yet! mother of two. or a New Chicken and Ketchup Burger. and a large proportion of that budget was aimed directly at children. he thinks McDonald's is a toy shop!). 4 Chicken McNuggets or 3 Fish Fingers. from Stockport 'McDonald's loves mums. so can we go?' my four year old asks mother of two. Unfortunately the fast food which McDonald's sells is typically high in fats (including saturated fats). In the famous McLibel trial.What's in 'em? McDonald's Happy Meals carrry no ingredients list or nutritional information.000* on advertising in the UK in 2001. salt and sugar. The McDonald's website does give nutritional information for McDonald's products. Cheeseburger. so it's hard to know exactly what you're eating. The company spent £58. The Happy Meal which we describe below has more fat (19g) than protein (15g). Whilst eating the occasional Happy Meal isn't going to damage you .470. but without any healthy eating guidelines against which to judge the information. from Harrogate Expert opinion McDonald's certainly knows how to sell fast food. plus regular French Fries and a regular soft drink. and more sugar (27g) than fat or protein.

highly creative. believes the ads as truthful. Maize Starch. They have different emotional. Stabiliser: Potassium Triphosphate (E451). social and developmental needs at different stages. Phosphoric Acid (E338). Consumer socialization is the process by which these kids acquire skills. Maize Polenta. Salt. Spice. Chicken McNuggets Chicken. spontaneous. persuading the cash-starved schools into opening their doors to them by paying for access to classrooms and space for their advertising material and promotions. French Fries Potatoes cooked in 100% Vegetable Oil. funny and interesting and holds positive attitudes towards the ad. Raising Agents: Phosphate Salts (E450). Coca-Cola Carbonated Water. They are great observers. most gullible and most inexperienced beings on earth. Colour: Sulphite Ammonia Caramel (E150d).We used the website to analyse a typical Happy Meal . advertising. regular French Fries and a regular soft drink . Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil. Dextrose. very insightful. Breadcrumbs. sensitive and volatile. Catch Them Young at Schools and Web Advertisers have very blatantly entered the schools. Ground Celery. They put up posters and billboards in the schools. As against this. Water. understands that the ad may have 22 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Maize). pricing and decision-making. This almost approximates to a crime because it is nothing less than attacking the natural credulity of the most innocent. Caffeine. including their knowledge of products. Sugars. Dextrose sometimes added. Unspecified Flavourings. Child Psychology Unraveled Children think and behave differently from adults. Web-based groups providing free e-mail accounts and contests with tempting prizes is another strategy that is rampantly used. knowledge and attitudes pertaining to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace. This is based on child development -how age related patterns emerge across children’s growing sophistication as consumers. Modified Wheat Starch. 27g of sugar but only 15g of protein. Flour (Wheat. Three to seven years of age is approximately the Perceptual stage wherein the child can distinguish ads from programs based on perceptual features. Sodium Carbonate (E500) and Tricalcium Phosphate (E341). shopping. Sugar.and found that the meal contains 19g of fat. Egg Albumen. seven to eleven years of age is the Analytical Stage wherein the child distinguishes ads from programs based on persuasive intent. brands.4 Chicken McNuggets. Salt added after cooking. Modified Tapioca Starch.

23 Pester Power effect of Advertising . If adults see a product advertised and don't find it when they go shopping they forget about it. he is skeptical towards the claims made in the ad.is 'for them'. In a nutshell. Research has confirmed the influence of the media upon the close conformity between children's tastes and perceived needs and the content of the programs they watch. If these demands are not fulfilled they might start screaming or throwing themselves to the floor. Research by advertising agencies has confirmed that children's personal preferences can be targeted and changed by TV advertising. this can make life extremely difficult for parents who for financial or moral reasons refuse to comply. As children develop the ability to recognize and understand ads and their purpose they start making demands.contain a bias and deception and can also hold negative attitudes towards ads. The Development of Critical Sense Children's reactions to advertisement can be very different from grown-ups.according to advertising . Teachers say they know what has been on TV the night before by the games the children play the next day. Family dynamics are thus influenced by advertisements that create demands and provide children with arguments why they should want a particular thing. Kids have a short attention span and are extremely quick to criticize or reject advertising that does not fulfill their viewing criteria. Eleven to Sixteen years of age is the Reflective Stage and here the child understands the persuasive intent of ads along with the specific ad tactics and appeals. It is difficult to explain to young children the reasons why they cannot have everything which . He believes that the ads lie and knows how to spot the specific instances of bias and deception.

