About 10 Sikh Guru

Guru Nanak Sahib The Bounteous Lord heard the anguished cry and so, Guru Nanak. He sent to this world of woe. ( Bhai Gurdas Ji) Guru Nanak Sahib (the First Nanak, the founder of Sikhism) was born on 15th April, 1469 at Rai-Bhoi-di Talwandi in the present distrect of Shekhupura (Pakistan), now Nanakana Sahib. The Birthday of Guru Nanak Sahib is celebrated on 15th Kartik Puranmashi i.e. full moon day of the month Kartik. On this day the Birthday of Guru Nanak Sahib is celebrated every year. (But some other chronicals state that Guru Nanak Sahib was born on 20th October,1469) Guru Nanak's father, Mehta Kalyan Das, more popularly known as Mehta Kalu was the agent and Chief Accountant of Rai Bular. Guru Nanak 's mother was Mata Tripta, a simple, pious and extremely religious woman. Nanak had an elder sister, Nanki, who always cherished her younger brother. Nanak was an extra-ordinary and different child in many ways. God provided him with contemplative mind and rational thinking. At the age of seven, he learnt Hindi and Sanskrit. He surprised his teachers with the sublimity of his extra-ordinary knowledge about divine things. At the age of thirteen, he learned Persian and Sanskrit and at the age of 16, he was the most learned young man in the region. He was married to Mata Sulakhni ji, who gave birth to two sons: Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das. In November 1504, Guru Nanak's elder sister Nanaki ji took him to Sultanpurlodhi where her husband Jai Ram ji got him the Job of storekeeper in the Modikhana of the local Nawab, Daulat Khan Lodhi. At the age of 38, in August 1507, Guru Nanak Sahib heard God 's call to dedicate himself to the service of humanity after bathing in "Vain Nadi" (a small river) Near Sultanpur Lodhi. The very first sentence which he ' uttered then was, " There is no Hindu, no Musalman". He now undertook long travels to preach his unique and divine doctrine (Sikhism). After visiting different places in Punjab, he decided to proceed on four long tours covering different religious places in India and abroad. These tours are called Char Udasis of Guru Nanak Sahib. During the four journeys, Guru Nanak Sahib visited different religious places preaching Sikhism. He went to Kurukshetra, Haridwar, Joshi Math, Ratha Sahib, Gorakh Matta (Nanak Matta), Audhya, Prayag, Varanasi, Gaya, Patna, Dhubri and Gauhati in Assam,

Dacca, Puri, Cuttock, Rameshwaram, Ceylon, Bidar, Baroach, Somnath, Dwarka, Janagarh, Ujjain, Ajmer, Mathura, Pakpattan, Talwandi, Lahore, Sultanpur, Bilaspur, Rawalsar, Jawalaji, Spiti Vally, Tibet, Ladakh, Kargil, Amarnath, Srinagar and Baramula. Guru Nanak Sahib also paid visit to Muslim holy places. In this regard he went to Mecca, Medina, Beghdad via Multan, Peshawar Sakhar, Son Miani, Hinglaj etc. Some accounts say that Guru Sahib reached Mecca by sea-route. Guru Sahib also visited Syra, Turkey and Tehran (the present capital of Iran). From Tehran Guru Sahib set out on the caravan route and covered Kabul, Kandhar and Jalalabad. The real aim of the tour was awakening the people to realise the truth about God and to introduce Sikhism. He established a network of preaching centres of Sikhism which were called "Manjis". He appointed able and committed followers as its head (preacher of Sikhism). The basic tenents of Sikhism were wilfully conceived by the people from all walks of life. The seeds of Sikhism were sown all over India and abroad in well-planned manner. In the year 1520, Babar attacked India. His troops slaughtered thousands of innocent civilians of all walks of life. Women and children were made captives and all their property looted at Amiabad. Guru Nanak Sahib challenged this act of barbarity in strong words. He was arrested and released, shortly after making Babar realising his blunder. All the prisoners were also released. Guru Nanak Sahib settled down at Kartarpur city (now in Pakistan) which was founded by him in 1522 and spent the rest of his life there (1522-1539). There was daily Kirtan and the institution of Langar (free kitchen) was introduced. Knowing that the end was drawing near, Guru Nanak Sahib, after testing his two sons and some followers, installed Bhai Lehna ji (Guru Angad Sahib) as the Second Nanak in 1539, and after a few days passed into Sachkhand on 22nd September, 1539. Thus ended the wordly journey of this god-gifted Master (Guru) of mankind. He rejected the path of renunciation Tyaga or Yoga, the authority of the Vedas and the Hindu caste system. Guru Nanak Sahib emphasised the leading of householder's life (Grista), unattached to gross materialism. The services of mankind Sewa, Kirtan, Satsang and faith in 'One' Omnipotent God are the basic concepts of Sikhism established by Guru Nanak Sahib. Thus he laid the foundations of Sikhism. He preached new idea of God as Supreme, Universal, All-powerful and truthful. God is Formless (Nirankar), the Sole, the Creator, the self-existent, the Incomprehensible and the Ever-lasting and the creator of all things (Karta Purakh). God is infinite, All knowing, True, All-giver, Nirvair, and Omnipotent. He is Satnam, the Eternal and Absolute Truth. As a social reformer Guru Nanak Sahib upheld the cause of women, downtrodden and the poors. He attacked the citadel of caste system of Hindus and theocracy of Muslim rulers. He was a born poet. He wrote 947 hyms comprising Japji Sahib, Asa-Di-Var, Bara-Mah, Sidh-Gosht, Onkar (Dakhani) and these were included in Guru Granth

Sahib by Guru Arjan Sahib. He was also a perfect musician. He with the company of Bhai Mardana compsed such tunes in various Indian classical Ragas that charmed and tawed wild creatures like Babar, subdued saging kings, raved bigots and tyrants, made thugs and robbers saints. He was a reformer as well as a revolutionary. God had endowed him with a contemplative mind and pious disposition. Guru Arjan Sahib called him "the image of God, nay, God Himself".

