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THE UNIVERSITY OF DANANG

COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES


DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES ----- ----NGUYN TH CM TU, M.Ed

ENGLISH
IN

ELECTRONICS AND
TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Danang 2008

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO CONDUCTIVITY

English in Electronics and Telecommunications

Reading and Comprehension


CONDUCTORS, INSULATORS AND SEMICONDUCTORS If we connect(ni) a battery(c quy) across(qua, ngang qua) a body(vt), there is a movement(chuyn ng) of free electrons towards the positive(cc dng) end. This movement of electrons is an electric current(dng, cng dng in). All materials(vt liu) can be (phn p) into three groups according to how readily(sn sng) they permit(cho php) an electric current to flow. These are: conductors(dy dn), insulators, and semiconductors(bn dn). In the first category(hng, hng mc,loi) are substances(bn cht) which provide(cung cp, lp rp) an easy path for an electric current. All metals(bng kim loi) are conductors, however some metals do not conduct well. Manganin(man gan), for example, is a poor conductor. Copper is a good conductor, therefore it is widely used for cables. A nonmetal which conducts well is carbon. Salt water is an example of a liquid conductor. A material which does not easily release electrons is called an insulator. Rubber(cao su, nha), nylon, porcelain( s) and air(gi) are all insulators. There are no perfect(y , hon ho) insulators. All insulators will allow some flow of electrons, however this can usually be ignored because the flow they permit is so small. Semiconductors are midway between conductors and insulators. Under certain conditions they allow a current to flow easily but under others they behave as insulators. Germanium and silicon are semiconductors. Mixtures of certain metallic oxides also act as semiconductors. These are known as thermistors. The resistance of thermistors falls rapidly as their temperature rises. They are therefore used in temperaturesensing(cam bien nhiet do) devices. EXERCISE A Rephrasing

Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the words in italic with expressions from the text above which have similar meanings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The flow of free electrons is an electric current. Materials in the first group are called conductors. Materials which provide a path for an electric current are conductors. All insulators permit some flow of electrons. Germanium sometimes acts as an insulator and sometimes as a conductor. Contextual Reference

EXERCISE B

What do the pronouns in italic in these sentences refer to?

English in Electronics and Telecommunications

1. All materials can be classified into three groups according to how readily they permit an electric current to flow. (a) three groups (b)all materials (c) free electrons 2. Under certain conditions they allow a current to flow easily but under others they behave as insulators. (a) conductors (b)semiconductors (c) insulators 3. These are known as thermistors. (a) metallic oxides (b)semiconductors (c) mixtures of certain metallic oxides 4. They are therefore used in temperature-sensing devices. (a) thermistors (b)semiconductors (c) metallic oxides EXERCISE C Checking facts and ideas

Decide if these statements are true or false. Quote from the passage to support your decisions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Electrons flow from positive to negative Copper provides an easy path for an electric current. All metals are good conductors. All good conductors are metals Air is not a perfect insulator Rubber readily releases electrons. The resistance of a thermistor is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures.

English in Electronics and Telecommunications

Word study 1
DESCRIBING SHAPES Study these nouns and adjectives for describing the shapes of objects: Shape 2 dimensiona l circle semicircle square rectangl e Lines circular semicircular square rectangula r Edges straight curved Rounded Pointed Noun Adjective Shape 3dimensional sphere cylinde r tube Spherical Cylindrical Tubular Rectangul ar noun Adjective

When something has a regular geometric shape we can use one of the adjectives from the table to describe it. EXAMPLE

a square wave When the object has no recognized geometric shape but does resemble a well-known object or a letter of the alphabet, it may be described in one of the following ways : EXAMPLE

an H-shaped antenna

a saw-tooth wave

EXERCISE D Now describe the shapes of the following objects as completely as possible: (a) (b) (c) 1. a ceramic capacitor (d) 2. Transformer laminations

English in Electronics and Telecommunications

3. an electrolytic capacitor

4. an antenna

5. a magnet

6. a cable conduit

7. a carbon brush

8. a capacitor

9. a motor pole shoe

10. a resistor

Word study 2
WORD FORMATION 1- SUFFIXES When you are reading, you will come across unfamiliar words. It is often possible to guess the meanings of these words if you understand the way the words in English are generally formed. An English word can be divided into 3 parts: a prefix, a stem, and a suffix. Pre- means before, a prefix, therefore is what comes before the stem. A suffix, on the other hand, is what is attached to the end of the stem. Both of them are referred to affixes. Suffixes change the part of speech of the word. For example, -or added to the verb conduct gives the noun conductor. SUFFIXES MEANINGS EXAMPLES Noun- forming suffixes: -ance state resonance, resistance -ence quality of interference, existence -er /-or a person who / a thing which oscillator, amplifier -ation the act of modulation, attenuation -ness condition of opaqueness, brightness -ion action / state transmission, expansion -ing activity interlacing, scanning -ment state / action measurement, movement

English in Electronics and Telecommunications -ity directivity -ian -ism synchronism -dom -ship friendship -age -ful teaspoonful state / quality pertaining to condition / state condition condition / state state containing lots of conductivity,

electrician, technician magnetism, freedom relationship, leakage, shortage handful,

Verb- forming suffixes: -ize /-ise synchronize -ate to -fy make -en Adjective- forming suffixes: -al have horizontal -ar quality -ic / -ical of -able / -ible capable of being accessible -ous /- ious like, full of -ful characterized by -less without -ish like -ed having integrated -ive quality of defective -ing making or doing

industrialize, activate, calculate rectify, amplify shorten, harden structural, axial,

circular, rectangular electrostatic, logical demountable, ferrous, obvious useful, colourful wireless, colourless childish, bookish coloured, photosensitive, signalling, processing

Language study 1
DESCRIBING POSITION AND CONNECTION When describing the position of a component or how it is connected in a circuit, phrases of this pattern are used: be + past participle + preposition EXAMPLES

1.The tuning capacitor IS CONNECTED ACROSS the coil. 2. The semiconductor rectifier IS MOUNTED ON the heat sink.

English in Electronics and Telecommunications

EXERCISE E Now complete each sentence using an appropriate phrase from this list: wound round located within(dinh vi ben trong) connected across applied to mounted on connected to wired to connected between
Pole pieces

core

1. The bulbs are . . . . . . . the battery pole pieces. 27pF

2. The core is . . . . . the

3. The 27 pF capacitor is . . . . . . the coil. collector and the base. C1

4. The antenna is . . . . . the

rotor

shaft

feedback 5. Feedback voltage is . . . . . the base of the transistor through C1 core 7. The coil is . . . . . an iron core.