ever experimenting and most fickle demographic segment. Infosys (30 percent) amongst the kids who have heard of these companies. They form the most unloyal. Reliance (56 percent) . They seem to be moving to the next beat thing a lot quicker and a lot many times. • Nokia turned out to be the ‘coolest’ brand among this age group with 72 percent saying that its very ‘cool’ followed by Sony (71 percent). being always in the ‘what’s next’ mode. • 74 percent of the children. The need for something new. something novel makes them 24 Pester Power effect of Advertising .HCL (32 percent). • Passe Syndrome-The research talks of a Passe Syndrome amongst kids that makes kids increasingly dismiss products that fail to cater to their immediate needs. Microsoft (39 percent). would like to own one. apple I-Pod at 43 percent and Sony Play station at 33 percent.Google (31 percent). Impulse category brands are always being evaluated.Some Research Findings Findings of the Kids’ Lifestyle Study. Times Magazine and Consumer report 2005 list of top-10kid-bribes • Nintendogs • FLY Pentop Computer • I-Dog • Zizzle lz • Pixel Chix • Shift Tricycle • PlasmaCar • 20Q Orb • One laptop per child AC Nielson Research • A greater access to pocket money and a bigger say in purchase decisions has resulted in children being more informative and demanding. who have heard of mobile phones with cameras. saying that they. They are actually promo loyalists and keep switching brands for better offers. • This is followed by X-Box at 45 percent.Wipro (35 percent).New Generations 2005-conducted by Cartoon Network • Mobile Phones with cameras rank the highest in the list of gadgets of desire for kids 714. an outcome of the wide choice that they have at their disposal. LG (60 percent).

teenagers. 1998).5 billion dollars in 1996 (Business Week. James. 1999) • Young children are not able to distinguish between commercials and TV programs. McNeal. For instance. 6/30/97). the popular Sports Illustrated for Kids. They do not recognize that commercials are trying to sell something (Television and the American Child. TV shows and movies or promote brand consciousness and loyalty. trying hard to keep their brands in the top-ofmind. Comstock. American Demographics. 1999). children ages four to twelve spent an estimated $35 billion (Tapping the Three Kids' Markets. 2001). James. influenced the household spending of $500 billion (McNeal. • Children as young as age three recognize brand logos (Fischer. 1991. directly and indirectly. George. • Promotional toys either tie in to cartoons. April 1998). Many of these magazines are kid versions of adult magazines. • Four hours of television programming contain about 100 ads (Minneapolis Star Tribune. • In 1997. March. spent a record $155 billion (New York Times. Academic Press Inc) • In 2000. carries ads for minivans.000 television commercials every year (Strasburger. Salamon. • The average American child may view as many as 40. 1991). J.experimenting on the retail front and keeps marketers on their toes. 2001). • In 2001.recall at all days of the wek and all times of the day. ages 12 to 17. with brand loyalty influence starting at age two (McNeal. US studies on the impact and influence of advertising on children show that • An estimated $12 billion a year is now spent on advertising and marketing to children (The Kids' Market: Myths and Realities. 1992). want more toys seen in advertisements and eat more advertised food than children who do not watch as much television (Strasburger. who watch a lot of television. • The market sales of licensed products for infants increased 32% to a record 2. 25 Pester Power effect of Advertising . The Outcome of Indiscreet Marketing to Children • Magazines aimed at children have blossomed. children 12 years and under. • Children. • Kids are extremely conscious about product features and thereby brands and hence comes the kidfluence. McNeal. 2002).

