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Histology of Endocrine system

Dr. dennis Ivan U. Bravo

Overview
Two systems control all physiologic processes nervous system exerts point-to-point control through nerves Endocrine system controls by secretion of hormones to the bloodstream

Endocrine system
Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Pancreas Adrenal gland Testicle Ovary

Pituitary Gland
Located at base of brain, surrounded by Circle of Willis Infundibulum connection to hypothalamus In sella turcica of sphenoid bone Two parts with separate embryonic origins: Anterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary

Low magnification the entire Pituitary Gland


Pituitary Stalk Pars Tuberalis

Posterior Pituitary

Pars Intermedia

Anterior Pituitary

Anterior Pituitary Gland


Anterior Pituitary (= adenohypophysis) AKA pars distalis production of 7 peptide hormones 4 are tropic hormones, stimulating other endocrine glands Pars intermedia and pars tuberalis secrete MSH

Posterior Pituitary Gland


Posterior Pituitary (= neurohypophysis) AKA pars nervosa Storage reservoir for ADH and Oxytocin

Pituitary Hormones

Hypophyseal Portal System

Superior hypophyseal artery Hypophyseal veins

Pituitary Histology

Pars Intermedia
Pars distalis

Pars intermedia

Pars nervosa

Pars Intermedia

Pars Intermedia
Vesicles with colloid rathkes cysts

Pars Intermedia
Vesicles with colloid rathkes cysts

capillary

Pars Distalis
Basophils acidophils

Pars Distalis

Pars Distalis
acidophils

Pars Distalis
acidophils Basophils

Pars Distalis
acidophils Basophils

chromophobes

High mag of the Anterior Pituitary note eosinophilic and basophilic cells

Pars Nervosa

Pars Nervosa

Pars Nervosa

Nuclei of pituicyte

Pars Nervosa

Herring bodies

Nuclei of pituicyte

High mag of the Posterior Pituitary neurons, capillaries, and pituicytes

High mag of the Posterior Pituitary note Herring Bodies (arrow)

Thyroid Gland

Anterior surface of trachea just inferior of thyroid cartilage (or Adams apple) Two lobes connected by isthmus

Thyroid Gland

Thyroid follicular cells (simple cuboidal epithelium) produce and store thyroglobulin in thyroid follicles C (chief) Cells: (AKA parafollicular cells) produce calcitonin

Interspersed between thyroid follicles Lower blood Calcium

Thyroid Gland
Follicular cells colloid

Thyroid Gland

basement membrane

C-Cells

High mag of thyroid follicles note Parafollicular or C-Cells (arrows)

Four Parathyroid Glands


4 tiny glands embedded in the posterior aspect of the thyroid (superior and inferior) Parathyroid hormone (PTH; sometimes also called parathormone) Function: (raises blood [Ca2+]) antagonist to Calcitonin

Parathyroid Gland

Structure of Parathyroid Gland

Parathyroid

thyroid

dense cords or nests around abundant capillaries

Low Magnification of the Parathyroid Gland

Parathyroid Gland note small dark staining chief cells and larger, eosinophilic oxyphil cells

PANCREAS

Gland with Double Duties


Endocrine and exocrine functions Exocrine anatomy CT capsule surrounds pancreas Septa divide it into sections Compound acinar gland Secretions 1500 3000ml pancreatic uid (alkaline) Contain water, ions, proteases, lipases, amylake, nucleases, ribonuclease

Low magnification of the Pancreas with Islets of Langerhans (arrows)

Exocrine Pancreas

The structure of pancreatic acini. Acinar cells are pyramidal, with granules at their apex and rough endoplasmic reticulum at their base. The duct partly penetrates the acini.

PANCREAS
Duct

x10

Septum

Endocrine Gland
Islet of Langerhans cells (glucagon) ~ 20% cells (insulin) ~ 70% cells (somatostatin) ~ 5%

Acini

Islet of Langerhans

High mag of an Islet note Beta cells and more eosinophilic Alpha2 cells

Acini

Alpha Cells

Immunohistochemistry of a pancrearic Islet of Langerhans

Glucagon

Insulin

A section of the pancreas showing an islet of Langerhans surrounded by pancreatic acinar cells. The islet cells form cords separated by blood capillaries, here seen as white spaces. H&E stain. Medium magnication. Islet is surrounded by reticular bers separating it from acinar cells.

An islet of Langerhans showing {a} (A) cells and {b} (B) cells. Gomoris trichrome stain. High magnication

Adrenal

(or Suprarenal)

Gland

Adrenal Medulla: modied sympathetic ganglion produces epinephrine and norepinephrine


Adrenalin = adrenaline = epinephrine Neuroendocrine gland

Adrenal

(or Suprarenal)

Gland

Adrenal cortex Corticosteroid production:


Zona Glomerulosa Aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid) Zona fasciculata Glucocorticoids, esp. cortisol, AKA cortisone Zona reticularis Androgens? DHEA?

Steroids
Sex Steroids
Female: estrogen and progesterone Male: testosterone, AKA anabolic steroids

Corticosteroids
From adrenal cortex Cortisol (antiinammatory)

Mineralocorticoids
Aldosterone (preserves Na+) Calcitriol (active form of Vit. D; from kidneys, absorbs Ca2+)

Low magnication of the Adrenal Gland

Cortex

Medulla

Cortex

Adrenal Cortex

Zona Glomerulosa

Zona Fasciculata

Zona Reticularis

Adrenal Cortex

Zona Glomerulosa (clumps, cords, and follicle like structures

Zona Fasciculata (cords of spongiocytes)

Adrenal Gland

Zona Fasciculata cords of spongiocytes

Zona Reticularis darker staining cells

Clinical Correlation
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Low cortisol and aldosterone High testosterone Treatment Prenatal dexamethasoneto control ACTH and then hydrocortisone

Steroidogenesis

Steroidogenesis

Adrenal Medulla

Pineal gland
Part of epithalamus Secretes melatonin
Derivative of serotonin Regulates circadian Rhythms (sleep cycle) Inhibits hypothalamic releasing factors
Decreases repro function

Pineal gland

Corpora arenacea

Pinealocytes

Pineal Gland

N neuroglia P pinealocytes S Brain Sand

Testes
Secrete testosterone into the bloodstream From interstitial cells Stimulates sperm production (along with FSH) Secondary sex characteristics Inhibin (balances FSH) From sustentacular (Sertoli) cells

Testes

Testes

Ovaries
Estrogenby ovarian follicles in response to FSH Progesteroneby the corpus luteum (pl. corpora lutea) in response to LH Inhibindecreases estrogen prodn

Ovaries

Ovaries

Ovaries

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The End
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