6. The rotor is . . . . . the shaft. +

8. The negative pole of the battery . . . . . . . earth.

English in Electronics and Telecommunications

Language study 2
RELATIVE CLAUSES Study these sentences: 1. Starter motor brushes are made of carbon. 2. The carbon contains copper. Both these sentences refer to carbon. We can link them by making sentence 2 a relative clause. 1+2 Starter motor brushes are made of carbon WHICH CONTAINS COPPER. The relative clause is in capital. Note that THE CARBON in sentence 2 becomes WHICH. Study these other pairs of sentences and note how they are linked: 3. Consumers are supplied at higher voltages than domestic consumers. 4. These consumers use large quantities of energy. 3+4 Consumers WHO USE LARGE QUANTITIES OF ENERGY are supplied at higher voltages than domestic consumers. 5. 33 kV lines are fed to intermediate substations. 6. In the intermediate substations the voltage is stepped down to 11 kV. 5+6 33 kV lines are fed to intermediate substations WHERE THE VOLTAGE
IS STEPPED DOWN TO 11 kV.

EXERCISE F Now link these sentences. Make the second sentence in each pair a relative clause: 1. The coil is connected in series with a resistor. The resistor has a value of 240 ohms. 2. The supply is fed to a distribution substation. The supply is reduced to 415 V in the distribution substation. 3. Workers require a high degree of illumination. The workers assemble very small precision instruments. 4. Manganin is a metal. This metal has a comparatively high resistance. 5. The signal passes to the detector. The signal is rectified by the detector 6. A milliammeter is an instrument. The instrument is used for measuring small currents. 7. Workers require illumination of 300 lux. The workers assemble heavy machinery. 8. Armoured cables are used in places. There is a risk of mechanical damage in these places.

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Language study 3
PRONOUN LINKS BETWEEN SENTENCES When we link sentences together, or into paragraphs, repeated nouns are usually pronouns. EXAMPLE 1. A short circuit occurs in a transformer. 2. The short circuit may cause overheating. 3. The overheating may further damage the insulation. When a short circuit occurs in a transformer, IT may cause overheating. THIS may further damage the insulation. When there may be misunderstanding, or when the repeated noun comes a long time after its first mention, the full noun is used. EXAMPLE First the pole shoes and coils are drawn out of the yoke. Then the coils are removed from them and new coils are fitted over them. Next they are refitted inside the yoke and located by lightly tightening the fixing screws. Finally they are tightened fully and their terminals are soldered. Compare this version where the full nouns have been kept: First the pole shoes and coils are drawn out of the yoke. Then the coils are removed from the shoes and new coil fitted over the shoes. Next the shoes are refitted inside the yoke and located by lightly tightening the fixing screws. Finally the screws are tightened fully and the new coil terminals are soldered. EXERCISE G Now replace the repeated nouns in this paragraph with suitable pronouns where there is no likelihood of confusion. A transformer is a device which changes the magnitude of an ac voltage. The transformer consists of a primary coil to which the input is applied, and a secondary coil from which the output is obtained. The coils are insulated and wound round a former. The coils have a score of soft iron on which the former is mounted. The core is made from many thin sheets or laminations. The sheets are oxidized so that the sheets are insulated from each other. Oxidizing the sheets reduces eddy losses.

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Information transfer
MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS EXERCISE H Make sure that you understand some mathematical symbols used in electrical engineering and electronics. Then write out the following expressions in full. EXAMPLE
I = E R

is equal to E over R.

a. P = I2 x R b. c. d. e. f. g.
1 1 1 1 = + + Rtot R1 R2 R3

BH
XL = Z 2 R2

E = IR Frequency stability
output frequency input frequency

0.04% / oC

10 : 1

100 x 10 4 200 x 10 -5 i. collector dissipation 12 miliwatts

h. Z =

Guided writing

DESCRIBING A DIAGRAM

STAGE 1 Sentence building Join the following groups of sentences to make ten longer sentences. Use the words printed in italic at the beginning of each group. You may omit words and make whatever changes you think are necessary in the word order and punctuation of the sentences. 1. or Circuit can be protected from excessive currents by a fuse. Circuit can be protected from excessive currents by a circuit breaker. 2. however A fuse is the simplest and cheapest protection. For accurate and repetitive operation a circuit breaker is used. 3. which The simplest circuit breaker consists of a solenoid and a switch with contacts. The contacts are held closed by a latch. 4. thus energizing The current from the supply line flows through the switch and solenoid coil. This energizes the solenoid.

English in Electronics and Telecommunications 5. which, therefore At normal currents the pull of the solenoid on the latch will not overcome the tension of the spring. The spring holds the latch in place. The switch remains closed. 6. if The current rises to a dangerous level. The pull of the solenoid on the latch increases. 7. and The increased pull overcomes the latch spring tension. The increased pull pulls the latch towards the solenoid. 8. which This releases the switch contacts. The switch contacts are pulled apart by a spring. 9. as The circuit is now broken. The unit is protected. 10. When The fault in the supply or unit is put right. The latch can be reset. STAGE 2 Diagram labelling

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Label this diagram with the following: Solenoid, latch, switch contacts, latch spring, switch spring

a d
from supply

b c e
to unit

Summarizing
STAGE 1 Comprehension Study this passage carefully and answer the questions which follow:

SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
The resistance of metals varies with their temperature. When they get hot, their resistance increases. When they cool, their resistance falls. The resistance of some metals and alloys steadily decreases as their temperature is lowered, then falls suddenly to a negligible value at

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temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero (-273 o C ). In other words, these materials have almost no resistance to an electric current at very low temperatures. They become almost perfect conductors. This is called superconductivity. It occurs only with certain materials, for example lead, and only at very low temperatures. The practical applications of superconductivity are limited because of the very low temperatures required. A number of uses, however, have been proposed. If a current is induced by a magnetic field in a ring of superconducting material, it will continue to circulate when the magnetic field is moved. In theory this could be made use of in the memory cells of computers. Memory cells made of superconducting materials could store information indefinitely. Because of the zero resistivity of the cells, the information could be retrieved very quickly, as fast as 10-8 seconds. Ninety per cent of the total losses in modern transformers is due to the resistance of the windings. Transformers could be made with windings cooled to the low temperatures at which superconductivity occurs. The resistance of the windings would be zero and the transformer would be almost ideal. Similarly a 100 % efficient electric motor has been proposed using the magnetic field of superconducting coils. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name a superconducting material. When do materials exhibit superconductivity? Why are the practical applications limited? What applications have been proposed? What advantages would a memory cell made of a superconducting material have? 6. How efficient would transformers and motors be which used superconductivity? STAGE 2 Summarizing

Complete this summary of the passage using your answers to Stage1: Some materials, for example . . . . . . , become almost perfect conductors at . . . . . . The applications of superconductivity are limited because . . . . . . . Possible uses are . . . . . . . . A superconducting memory cell would allow information . . . . . . . A transformer or motor using superconductivity would be . . . . . . .

UNIT 2

Forward 60 40 20 SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES voltage (V)

Reverse Comprehension1.0 2.0 Reading and voltage (V) SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES If two crystals of a semiconductor material, one of p-type and one of ntype, are joined together, a pn junction is formed. This junction can be used as a rectifier and is known as a pn junction diode.

