These days, increasing traffic volume makes congestion commonly around the tollgates of Highway. So, reform measure of congestion around the tollgates is urgently required. One of the methods is ATCS (Automatic Toll Collection System), which mostly is studied recently. Several tollgates in Korea operate ATCS, named Hi-Pass System, as examples. However, actually it's too hard to build ETC systems in all tollgates because of system cost. Therefore we have studied indefatigably how to enhance efficiency of existing TCS (Toll Collecting System) with ATSC. Until Building ETC systems in all tollgates, several ways of TCS will have been operated mixedly. This study, therefore, has been aimed at developing the optimum operation method of combination ATCS and various TCSs. We develop a micro simulation model, which reproduces the operation states of various tollgate systems: waiting time, passing time. With this simulator, we proposed the optimal operation strategy of highway tollgate by benefit-cost analysis on the basis of benefit in saving total waiting time and operating cost.

An RFID tag is installed on each vehicle with read/write memory. A reader device at the gate reads this data from the vehicle and compares it with the data in the computer database and allows the access accordingly by opening the gate. A time stamp and the entry count is also written into the RFID tag each time the vehicle passes through the gate. This data is used to print a daily or monthly bill for toll collection from the vehicles.

The entire system is developed as an embedded system using ATMEL micro-controller and associated devices. The system is connected to a PC using the RS232C interface in the embedded system. This allows the system to read and write data from/to a database that is from the account.


Vehicle Part


) Actuator Actuator is a stepper motor which is controlled by the microcontroller.) Transaction unit In order to make the transactions there is a computer which is interfaced to the microcontroller. According to the type of type of the vehicle it decrement or increment money from the account depending on whether the account is pre-paid or post-paid. .) Serial Communication Serial communication port RS-232 is used to interface the computer with the microcontroller. 4. At the end of each month it will prepare the bill for each vehicle if the account is post-paid. If the account is prepaid the user can give the money in advance. According to the information got it access the account of the vehicle passed. If the account is valid the control signal must be one indicating to open the gate or else not open. It also gives a control signal to the actuator unit. The computer can access the account of every vehicle. 3. Control signal depending on the validity of the account. According to the given money the account of the user will be incremented or recharge. 2.) Micro controller section Micro controller process the data and produces o/p control signals it reads the decoded data from the decoder and identifies the vehicle.BLOCK DESCRIPTION Tollgate session 1.


GATE SECTION Practical Bipolar Drive Circuits There are a number of integrated H-bridge drivers on the market. . but it is still useful to look at discrete component implementations for an understanding of how an H -bridge works.

The circuit in Figure 3. In fact. each of which may be properly described as a push-pull dri er. when sourcing current. TTL tri-state line dri ers such as the 74LS125A and the 74LS244 can be used as half H-bridges for small loads. The motor winding will be energised i exactly one of the X and Y inputs is high and exactly one of them is low.14 consists of two identical hal es. to evenly divide the current between the drivers that are . Each tri-state buffer in the LS244 can sink about twice the current it can source. and the internal resistance of the buffers is sufficient.5 volts using a 5 volt supply. As a result. If both are high.15: Fi 3 5 This circuit is effecti e for dri ing motors with up to about 50 ohms per winding at voltages up to about 4. The term half H-bridge is sometimes applied to these circuits! It is also worth noting that a half H-bridge has a circuit quite similar to the output dri e circuit used in TTL logic. If both are low.Fi 3 4 The X and Y input t thi ci cuit can be dri en by open collector TTL output as in the darlington-based unipolar dri e circuit in Figure 3. both pull-up transistors will be off. as illustrated in Figure 3. this simple circuit puts the motor in dynamic braking mode in both the 11 and 00 states. and does not offer a coasting mode. both pull-down transistors will be off.7.