• Logos on all types of merchandise. and from direct surveys. from electronic toy registries at stores like Toys 'R' Us. Close-up has now entered the fray with two cute tykes. Barbie™ dolls with Coca Cola™ accessories). Tata Steel uses children symbolically to show how their company works. • Give-away programs include promotional merchandise aimed at children (e.g.g.. They are being used as effective ways of grabbing adult attention. • Databases of child customers are being built from information gathered on Internet sign-ups and chat rooms. Kids and ICTs Informal evidence suggests that the most popular in –thing for kids these days are the ICT product and services.. All stakeholders in this area should recognize the particular vulnerabilities of young children who are still developing physically.• Cartoon and toy characters are used on all kinds of products. • Promotional licensing of products aimed at kids which will include media pitches. e. Kids with celebrities like the Big B in the Hajmola ad make a still more lethal combination. • Channel One: short news briefs are surrounded by commercials that children are forced to watch in schools. • Advertising in schools: Advertisers and marketers take advantage of severe budget shortfalls in schools to offer cash or products in return for advertising access to children. a brand of pagers will include messages from MTV. That is why advertising agencies such as McCaan. In Britain too the numbers are startling. • Children's radio networks are becoming popular. There is Videocon with Sharukh Khan and a bunch of kids and Hutch with a pug and a boy to hook the adults to the commercials. • Children's toys are starting to carry product placements (e. seeking to catch the children's eyes and purchases. everywhere children go. Kids –the chief design element of commercials Kids are everywhere in advertising.g.Erickson and Saatchi and Saatchi have launched separate divisions to produce advertising aimed at children. McDonald's™ "Happy Meals"). The risks to young children from the use of ICTs are enormous: 26 Pester Power effect of Advertising . socially and emotionally.

As an example. embedded and wearable communicating devices. Will this make a child more or less safe? The recent introductions of Advergames and Tribal Marketing need to be mentioned in this context. Tribal Marketing strategy helps in creating communities or social groups focused on a product or service. c. The advertisements have created very powerful and vocal kid consumers with huge buying leverage. and ad hoc networking technologies will bring a paradigm shift greater than that precipitated by the telephone. the APA has deduced that children under eight are unable to critically comprehend televised advertising messages and are prone to accept advertiser messages as truthful. This helps marketers in collecting customer data. b. fun. has a great nagging effect and the parents are almost forced to visit Mc Donalds by the little customers that Mc Donalds sets its eyes on. They serve to reinforce brands in compelling ways because users have to register to be eligible for prizes. The main concern will be that the risks of harmful contacts. “The Action Man and My Little Pony” figures are a lure to buy a high fat meal which probably contains fewer nutrients than the toys themselves. The ‘functional’ value and the ‘connecting’ value is the most sought after. the brand benefits from propagating a word of mouth. Ronald McDonald and the red fry carton have all become iconic.a. 27 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Mc Donalds has been able to capture its little consumers. can anyone else do this?” Next generation LBS will put satellite positioning technology into mobile phones. brand bonding efforts. Physical risk of developing a ‘sms thumb’ caused by very young hands using a keypad designed for adult hands. Through constant engaging. New technologies likely to increase risks for young children Pervasive and ubiquitous computing products. consider Location Based Services (LBS). Advergames are web based computer games that incorporate advertising messages and images. It has lived by its symbols-the Golden arches. the internet and the mobile phone taken together. The Mc Donalds Happy Meals ad. outside of direct parental supervision will increase. The question parents are asking is “if I can establish the location of my child with this technology. The gamers may also invite their friends. Kids and Eating Habits The kids market remains crucially important as the marketers seek to attract a new audience and build brand loyalty at a very young age. Gaining access to harmful content as a form of communication. Mc Donalds has long been using children as a bait to lure the family into its restaurants. Today. In a compilation of studies done on children's media habits spanning nearly four years. This will improve the accuracy of location to about 3m. the accuracy of the location is limited to the size of the mobile cell in which the mobile phone is operating. lively communication. which talks about distributing free toys. The strategy is based on the premise that the tech savvy child today has a fascination for technology that can add to his or her comfort along with providing the social advantage of being connected and linked.

