Define recruitment Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs. Objectives of recruitment Recruitment fulfills the following objectives 1. It reviews the list of objectives of the company and tries to achieve them by promoting the company in the minds of public 2. It forecasts how many people will be required in the company. 3. It enables the company to advertise itself and attract talented people. 4. It provides different opportunities to procure human resource. Methods of recruitment/sources Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs. Companies can adopt different methods of recruitment for selecting people in the company. These methods are 1. Internal sources 2. External sources The sources can be further explained with the help of following diagram
Sources of recruitment (manpower supply) Internal source Promotion Departmental exam Transfer Retirement Internal advertisement Employee recommendation External sources Management consultant Employment agency Campus recruitment News paper advertisement Internet advertisement Walk in interview

Internal sources of recruitment :Internal sources of recruitment refer to obtaining people for job from inside the company. There are different methods of internal recruitment 1. Promotion :Companies can give promotion to existing employees. This method of recruitment saves a lot of time, money and efforts because the company does not have to train the existing employee. Since the employee has already worked with the company. He is familiar with the working culture and working style. It is a method of encouraging efficient workers. 2. Departmental exam :This method is used by government departments to select employees for higher level posts. The advertisement is put up on the notice board of the department. People who are interested must send their application to the HR department and appear for the exam. Successful candidates are given the





higher level job. The method ensures proper selection and impartiality. Transfer :Many companies adopt transfer as a method of recruitment. The idea is to select talented personnel from other branches of the company and transfer them to branches where there is shortage of people. Retirement :Many companies call back personnel who have already retired from the organization. This is a temporary measure. The method is beneficial because it gives a sense of pride to the retired when he is called back and helps the organization to reduce recruitment selection and training cost. Internal advertisement :In this method vacancies in a particular branch are advertised in the notice board. People who are interested are asked to apply for the job. The method helps in obtaining people who are ready to shift to another branch of the same company and it is also beneficial to people who want to shift to another branch. Employee recommendation :In this method employees are asked to recommend people for jobs. Since the employee is aware of the working conditions inside the company he will suggest people who can adjust to the situation. The company is benefited because it will obtain.

Advantages of internal recruitment 1. Internal methods are time saving. 2. No separate induction program is required. 3. The method increases loyalty and reduces labour turnover. 4. This method is less expensive. Disadvantages of internal recruitment 1. There is no opportunity to get new talent in this method. 2. The method involves selecting people from those available in the company so there is limited scope for selection. 3. There are chances of biased and partiality. 4. Chances of employee discontent are very high. External methods/sources of recruitment External sources of recruitment refer to methods of recruitment to obtain people from outside the company. These methods are 1. Management consultant :Management consultant helps the company by providing them with managerial personnel, when the company is on the look out for entry level management trainees and middle level managers. They generally approach management consultants. 2. Employment agencies :Companies may give a contract to employment agencies that search, interview and obtain the required number of people. The method can be used to obtain

lower level and middle level staff. 3. Campus recruitment :When companies are in search of fresh graduates or new talent they opt for campus recruitment. Companies approach colleges, management, technical institutes, make a presentation about the company and the job and invite applications. Interested candidates who have applied are made to go through a series of selection test and interview before final selection. 4. News paper advertisement :This is one of the oldest and most popular methods of recruitment. Advertisements for the job are given in leading newspapers; the details of the job and salary are also mentioned. Candidates are given a contact address where their applications must be sent and are asked to send their applications within a specified time limit. The method has maximum reach and most preferred among all other methods of recruitment. 5. Internet advertisement :With increasing importance to internet, companies and candidates have started using the internet as medium of advertisement and search for jobs. There are various job sites like and etc. candidates can also post their profiles on these sites. This method is growing in popularity. 6. Walk in interview :Another method of recruitment which is gaining importance is the walk in interview method. An advertisement about the location and time of walk in interview is given in the news paper. Candidates require to directly appearing for the interview and have to bring a copy of their C.V. with them. This method is very popular among B.P.O and call centers. Advantages of external recruitment 1. There is influx of new talent in the method. 2. The method encourages more and more competition. 3. There is lesser chance of partiality through this method. 4. If options like campus recruitment have been exercised we get a chance to employ fresh graduates, thus increasing employment. Disadvantages of external recruitment 1. The method is costly because it involves recruitment cost, selection, training cost. 2. The method is time consuming. 3. The method reduces loyalty to the company. Selection Define selection :the right job. Selection can be defined as process of choosing the right person for