it appears that Seagate only made these when they used stepping motors for head positioning in Seagate disk drives. enabled in pairs. The use of external diodes allows a series resistor to be put in the current recirculation path to speed the decay of the current in a motor winding when it is turned off. Unlike earlier drivers. but unfortunately. XYE=110. The L293 family offers excellent choices for driving small bipolar steppers drawing up to one amp per motor winding at up to 36 volts. 12 and 13 designed to conduct heat to the PC board or to an external heat sink. Figure 3.13. or as two full H-bridges. For example. but again. introduced later.16 shows the pinout common to the L293B and L293D chips: 3 6 Fi This chip may be viewed as 4 independent half H-bridges. it does not include protection diodes. but these states are not encoded as efficiently: The second dynamic braking mode. . the Seagate IPxMxx series of dual H-bridge chips (IP1M10 through IP3M12) were very well thought out. The L293D chip. 5. the data sheet for this driver even suggests using it for motor control applicatons. this may be desirable in some applications. The Toshiba TA7279 dual H-bridge driver would be another another excellent choice for motors under 1 amp. with supply voltages up to 18 volts and up to 250 milliamps per motor winding. each motor winding must be set across a bridge rectifier (1N4001 equivalent). This is a power DIP package. is pin compatible and includes these diodes. but unlike them. This motor drive allows for all of the useful states achieved by the driver in Figure 3. One of the problems with commercially available stepping motor control chips is that many of them have relatively short market lifetimes. provides a slightly weaker braking effect than the first because of the fact that the LS244 drivers can sink more current than they can source. The Microchip (formerly Telcom Semiconductor) TC4467 Quad CMOS driver is another example of a general purpose driver that can be used as 4 independent half H-bridges. If the earlier L293 is used.run in parallel. it appears to have been made for internal use only. The SGS-Thompson (and others) L293 dual H-bridge is a close competitor for the above chips. with pins 4.


Rectifier Filter and Voltage regulator .POWER SUPPLY Power supply section for 12V (Fig . 3. 2.1) Power supply section for 5V (Fig . It has three main sections.2) The above figure shows the circuit diagram of power supply unit. 1.

The transformer is used to reduce the 230v ac to 14v-0v-14v. During the ±Ve half cycle of the secondary voltage diode D2 and D4 become forward biased and D1 and D3 reverse biased.Rectifier: . The circuit arrangement is shown in the above figure. So we get an output in the form of pulsating DC.the four diodes are arranged as shown in the figure. Here we use a simple shunt capacitor filter. the diode D1 and D3 are forward biased and D2 and D4. The capacitor offers low reactance to the AC and very high impedance to the DC. This type of filter consists of a high value capacitor and connected across the output terminals.Filter circuit is used to eliminate the ripple contents in the rectified DC output. Input and Output waveforms (without filtering) During the first +Ve half cycle of the secondary voltage.Here we use a full wave rectifier. is reverse biased. Filter: . . It consists of a step down transformer and two semiconductor bridge diodes (W10M). Here we can see that during both half cycles of input. This arrangement is called full wave bridge rectifier. So that the ac components in the output are find a low resistance path through the capacitor and maintaining almost pure DC at the output. the current through the circuit is in the same direction.

Hence.The output of the power supply can vary due to the following factors. .Output waveform after filtering Regulator: . Load regulations of a power supply are generally expressed in percentage (%). Regulation Factor The ability of a power supply to maintain a constant DC output voltage for variations in the load current is referred to as load regulation. Circuits or components used to keep the constant DC output voltage of a power supply are called voltage regulators. it is required to regulate the DC output of power supplies so as to keep the constant output.   The load current can increase or decrease Fluctuations in the 230V input supply Such variations in the output DC voltage of power supply are not acceptable for most of the electronic circuits.

7905. 7912 and 7815 etc are examples of this type.In our circuit we use an IC based regulated circuit. They are designed to provide either positive or negative regulated DC output voltages.5) shows the connections of a voltage regulated IC. capacitor. Fixed output voltage regulators The latest generation of fixed output voltage regulator ICs has only three pins. While using this IC take the typical value corresponds to the output voltage at IC under normal input and load conditions. and transistor etc The Fig (1. Which consist of hundreds of passive and active components such as resistor. Short circuit output current: . 7812. IC 7812 is a 12V regulator and specifications are shown bellow Out put voltage and output current: . diode. typical and maximum output ratings.This indicates the shorted current if the output gets shorted in 7812 the output current limited to 350mA when the output terminals are shorted.This specification indicates the regulated DC output voltage and current that can be obtained from the IC. IC 7805. the manufacturer specifies minimum. . As can be seen from the simple specification table given above. But 7812 is a positive voltage regulator.

5) Identification of Voltage Regulators y y y 78XX and 79XX series are three terminal voltage All 78XX series are positive voltage regulators. All 79XX series are negative voltage regulators. when used as voltage regulators. The term XX indicated the rated output voltage. regulators. .These ICs. do not need extra components other than two small value capacitors as shown in figure (1.