acquired by consumers and then used as a shortcut in subsequent decision making – explanation added) by advertising a family friendly environment and generating positive associations that may cause consumers to devalue their perceptions of the risks arising from unhealthy diets” (Anon. says children’s exposure to billions of dollars worth of food advertising and marketing in the media may be a key mechanism through which media contributes to childhood obesity What is the Role of Advertising in Promoting Food Choices? It is claimed that advertising manipulates consumer preferences.S Bestseller –Fast food Nation and a 2004 documentary movie about eating only fast food for a month-Super Size Me. Television may be more influential than families in setting children’s food preferences” Epstein et al (1995) clarify the link by identifying a co-relation. All supermarkets display food products at their checkouts. thereby reinforcing the biological pressures driving obesity (Anon. Food Advertising and Obesity Zuppa. McDonald’s exploits the affect heuristic (i. Another study released by the Kaiser Family Foundation on Wednesday. Only 7% of checkouts had their display of foods or drinks out of the reach of children.accurate and unbiased. but not causation between television viewing and obesity.The same anonymous authors who make the above assertion (Anon. 28 Pester Power effect of Advertising . 2003) specifically blame high profile fast food brands for manipulation of consumer perceptions. 2003). with most checkouts displaying chocolate (87%). emotional aspects of learning about the brand . Links between fat rich fast food and health issues like obesity were heightened by a 2001 U. “For example. 2003: 1168). gum (81%) and sweets (80%). Malaysia is considering a ban on fat food advertising as it is been considered that the food that the ads promote act as ‘silent killers’. Morton and Mehta suggest that the amount of advertising to which children are exposed “has the potential to influence children’s health attitudes and behaviors.via trial and error .e. leading to unhealthy eating habits.

a child psychologist. Grand parents’ are the fastest growing income sources for the children. • Hurried Child Syndrome and Hyper parenting Parents today overscheduled their children’s’ life with a heavy dose of academics and extracurricular activities. • Delayed parenthood This results in parents with more disposable incomes at the time their children are born. • More working women and consequently more dual income families. “The average age of career women starting a family may well have touched the mid-30s. David Elkind. A 2000 study of 50 older couples by SNDT University showed that most of them had kids after they turned 35. Every 29 Pester Power effect of Advertising . forcing the little adults to excel both at school and extra academics. There are opportunities galore. Communication between parents and children has opened up considerably and the stereotypical roles have become rarer.” says gynecologist Dr Duru Shah. first proposed this in 1981 in his book The Hurried Child: Growing up too fast. ‘Parenting’ is out and being pals/friends to the children is the in thing. • Grand parents’ increasing role in bringing up children because of working mothers. This endearment encouraged the wanton kids to ask for material pleasures which they know would never be denied by their parent turned pal. • Rise in the number of single parent households Research supports that children in single parent households make their first purchases almost a year earlier than their two-parent household counterparts. • The pang and guilt of not being able to spend much quality time with children is compensated by smothering them with material goods. • Growth of retail sector There appears to be a high positive correlation between the growth of the retail sector and the development of the kids market. • The ‘Askable’ Parent The great authoritarian divide between parents and children is inexistent. • Greater exposure to kids There is an ever-increasing exposure to kids both in terms of technology and mass media.Drivers of Pester Power Indian society has undergone a sweeping change in terms of the structure and environment of its vital institution-The Family.

Images of children often appear in advertisements. The NGOs are especially peeved with the Pepsi commercial as.e. • Pester power: Encouraging children to pester their parents for advertised product or service. normal lives. Children and Advertising-Issues and concerns The effect of advertising on children and their portrayal in advertisements are sensitive issues.departmental has a space assigned exclusively for kids merchandise ranging from Kriish apparels to Power Ranger bikes. it glorifies child labor. wearing make-up and glamorous clothes. shelter. • Making children feel inferior. i. • Advertising soft drinks and high fat/sugar contents to kids. The common issues surrounding children and advertising are: • Making children desire things which their parents cannot afford or which they (children) will not be able to use. • Showing children in a sexual way. they say. The protestors believe that by featuring the entire Indian cricket team. viewing and brand promotions. clothing education and love. children rely on adults for safety. The ad shows a child negotiating a dangerous route to reach the Indian cricket team that is waiting for their drinks. have the responsibility to depict children in the advertisements in a more responsible and responsive manner. The marketers. as adults. the multinational was depicting India as a whole as endorsing child labor. both those designed to sell children’s products and those designed to persuade adults to buy anything from car insurance to carpets Children are the vulnerable members of the society. • Kids channels-a newer phenomenon The dedicated channels to kids programming target kids in two ways-‘eyeballs’ on channels that is.in order for them to lead healthy. Cartoon Network and Disney lead the pack. • Showing children in unsafe or dangerous situations which the kids may emulate. 30 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Child rights activists are up in arms against MTV and Pepsi for depicting children in a negative light and endorsing child labor in their advertisements. A perfect example is the growth of indoor amusement centres in malls targeted to children. food. especially if they don’t buy products and services shown in the ads.

dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income." This latter method appeals to parents' desire to provide the best for their children. guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. Using research that analyzes children's behaviour." Barbara A. so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. that is repeated over and over again) is not as effective as the more sophisticated "importance nagging. art 31 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Marketing to children is all about creating pester power. As well. advertisers now have access to indepth knowledge about children's developmental. Here are some of the strategies marketers employ to target children and teens: Pester Power Today's kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations. pestering or nagging can be divided into two categories—"persistence" and "importance. increasing from a mere $100 million in 1990 to more than $2 billion in 2000. "Pester power" refers to children's ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade. The marriage of psychology and marketing To effectively market to children. fantasy lives. "We're relying on the kid to pester the mom to buy the product. because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be. Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power. With the help of well-paid researchers and psychologists. advertisers need to know what makes kids tick. Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size. Advertising Executive According to the 2001 marketing industry book Kidfluence. and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids. emotional and social needs at different ages." Persistence nagging (a plea. rather than going straight to the mom. Martino.How Marketers Target Kids STRATEGIES MARKETERS EMPLOY TO TARGET CHILDREN. they influence their parents' buying decisions and they're the adult consumers of the future.

Buzz.S. adultbegin in childhood. the mid-1980s saw the birth of a new kind of corporation— Nike. Brand loyalties can be "Brand marketing must established as early as age two.work. hotels and airlines. mental health professionals issued a public letter to the American Psychological Association (APA) urging them to declare the practice unethical. According to the Center for a New American Dream. head off to school most can recognize hundreds of brand Even if a child does not logos. toy and clothing companies have been the marketing must cultivating brand recognition in children for years. babies as young as six months of age can form mental images of corporate logos and mascots. The idea is to find the coolest kids in a community and have them use or wear your product in order to create a buzz around it. Tommy Hilfiger. Calvin Klein. in the hopes that the seeds will grow into lifetime relationships.. 1999 Magazines such as Time. James McNeal. Building brand name loyalty Canadian author Naomi Klein tracks the birth of "brand" marketing in her 2000 book No Logo. The Kids Market. or 32 Pester Power effect of Advertising . Sports Illustrated and People have all launched kid and teen editions—which boast ads for adult related products such as minivans. and has led to the creation of some of the most wealthy and powerful multi-national corporations the world has seen. It has been a tremendously profitable formula. and by the time children begin with children.. By moving their manufacturing operations to countries with cheap labour. Many companies are using "buzz marketing"—a new twist on the triedand-true "word of mouth" method. Buzz or street marketing The challenge for marketers is to cut through the intense advertising clutter in young people's lives. Marketers plant the seeds of brand recognition in very young children. companies are able to craft sophisticated marketing strategies to reach young people. The APA is currently studying the issue." oriented businesses such as banks and automakers are now getting in on the act. they freed up money to create their powerful marketing messages. According to Klein. The issue of using child psychologists to help marketers target kids gained widespread public attention in 1999. when a group of U. to name a few—which changed their primary corporate focus from producing products to creating an image for their brand name. buy the product and will not for many years. even their dreams. While fast food.