////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Guru Angad Sahib Guru Angad Sahib, (Bhai Lahna ji) was born in the village named Harike in Ferozepur district in Punjab, on Vaisakh Vadi 1st , (5th Vaisakh) Samvat 1561, (March 31, 1504). He was the son of a petty trader named Pheru ji. His mother 's name was Mata Ramo ji (also Kwown as Mata Sabhirai, Mansa Devi, Daya kaur). Baba Narayan Das Trehan was his grand father, whose ancestral house was at Matte-di-Sarai near Mukatsar. Pheru ji shifted back to this place. Under the influence of his mother Bhai Lehna ji began to worship Durga (A Hindu mythological Goddess). He used to lead a batch of worshippers to Jawalamukhi Temple every year. He was married to Mata Khivi ji in Jaunary 1520 and had two sons (Dasu ji and Datu ji) and two daughters (Amro ji and Anokhi ji). The whole family of Pheru ji had to leave their ancestral village because of the ransacking by the Mughal and Baloch militia who had come with Babur. After this the family settelled at village Khadur Sahib beside the Beas river, near Tarn Taran Sahib (A small town about 25 kmt.away from Amritsar City). Once Bhai Lehna ji heard the recitation of a hymn of Guru Nanak Sahib from Bhai Jodha ji (a sikh of Guru Nanak Sahib) and was thrilled and decided to proceed through Kartarpur to have a glimpse of Guru Nanak Sahib at the time of yearly pilgrimage to Jwalamukhi Temple. His very first meeting with Guru Nanak Sahib completely transformed him. He renounced the worship of Hindu Goddess, dedicated himself to the service of Guru Nanak Sahib, became his Sikh and began to live at Kartarpur, His devotion to Guru Nanak Sahib and his holy mission was so great that he was installed as the Second Nanak in September 7, 1539 by Guru Nanak Sahib himself. Earlier Guru Nanak Sahib tested him in various ways and found an embodiment of obedience and service in him. Guru Nanak Sahib gave him a new name Angad (Guru Angad Sahib). He spent six or seven years in the service of Guru Nanak Sahib at Kartarpur.

by following the example of Guru Nanak Sahib. The period of his Guruship was the most crucial one.) He also wrote 63 Saloks (stanzas). modifying the old Punjabi Script 's characters. He presented all the holy scripts including those he received from Guru Nanak Sahib. 1539.. where physical as well as spiritual exercises were held. to Guru Amar Das Sahib. It is said that he started to build a new town. 1552 at the age of forty-eight. Guru Angad Sahib. Guru Angad Sahib visited all important places and centres established by Guru Nanak Sahib for preaching Sikhism. He also established hundreds of new Sangats (Sikh religious Institutions) and thus strengthened the base of Sikhism. nominated Amar Das Sahib as his successor (The Third Nanak) before his death. when defeated by Sher Shah Suri. He collected the facts about Guru Nanak Sahib 's life from Bhai Bala ji and wrote the first biography of Guru Nanak Sahib. It become the script of the masses very soon. He carried forward the thought of Guru Nanak Sahib both in letter and spirit. It was not difficult for Hinduism to swallow the newly born Sikhism in due course of time. Moreover Sri Chand's Udasis sect community and the activities of Jogies had not yet abated. Sikhism established its own separate religious identity. Guru Angad Sahib introduced a new alphabet known as Gurmukhi Script. (Bhai Bale Wali Janamsakhi available now a days in not the same that Guru Angad Sahib had compiled. at Goindwal near Khadur Sahib and Guru Amar Das Sahib was appointed to supervise its construction. For the youth he started the tradition of Mall Akhara. Guru Angad Sahib left Kartarpur for Khadur Sahib Village (near Goindwal Sahib). . It is also said that Himayun. He took great interest in the education of the children by opening many schools for their instruction and thus increased the number of literates. He breathed his last on March 29. these were included in Guru Granth Sahib. The Sikh community being infant. came to obtain blessings of Guru Angad Sahib in regaining the throne of Delhi.///////// . Yogis and Saints of different sects visited him and held detailed discussions about Sikhism with him . At this hour of juncture he lived Guru Nanak Sahib's tenents in true spirit and there were manifest signs of drifting it (Sikhism) away from the Hinduism.After the death of Guru Nanak Sahib on September 22. He popularized and expanded the institution of 'Guru ka Langar' started by Guru Nanak Sahib earlier . had to face a number of dangers.

bring water from the Bias River for Guru's bath and fetch wood from the Jungle for 'Guru ka Langar'. (Manjis). He became too much impressed and immediately went to see Guru Angad Sahib at Khadur Sahib. and two sons. Guru Amardas Sahib constructed Baoli at Goindwal Sahib having eighty-four steps and . Under the impact of the teachings of Guru Angad Sahib. marriage and death ceremonies. His father Tej Bhan Bhalla and mother Bakht Kaur (also reffered as Sulakhani and Lakhmi Devi) were orhtodox Hindus and used to pay annual visits to the Ganges river at Haridwar. He divided the Sikh Sangat area into 22 preaching centres. Thus he created a fence around the infant like Sikhism and there upon met stiff resistance from the Orthodox Hindus and Muslim fundamentalists. the Third Nanak was born at village Basarke Gillan in Amritsar district on Vaisakh Sudi 14th. He asked the women to discard 'Purdah' (veil). Then he started living at Khadur Sahib. Vaisakhi and Maghi. each under the charge of a devout Sikh. He introduced new birth. Guru Amardas Sahib maintained cordial relations with emperor Akbar. Guru Amardas Sahib persuaded Akbar to waive off toll-tax (pilgrim's tax) for non-Muslims while crossing Yamuna and Ganga. He preached against Sati and advocated widow-remarriage. Mohan ji and Mohri ji. Once the emperor Akbar came to see Guru Sahib and he had to eat the coarse rice in the Langar before he could have an interview with Guru Sahib. He was too much impressed from this system and expressed his desire to grant some royal property for 'Guru ka Langar'. He used to rise early in the morning. Akbar did so. (8th Jeth). This was a result of his services and devotion to Guru Angad Sahib and his teachings. He strengthened the tradition of 'Guru ka Langer' and made it compulsory for the visitor to the Guru saying that 'Pehle Pangat Phir Sangat'. the daughter of Guru Angad Sahib. Bibi Dani ji and Bibi Bhani ji (she was married to Guru Ramdass Sahib). (Some chronicles mention the month of April 1479). Guru Amadas Sahib was married to Mata Mansa Devi ji and had four childern: two daughters. Samvat 1536 (5th May 1479). He established his headquarters at newly built town Goindwal. but Guru Sahib declined it with respect.Guru Amardas Sahib Guru Amardas Sahib. Guru Angad Sahib appointed Guru Amardas Sahib as third Nanak in March 1552 at the age of 73. Visiting of Hindu pilgrimage centres and paying tributes to the Muslim places were prohibited. He himself visited and sent Sikh missionaries to different parts of India to spread Sikhism. Guru Amardas Sahib adopted him as his spiritual guide (Guru). He fixed three Gurpurbs for Sikh celebrations: Dewali. Once Guru Amardas Sahib heard some hyms of Guru Nanak Sahib from Bibi Amro Ji. There he propagated the Sikh faith in a very planned manner.