Computer programs can send data (bytes) to the transmit pin (output) and receive bytes from the receive pin (input). Thus the minimum number . Each of the 9 pins usually connects to a wire. universal serial buses. There are many types of I/O devices such as serial ports. parallel ports. Serial flow is a stream of bits over a single wire (such as on the transmit or receive pin of the serial connector). ethernet boards. etc. Pins and Wires Old PC's used 25 pin connectors but only about 9 pins were actually used so today most connectors are only 9-pin. Most PC's have one or two serial ports. This interface provide a cost effective simple and reliable communication between one controller to another controller or between a controller and PC.SERIAL PORT COMMMUNICATION What is a Serial Port ? The UART serial port (or just "serial port for short" is an I/O (Input/Output) device. What Are UARTS? UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) or USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) are one of the basic interface which you will find in almost all the controllers available in the market till date. another pin (wire) is signal ground. data bits flow in parallel. The other pins are for control purposes and ground. Each has a 9-pin connector (sometimes 25-pin) on the back of the computer. it must convert data from parallel (inside the computer) to serial on the transmit pin (and conversely). An I/O device is just a way to get data into and out of a computer. Most of the electronics of the serial port is found in a computer chip (or a part of a chip) known as a UART. The serial port is much more than just a connector. For the serial port to create such a flow. It converts the data from parallel to serial and changes the electrical representation of the data. The voltage on any wire is measured with respect to this ground. Besides the two wires used for transmitting and receiving data. disk drive controllers. Inside the computer.

To transmit a byte. Conversely. Except that it has been known to work with no signal ground wire but with degraded performance and sometimes with errors. If the attached device is a modem. When the computer wants to send a byte out the serial port (to the external cable) the CPU sends the byte on the bus inside the computer to the I/O address of the serial port. Then when the last bit has been sent and the shift register needs another byte to send it could just ask the CPU to send it another byte. Thus would be simple but it would likely introduce delays since the CPU might not be able to get the byte immediately. it sends an interrupt to the CPU by putting a voltage on a dedicated wire on the computer bus. but instead. and sends it out one bit at a time (a serial bit-stream) on the transmit pin of the serial cable connector. other wires may tell the modem to hang up the telephone line or tell the computer that a connection has been made or that the telephone line is ringing Transmitting Transmitting is sending bytes out of the serial port away from the computer. The serial port takes the byte. One of these wires is to signal the computer to stop sending bytes out the serial port cable. the serial device driver program (running on the CPU) sends a byte to the serial port¶s I/O address. Then when the shift register has sent out its byte and needs a new byte immediately. there is a separate dedicated wire for every type of signal. When the shift register grabs the byte out of the buffer and the buffer needs another byte. This byte gets into a 1-byte "transmit shift register" in the serial port. Some (or all) of these control wires are called "modem control lines". No need to call the CPU to fetch a new byte. the serial port hardware just transfers the next byte from its own buffer to the shift register. another wire signals the device attached to the serial port to stop sending bytes to the computer. the interrupt forces it to stop . A way to eliminate such delays is to arrange things so that the CPU gets the byte before the shift register needs it and stores it in a serial port buffer (in hardware). The work at the serial port is done by the UART chip (or the like). Modem control wires are either in the asserted state (on) of +12 volts or in the negated state (off) of -12 volts. Unless the CPU is doing something very important. All of these signals could have been shared on a single wire. From this shift register bits are taken from the byte one-by-one and sent out bit-by-bit on the serial line.of wires to use for 2-way transmission of data is 3. There are still more wires which are for control purposes (signalling) only and not for sending bytes.