on computers. Marketers are eagerly exploiting this medium in a number of ways. Supplying schools with technology in exchange for high company visibility. in exchange for funds. Advertising posted in classrooms. • • • • • The Internet The Internet is an extremely desirable medium for marketers wanting to target children: 33 Pester Power effect of Advertising . A school setting delivers a captive youth audience and implies the endorsement of teachers and the educational system. clothes and other products among unsuspecting users. in which Campbell provides educational resources for schools in exchange for soup labels collected by students. Budget shortfalls are forcing school boards to allow corporations access to students in exchange for badly needed cash. Sponsoring school events: The Canadian company ShowBiz brings moveable video dance parties into schools to showcase various sponsors' products. or Campbell's Labels for Education project. school buses." as it's also called. or forestry company Canfor's primary lesson plans that make its business focus seem like environmental management rather than logging. computers and educational materials. Corporations realize the power of the school environment for promoting their name and products. a Kraft "healthy eating" kit to teach about Canada's Food Guide (using Kraft products). can help a company to successfully connect with the savvy and elusive teen market by using trendsetters to give their products "cool" status. Commercialization in education School used to be a place where children were protected from the advertising and consumer messages that permeated their world—but not any more. the Pizza Hut reading incentives program in which children receive certificates for free pizza if they achieve a monthly reading goal. including: • Sponsored educational materials: for example. chat rooms and blogs to spread the word about music. etc. where young "Net promoters" use newsgroups. Contests and incentive programs: for example. Exclusive deals with fast food or soft drink companies to offer their products in a school or district."street marketing. Buzz marketing is particularly well-suited to the Internet.

The FTC report also highlighted the fact that toys based on characters from mature entertainment are often marketed to young children. in print." Music containing "explicit-content" labels were targeted at young people through extensive advertising in the most popular teen venues on television. Marketing plans included placing advertising in media that would reach a substantial percentage of children under 17. The FTC studied 44 films rated "Restricted. In a report released in 2000. Parents generally do not understand the extent to which kids are being marketed to online. without parental supervision.S." and discovered that 80 per cent were targeted to children under 17.• It's part of youth culture. Marketing plans included TV commercials run during hours when young viewers were most likely to be watching. 70 per cent regularly marketed Mature rated games (for 17 years and older) to children. 34 Pester Power effect of Advertising . This generation of young people is growing up with the Internet as a daily and routine part of their lives. and make sure that everyone between the ages of 12 and 18 was exposed to the film. Sophisticated technologies make it easy to collect information from young people for marketing research. and radio. music and video games industries routinely market violent entertainment to young children. and online. which have codes regarding advertising to kids. the Internet is unregulated. "Our goal was to find the elusive teen target audience. Mature and Teen rated video games are advertised in youth magazines. the U. interactive environments based on products and brand names. and to target individual children with personalized advertising. By creating engaging. Of the video game companies investigated for the report. Unlike broadcasting media. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) revealed how the movie. companies can build brand loyalties from an early age. • • • • • Marketing adult entertainment to kids Children are often aware of and want to see entertainment meant for older audiences because it is actively marketed to them. and toys based on Restricted movies and Mrated video games are marketed to children as young as four. Kids are often online alone. One studio's plan for a violent R-rated film stated.

It highlights how parents are "greatly underestimating" the effect that the credit crunch is having on their children. with 56% saying no more often to their kids. The study follows interviews with more than 1. compared to nearly half of all children (49%) who said they now worry about money. but also how worried they are about their parents' wellbeing. with more than two thirds of 12-16 year olds (68%) saying they are worried about getting a job when they are older. 35 Pester Power effect of Advertising .more than half (55%) of kids said they were worried about the impact the recession was having on their mum and dad. The research also uncovered that the credit crunch generation has developed a more frugal outlook on life.000 parents and 600 children. 44% of children said their lives had become worse since the beginning of the credit crunch. Parents are also pushing back more. 44% of kids admitted they are not asking their parents for things that ‘they don't really need' compared to before the recession.The age of ‘pester power' could be over The recession could signal the end of ‘pester power' as new research reveals the extent to which the recession is having an impact on children's lives and their attitudes to money. in reality the figure is much higher . potentially signalling the demise of ‘pester power'. In addition. In addition. only 16% of parents thought their children were worried about financial issues. While only 18% of parents thought their children were concerned about the credit crunch. not just in their attitude to finances.