Forward current (mA)

Reverse current ( A)

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Fig. 2.1 Figure 2.1 illustrates what happens when a voltage is applied across a silicon PN junction diode. The first quadrant of the graph shows the characteristics of the diode when the source is connected with the positive to the p-side of the junction and the negative to the n-side. In other words, the diode is forward biased. With forward bias, the current at first increases slowly. When the applied voltage reaches about 600 mV, the current rises rapidly. The diode is then a good conductor. The current will continue to rise with increased voltage but eventually a point will be reached where the diode is destroyed by heat. The third quadrant shows the characteristics when the source is connected with the positive to the n-side and the negative to the p-side. When the diode is reverse biased, there is almost no current flow. The junction is therefore a good rectifier: it conducts well in one direction and almost not at all in the other. However there is a small reverse leakage current. This leakage current remains substantially constant until what is known as breakdown voltage (Vb) is reached. At this point there is a sharp increase in the reverse current. This sudden increase in current is called the Zener effect. Normal diodes are never operated in the breakdown region but Zener diodes are designed to make use of the breakdown phenomenon. Because any slight increase in voltage beyond the breakdown point causes a large increase in current. Zener diodes are often used as a kind of overspill to protect sensitive circuits from fluctuations in the power supply. EXERCISE A Meaning from context

Select a word from the three alternatives given which is most similar in meaning to the word in italics as it used in the passage:

English in Electronics and Telecommunications 1. characteristics (a) typical behaviour (b) voltage figures (c) graph 3. sharp (a) slight (b) steep (c) cutting 5. fluctuations (a) rises and falls (b) increases (c) failures EXERCISE B Recognizing rephrasing 2. substantially (a) almost (b) greatly (c) hardly 4. phenomenon (a) voltage (b) effect (c) result

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Find a sentence in the passage which is similar in meaning to each of these sentences: 1. The positive of the source is connected to the p-side of the diode and the negative to the n-side. 2. When a forward voltage is applied across the diode, there is , at first, only a slow rise in current. 3. The diode allows current to flow freely. 4. If a reverse voltage is applied to the diode, it conducts badly. 5. There is almost no change in leakage current until the reverse voltage reaches breakdown point. EXERCISE C Checking facts and ideas Decide if these statements are true or false. Quote from the passage to support your decisions. 1. The first quadrant of the graph shows the characteristics of the diode in forward bias. 2. For forward voltages over 600 mV, the diode conducts well. 3. When the source is connected with the negative to the n-side and the positive to the p-side, the diode is reverse biased. 4. When a reverse voltage is first applied, a diode conducts badly. 5. Zener diodes are never used beyond breakdown point.

Word study

WORD FORMATION 2 - PREFIXES Prefixes usually change the meaning of the word. For example, nonmakes the meaning of the word negative. PREFIXES MEANINGS EXAMPLES Prefixes of Negative and positive meanings: ununimportant, uninteresting innot, inconvenient, inexpensive imnot good enough mpossible, impurity ilnot connected with illegal, illogically irirregular, irrelevant nonnon-conductor, non-flammable

English in Electronics and Telecommunications misdisantideunderoverre bad, wrong opposite action against reduce, reverse too little too much do again mislead, mismatch disassemble, discharge anti-virus, anti-corrosion decode, demodulation underload, underheat overload, overcurrent reheat, refine

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Prefixes of Size: semihalf, partly hemi- / demiequiequal maxi- / macrobig mini- / microsmall Prefixes of Location: interbetween, among superover transacross exout extrabeyond extrapolation subunder / secondary subtotal infrabeyond underbelow Prefixes of Time and Order: prebefore primefirst postafter Prefixes of Numbers: monoone monochromatic bitwo trithree quadfour pentafive

semi-conductor, semi-final hemisphere, equiaxial maxicomputer minicomputer interface, intermediate superconductor, supersonic transform, transmit exclude, exposure extraordinary, submarine, substation,

infrared, infrasonic underground, underloaded preheat, prestore prime-minister post-war, post-graduate monolingual, bicycle, bifilar triangle, trichromoscope quadrangle, quadruple Pentagon, pentagrid

Language study 1
1. WRITING INSTRUCTIONS Simple instructions use the infinitive. EXAMPLES 1. Measure the collector current. 2. Switch off the supply. 3. Do not solder transistors without a heat-shunt. Study these instructions for an experiment to measure the total resistance of resistor in series using the circuit in Figure 2.2.

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A A

Fig. 2.2 1. Use a high-resistance voltmeter and a low-resistance ammeter. 2. Connect R1 across AB. 3. Close the switch and adjust the rheostat until both meters show almost full scale deflection. 4. Take simultaneous readings of both voltage and current. 5. Calculate R1 by the formula R = 6. 7. 8. 9. Repeat this for R2. Connect R1 and R2 in series across AB. Calculate the total resistance using the same formula as before. Tabulate the results.
E I

2. DESCRIBING AN EXPERIMENT Use the present passive to describe an experiment. EXERCISE D Make a description of the experiment above by rewriting each instruction in the present passive. EXAMPLE 1. Use a high-resistance voltmeter and a low-resistance ammeter.
A HIGH-RESISTANCE VOLTMETER AND A LOW-RESISTANCE AMMETER ARE USED.

3. REPORTING AN EXPERIMENT Use the past passive to report an experiment. EXERCISE E . Make a report of the experiment above by rewriting each instruction in the past passive. EXAMPLE 1. Connect up the apparatus as shown in Figure 2.2. THE APPARATUS WAS CONNECTED UP as shown in Figure 2.2. EXERCISE F Writing instructions 2. the and The The

Study this description of how batteries are charged: The filler plugs are removed and the battery is connected to charger. It must be ensured that the correct polarity is observed good connections are made. The charger id then switched on. charger is switched off when the battery has been fully charged.

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specific gravity of a sample cell is checked. The filler plugs are replaced and the battery left to cool before use. Now begin the list of instructions for how to charge a battery. Begin like this: 1. Remove the filler plugs.

Language study 2
DESCRIBING GRAPHS Graphs are a common way of giving information. They allow a great deal of data to be presented easily in visual form. Study the words and phrases that are commonly used to describe the rate of change

Direction Up

Verb climb go up increase rise decline decrease drop fall go down (do) not change remain constant keep unchanged

Noun increase rise decline decrease drop fall no change

Adjective slight gradual steady steep sharp sudden fast

Adverb slightly gradually steadily steeply sharply suddenly fast

Down

Level

We can describe the change in two ways: 1. The voltage increases. 2. There is an increase in the voltage. We can make our description more accurate like this: 3. The voltage increases rapidly. 4. There is a rapid increase in the voltage. EXERCISE G Describing diode characteristics

Complete this description of the current- voltage characteristics of a silicon diode. Use the passage and Figure 2.1 to help you. At first, when a forward voltage is applied, . . . . . . . . . . . .When the forward voltage has reached about 600 mV, . . . . . . . . . . .If the