Receiving Receiving bytes by a serial port is similar to sending them only it's in the opposite direction. The serial port also adds extra bits to each byte (start. Then the CPU will start running the serial device driver which checks registers at I/0 addresses to find out what has happened. The next byte is moved from the transmit buffer into the transmit shift register 2. then the CPU is free to pursue some other activity until it gets the next interrupt. For the obsolete type of serial port with 1 -byte . The 16-byte buffer is actually a FIFO (First In First Out) queue and is often called a FIFO. when a byte has been fully transmitted out the transmit wire of the serial port and the shift register is now empty the following 3 things happen almost si multaneously: 1. It finds out that the serial's transmit buffer is empty and waiting for another byte. Once a byte has been sent to the transmit buffer by the CPU. stop and perhaps parity bits) so there are often 10 bits sent per byte. In review. The serial port transmits bits at a fixed rate which is selected by the user (or an application program).what it was doing and start running a program which will supply another byte to the port's buffer. it will know who sent the interrupt since there is a dedicated interrupt wire for each serial port (unless interrupts are shared). The transmission of this new byte (bit-by-bit) begins 3. This means that when the CPU gets an interrupt it gives the serial port up to 16 new bytes to transmit. Another interrupt is issued to tell the device driver to send yet another byte to the now empty transmit buffer Thus we say that the serial port is interrupt driven. The purpose of this buffer is to keep an extra byte (waiting to be sent) queued in hardware so that there will be no gaps in the transmission of bytes out the serial port cable. A major improvement has been the enlargement of the buffer size of the serial port from 1-byte to 16-bytes. It's also interrupt driven. Each time the serial port issues an interrupt. it sends the next byte to the serial port's I/0 address. This is fewer interrupts to service but data must still be transferred one byte at a time over a wide bus. It's sometimes called the baud rate. This next byte should arrive when the previous byte is still in the transmit shift register and is still being transmitted bit-by-bit. So if there are more bytes to send. the CPU sends it another byte. Once the CPU gets the interrupt.

the signal condition is spacing. there could be 16 bytes to get if 2 more bytes have arrived since the interrupt. RS-232 voltage Level . The EIA-232 spec provides also for synchronous (sync) communication but the hardware to support sync is almost always missing on PC's. Then the port gives the CPU an interrupt to tell it to pick up that byte so that the serial port will have room for storing the next byte which is currently being received. The RS designation is obsolete but is still widely used. when a byte is fully received from the external cable it goes into the 1-byte receive buffer. RS-232 or EIA-232. But if 3 more bytes should arrive (instead of 2). Logic zero is positive. and has the function of ON. So a logic zero represented as +3V to +25V and logic one represented as -3 to -25 V. and has the functional significance of OFF. For an interrupt sent when the 14th byte has been received. EIA-232-D. this interrupt (to fetch the bytes) may be sent after 14 bytes are in the receive buffer. For newer serial ports with 16-byte buffers.. etc. and picks up 14 to 16 bytes from the port. These three are almost the same thing. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 25 volts. then the 16-byte buffer will overrun. logic one is defined as negative voltage.buffers. The serial port (not the USB) is usually a RS-232-C. or EIA-232-E. the signal condition is called marking. The original RS (Recommended Standard) prefix became EIA (Electronics Industries Association) and later EIA/TIA after EIA merged with TIA (Telecommunications Industries Association). The range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level. runs the interrupt service routine. It also may pick up less than 14 bytes by setting it that way or due to timeouts. The CPU then stops what it was doing. RS-232 Basics RS-232 Recommended standard is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE(data terminal equipment ) and a DCE(data circuit terminating equipment) The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that corresponds to logical one and logical zero levels.

RS-232 level converters Usually all the digital IC work on TTL or CMOS voltage levels which cannot be used to communicate over RS-232 protocol. This IC includes charge up pumps which can generate RS232 voltage levels (-10V and +10V) from 5V power supply. RXD(receive). So a voltage or level converter is needed which can convert TTL to RS-232 and RS-232 to TTL voltage levels. MAX232 Interfacing with Microcontrollers To communicate over UART or USART. GND(common ground) .So to interface MAX232 . TXD(transmit). It also includes two receivers and two transmitters and is capable of full duplex UART/USART communication. The most commonly used RS-232 level converter is MAX-232. we just need three basic signals which are namely.

A simple schematic diagram of connections between a microcontroller and MAX232 is shown below. Pin out of 9-pin serial connector The pin numbers are often engraved in the plastic of the connector but you may need a magnifying glass to read them. starting with 1 in the upper right corner (instead of 1 in the upper left corner for the male connector as shown below). AMR.) we just need the basic signals.. The numbering of the pins on a female connector is read from right to left. . PIC etc.with any microcontroller (AVR. Note DCD is sometimes labeled CD. --> direction is out of PC. 8051.