I don't want him to feel deprived. it was very stressful for the parent to measure up to the kid's demands and also prove that she could outdo what the best friend's mom did for her birthday! All this hullabaloo for the birthday of a 5-year old! In India this trend is slowly but surely creeping in. She wants to watch her serials while he wants cartoons.Parenting: How to handle pester power Are you yet another parent who is being held to ransom by your tiny tots? Many children." They know they can Kiddie pester power is on the rise. According to the story. having a personal television would make 36 Pester Power effect of Advertising . especially in cities today. who works in a foreign bank in Kolkata. Suneil cajoled his parents by lamenting how lonely he felt while his parents were at work. Gone are the days when children were content with dolls. board games and books. that latest video games (that cost more than the average person's monthly income). Expensive gifts It is not uncommon for parents today to gift their children personal plasma televisions. We hate to come back home and see the child and grandparent at war. a 28-year old single mom. Today. some kids might consider these gifts pass. If kids want something. His mother Asha. I work long hours and need to travel frequently. Suneil turned seven last month and his birthday gift is a colour television in his room. Recently. The bike is very expensive but the look of joy on his face made it worthwhile." Sunaina. an article in one of the national dailies talked about the harrowing experience one mother had whilst celebrating her little girl's birthday. want the moon for their birthday. designer watches. After my husband's death. et al. And they are even getting it. who works in a five-star hotel in Mumbai says. My husband and I are out to work and come back late. 27. So we bought him a television for his birthday. "I really feel bad about leaving him with the maid all day long. bought a battery-operated miniature bike for her five-year old son. "There were big fights between Suneil and my mother in-law over the television. they seem to know how to 'lovingly' whip their parents into relenting.

Life abounds in disappointments and rejections. you can't blame the kid for making unreasonable demands.him happier as he could watch his favourite cartoons sans grandmum's constant nagging. Families now have fewer children and working parents feel guilty about not being at home more often. "I know my son armtwists me into agreeing to his demands but I give in. "If dad was here. How to tackle the problem The how-to list is never ending. he would have got it for me. says. if you are extravagant in your expenses.' Child psychiatrists feel that today's children are confronting a new world with new rules. so they give in to the child's demand. ~ Teach your child how to take 'no' for an answer The most valuable and important lesson you teach your child is to accept rejection." The usual line of thought is 'We can afford it. Says Sunaina. cajoling to manipulation -." Psychiatrist Dr Shetty opines. "Parents also want whatever little time they spend with their kids to be pleasant and tantrum-free. Most parents can see through but give in nevertheless. ~ Be firm 37 Pester Power effect of Advertising . He doesn't have his father and why do I earn if not to give him what he wants?" The kiddie brigade is also influencing adult decisions of purchase. Parents often try to live vicariously through their kids and make up for many of their own shortcomings. But teaching your child how to make choices is one thing and allowing them to have their way at any cost is quite another. So. Children emulate parents. Sunaina's son just had to say. Unless they learn to cope with it. ''Parents try to give their kids opportunities they didn't get when they were young. so let the kid have fun. My friend and her husband upgraded their car from the humble Wagon R to Chevrolet Aveo because their six-year old went on endlessly about how miserable he felt driving around in the Wagon R! Working parents' guilt Psychologists point to the spurt in dual-income households. more independent and to make choices. where they are taught to be more assertive.but the fact remains that an increasing number of parents are succumbing to relentless pestering. Anjali Chhabria. a child psychologist with 20 years of experience who manages her own practice in Mumbai. their years ahead would be full of misery." Techniques range from emotional blackmail to temper tantrums. The crux of the issue is that you have to be firm.