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forward voltage is further increased,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . only a very small leakage current flows. When the breakdown voltage is reached, . . . . . . . . . . . .After the breakdown point, any further increase in reverse voltage causes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Language study 3
TIME CLAUSES Time clauses relate two actions in time. In this section, we will study clauses relating: 1. Simultaneous actions R ( )

T (0C) Study this graph. It represents two actions which happen at the same time, i.e. two simultaneous actions. Action (i) The temperature rises Action (ii) The resistance rises We can link two simultaneous actions using as. EXAMPLE
AS the temperature rises, the resistance rises. We will represent simultaneous actions like this:

Action (i) Action (ii) 2. Actions in immediate succession

240 V

Study this circuit and note how action (i) is followed immediately by action (ii). Action (i) The switch is closed. Action (ii) The motor starts. We can link actions in immediate succession using when or as soon as. EXAMPLE:
WHEN the switch is closed, the motor starts. We will present actions in immediate succession like this

action (i)

action (ii)

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3. Action and limit P I


m A

VV This graph shows an action and its limit. The action is limited. Action : The current rises steadily. Limit : Point P is reached. We can link an action and its limit using until. EXAMPLE The current rises steadily UNTIL point P is reached. We will represent this relationship like this :

action 4. Actions in sequence

limit

In this case, action (i) is followed by action (ii) Action (i) The signal has been detected. Action (ii) The signal is amplified. We can link actions in immediate succession using after. EXAMPLE
AFTER

the signal has been detected, it is amplified.

Remember that we represent actions in sequence like this : action (i) action (ii)

EXERCISE H Time clauses Now link these pairs of actions using time clauses. The diagrams indicate the relationship between each pair. 1. the voltage increases increases the current

2. the current continues to rise destroyed by heat

the

diode

is

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3. a reverse voltage is applied current flows

very

little

4. the signal is rectified amplified

the

signal

is

5. the leakage current remains constant breakdown voltage is reached

the

6. the applied voltage reaches rises rapidly about 600 mV

the

current

7. the magnetizing current is reached increased

saturation point is

8. the current drawn by Zener the load increases

the current in the decreases

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Information transfer
READING TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS The chart below shows the characteristics of a number of transistors manufactured by Mullard Ltd. 1 Type 2 Polarit y 3 P
tot

4 at T
mb

5 I
CM

6 IC (A
max (d.c. )

7 BVCBO (V) 70 70/90 45 45/60/1 00 45/60/1 00 15 IB (A) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.05 0.05

8 BVCEO (V) 45 45/60 45 45/60/ 80 45/60/ 80 16 fT (MHz) 120 typ 60 min 60 min 250 typ 75 typ

9 BVEBO (V) 6 6 4 5 5 17 at IC (A) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.05 0.05

(W ) BD124 BD131/ 3 BD132 BD135/7/ 9 BD138/8/ 40 Type N N P N P 10 hEF 25mi n 20 min 20 min 25mi n 25mi n 15 11 11 6.5 6.5 11 at VCE (V) 5 1 1 2 2

(OC) 60 60 60 60 60 12 IC (A) 2 2 2 0.5 0.5

(A) 4 6 6 1.5 1.5

2 3 3 0.5 0.5

13 VCE(sat) (V) 0.50 typ 0.9 max 0.9 max 0.5 max 0.5 max

14 at IC (A) 2 2 2 0.5 0.5

BD124 BD131/ 3 BD132 BD135/7/ 9 BD138/8/ 40

Study this description of the characteristics of one of these transistors and make yourself familiar with the English meaning of each of the abbreviations typed in the chart. The characteristics have been numbered in both chart and subscription to help you. The BD 124 (1) is a silicon NPN (2) transistor manufactured by Mullard. It dissipates a maximum power of 15 watts (3) at a mounting base temperature of 60oC (4) . The peak collector current it can pass is 4 amps (5). The maximum permitted dc current flowing out of the collector terminal(dau noi) is 2 amps (6). The collector-base breakdown voltage, with the emitter disconnected, is 70 volts (7), The collectoremitter junction would break down at 45 volts (8). The voltage at which the emitter-base junction would break down is 6 volts (9). None of these breakdown voltages should be exceeded.

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The dc current amplification factor is at least 25 (10) when measured at a collector-emitter voltage of 5 volts (11) and a collector current of 2 amps (12). The collector-emitter saturation voltage is typically 0.50 volts (13). The collector current at saturation voltage is 2 amps (14) and the base current 0.2 amps (15). These characteristics are important in switching circuits. They represent the conditions under which the transistor is on. The frequency at which the current gain would be reduced to 1 is typically 120 MHz (16). The collector current at this frequency would be 0.25 amps (17). EXERCISE I Describing transistor characteristics

Now complete this description of the BD 132: The BD 132 is a silicon (a) . . . . . transistor. It dissipates (b) . . . . . at a mounting base temperature of 60oC. The peak collector current is (c) . . . . . The maximum dc (d) . . . . . is 3 amps. The breakdown voltages for the collector-base, (e) . . . . . and emitter-base junctions are (f) . . . . . , 45 V, and (g). . . . . respectively. Dc current gain is at least (h) . . . . . when measured at a collectoremitter voltage of (i) . . . . . and a (j) . . . . . of 2 amps. A collector-emitter voltage drop of a maximum of a 0.9 volts exists when a (k) . . . . . of 2 amps and a base current of (l) . . . . . amps flow. These are the saturation condition for this transistor. The frequency at which the current gain would be reduced to 1 is (m) . . . . . .The collector current at this frequency would be (n) . . . . .

IV- GUIDED WRITING


Guided writing STAGE 1
WRITING EXPLANATIONS Writing explanations 1

A good explanation allows the reader to link his knowledge with that of the writer. A bad explanation either over-estimates the readers knowledge with the result that he cannot understand it, or underestimates the readers knowledge so that he is bored. Study the following explanations. They all try to explain why conductors are coated with plastic. 1. Conductors are coated(phu) with plastic because plastic is an insulator. Explanation 1 is effective if the reader knows what an insulator is.

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2. Conductors are coated with plastic because plastic is an insulator. An insulator does not readily release electrons. Explanation 2 is effective if the reader knows that current is carried by electrons. 3. Conductors are coated with plastic because plastic is an insulator. An insulator does not readily release electrons. Free electrons carry current and thus no current can pass through the plastic. Explanation 3 is effective for the reader who does not know what an insulator is, nor how current is carried. Explanations often involve answering how and why questions. EXAMPLES 1. Copper is a good conductor (why ?) BECAUSE it readily releases electrons. 2. Use a heat shunt when soldering sensitive components (why ?) SO THAT they are not damaged by heat. 3. The current flowing through a resistor, can be calculated (how ?) BY DIVIDING the voltage by the resistance. 4. The RF section of a receiver is sometimes screened (why ?) TO PREVENT interference from other parts of the receiver. EXERCISE J Now answer the WHY ? and HOW ? questions following each of these statements. Use the information given below. 1. Soldering wire contains flux (why ?) to . . . . . . . 2. When a current flows through the filament of a light bulb, it gives off light (why?) because . . . . . . 3. The value of a resistor can be calculated from the colour bands on the body (how?) by. . . . . . 4. Manganin wire is used for the elements of an electric wire (why ?) because of . . . 5. Sensitive equipment is protected by fuses ( why ?) so that . . . . . 6. Light bulbs may contain rare gases (why ?) to . . . . . 7. Curved pole shoes are fitted to meter magnets (why ?) so that . . . . . 8. When a relay is energized, sets of contacts are pushed together or apart ( how ?) by means of . . . . . (a) The pole shoes help form a radial magnetic field. (b)The filament becomes incandescent. (c) The equipment is not damaged by excess current. (d)The gases prevent the filament burning up. (e) The flux prevents the surfaces being joined from oxidizing. (f) A relay contains a moving armature which controls the contacts. (g)Manganin has a higher resistance than most metals. (h)The colour code is used to determine the value of a resistor.