Functions 1. Pins for external Antenna connection 3. which can make use of it. Tracking data means such identifier data itself or such data as that can identify the identification of such identifier and its location at the time. traceability system can be developed. but the most common and widely used and supported by our reader is 125kHz. Wiegand Interface also available 5. Some RFID devices have a memory function (data storage mechanism) inside such device itself. Also there exist an active RFID and a passive RFID. Supports reading of 64 bit Manchester Encoded cards 2. RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies. Traceability means a function for tracing specific items which would be distributed through some different ways. Serial Interface(TTL) 4. The reader has been designed as a plug and play module and can be plugged on a standard 300 MIL-28 pin IC socket form factor. On the contrary the passive RFID can¶t send any electronic wave by itself. What is Tracking Data and Traceability? As an application system using RFID devices. Customer application . The active RFID can send electronic wave from the RFID. and some devices don¶t have such a function. There are many types of RFID device. RFID Reader Module RFID Reader Module.RFID MODULE What is RFID? RFID is electronic chips or application devices using such chips which have a function of radio wave communication and of identification of such chips or devices. Every traceability system shall catch and identify any identifiers in the course of operation. Tracking data may be collected in different events using same ID. are also called as interrogaters. existence and identification of specific RFID device can be identified by the RFID reader/writer system . However in both cases. Therefore traceability means a capability of controlling tracking data or collecting tracking data. and can be controlled by traceability system. such RFID can only reflect any electronic wave from a RFID reader/write system. They convert radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to controllers.

Technical Data Frequency Read Range Power supply Current consumption max Operating temperature Storing temperature Interface Dimension Serial interface format : 125 kHz : up to 8 cm : 5V DC ( 5%) : 60 mA : -20 to +65 degree Celsius : -40 to +75 degree Celsius : RS-232(TTL) : 36× 18× 10 mm : 9600 Baud. 2. No parity. The RFID which we use here has the following functions 1. 8 Data bits. Therefore the signal must be converted to RS-232 level for PC connection. 1 stop bit The TTL RS-232 Interface cannot be connected directly to a PC COM port. Read Tag-ID Send Tag-ID in ASCII Format through the serial interface. RFID READER .


555 IC based astable multivibrator is used.IR CIRCUITS This circuit has two stages: a transmitter unit and a receiver unit. IC 555 is used to construct an astable multivibrator which has two quasi-stable states. Infrared LED is driven through transistor BC 557. IR RECEIVER The receiver circuit consists of the following components: y TSOP1738 (sensor) y IC 555 y Resistors y Capacitors . To generate IR signal. The transmitter unit consists of an infrared LED and its associated circuitry. It generates a square wave of frequency 38kHz and amplitude 5Volts. IR TRANSMITTER The transmitter circuit consists of the following components: y y y y IC 555 Resistors Capacitors IR LED The IR LED emitting infrared light is put on in the transmitting unit. It is required to switch µON¶ the IR LED.

As a result the monostable is triggered and a short pulse is applied to the port pin of the 8051 microcontroller. which detects IR pulses transmitted by IR-LED. In receiver section. . The IR receiver circuit is shown in the figure below.The receiver unit consists of a sensor and its associated circuitry. the first part is a sensor. On receiving a pulse from the sensor circuit. the output of IR sensor momentarily transits through a low state. Whenever a train crosses the sensor. the controller activates the circuitry required for closing and opening of the gates and for track switching.


0 It is CAD software It can able to design up to 8 layer PCBs The files are saved with extension *.PCB Layout Designing The designing and fabrication of PCB is major part of system development process. So the PCB designing is an important job. The layers from op to bottom are.PCB Depending n the options choose our board can have as few as two layers or as many as seven layers. The success of the circuit is also depends upon the PCB.0 {ORGINAL VER} X486 processor Windows 9X OS 16Mb RAM 110 Mb HDD space About EXPRESS PCB9. o Silkscreen o Top solder mask o Top copper o Inner copper ground plane o Inner copper power plane o Bottom copper layer o Bottom solder mask . The layout is designed using a personal computer. Designing software Software requirements : : : : : EXPRESS PCB 9.