Process of selection :The process of selection is different in different companies; however a general procedure of selection can be framed. This process of selection can be explained with the help of following diagram

Process of selection Job analysis Advertisement Application blank/form Written test Interview Medical examination Initial job offer Acceptance/rejection letter Final offer/letter of appointment Induction 1. Job analysis :The very first step in the selection procedure is the job analysis. The HR department prepares the job description and specification for the jobs which are vacant. This gives details for the jobs which are vacant. This gives details about the name of the job, qualification, qualities required and work conditions etc. 2. Advertisement :Based on the information collected in step 1, the HR department prepares an advertisement and publishes it in a leading news papers. The advertisement conveys details about the last date for application, the address to which the application must be sent etc. 3. Application blank/form :Application blank is the application form to be filled by the candidate when he applies for a job in the company. The application blank collects information consisting of 4 parts- 1) Personal details 2) Educational details 3) Work experience 4) Family background. 4. Written test :The application which have been received are screened by the HR department and those applications which are incomplete are rejected. The other candidates are called for the written test. Arrangement for the written test is looked after the HR department i.e. question papers, answer papers, examination centers and hall tickets etc. 5. Interview :Candidates who have successfully cleared the test are called for an interview.

The entire responsibility for conducting the interview lies with the HR department i.e. they look after the panel of interviewers, refreshments, informing candidates etc. 6. Medical examination :The candidates who have successfully cleared the interview are asked to take a medical exam. This medical exam may be conducted by the organization itself (army). The organization may have a tie up with the hospital or the candidate may be asked to get a certificate from his family doctor. 7. Initial job offer :Candidates who successfully clear the medical exam are given an initial job offer by the company stating the details regarding salary, terms of employment, employment bond if any etc. The candidate is given some time to think over the offer and to accept or reject the offer. 8. Acceptance/ rejection :Candidates who are happy with the offer send their acceptance within a specified time limit to show that they are ready to work with the company. 9. Letter of appointment/final job offer :Candidates who send their acceptance are given the letter of appointment. The letter will state the name of the job. The salary and other benefits, number of medical leaves and casual leaves, details of employment bond if any etc. It will also state the date on which the employee is required to start duty in the company. 10. Induction :On the date of joining the employee is introduced to the company and other employees through am elaborate induction program.

Types of selection test Different selection test are adopted by different organization depending upon their requirements. These tests are specialized test which have been scientifically tested and hence they are also known as scientific test. Different types of test can be explained with the help of following diagram, Types of selection test

Aptitude 1.Mental ability/ Intelligence test 2.Medical aptitude test 3. Psycho motor test

Intelligence test

Personality test

Performance test test

I. Aptitude test :Aptitude tests are test which assess the potential and ability of a candidate. It enables to find out whether the candidate is suitable for the job. The job may be managerial technical or clerical. The different types of aptitude test are a. Mental ability/mental intelligence test :This test is used to measure the over all intelligence and intellectual ability of the candidate to deal with problems. It judges the decision making abilities. b. Mechanical aptitude test :This test deals with the ability of the candidate to do mechanical work. It is used to judge and measure the specialized knowledge and problem solving ability. It is used for technical and maintenance staff. c. Psycho motor test :This test judges the motor skills the hand and eye co-ordination and evaluates the ability to do jobs like packing, quality testing, quality inspection etc. II. Intelligence test :This test measures the numerical skills and reasoning abilities of the candidates. Such abilities become important in decision making. The test consists of logical reasoning ability, data interpretation, comprehension skills and basic language skills. III. Personality test :In this test the emotional ability or the emotional quotient is tested. This test judges the ability to work in a group, inter personal skills,ability to understand and handle conflicts and judge motivation levels. This test is becoming very