because Bibi Bhani ji and Guru Ramdas Sahib had true sprit of service and their keen understanding of the Sikh principles deserved this. There he resumed his profession of selling boiled grams and also began to take part in the religious congregation held by Guru Amardas Sahib. //////////////////////// Guru Ramdas Sahib Guru Ramdas Sahib (Jetha ji) was born at Chuna Mandi. He reproduced more copies of the hymns of Guru Nanak Sahib and Guru Angad Sahib. This practice shows that Guruship could be transferred to any body fit for the Sikh cause and not to the particular person who belonged to the same family or of other. According to some chronicles. Son of Mata Daya Kaur ji (Anup Kaur ji) and Baba Hari Das ji Sodhi Khatri was very handsome and promising child. Along with grandmother he left for Goidwal Sahib to settle there. (25th Assu) Samvat 1591 (September 24. He also composed 869 (according to some chronicles these were 709) verses (stanzas) including Anand Sahib. Guru Amardas Sahib at the ripe age of 95 passed away for heaven on Bhadon Sudi 14th. Guru Amardas Sahib did not consider anyone of his sons fit for Guruship and chose instead his son-in law (Guru) Ramdas Sahib to succeed him. (Guru) Ramdas Sahib was married to Bibi Bhani Ji (daughter of Guru Amardas Sahib). He spends five years at village Basarke earning his bread by selling boiled grams.made it a Sikh pilgrimage centre for the first time in the history of Sikhism. Guru Ramdas Sahib. His grandmother (mother's. Lahore (in Pakistan). His parents died when he was just 7 year old. mother) took him to her native village Basarke. after giving responsibility of Guruship to the Fourth Nanak. on Kartik Vadi 2nd. (September 1. He also made active participation in the development of Goindwal Sahib. Mahadev Ji and Arjan Sahib (Guru) Ji. 1534). once Guru Amardas Sahib came village Basarke to condole with the grandmother of (Guru) Ramdas Sahib at the death of her son-in-law and developed deep affection for (Guru) Ramdas Sahib. Certainly it was practically a right step not as emotional. His parents were too poor to meet even the daily needs and he had to earn his bread by selling boiled grams. (1st Assu) Samvat 1631. She bore him three sons: Prithi Chand Ji. and Guru Arjan Sahib made all the Shabads part of Guru Granth Sahib. 1574) at Goindwal Sahib near District Amritsar. After the marriage he stayed with his father-in-law and deeply associated himself with the .

and began digging of Santokhsar Sarover. 1581). After this he left Amritsar and retired to Goindwal Sahib. 1574. like his predecessors carried forward the tradition of Guru ka Langer. Superstitions.Guru Ghar activities (Sikhism). He commanded full confidence of Guru Amardas Sahib and often accompanied him when the latter went on long missionary tours to different parts of India. which is now called Amritsar. Later on he suspended the work on Santokhsar and concentrated his attention on digging Amritsar Sarovar. //////////////////////////////// . There. It provided a common place of worship to the Sikhs and paved the way for the future guidelines for the Sikhism as a different religion. Guru Ramdas Sahib laid the foundation stone of Chak Ramdas or Ramdas Pur. (Guru) Ramdas Sahib was a man of considerable merit. He nominated his youngest son (Guru) Arjan Sahib as Fifth Nanak. The new city (Chak Ramdas Pur) flourished soon as it was situated at the centre of international trade routes. after a few days he passed away for heaven on Bhadon Sudi 3rd (2nd Assu) Samvat 1638 (September 1. caste system and pilgrimages were strongly decried. Gilwali and Gumtala. it proved to be step of far-reaching importance. For this purpose he purchased land from the zamindars of the villages: Tung. the two devoted Sikhs were assigned the supervising work. Guru Amardas Sahib found him capable in every respect and worthy of the office of Guruship and installed him as Fourth Nanak on september 1. He became famous for his piety. also made rapprochement with different sects of Udasis through Baba Shri Chand Ji. Bhai Sahlo Ji and Baba Budha Ji. energy and eloquence. Guru Ramdas Sahib introduced Masand system in place of Manji system and this step played a great role in the consolidation of Sikhism. Guru Ramdas Sahib strengthened the Sikhism a step further by composing Four Lawans and advised the Sikhs to recite them in order to solemnize the marriages of their children. Thus this distinct marriage code for the Sikhs separated them from the orthodox and traditional Hindu system. 31 Ashtpadis and 8 Vars and are a part of Guru Granth Sahib. He. Thus he introduced a new matrimonial system based upon Sikhism instead of Hindu's Vedi system. It grew into an important center of trade in Punjab after Lahore. these include 246 Padei 138 Saloks. Later on. He wrote 638 hymns in 30 ragas. Guru Ramdas Sahib himself invited many merchants and artisans from the different walks of life and trades. devotion.

Hindi and Sanskrit languages. He learnt Gurmukhi script and Gurbani from Baba Budha ji. and made Baba Budha Ji as the first Granthi. He was hardly 18 years old when his father Guru Ramdas Sahib installed him as the Fifth Nanak. The child (Guru)Arjan Sahib often talked of God and loved to sing His songs. after the partition of India in 1947. the youngest son of Guru Ramdas Sahib and Mata Bhani Ji was born at Goindwal Sahib on Vaisakh Vadi 7th. But later on Maharaja Ranjit Singh re-excavated the Baoli. He also stayed sometime at Wadali (now it is called Guru-Di-Wadali near Amritsar city).Guru Arjan Sahib Guru Arjan Sahib. humble and a perfect blend of devotion and sacrifice. Once the emperor Akbar was . Guru Sahib also established another town. a few miles away from Amritsar. He had two elder brothers. Guru Sahib himself contributed about 2000 verses for it. Guru Sahib completed the construction of Santhokhsar. Guru Arjan Sahib completed the work on two sacred tanks (Sarowars) Santokhsar and Amritsar. After the completion of Sri Harmandir Sahib. (Once Shah Jahan destroyed the Baoli and erected a mosque there. He was married to Mata Ganga ji and had a son (Guru) Hargobind Sahib. Hargobindpur on the river Bias and sunk a big well for irrigation at Chheharta. He was also given a suitable education in Persian. Guru Arjan Sahib done a great and monumental work. it was demolished by the Musilm mob). But (Guru) Arjan Sahib was sweet. Guru Arjan Sahib founded the town of Tarn Taran Sahib near Goindwal Sahib and also created a large tank and Gurdwara there. After collecting the hymns of first four Guru Sahibs and several other Hindu and Muslim Saints. Now the Sikhism began to develop as a different religion. The former proved to be the most selfish and the later mostly preferred utter silence. It created a sensor of religious separation from the Hindus and the Muslims. He got the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib. Guru Arjan Sahib was very energetic and aspiring personality. In order to strengthen the cult of Sikhism he toured far and wide about five years throughout India. and compiled Guru Granth Sahib (written by Bhai Gurdas Ji). (19th Vaisakh) Samvat 1620 (April 15. Again. To consolidate and extend Sikhism. He constructed a Baoli in Dabbi-Bazar of Lahore. Sri Guru Granth Sahib proved a great landmark in the history of Sikh Nation. installed it at Sri Harmandir Sahib on Bhadon Sudi 1st Samvat 1661 (August/September 1604). Prithi Chand ji and Mahadev ji.1563). He also laid the foundation stone of the town Kartarpur in Doaba region (near Jalandhar city). A house for lepers was also built. Vikrami Samvat 1644 (December 1588). laid by a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir Ji of Lahore on 1st Magh.