Whether you work to keep the family afloat or to achieve your personal ambitions. be firm. If they see your fritter away your money. Let them know that you dislike such comments and they wouldn't get anywhere with such tactics. etc. ~ Beware of the guilt trap There's no reason to feel guilty if you are working. you can't blame the kid for competing with his/her friend. If children or others in the family begin the emotional blackmail on you. they won't feel wrong in demanding extravagant gifts from you. If you compete with your friends in buying the bigger car. Explain that competition is good at sports and studies but not in such trivial things.When kids make expensive demands. 38 Pester Power effect of Advertising . But all this will fall on deaf ears if you don't practice what you preach. nip it in the bud. bigger diamonds. ~ Discourage comparisons When they say that they should have a grander birthday than their best friend. etc. Once again. sit down and talk to them. Tell them that there's no end to compete on such trivial issues. you have to show the way. a better house. you have no reason to feel guilty. Teach them the value of money. There will always be someone with a better car.

mean it.Tips on tackling pester power • Don’t feel guilty for not having a bottomless purse. If your kids know that you will eventually cave in they will keep trying. • When you say no. • Teaching your children the value of money is an extremely good lesson to learn. But be firm so you don’t get caught in the trap of haggling if your child has an answer for everything. It could be that you can’t afford it or that you only just bought them something last week. This can be the hardest thing to do. 39 Pester Power effect of Advertising . • When you say no it may help to talk to your child about why. Or could you combine birthday and Christmas presents together if they were set on something? Again if your child is really serious about something can the family club together rather than buy individual presents? If you do this you may need to remind your child that they will not be getting as many presents if everyone clubs together. Especially if you want to give them things you never had. Is there a possibility of sharing the cost with your older children? If they have a Saturday job or paper round you could offer to pay for half if they put in the rest. those trainers don’t come cheap but may be really important to your teenager and how they fit in with their friends. • Is there a compromise? For example. But just remember you are saying no for a reason. It helps to be calmly honest and explain what you think is value for money and what is affordable. 'Just because I say so' is sometimes not enough for your child to understand the decision.

Sometimes as parents we forget how important something as simple as a pair of trainers or the latest football shirt can be.like fitting in with friends. • Remember that children change their minds every week with new crazes. try not to be flippant with their wants and feelings.• Even if you say no try to show your child you understand how they feel. or trying to impress. Even if the answer is no. • Setting ground rules with your ex-partner is important in the same way all decisions are. like your time. 40 Pester Power effect of Advertising . take one of their favourites in your bag to distract them. They will soon learn that mummy or daddy’s purse doesn’t come out for them every time you go out. Or if you know your child will want a drink or a snack pop some in your bag. so if you have said no for a reason you know your ex-partner will back you up. But to some children it can mean so much more . there may be times where you can share babysitting so that you can go shopping without the children and avoid the stress of shopping with them. love or simple but thoughtful presents will be remembered long after the latest toy has been thrown away. Help them to see that they can’t have everything they want and if it is a Christmas list tell them that not even Father Christmas has that much money and ask them to list presents in order of preference with a limit of five. Remember all the things that you do give your child. • Agree tactics with your partner. • Is there anyone who can look after the kids when you go shopping?Although there is not always a babysitter to hand when you want to go shopping. Agree on decisions and stick to them so you don’t undermine each other. But if this sounds an impossible task. If you know your child will start asking for a new toy. don’t let yourself get het up if they buy the kids presents you can’t afford. • Try to get out of the habit of buying something every time you go out and make treats be what they are treats.

• Don’t say yes unless you mean it. tell them you will think about it so you can give them a final answer rather than break a promise which can be hard for your child to understand. If your child asks you if they can have something and you feel put on the spot. 41 Pester Power effect of Advertising .

Prentice Hal Publishing House.12 edition.COM WWW.YAHOO.COM News Papers • • ECONOMIC TIMES TIMES OF INDIA 42 Pester Power effect of Advertising .COM WWW. Philip and Keller.GOOGLE. (Sultan Chand and Sons). Oxford University Press. Bhattacharya Varshney “International Marketing Management”.COM WWW. New Delhi. Website • • • • • WWW. Pearson Education(Singapore)Pvt..BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • Kotler.YOUTUBE.TALKINGRETAIL. Onkvisit Sak & Shaw John J “International Marketing-Analysis and Strategy”. International Marketing: Rajesh Mohan Joshi.WIKIPEDIA. New Delhi. Indian branch. Kevin Lan.Ltd. New Delhi. Marketing Managaement.COM WWW. New Delhi.

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