STAGE 2

Writing explanations 2

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With the help of a suitable textbook, write your own explanation of the operation of one of the following: 1. a relay 2. a microphone ( any type ) 3. a transformer 4. a dc motor

Summarizing STAGE 1

MODULATION Reading for specific information

Find all the answers to these questions in the passage which follows. Work as quickly as you can. Try to ignore information which will not help you to answer the questions. 1. What is modulation? 2. Which three quantities of a wave can be modulated? 3. Why is frequency modulation better than amplitude modulation? We can only communicate information by radio waves by changing the wave in some way. This change is known as modulation. The simplest form of modulation is to turn the wave on and off. This method was used in the early days of radio for telegraphic signals. The wave was stopped and started to represent the dots and dashes of the Morse code by means of a telegraph key. Speech and music produce audio frequencies which cannot be transmitted directly. But they can be used to modulate radio waves. The modulated radio wave is then transmitted. When it is received, the wave is demodulated(giai dieu che) and the original audio-frequency signal is recovered. The high frequency radio wave acts only to carry the audiofrequency signal and is called the carrier wave. The audio-frequency signal is termed the modulating signal. A wave has three quantities: amplitude, frequency and phase. Any of these quantities can be modulated. The two commonest methods of modulation are amplitude modulation, AM, and frequency modulation, FM. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave is changed according to the amplitude of the modulating signal. The frequency of the carrier is kept constant. Figure 1 represents part of an audiofrequency signal, which might be generated by a microphone. Figure 2 represents a radio wave of much higher frequency. Figure 3 shows the same radio frequency wave after it has been modulated by the audiofrequency signal in Figure 1.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

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In frequency modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave is kept constant, but the frequency is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal. Frequency modulation has several advantages over amplitude modulation. The most notable is that reception is less likely to be disturbed. This is because atmospheric disturbances and noise generated in the receiver itself result in a change in the amplitude of the received signal. However, changes in only the frequency would distort the modulated information. In FM sound broadcasting, the limit of modulation is usually 75 kHz above and below the frequency of the unmodulated(ko dieu che) carrier wave. In other words, FM broadcasts spread 75 kHz either side of the carrier frequency. This is one reason why FM stations broadcast in the VHF band (30-300 MHz), where stations can be spaced more than several hundred kilohertz apart unlike the medium frequency bands where spacings of only 9 to 10 kHz are common.

STAGE 2

Recognizing rephrasing Now read the whole passage carefully. Each of these sentences summarizes part of the passage. Identify the lines summarized: 1. In FM the frequency of the carrier wave is modulated according to the amplitude of the modulating signal. (lines . . . . . . ..) 2. Audio frequencies cannot be transmitted. (lines . . . . . . ..) 3. The amplitude, frequency and phase of a wave can be modulated. (lines . . . . . . ..) 4. FM broadcasts are in the VHF band partly because FM stations require greater spacing. (lines . . . . . . ..) 5. The carrier wave is demodulated by the receiver(may thu) and the audio-frequency signal recovered(phuc hoi). (lines . . . . . . ..) 6. No information can be communicated by radio waves without modulating them. (lines . . . . . . ..) 7. In AM the amplitude of the carrier wave is modulated according to the amplitude of the modulating signal. (lines . . . . . . ..) 8. Stopping and starting the wave is the simplest method of modulation. (lines . . . . . . ..) 9. FM is better than AM because there is less interference. (lines . . . . . . ..) 10. Audio frequency can be used to modulate high frequency radio waves which can then act as carriers of the audio-frequency signal. (lines . . . . . . ..)

STAGE 3

Summarizing Put the sentences in Stage 2 in the correct order and use them to make a paragraph summarizing the passage. You may add words of your own to make a good paragraph. Make sure no information is repeated unnecessarily.

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UNIT 3

ALARM SYSTEMS

Reading and Comprehension 1

Fig. 3.1. Alarm system on window and door DETECTION DEVICES Magnetic switches These are used on windows and doors. A magnet mounted on the moving parts of the window or door trips a switch mounted on the frame when the window or door is opened. Break detectors These are fitted on the inside surface of glass in windows and doors. Some use a thin metal foil which is glued(dan) around the edge(mep) of the glass: if the glass is broken the foil breaks too. Others are vibration(rung dong) sensors, and respond to the shock(va dap) of the glass being broken. Pressure mats These are fitted under the carpet - at the bottom of the stairs, for example. The pressure of someone stepping on them causes two thin metal plates inside to come in contact, setting off the alarm. Because theyre constantly being walked on, pressure mats can get tired quite quickly, and should be regularly tested and replaced if necessary. Motion sensors These may use passive infra-red, ultrasonic, or microwave energy to detect movement within their range.

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EXERCISE A Study the diagram above (fig.3.1) and try to answer these questions 1. What does this diagram show a circuit of? 2. How many detection devices does it show? Name them. 3. What warning devices does it show? 4. Why is the control box switch operated with a key? 5. How does the system work? 6. What problem is there with this circuit? EXERCISE B Explain briefly how the device works. 1. door switch 3. pressure mats 2. window foil 4. passive infra-red detector

Reading and Comprehension 2


HOW TO IMPROVE THE ALARM SYSTEM We can make the simple alarm circuit more effective by including some of these features. Entry and exit delays These mean you wont set off the alarm when leaving or returning to the house. On the better systems, the delays are adjustable. An audible warning during the delay period is a useful reminder. Automatic cut-off This will stop the alarm after it has sounded for a set time, so that the noise doesnt go on for hours if you are not there to reset the system. in better systems, the alarm automatically resets at the end of the alarm time. Tamper protection The control panel incorporates sensors which will trigger the alarm if a burglar tries to force the box open. Battery backup This means the alarm will continue to work in a power cut, or if an intruder disconnects the mains supply. EXERCISE C Match each action with its consequence. Then identify the device or feature described. For example: Action Someone moves within its range. Consequence: It detects the movement. Device: Motion sensor

Action 1. A burglar disconnects supply.C 2. The glass is broken.E 3. A door is opened.F

Consequence the a. A magnet on the moving part trips(nha) a switch. b. Tamper sensors trigger the alarm. c. The alarm continues to operate on

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4. A window is opened.A batteries. 5. Youre not there to reset the d. Two thin metal plates come in system.G contact. 6. A burglar tries to force the e. The foil breaks too. alarm open.B f. A magnet on the door trips(nha) a 7. Someone step on them. switch on the frame. g. The alarm stops after a set time.