The Governor of Lahore was assigned the task of the execution.mislead about the contents of Guru Granth Sahib by the enemies of Guru Arjan Sahib. one of those was helping the rebellious Khusro. During the period of Guru Arjan Sahib the Amritsar city became the central institution where all the Sikhs used to gather annually on Baisakhi and the Massands began to deposit the collected offerings from the different parts of India in Guru Sahib's treasury. Birbal and Chandu) were some of the most jealous of Sikh community and Guru Arjan Sahib. The number of Sikhs began to increase day by day and this made the orthodox Hindus and princely Muslim class more jealous towards Guru Ghar (Sikh Nation). Guru Sahib was made to sit on the hot iron plates and burning sand was poured over his naked body. The tradition of Daswandh and Masand system was also institutionalized. But finding nothing objectionable. ////////////////////// . This institution spread the Sikhism to the provinces far distant from the Punjab and attracted a large number of followers. (May 30. Thus Guru Sahib embraced martyrdom on Jeth Sudi 4th (1st Harh) Samvat 1663. Guru's elder brother. The martyrdom of Guru Sahib changed the entire character of Sikhism radically. But Sulhi Khan died by his sudden fall in a live brick-klins. He promptly obliged the enemies of Guru Sahib. The Sikh Nation naturally looked upon this as the bigotry and cruelty of the theist Muslim state and the orthodox Hindus towards the newly born. Guru Arjan Sahib was arrested and brought to Lahore where he was charge-sheeted and implicated in the false cases. the emperor Akbar assessed Guru Granth Sahib as "The greatest Granth of synthesis. Many baseless allegations were leveled against Guru Sahib. He tortured Guru Sahib about three days in a manner unknown in the history of mankind. It is said that Mian Mir (a Muslim Sufi Saint and friend of Guru Sahib) tried to intercede on behalf of Guru Sahib but the later forbade him. He handed over Guru Sahib over to Chandu. Prithi Chand made an alliance with Sulhi Khan (a revenue officer). During the torturing period. After the death of Akbar in 1605 both Hindu and Muslim fundamentalists move the new head of state emperor Jahangir against Guru Sahib. The orthodox Hindus and the fundamentalist Muslims (Shekh Ahmed Sirhandi. worthy of reverence". 1606) Jahangir in his autobiography acknowledges that he personally ordered the execution of Guru Arjan Sahib. Jahangir himself was also jealous about Guru's propagation of Sikhism. When his body was blistered. For the first time the Sikhs began to call Guru Arjan Sahib as "Sacha Patshah". peace loving Sikhism. and planned to harm and harass Guru Sahib. a petty businessman and an orthodox Hindu of Lahore city. (But the Masand system became rotten with the passage of time Guru Gobind Singh Sahib abolished it in 1698). he was chained and thrown into the river Ravi.

Guru Sahib revealed Sri Akal Takht Sahib also known as Akal Bunga (Tuineless Throned) just in front of Sri Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in 1609. Samvat 1652 (19th June. at the age of eleven years. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji become Ninth Nanak in 1664.Miri." Guru Sahib issued various letters advising the Sikhs to take part in the military training and marshal arts. The Sikhs call Guru Sahib 'Sachcha Patshah' (True Emperor) and the Sikh Nation followed the judgments or . one of Spiritual Power . The Guru Sahib himself was healthy and strong in body and mind. Out of these. Guru Hargobind Sahib wore two swords. A Chronicler states that Guru Sahib kept seven hundred Cavaliers and sixty artillerymen. Abdul and Natha Mal were given the task in this respect. Now for the first time. wrestling and many others martial sports were introduced. hunting. He had one daughter Bibi Viro Ji and five sons: Baba Gurditta Ji. Atal Rai Ji and (Guru) Tegh Bahadur Ji. He was extremely handsome and the only son of Guru Arjan Sahib and Mata Ganga Ji. There was a band of Pathan mercenaries and Painda Khan Pathan was made its chief. the Sikhs began to think seriously to counter the high-handedness of the mighty and theist Muslim Empire. Riding. Guru Sahib used to gave sermons to the Sikhs and discussions were held on the problems faced by the Sikh nation. Suraj Mal Ji. some martial sports were also performed in the open courtyard before the Akal Takht. Now the Sikh became "Saint-Soldier. Now a change had taken place in the character of Sikh Nation on the force of circumstances. At this place. besides riding wrestling and hunting. This policy suited well to all the social and economic segments of the Sikhs. This development further consolidated the Sikh nation.Piri and the other of Military Power . And on the other hand the martial songs like 'Vars' were daily sung by the Dhadd-players in the court of Guru Sahib to inspire the Sikhs of heroic deeds. This place became the seat of preaching and praying in due course of time. Ani Rai Ji.Guru Hargobind Sahib Guru Hargobind Sahib was born at village Guru Ki Wadali (district Amritsar) on Harh Vadi 7th (21 Harh). In this way the Sikhs were encouraged to settle their own disputes themselves. 1595). it was the need of the hour. four sons passed away during the life of Guru Sahib and the fifth one. After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib. He himself learnt the use of different weapons. Now the Sikh nation adopts both spiritual and political ways simultaneously. In due course of action. Guru Hargobind Sahib succeeded Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606. the moment was crucial for the Sikhs. Guru Sahib errected a wall around Amritsar city and constructed a small fort named 'Lohgarh' on the out skirts of the city. Dialectically speaking.