. or as an unfilled circle with a thick black line. assuming 0.down to 10mil if you really need to.. The most important thing is to get a clear sharp image with a very solid opaque black.Our requirements:- o o o o o o o o o o o Two layer PCB {top layer only used for jumper connections} PTH not required Board size is not critical but must be compatible as much as possible Pad size are not critical Provide better noise rejection Cross talk must be avoid Minimize the use of jumper wires Provide standard spacing between components and pads Snap size is 0.025 inch Grid spacing 2. You never get a good board without good network.8mm hole. but through linking will be harder.. It is absolutely essential that your PCB software prints holes in the middle of pads.54 mm Snap to grid is 0. If you are using general purpose CAD or graphic package. define pads as either a grouped objects containing a black filled circle with a concentric white filled circle on top of it. Now a days artwork is drawn using either a dedicated PCB CAD program or a suitable drawing package.635 mm PCB LAYOUT PCB Fabrication Techniques You need to generate a positive (copper black) UV translucent artwork film.with 0.8mm drill size. will allow a 12.5 mil . 1mil= (1/1000) th of an inch. When define pad and line shapes. You can go smaller with smaller drill size. So it is important to get the best quality at this stage. It is virtually impossible to actually hand drill boards without these holes if you looks to buy P CB at any cost level and want to be hand ± prototyping of boards before production. which will act as center makes when drilling. 65 mil around or square pads for normal components and DIL ICs . the minimum size recommended for reliable result is 50mil.

Fig ( ) Controller Board .

the artwork must be printed side is in contact with the PCB surface when exposing. Fig ( ) Component Layout . the bottom (solder side ) layer should be printed the µcorrect¶ way round.5mil. grid is 25mil and track width 12.Center to center spacing of 12. in practice.5 mil tracks should be 25 mil-slightly less may be possible if your printer can manage it. this means that if any design the board as seen from the component side . Take care to preserve the correct diagonal tack-track spacing on mitered corners. to avoiding blurred edges. and the top side of the double sided board must be printed mirrored.

As long as you avoid direct sun-light. as you will usually be working in multiples of 0.06cm(40 tracks/inch). It is cheap and easily available from or art suppliers. For small PCB¶s. It is very important that the printer for PCB use. Line definition. Always use manual paper feed and set the straightest possible paper output path to keep th artwork as flat as possible and minimize jamming. But as long as any error is linear.Media Artwork quality is very dependents on both the output device and the media used. You don¶t need darkroom or subdued lighting when handling boards. Photo resist PCB Laminations Always use good quality pre-coated photo resist fiberglass (FR4) board. 600 dpi divides into 40. It is not necessary to use a transparent artwork medium ±as long as it is reasonably translucent to UV. When using tracing or drafting firm. so you get consist spacing and line width. UV exposure unit can easily be made using STD florescent lamp ballast and UV tubes. minimize un necessary exposure. Exposure The photo resist board needed to be exposed to UV light through the artwork. It states flatter under laser printer heat than polyester or acetate film. . and good quality.5cm tubes will be adequate. These are affordable. you usually save paper by cutting the sheet in half. fast. Output Devices Laser printers offer the better all round solution. black opaqueness and toner /ink retention. Get the thickness you can find thinner stuff can.. it can be compensated by scaling the printout in software. and developed immediately after UV exposure. Some laser printers have poor dimension accuracy. Crinkle. Its fine less translucent material may need a lightly longer exposure time. Instagraphic micro track boards develop quickly gives excellent resolution. which can cause problems in large PCBs. two or more 8-watt. do some test printers on tracing paper to the blackest. It should be rated at least 90gsm: 120gsm is even better but harder to find. Even the best laser printers don¶t cover large areas as well. 30. You may need to specify a vertical offset in your PCB software to make it print on the right part of the page. The printer used must have at least 600pi resolution for all but t he simplest PCB . Check carefully for scratches in the protective covering. using a UV exposure box. For small PCB¶s.

Forming a sleeve or envelope.Fig () Power Supply Section If printer errors have caused slight miss-registration. After exposure you can find a faint of the pattern in the photosensitive layer. about 10mm from the edge of the board. so that the thickness of the staple is not much more than of the PCB. staple the sheets together o the opposite sides. When these are correctly aligned. align the sheets to average the errors across the whole PCBs to avoid breaking pad edges or tracks when drilling. The gap between the board edge and staple is important to stop the paper distorting at the edge. Use the smallest stapler you can find. Expose each side. Developing .