Word study
COMPOUND NOUNS The language of engineering in English contains an ever-increasing number of compound nouns, that is, a group of two or more nouns which act as a single noun. Examples: circuit breaker address bus bar code scanner control system It is important to be able to recognize how such compounds are formed in order to understand what they mean. The exact relationship between the words depends on the particular expression, but all these expressions have one thing in common: the last word in the chain says what the thing is, while the preceding word or group of words describe the thing. So when we read compound nouns, we have to start with the last word and work backwards. Example: A circuit breaker is (a device) used to break a circuit. A large number of possible meanings can be expressed by compound nouns. For instance, the first noun or group of nouns can tell us what the second noun is made of, what it is for, or what it is part of. 1. Material: the first noun tells us what the second consists of. Examples: - a silicon chip (a chip made of silicon) - a ferrite switch (a switch made of ferrite) 2. Function: the first noun tells us what the second is for. Examples: - an input device (a device for inputting) - a battery charger (a device for charging battery) 3. Part: the second noun refers to a part of the first noun. Examples: - a monitor screen (the screen of a monitor) - a computer keyboard (the keyboard of a computer) 4. Activity or person: the second noun refers to an activity or person related to the first noun. Examples: - a computer programmer (a person who programs computers) - grid emission (the emission - of electron or ion - from a grid - of an electron tube)

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5. Multiple nouns: sometimes a compound noun will join together with one or more other nouns to give an expression that has three or four words. In such cases, it is important to examine the expression very carefully to break it into its constituent parts. The secret, as always, is to read the expression from the back towards the front. Example: 4 3 2 1 a document image processing program (a program which processes images of documents) NOTE: Some expressions are written separately, while others are joined by hyphens. There are no clear rules for this. Sometimes you will see the same expression written in different ways in different text. EXERCISE D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make short simple explanations of the following items 6. temperature sensor 7. document sorter 8. fuse carrier 9. rectifying circuit 10. voltage transformer shock absorber frequency band circuit board pressure regulator power switch

EXERCISE E Give names to: 1. a program which processes data 2. a unit that holds magnetic disks 3. the information about the configuration of a network 4. a system which transmits (signals), or a system of transmission, using fibre optics 5. the rate of transmission of data, or the rate of transmitting data 6. a circuit, or a device which converts analog signals to digital signals

Language study 1
IF-SENTENCES Study this action and its consequence: Action: A burglar tries to force the alarm open. Consequence: Sensors trigger the alarm. We can link action and consequence like this: 1. If a burglar tries to force the alarm open, sensors trigger the alarm. 2. If a burglar tries to force the alarm open, sensors will trigger the alarm. 3. Sensors will trigger the alarm if a burglar tries to force the alarm open. EXERCISE F Complete these sentences with a suitable or consequence. 1. If pressure mats are constantly walked on, .......................... 2. If you fit an exit delay, .......................... 3. If your system doesnt have an automatic cut-off, .......................... 4. If a burglar walks in front of a motion sensor, .......................... 5. Vibration sensors will respond if .......................... 6. Tamper sensors will trigger the alarm if .......................... 7. A magnet on the moving part trips a switch if ..........................

English in Electronics and Telecommunications 8. The alarm stops after a set time, ..........................

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EXERCISE G Complete the sentences using unless and your knowledge of engineering 1. Unless the ignition is switched on, a car cannot.......................... 2. Unless there is current flowing in the primary coil of a transformer, there will be ..........................in the secondary coil. 3. Unless the power switch is .........................., the washing machine will not start. 4. Unless the doors are.........................., a lift will not operate. 5. Unless a signal from the satellite is amplified, it can not.......................... 6. Unless electrical equipment is earthed, it may be ..........................

Language study 2
REDUCED TIME CLAUSES Study these two actions: Action 1:Ground waves pass over sand. Action 2:Ground waves lose energy. We can link these actions to make one sentence, using a time clause: 1+2 When ground waves pass over sand, they lose energy. Because the subject of both sentences is the same - ground waves there is a shorter way we can use to link the actions: When passing over sand, ground waves lose energy. When + -ing shows that Action 2 happens during the same period as Action 1. Now study these two actions: Action 3: The sky wave strikes the earth. Action 4: The sky wave bounces back again. Again we can link these actions to make one sentence, using a time clause: 3+4 When the sky wave strikes the earth, it bounces back again. We can link the actions in a shorter way: On striking the earth, the sky wave bounces back again. On + -ing shows that Action 4 follows immediately after Action 3. EXERCISE H Link these pairs of actions. Use short ways when this is possible. 1. a. The switch is closed. b. Currents flows through the primary of the transformer 2. a. The radar signal strikes a plane. b. The radar signal is reflected. 3. a. A cell discharges quickly. b. A cell may become hot. 4. a. The TV receives signals from the remote control. b. The TV follows your instructions. 5. a. The radar receives the reflected signal.

English in Electronics and Telecommunications b. 6. a. b. 7. a. b. 8. a. b. The signal is compared with the transmitted signal. Microwave signals strike a high building. Microwave signals are deflected The alarm detects an intruder. The alarm triggers an audible warning. The remote control button is pressed. The television set changes channel.

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Information transfer
UNDERSTANDING A DIAGRAM Study the following text and the diagram. The three stages of a simple alarm system are shown as follows .................... .... ....................... ..... ........................ .....

The first stage is a sensing device that changes its resistance when it detects a particular from of energy. For example, a microphone may be used to detect sound, a thermistor to detect heat, or an LDR (light dependent resistor) to detect light. The second stage is an electronic switch. In its simplest form, this could be a single transistor. The transistor switches between cut-off and saturation as the input resistance changes. The third stage is an output transducer which is switches off and on by the electronic switch.The output transducer could be a buzzer, a light, or a relay which operates a more powerful circuit. An example of a simple alarm circuit is shown in the figure below.

Fig.3.2 The LDR forms a potential divider with the variable resistor RV1. When light falls on the LDR, its resistance decreases. This causes the base voltage of the transistor and the bias current to increase. The transistor switches on there is a rapid rise is the collector current until the transistor goes into saturation. The increased current cause the relay to operate and switch on the output circuit. The sensitivity of the input can be adjusted using RV1.

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In a similar way, the relay is de-enegized when the light source is removed from the LDR. A large back EMF, which would destroy the transistor, could be generated across the relay. To prevent this, a diode is connected in reverse bias across the relay.