After receiving summons from Emperor Jahangir. Though the various reasons are also ascribed for the detention of Guru Sahib but the most suitable one seems to be that the Emperor Jahangir was falsely alarmed (about the military preparations by the Guru Sahib and Sikhs) by the same elements. Bhai Gurdas Ji. filth. Now the attitude of Jahangir and his empire towards Guru Sahib changed considerably and remained favorable and friendly till the death of Jahangir." Shortly after the release from the Gwalior Fort and having cordial relations with the . with all the leading Sikh personalities including Mata Ganga Ji. Nizam-ud-Din and the Governor of Lahore. When Guru Sahib met Jahangir immediately after his release. he insisted upon Jahangir for the release of other fifty-two Hindu Princes on his personal surety (These Princes were said to be the rebellious ones). Shortly after the release of Guru Sahib. They preceded him through the streets of Lahore. and abuses thus put to death. The Sikhs celebrated this occasion enthusiastically. Bhai Jetha Ji and Bhai Sahlo Ji. From this day the Sikh Nation began to celebrate Dewali festival as " Bandi Chhor Diwas " also. This was a big occasion for the Sikhs. who were earlier responsible for the execution of Guru Arjan Sahib. secular and political personalities like Sain Mian Mir Ji. A debate on Sikh religion and Sikh doctrines held between Guru Sahib and Jahangir (having pre-tempered mind against Guru Sahib) but the emperor remained unimpressed and ordered for the imprisonment of Guru Sahib at Gwalior Fort. Chandu. Guru Sahib was detained in the fort upto three years i. Baba Budha Ji. Guru Sahib reached Amritsar on the occasion of Diwali. (There are divergent views regarding the detention period of Guru Sahib in the Gwalior Fort prison. Guru Sahib appeared before the Emperor Jahangir and was received by the latter with due respect.) Sain Mian Mir and Wazir Khan (Governor of Lahore) approached Emperor Jahangir own behalf of Guru Sahib and secured the releasing orders. The emperor Jahangir did not tolerated this new policy of Guru Sahib and subsequently ordered to imprison him in the Gwalior Fort. enemies of the Sikh Nation. was pelted with stones. A chronicle further states that "Death came to him as a relief and his body was thrown into the river Ravi. Then the title of "Bandi Chhor Baba" was given to Guru Sahib and is still remembered by this name. like a mad dog. It was the outcome of the noble interceding by the religious. Wazir Khan. the angry Sikhs overtook Chandu Shah (the main brain behind the execution of Guru Arjan Sahib). but the most acceptable one seems to be three years from 1609 to 1612.e.decisions taken on Sri Akal Takht Sahib enthusiastically. Guru Sahib proceeded towards Delhi before making serious consultations about rest. from 1609 to 1612. It is said that Baba Budha Ji littered the earthen lamps throughout the Amritsar city. The request was obliged and all the prisoners were released in 1612.

Guru Sahib also held a detailed discussion on the spiritual and relious with a marathe Saint Ram Das Samrath. Guru Nanak Sahib established it. which was being exploited by the selfish and corrupt Masands according to their own interests. when Guru Sahib was in Gwalior prison). Guru Hargobind Sahib patronized one Sewa Das for preaching Sikhism. Guru Hargobind Sahib visited an old Sikh religious parching centre Nanakmata (Gorakhmata) in the present Pili Bhit district of U.state. Dabwali. On the other hand some Sikh source term the visit to Kashmir as a part of Guru Sahib's preaching campaign. because his personal physician's advice for a natural climate and atmospheric change. (system of initiating people into the fold of Sikhism. Guru Sahib admitted the people of the villages: Darauli. Guru Sahib visited Kashmir in 1620. Guru Sahib undertook Dharam Parchar tours to spead Sikhism. In other words the entire Malwa region embraced Sikhism and went a long way in integrating the Sikh Nation. Damru. He started from Amritsar and covered thousand miles in India. the Yogis fled away and never came back or interfered in the religious affairs of Almast Ji. He and his mother Bhag Bhari served Guru Sahib with much zeal and devotion. Sidhar. on the spiritual and religious issues in a very cordial atmosphere at Srinagar (Garhwal). Mukerian and laid the foundation stone of Sri Hagobindpur town (the original name of this town was Gobindpura) near the river Beas in 1621. Guru Sahib returned Amritsar via Darauli. Some chronicles state that Guru Sahib went there at the invitation of emperor Jahangir. Katra and Gillan in the Sikhism. deputed by Guru Hargobind Sahib to spread Sikhism) from the gurdwara and desecrated the place by cutting the holy and historical Peepal tree. Lopo. but Guru Sahib declined the offer politely. He also visited several adjoining villages like Bara Pir. Guru sahib started to re-consolidate the Sikh Nation. under which earlier Guru Nanak Sahib held discussions with the different sects of Jogis. Guru Sahib held a short meeting with his many devoted Sikhs and a preacher . Guru Sahib reached Nanakmata along with some saint-soldiers. Seeing Guru Sahib on the scene. This was a major achievement by Guru Hargobind Sahib. Mehraj. Zeera. He modified the concept of Charanamrit. He tried his best to dissuade Meharban (son of Pirthi Chand) from harbouring hostile designs against Sikhs and Sikhism. The emperor offered financial assistance for the construction of Sri Akal Takht Sahib. In Punjab he visited Kartarpur and made it as headquarter of Sikh Nation in Doaba. Sidhwan.P. It is said that some Hindu Yogis ousted Almast Ji. It is also stated that Jahangir and his party paid a visit to Goindwal Sahib and reached Amritsar via Taran Taran. (a pious Sikh preacher. Guru Sahib also covered the 'Malwa' region of Punjab where the cult of Hindu Goddess and "Sakhi Sarwar" was fascination the lowly and downtrodden simple living people.