popular now days. IV. Performance test :This test judges and evaluates the acquired knowledge and experience of the knowledge and experience of the individual and his speed and accuracy in performing a job. It is used to test performance of typist, data entry operators etc. Induction (Induction = orientation) Induction can be defined as a process of introducing the employee who is newly elected to the organization. When an employee is given a letter of appointment he joins the company on duty. The very first thing that the company does is, introduces the new employee to the organization and people working there. An induction program may be conducted at a particular center for all employees or at different places (branches of the company) for different employees. Normally the new employee is called together to the staff training college for the induction program. The induction starts with an introduction session about the company, number of branches, a brief history of the company, number of products, number of countries operating in, organizational structure, culture, values, beliefs, the names of top management personnel etc. Apart from this introductory secession there will be other sessions also like sessions on behavioral science, soft skill training, sessions on giving details about the job, salary, bonus, information about different leaves that can be taken by the employee about upward mobility in the organization etc. There are different ways in which sessions can be conducted i.e. using lecture method, power point presentation, group discussion, psychological test, roll play secessions etc. The induction program concludes with the employee reporting for duty at his respective branch after induction. When he reports for duty the senior most people in the branch takes the new employee around the office and introduces to all other employees and gives information about the working of the branch. The senior people regularly stay in touch with the new employee in the first week so that he can make the new employee comfortable and help him to adjust to the company. After this the company may start a training program for the new employee. Define placement: Companies conduct recruitment and selection and finally select employees. The employees undergo an induction program. After the induction program is over the employee is given a specific job in the company. This is called placement.

APPLICATION BLANK Application blank is the application form of the company which must be filled by the candidate when he applies for a job. Application blank gives information to the company about the prospective candidate. The information collected relates to – personal details, educational qualification, work experience, family background etc. The personal details about the candidate include name , age, gender, date of birth, photograph for identification, residential address etc. Details regarding educational qualification include the name of the degree obtained, the name of the university, subject studied, marks obtained and the year of passing. Information about educational qualification is required by the company starting from matriculation exam to the latest degree obtained. Any additional qualification obtained must also be mentioned. In case of details about work experience information about the name of the company in which the candidate has previously worked, number of years of experience , the designation held and the reasons for leaving the job are required. Apart from these details the application blank also collects information about the family background of the person – i.e the number of persons in the family, their age and occupation , the number of dependent members, the annual family income etc.

A proforma of the application blank helps to further explain the concept of application blank and can be seen below

APPLICATION FOR THE POST OF __________________________ NAME :____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ AGE ________ DATE OF BIRTH ____________ M/F_____ RESIDENTIAL ADDRESS PLEASE AFFIX PASSPORT SIZE PHOTO






ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME:___________________________________




HEADHUNTING Headhunting refers to the activity of selection of senior level personnel like Board of Directors, very senior level mangers of the co, etc.Head hunting originally meant hunting for the prized person and was undertaken by tribes . The same word has been adapted to management because in this case the prized person is the member of the top level management Head hunting is different from the normal selection process. In case of headhunting the process of selection is handed over to agencies which specialize in this activity. The company which requires top management personnel gives its requirements to the concerned agency, - i.e the qualities required ,the type of job to be done. , the responsibilities to be handled, the desired profile etc .The agency now tries to find suitable candidates who may be employed in other companies. This is done in a discrete and unobstructive manner. It is not publicized. The agency selects 4 or 5 people who it feels are suited for the job and recommends them to the company. The company in turn interviews all of them , talks to them about the current conditions , what is expected of them , their salary package is negotiated and finally the company selects a person required by them. This selection method is different and is not publicized as in case of lower and middle level management positions.

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