Writing
Study this diagram, which explains the operation of automatic doors. Then link each set of statements below using words or phrases of your own to make your own explanation. Omit unnecessary words and make any other changes required. 1. Automatic doors are used in places such as airports, supermarkets, and hospitals. Traditional doors would be a nuisance in these places. 2. Automatic doors are fitted with a microwave sensor. The sensor detects movement. 3. The doors are switched on A microwave transmitter sends out a microwave beam. 4. The beam is in a semicircular pattern. The doors open when you approach from any angle. 5. The microwaves are reflected back to the sensor. The reflected microwaves are analysed by a microprocessor. 6. A person or object moves forwards the doors. The waves are reflected back to sensor at a different frequency. 7. The microprocessor detects this change. The microprocessor instructs the motor to open the doors. 8. The doors are fitted with a time-delay mechanism. The doors remain open for about four seconds before closing again. 9. A person remains standing in the doorway. A safety beam prevents the doors from closing.

UNIT 4

HIGH DEFINITION TELEVISION

Reading and Comprehension


In Europe, the USA, and Japan, the race is on to produce a new generation of television sets. These new sets will be larger than todays models, possibly with 100-centimetre flat screens. Picture quality will be excellent, crisp, and without flicker, as good as those we are used to seeing in the cinema. Sound quality too will be superb, thanks to digital multitrack transmissions. By the turn of the century such sets may be offering programmes in a choice of languages as they will be equipped with eight sound tracks. In Europe, the term HDTV is used. In the USA, the more generic term ATV, Advanced Television, has been adopted. The Japanese, who were the first to start work on the new technology, in 1974, called their system Hi-Vision. Whatever name is used, these new sets share certain features. The picture is displayed using more lines per frame. This means that they provide clearer, more detailed, high quality images. The picture can be displayed on large, wide screens which are flicker-free. They also provide very high quality three-dimensional sound output.

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A wider range of frequencies can be used to transmit each HDTV channel. This is because they can be transmitted at high frequencies which are virtually unused at present. These wide frequency ranges make it possible to transmit digital, rather than analogue signals. Digital processing can then be used in the receivers to provide almost perfect pictures even when the strength of the input signal is low. A computer could also be used to produce special effects. Since not everyone is convinced of the need for such high quality TV systems, the move towards HDTV is likely to be very gradual. The first HDTV receivers will need to be able to process both the old and the new transmissions and, throughout the world, agreement will have to be reached on new transmission standards. EXERCISE A Study these graphics. Note ways in which high definition television will be different from existing sets. Complete the following table as the example: Feature No. of lines Existing 625 High definition 1,250

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Word study
CIRCUIT SYMBOLS In electrical engineering and electronics, components in a circuit are in the form of symbols. When we look at a symbol of a component, we need to know its function. EXERCISE B Label the following circuit symbols appropriate functions in the list a. b. c. d. e. varies capacitance in a circuit rectifies alternating current adds resistance to a circuit measures a very small currents breaks a circuit f. g. h. i. j. and match them with the

protects a circuit varies the current in a circuit steps AC voltages up or down receives RF signals measures voltages

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Language study 1

EXPRESSING THE CERTAINTY When we are confident about something in the future and less confident about others, we can use the ways in the table below. We cannot measure certainty in language with precision, but the table provides a guide to how certain a writer is about a future. EXERCISE C How likely are these developments in the next few years? Make statements about each development using the certainty expressions. Example: Most houses in your country will be cleaned by electronic robots. I think its unlikely that most houses in my country will be cleaned by electronic robots. Its possible that some houses will use them. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Vinyl records will not be made. Most families in your country will have CD players. Most families in your country will have MD players. Most families in your country will have DCC players. Computers will understand and respond to your spoken language. Cars will be electronically guided through cities. Most teaching will be done by computers. Most families in your country will have HDTVs.

Language study 2

REASON AND RESULT CONNECTIVES Study these sentences:

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1. Copper is used for cables. 2. Copper is a good conductor. Sentence 1 tells us what copper is used for. Sentence 2 tells us why it is used. Sentence 1 provides a reason for sentence 1. We can link a statement and a reason using because. 1+2. Copper is used for cables BECAUSE it is a good conductor. When the reason is a noun or a noun phrase, we use because of. EXAMPLE The motor overheated BECAUSE OF dirt in the air gap. 3. The flow of electrons through an insulator is very small. 4. The flow can be ignored. Sentence 4 is the result of sentence 3. We can link a statement and a result using therefore. 3+4. The flow of electrons through an insulator is very small, THEREFORE it can be ignored. NOTE: A comma is used before therefore. EXERCISE D Now link these ideas using BECAUSE or THEREFORE. 1. Soft iron is used in electromagnets. Soft iron can be magnetized easily. 2. The voltage is 250 V and the current 5 A. The resistance is 50 . 3. PVC is used to cover cables PVC is a good insulator. 4. Transistors can be damage by heat. Care must be taken when soldering transistors. 5. Capacitance is usually measured in microfarads or picofarads. The farad is too large unit. 6. Output transistors are mounted on a heat sink. Output transistors generate heat. 7. It is easy to control the speed of dc motors. Dc motors are used when variable speeds are required. 8. A cathode-ray tube screen glows when an electron beam strikes it. The screen is coated with a phosphor.

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Information transfer
COMBINATIONAL LOGIC The decision-making circuits used in modern computers are mainly composed of combinations of digital switching circuits known as logic gates. Fig. 4.1 shows the logic symbols and truth tables for some basic gates.

A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

ou t 0 0 0 1

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

out 1 1 1 0

AND

NAND

A ou t NOT 0 1 1 0 OR

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

out 0 1 1 1

Fig. 4. 2 Basic logic gates The output of each gate depends on the combination of its inputs. This is known as combinational logic. The output for all possible inputs is shown using a truth table. The truth tables show that the output of an AND gate is only high (i.e. logic level 1) when all its inputs are high. The output of a NAND gate, however, stays high unless all its inputs are high. The output of a NOT gate (also known as an inverter) is always the opposite of its input.

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Computers use Ics which contain a number of logic gates on one chip. An IC pin-out diagram shows the arrangement of the gates and the function of each pin on the chip (see Fig. 4.2).

Vcc4B4A4Y3Y3B3A 141312111098

1234567 1A1B1Y2B2Y2AGND quad 2 input NAND gates Fig. An IC pin- out diagram TTL 7400 (CMOS 4.3 4011) The number of ICs used in computer, i.e. the chip count, can be reduced by connecting NAND gates together to form other types of gates (see Fig. 4.4).