Uri and Muzafrabad. It is said that Raja Tara Chand donated land for this purpose. The tyranny and injustice of the Muslim theocratic state was opposed. He also visted Kurukshetra and established there a Sikh preaching centre (Now in Haryana State). The sacred Baoli of Guru Arjan Sahib in Dabbi Babar. The emperor took the notice of new converts to Sikhism from the Muslims. On the other hand the influence of Naqashbandis (a radical and fundamentalist order of the Muslim's clergy). Guru Sahib spent the last decade of his life (from 1635 to 1644) at Kiratpur Sahib. under the supreme command of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Baba Gurditta Ji was made the incharge of religious affairs and he further appointed four head preachers area vice: Almast Ji. Phaul Ji. Guru Sahib's religious tours and preaching made the Sikhism more popular in different parts of India. He ordered to destroy all the temples and Gurdwaras. This was only an imperative measure of defense. Lahore (now in Pakistan) was desecrated and converted into a mosque. After the death of emperor Jahangir the policy matter of the new young emperor Shah Jahan changed considerably. Guru Sahib devoted his much time in reorganizing the Sikh Nation and updating the preaching centres by establishing a new system called Dhunas. by the unruly and fanatic Muslims mob). a Hindu lady . Guru Sahib returned home via Baramula and proceeded further to Gujrat where he met Saint Shah Daulla who appreciated Guru Sahib spiritual status and mode of living with splendor. prepared for the armed resistance. (Later Maharaja RanJit Singh re-excavated and re-established this Baoli. the daughter of a devoted Sikh couple Daya Ram Ji and Bhagan Ji at village Mandiali. He appointed Bhai Garhia Ji to preach the Sikh religion. According to some historical accounts Kaulan(Mata). Guru Sahib converted the peaceful sect into a warlike community. Gonda Ji and Baba Hansa Ji. ready to defend their interests with the swords and it was the need of the hour. Baramula. Wazirabad. In 1629 Mukhlis Khan was made the Governor to Lahore. Again it was destroyed in 1947. the Sikh Nation. On the other hand Guru Sahib did not abandoned the mission of militarizing the Sikhs. Mange and Madai in Lahore district. which were under construction. The large number of Kashmiris. Now for the first time in the Indian history since the invasion of Muslims. Bhimbar Rehran. Guru Sahib made reconciliation with Udasi sect headed by Baba Sri Chand Ji. He and Qazi Rustam Khan were best friends. Guru Sahib visited Sialkot. founded by Baba Gurditta Ji (Guru's son). Mirpur. which is situated in the hill state of Hadur (Nalagarh). both Hindus and Muslims embraced Sikhism due to the devoted and committed preaching by Guru Sahib. .Kattu Shah (a converted Mohammedan). Guru Sahib also visited Rai Bhoe-di-Talwandi (the birth place of Guru Nanak Sahib). He married Bibi Marwahi Ji (Mata Mahadevi Ji).

at her residence. A small conflict of Rohilla near Sri Hargobindpur was fought in 1621. They were intercepted by the mighty and devoted Sikh Saint-Soldiers at Rohilla Ghat on the bank of the river Beas. She was a pious disciple of Guru Sahib and an ardent follower of Sikhism. the Faujdar of Jalandhar. Qazi Rustam Khan lodged a complaint with the new emperor. She was treated like a slave . It was the first armed clash between the Faujdar of Jalandhar and Hargobind Sahib.as it is also signified to by the name Kaulan.The possible conflict out of charged circumstances was inevitable. Bhai Jattu Ji. Bhai Jagannath Ji and Bhai Kalyana Ji. The Mughal army met a crushing defeat by the hands of. On noticing this attitude of Kaulan Ji. Near the site of new town Hargobindpur. Bhai Pirana Ji. Bhai Saktu Ji. an extreme fanatic personality.At the young age. who was incensed earlier by the fanatic Muslims and Hindus against the Sikh Nation and Guru Sahib. Bhai Nanu Ji. and all were won.How a Qazi. After this incident. Where she was treated kindly by Guru Sahib and provided her a safe and separate lodging near a pond. She began to arrange religious congregations on Sikhism and Gurbani. Guru Sahib sacrificed Saint Soldiers like Mathura Bhat Ji (son of Baba Bhikha Ji). Qazi became harsher towards her . after the name of Kaulan Ji). He obliged the complaint and revised his policy matter. Rattan Chand (son of Bhagwan Das) and Karam Chand (son of Chandu Mal) incensed the Faujdar of Jalandhar against Guru Sahib. She also began to take part in the religious sittings of Guru Sahib and became an ardent and pious follower of Guru Sahib. (later it was converted into a tank by Guru Sahib and named it Kaulsar. Abdulla Khan the Faujdar of Jalandhar dispatched ten thousand soldiers. was forcibly abducted by the Qazi Rustam Khan in her childhood and was made a maid servant . who were engaged in developing the new township. Within a short span of time she became much popular among the Sikh masses. Abdullah Khan his two sons and five commanders were killed. Bhagwan Das. Thus she won the sympathy of the Sikhs who began to address her as Mata Kaulan Ji. a Khatri 'Kirar' contemplated his right of ownership on the land and with the help of some hired ruffians forcibly tried to dislodge the Sikhs. but there was an immense loss of lives and material on the both sides. tolerate her deep and devotional interest in Sikh religion? Because of Qazi's harsh treatment she sought the help of Mian Mir Ji. Bhai Paras Ram Ji. She breathed her last on 4th July 1629 at Kartarpur (Jalandhar) while serving for the Sikh Nation. she came under the influence of the teachings of Sain Mian Mir Ji. . Guru Sahib fought five battles during the regime of emperor Shah Jahan. Besides Rattan Chand and Karam Chand. earlier adopted by his father Jahangir towards Guru Sahib. who deputed his disciple Abdullah (Abdul Yar Khan) to escort Kaulan Ji safely to Amritsar. In the ensuing small clash Bhagwan Das and his most hired ruffians were killed. When Shah Jahan succeeded the throne after the death of his father Jahangir.