Unless you have access to a roller tinning machine. PCB will etch in well under five minutes.For developing a much better developer is silicate based product that comes as a liquid concentrate. Tin plating crystals produces a good finish in a few minutes. you must use tungsten carbide drill bits. Carbide drill bits are expensive and they thin ones snap very easily. It attacks any metal including stainless steel. Critical no risk of stripping at warmer temp. Although HSS drills are right for odd larger size (>2mm). because fiberglass eats normal high-speed steel bits very fastly. with plastic fittings and screws. Tin plating a PCB makes it a lot easier to solder . When carbide bits below 1mm. . use a plastic or ceramic sink. Uniformly . you must use a vertical drill stand. Tin Plating. you can easily removed it by gently whip using a paper towel Etching Ferric chloride etching is a messy stuff. use ensure that the temp of the tinning solution is at least 25°C. Copper water pipes may get splashed or dipped on. If the board is under exposed you will get a thin layer of resist which isn¶t removed by the developer. With fresh hot ferric chloride. but not more than 40°C. Drilling If you have fiberglass board. You can leave the board in it for several times in the normal developing time with out noticeable degradation. tin plate the board . chemical tinning is the only option. some of them required mixing with acid or high temp. There are other tinning chemicals available. So when setting up a PCB etching area. but easily available and cheaper than most alternatives.either leave the photo resist coating on most resists are intended to act as soldering fluxes) or spray the board with rework flux to prevent the copper from oxidizing room temp. This also means that it is not temp. So sleeve or cover them in plastic. Adding a teaspoon of salt helps you to make the etching clearer and for easier inspection. and is pretty much essential for surface mount boards. Fast etch ing produces better edge quality and consistent line width.

The heating element of soldering iron usually reaches temp. a handle and a power cord. or a thick film resistance element printed on to the ceramic base. To avoiding this you should use collects. The element is then in a metal tube for strength and protection. A carbide tile saw blade in the gig saw might be wroth a try. For accuracy however three jaw chucks are in brilliant and small drill sizes below 1mm you should use collects and buy a few extra of quickly forms grooves in the few preventing good grip. Small drills for PCB use usually either a set of collects of various size or a three jaw chuck. to solder you need a soldering iron. to ensure accuracy Cutting A small guillotine is the easiest way to cut fiberglass lamination boards. size (0. The tip plating makes it very resistant to aggressive solders and fluxes. Ordinary saws (band saws.Fig() Component Layout of Power section You will break drills very quickly with out one. You need a good strong light on the board when drilling.35mm). The soldering bit is a specially shaped copper plated with chrome or iron. Carbide drill bits are available as straight shank or thick (sum times called turbo) sank. The straight sank drills are usually preferred because they are usually cheaper.The commonly . soldering bit. The longer thin section provides more flexibility. of around 370-400°C. Solder is a combination of metals which sold metal at 180-200°C. Sank tapers down to the hole size. It is used in electrical and electronic circuitry. The heating element is either a resistance coil wounded a ceramic tube. In straight sank. the hole bit is the diameter of the hole. also easily accidentally start through its protective film when sawing Soldering Soldering is the process of joining together of two metals to give physical banding and electrical conductivity. and in thick sank a std. a modern iron consist of heating element. gig saws and hacksaws) will be blunted quickly unless these are carbide typed and ducat can cause skin irritation.

Always keep hot iron on a bunch stand when not in use. etc. Led free solders are now a day available. and provides an adequate oxide removal. In electronics a 60/40 fluxed core solders used. y Material selection y Case measurements Commonly used materials are sheet metal.e. Flex is an aggressive chemical that remove oxides and impurities form the part to be soldered. Before soldering. . Case Making It includes mainly two steps. We use fiber glass for case making. Breadth. but they are most costly and harder to work. First we cut the glass in the required dimensions (Length. connectors and wires.available solder is 63/37 i. Then joined the glass pieces using screws and glue. wood. Necessary openings are cut in the glass for switches.361°C... Before and after use whip the bit on a damp sponge. RMA type flux (Rosin Mildly Active) is the least corrosive of the readily available material. The chemical reaction at the point of connection is take place for metal to fuse. which occur at the temp. The fiber glass is commonly available in market. less in cost. fiber. 63% led and 37% tin is also known as eutectic solder. Which most desirable characteristics are that it¶s solid-state and its liquid state. soldering points are cleaned and paste this flux. PCB is then fixed inside the cabin using screws and spacers. and Height).

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