Fig.4.4 How NAND gates can be used to make basic logic gates. The number of components in an IC is indicated by its scale of integration as shown in table 1. The IC shown in Fig.4. 3 is an SSI device but microprocessors used in computers are VLSI or SLSI devices. Table 1 Scale of integration Abbreviation No. of active components Small scale integration SSI 1 to 10

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Medium scale integration MSI 10 to 102 Large scale integration LSI 102 to 103 Very large scale integration VLSI 103 to 104 Super large scale SLSI 104 to 105 integration There are two common families of logic ICs used in computers. TTL (transistor-transistor logic) ICs use bipolar transistors to form each gate whereas CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ICs use field effect transistors (FETs). The different characteristics of each family determine which will be used in a particular computer (see Table 2). For example, TTL ICs are used in large, high-speed computers and CMOS ICs are better for battery - powered portable computers. Table 2 Properties TTL CMOS Supply voltage + 3V to + 15V + 5V 6 0.25 % Supply current mA A Power dissipation mW W Switching speed fast relatively slow Input impedance low high EXERCISE E Answer the following questions 1. What terms are used in the text for each of the following? a. a digital switching circuit b. the output of each gate depending on the combination of its inputs c. the number of ICs used in a computer d. an indication of the number of components used in an IC 2. What is shown by a. a truth table? b. a pin- out diagram? 3. What is another name for a NOT gate? 4. What are the two common families of logic ICs? 5. What do these abbreviations stand for? a. TTL b. VLSI c. CMOS d. MSI 6. Which of these statements are TRUE for CMOS ICs? a. They contain bipolar transistors. b. They contain field effect transistors. c. They are particularly suitable for use in battery- operated portable computers. d. They are particularly suitable for use in large, high- speed computers. EXERCISE F Logic Gate Complete these statements with the help of the truth tables in Fig. 4.2. For example, in the case of an AND gate: a. When A and B are low, the output is low. b. When A is low and B is high, the output is low. 1. AND When A is high and B is low, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 2. NOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , the output is high. 3. OR When A and B are high, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4. NOT When A is high, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. NAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., the output is low. 6. NANDWhen A is high and B is low, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 7. AND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., the output is high. 8. NANDWhen A and B are low, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXERCISE G Explaining a process control system Study the diagram below. It shows how an industrial process is controlled using logic gates. With the help of the diagram, complete the blanks in the explanation which follows. Each blank may be one or more words.

switch

on correct satisfact ory correct

store

memory motor reset

supply

hopper

off high Fig. 4.5 empty system using logic gates Control pressur low e A motor controlling the flow of aluminium blanks to a hydraulic press is switched on only under these conditions : 1. The power is on. 2. The supply voltage is 1......................... 3. There are 2 ......................... aluminium blanks in the hopper (store). 4. The 3 ......................... in the hydraulic press is correct. Information on these four conditions is fed into an 4 ......................... as all four conditions must be satisfied for the motor to run. When 5 ........................., the output from the AND gate is high. This is fed into the store input of the 6 ......................... unit to provide a continuous signal to operate the motor. The motor must stop if any one of these conditions occurs : The power is 7 ......................... The 8 ......................... rises. The hopper is 9 ......................... The 10 ......................... drops. Information on each of these conditions is fed through a 11 ......................... . When the input is low, 12 ......................... . The 13 output from each NOT gate is fed to an ......................... . When any 1. 2. 3. 4.

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of the four inputs to the OR gate is high, the output 14......................... . When this is fed to the memory reset, it interrupts the continuous signal to the motor. The motor is switched 15 ......................... and the flow of aluminium blanks to the press thus 16 ......................... .

Writing

TELEVISION DISPLAY STAGE 1 Reading and comprehension Find the answers to these questions by studying the text and diagrams below 1. What controls the movement of the spot of light across a televion screen? 2. What name is given to the rapid movement of the spot back across the screen to the start of the next line? 3. How many lines are used to build up a frame in present European television systems? 4. What happens to a screen if the frame is not scanned at least forty times per second? TELEVISION PICTURES A television picture s built up gradually by moving a spot of light across and down a screen in a raster pattern.

The video signal causes the brightness of the spot to vary in proportion to the intensity of light in the original image. The movement of the spot across the screen is controlled by the lines can signal. Each time the spot reaches the right side of the screen , it is blanked and moved rapidly back to the left side ready to start the next line. This rapid movement back to a starting position is known as flyback. Each complete image or frame requires a minimum of 500 lines to give a picture of acceptable quality. The present European TV system uses 625 lines per frame. The movement of the spot down the screen is controlled by the field scan signal. When the spot reaches the botom of the screen, it is blanked and moved rapidly back to the top of the screen. The frame must be scanned at least forty times per second to prevent the screen from flickering. The present European TV system has a frame scan rate of 50 Hz.

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The video signal contains line and field sync pulses to make sure that the TV receiver starts a new line and a new frame at the same time as the TV camera. To allow the video signal to be transmitted using a smaller range of frequencies, each frame is transmitted in two separate halves, known as fields. The first time the spot travels down the screen it displays the first field, which consists of the odd- numbered frame lines. The second time the spot travels down the screen it displays the second field, which consists of the even- numbered frame lines. Combining two fields in this way is known as interlacing. Although the fields are displayed one after the other, it happens so quickly that the human eye sees them as one complete picture. STAGE 2 Linking facts and ideas Link each set of statements, using words or phrases of your own to make an explanation of how a television picture is composed. Omit unnecessary words and make any other changes required. 1. A television picture is built up gradually. This is done by a moving spot. 2. The spot strikes the television screen. The phosphor coating on the screen emits light. The light varies in brightness according to the intensity of the original image. 3. The spot reaches the right side of the screen. The spot is blanked. The spot is moved rapidly back to the left side in a movement called flyback. 4. The present European system sweeps the screen in a series of lines. There are 625 closely- spaced lines. Using 625 lines ensures a good quality picture. 5. The movement across the screen is controlled by the line scan signal. The movement down the screen is controlled by the field scan signal. 6. The scan rate must be greater than 40 Hz. A lower scan rate would cause the screen to flicker. 7. Sync pulses are added to the video signal. The sync pulses ensure that the TV camera and TV receiver start a new line and frame at the same time. 8. The build up of the screen happen very quickly. The eye sees only a complete picture. STAGE 3 Divide your completed statements into two paragraphs. Give your text a suitable title.

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CONTENTS
Pag e Unit 1 4 5 6 7 8 SECTION 1 ELECTRONICS Introduction to Conductivity Reading and Comprehension Word study Describing shapes Word formation 1- Suffixes Language study 1. Describing position and connection 2. Relative clauses 3. Pronoun links between sentences Information transfer Mathematical symbols Guided Writing Describing a diagram Summarizing Superconductivity Semiconductor diodes Reading and Comprehension Word study Word formation 1- Prefixes Language study 1. Writing instruction - Describing an experiment Reporting an experiment 2. Describing graphs 3. Time clauses Information transfer Transistor characteristics Guided Writing Writing explanations Summarizing Modulation Alarm systems Reading and Comprehension 1 Reading and Comprehension 2 Word study Compound nouns Language study 1. If-sentences - Unless 2. Reduced time clauses Information transfer Understanding diagrams Writing Linking facts and ideas High definition television Reading and Comprehension Word study Circuit symbols Language study 1. Expressing the Certainty 2. Reason and result connectives Information transfer Logic gates Writing Making paragraphs Unit SECTION 2 Networks TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

English in Electronics and Telecommunications 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Transmission Telecomunications

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