which were forcibly snatched and taken into custody by the Mughal officials from the two devotees of Guru Sahib. Soon after this. On the other side Sameer Beg and his two sons Shams Beg and Qasim Beg were also killed. Shah Jahan. The Sikhs routed and defeated the enemy. This was the first armed clash between the Mughals and the Sikhs. This dare devil act was considered an open thereat to the authority of the Mughal Empire. This led to a small violent conflict between the two parties. On the next morning the Sikhs. a tussle between Guru Sahib and Subedar of Lahore began over the two horses. gave a stiff resistance. Guru Hargobind Sahib retired to the semi desert wastelands of Bhatinda. Guru Sahib lost 1200 Saint Soldiers including Kirt Bhatt Ji and Bhai Jetha Ji. retaliated and made a vigorous attack on the sleeping Mughal forces. Guru Sahib took Guru Granth Sahib with him but after meeting a halt for sometimes at Daroli he sent Guru Granth Sahib to Kartarpur along with the family). The imperial forces (22000 troops) were dispatched towards the Lakhi Jungle under the command of Qammar Beg and Lalla Beg.The second and the most serious conflict between Guru Sahib and the Mughal forces were fought in April 1634. The interception took place near Mehraj and Lahira villages. They looted and plundered all the property and holy residence of Guru Sahib. This incident was informed to Guru Sahib. The Sikhs did not intercept the fleecing enemy. which resulted heavy causalities in the Mughal camp. Guru Hargobind Sahib was not directly involved in his clash. Guru Sahib built a tank called Gurusar commemorating the victory. after consolidating their position. After this battle. to solemnize the marriage of Bibi Veero Ji (the daughter of Guru Hargobind Sahib).000 soldiers "to teach the lesson" to Guru Hargobind Sahib. According to some chronicle (on 16th December 1634) the Sikhs waged a guerilla attack on Mughal forces at night. 7. at Lahore. Guru Sahib also suffered a heavy loss of life and property. After these successful encounters Guru Sahib retired at Kartarpur (Jalandhar) along . The attackers had an upper hand over the Sikhs on the first day of the battle. The Sikh forces under the command of Rai Jodh and Kirt Bhatt camped near a water reservoir. Guru Sahib and the whole family had to hurriedly move to Chabal. the commander and most of his leading lieutenants were killed. The Sikhs though small in number. (While leaving Amritsar for the Malwa region. It started with the lifting of a royal hawk of the imperial army of Shah Jahan by the Sikhs. This incident enraged the emperor. Mukhlis Khan. Near a village Nathane Guru Sahib faced another encounter with the Mughal forces but remained victorious. The Mughal forces fled to Lahore leaving behind the dead and wounded. The mini fortress of Lohgarh was attacked. Guru Hargobind Sahib had only three to four thousand warriors. who incidentally were also hunting in the same territory aroud Gumtala Village near Amritsar. He deputed Mukhils Khan with. Bhai Bidhi Chand a daring disciple recovered the horses one by one from the royal stable.

. It is said that when Guru's body was placed on fire. Painda Khan and Kala Khan were killed. which was under the rule of Raja Tara Chand (a hill state chief). Guru Sahib crossed the Sutlej River and reached Kiratpur Sahib where he established another spiritual and preaching center of the Sikh Nation. Samvat 1697. before his departure for heavenly abode. Before his death Guru Sahib nominated his grandson Har Rai Sahib (The second son of Baba Gurditta Ji) as his successor (Seventh Nanak). Guru Sahib spent ten years of his life and breathed his last on Chet Sudhi 5th (6th Chet Samvat 1701) 28th February 1644 (some chronicle record the date as 3rd March. Har Rai Sahib (Guru) dissuaded them. After the battle of Kartarpur. deserted him later and joined the Mughal camp after some altercation with the Sikhs and Guru Sahib on some petty issues. nominated his grand son. and grandsons of Mula Bhat) sacrificed their lives. but earlier two had jumped into the pier and were consumed by the fire.with his warriors. and as the flames rose high. Guru Sahib moved onwards Kiratpur Sahib. Again Guru Sahib's entourage was suddenly ambushed by a contingent of royal forces under the command of Ahmed Khan in the village Palahi near Phagwara town on 29th April 1635. fought with rare courage and velour. on 3rd March. Teg Bahadar Ji (Guru). It caused considerable loss on the Guru's soldiers. Har Rai Ji at the tender age of 14. Painda Khan Pathan a commander in Guru's army and childhood friend. Guru Har Rai Sahib was the son of Baba Gurdita Ji and Mata Nihal Kaur Ji(also known as Mata Ananti Ji). The Sikhs having a nominal strength of 5000. Here. along with imperial army made an attack on Guru Sahib at Kartarpur on 26th April 1635. as his successor (Seventh Nanak). a large number of Sikhs tried to burn themselves on the funeral pier. 1644. He and Kala Khan (brother of slain Mukhlis Khan). Guru Har Rai Sahib married to Mata Kishan Kaur Ji(Sulakhni Ji) daughter of Sri Daya Ram Ji of Anoopshahr (Bulandshahr) in Utter Pradesh on Har Sudi 3. Guru Har Rai Sahib had two sons: Sri Ram Rai Ji and Sri Har Krishan Sahib Ji(Guru). Baba Gurditta Ji and Bhai Bidhi Chand Ji showed great feasts of bravery. /////////////////////////////// Guru Har Rai Sahib Guru Hargobind Sahib. 1644). Several Sikh Saint Soldiers were also martyred. Bhai Dasa Ji and Bhai Sohela Ji (sons of Ballu Bhat.

whole heartily thanked and wanted to grant some "Jagir". Guru Har Rai Sahib faced some serious difficulties during the period of his guruship. Once Dara Shikoh. Guru Sahib often awarded various Sikh warriors with gallantry awards. he maintained a zoo also. But he never himself indulged in any direct political and armed controversy with the contemporary Mughal Empire. He established 360 Sikh missionary seats (ManJis). turned hostile. Mian Sahib. as the heads of ManJis. The enemy suffered a heavy loss of life and fled the scene. The corrupt massands. but there was no improvement. He otherwise further boosted the military spirit of the Sikhs. This self-defense measure. The emperor. After the death of Shah Jahan. The unwarranted attack was repulsed by a few hundred Saint Soliders of Guru Sahib with great courge and bravery. who earlier were maintained by his grandfather (Guru Hargobind Sahib). who was killed by Guru Hargobind Sahib in a battle) attacked the kafla of Guru Sahib with the force of one thousand armed men. Guru Sahib accepting the request. Sialkot. At last the emperor made a humble request to Guru Sahib for the treatment of his son. Once on the request of Dara Shikoh (the eldest son of emperor Shahjahan). (son of Mukhlis Khan. Ramgarh and many places of Jammu and Kashmir region. Mohamad Yarbeg Khan. He also tried to improve the old corrupt Masand system and appointed pious and committed personalities like Suthre Shah. Guru Sahib helped him to escape safely from the bloody hands of Aurangzebs armed forces during the war of succession. Bahagat Mal and Jeet Mal Bhagat (also known as Bairagi).Guru Har Rai Sahib was a man of peace but he never disbanded or discharged the armed Sikh Warriors(Saint Soldiers). handed over some rare and suitable medicines to the messenger of the emperor. Samba. There. Pathankot. (a befitting reply to the unwarranted armed attack of the privileged muslims). but Guru Sahib never accepted. Sangtia. the eldest son of Shah Jahan fell seriously ill by some unknown disease. Dhir Mals and Minas always tried to preclude the advancement of Sikh religion. Guru Sahib also established an Aurvedic herbal medicine hospital and a research centre at Kiratpur Sahib. Sahiba. The emperor Aurangzeb made an excuse for the help rendered to prince Dara Shakoh by . Guru Har Rai Sahib also visited Lahore. The best physicians available in the country and abroad were consulted. the attitude of the state headed by Aurangzeb towards the non-muslims. The life of Dara Shikoh was saved from the cruel jaws of death. Once Guru Sahib was coming back from the tour of Malwa and Doaba regions. was an example for those who professed the theory of so called non-violence or "Ahimsa Parmo Dharma". Bhagat Bhagwan.

Thus Guru Sahib established a strict property for the Sikhs against any alteration of original verse in Guru Granth Sahib and the basic conventions set up by Guru Nanak Sahib. Ram Rai Ji appeard on behalf of Guru Sahib in the court. Ram Rai. He tried to clarify some mis-understandings regarding Guru Ghar and Sikh faith. Bikrami Samvat 1718. the elder brother of Guru Harkrishan Sahib was ex-communicated and disinherited due to his anti-Guru Ghar activities. The soul leaves the body immediately after the death and it does not remain in the grave waiting for doom's day.Guru Sahib during the war of succession and framed false charges against Guru Sahib and was summoned to Delhi. Ram Rai. //////////////////////////////////////////////// Guru Har Krishan Sahib Guru Harkrishan Sahib was born on Sawan Vadi 10. When Guru Har Rai Sahib was informed about this incident. he immediately excommunicated Ram Rai Ji from the Sikh Panth and never met him. Bikrami Samvat 1713. The physical material of the bodies of both Hindus and Muselmans face the same fate and it is a universal truth. as stated earlier and Sri Harkrishan Sahib Ji at the age of about five years. It is molded into pots and bricks. Guru Har Rai Sahib installed his younger son Har Krishan as the Eighth Nanak and passed away on Kartik Vadi 9 (5 Kartik). which he could not escape. was declared as Eighth Nanak Guru by his father Guru Har Rai Sahib before his death in 1661. 1661) at Kiratpur Sahib. (6th October. (8 Sawan). This act inflamed Ram Rai Ji with jealousy and he complained to the emperor Aurangzeb . in order to please the emperor and gain more sympathy replied that the text had been needlessly corrupted by some ignorant person and inserted the word Musleman instead of word Beiman (dishonest). was to clarify the meaning of the verse "The Ashes of the Mohammadan fall into the potter's clot. 1656) at Kiratpur Sahib. created by Dhirmals and Minas. Yet another trap. And the earth consumes the body-material in due course of time) It is a rational and scientific view of Sikhism. (July 7. Knowing that the end was near. and they cry out as they burn". He was the second son of Guru Har Rai Sahib and Mata Krishan Kaur Ji (Sulakhni Ji). through the later pleaded repeatedly for forgiveness. (The actual meaning of the verse is that the human soul is not bound to the physical structure or the body of a person.

At this occasion. Within a short span of time Guru Harkrishan Sahib through his fraternization with the common masses gained more and more adherents in the capital.against his father's decision. The Guru at once went to a lady dressed as a maidservant and sat in her lap. In order to test the Guru's intelligence. he was greeted with great fervor and full honors by Raja Jai Singh and the Sikhs of Delhi. a swear epidemic of cholera and smallpox broke out in Delhi. Particularly. a large number of devotees from every walk of life came to bid him farewell. Raja Jai Singh sent his emissary to Kiratpur Sahib to bring the Guru to Delhi. They followed the Guru Sahib up to village Panjokhara near Ambala. Guru Sahib himself was seized with high fever. Even Aurangzeb did not tried to disturb Guru Harkrishan Sahib sensing the tone of the situation but on the other hand never dismissed the claim of Ram Rai also. While serving the suffering people from the epidemic day and night. When Guru Sahib reached Delhi. The people from all walks of life flocked the palace to have a glimpse (Darshan) of Guru Harkrishan Sahib. Then Guru Sahib. Guru Sahib was lodged in the palace of Raja Jai Singh. But before leaving this place Guru Harkrishan Sahib showed the great powers which were bestowed upon him by the Almighty God. of which everyone spoke very highly. This lady was the real queen. The swear attack of smallpox confined him to bed for several . this unlettered man was able to expound the philosophy of the Gita. the local Muslim population was much impressed with the purely humanitarian deeds of the Guru Sahib and nicknamed him Bala Pir (child prophet). Then Guru Sahib called a water-carrier named Chhaju Ram. Pandit Lal Chand became the Sikh and escorted the Guru Sahib up to Kurukashatra. Pandit Lal Chand. At first the Guru was not willing. The emperor replied in flavor issuing orders through Raja Jai Singh to the young Guru to appear before him. he agreed to go to Delhi. Some chronicles mention that prince Muzzam also paid a visit. There are also many different stories we find in some other Sikh accounts relating to Guru Sahib's mental ability. When Pandit Lal Chand listened the scholarly answer from Chhaju. but at the repeated requests of his followers and Raja Jai Singh. and with the Guru's grace. Raja Jai Singh requested the Guru Sahib to identify the real queen out of the equally and well dressed ladies surrounding Guru Sahib. The young Guru began to attend the sufferers irrespective of cast and creed. At the time. a learned scholar of Hindu literature questioned Guru Sahib about the meanings of Gita. he bent his head in shame and besought the forgiveness of Guru Sahib. along with a few of his family members proceeded towards Delhi. From this place the Guru advised his followers to return to their respective homes.

Naturally he developed inspirations towards a life of selfless service and sacrifice. Baba Suraj Mal Ji. He was the fifth and the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib and Mata Nanki Ji.. swordsmanship. When asked to name his successor. But he preffered to call himself 'Degh Bahadur' From the very childhood Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib used to sit inside the house and spend most of his time in meditation. Bikrami Samvat 1721. Tenth Nanak. he merely exclaimed 'Baba Bakala'. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib had a regular schooling from the age of six. he called his mother and told her that his end was drawing near. who was residing at village Bakala near river Beas in Punjab province. "Let us think of the holy Harkrishan. Baba Atal Rai Ji and one sister Bibi Veero Ji. Apart from the schooling he was also given the military training like horsemanship. Thus the 'Bala Pir' passed away on Chet Sudi 14. (1st April.(3rd Vaisakh). javelin throwing and shooting. He had four brothers Baba Gurditta Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Sahib paying tribute to Guru Harkrishan Sahib stated in "Var Sri Bhagoti Ji Ki". Due to the rich religious atmosphere at home he developed a distinct philosophical bent of mind.. he developed an extra ordinary mystic nature in due course of time.days. He had witnessed and even participated in the battles of Amritsar and Kartarpur. But inspite of all this. The Sikhs began to call him Teg Bahadur after the battle of Kartarpur against Painda Khan in which he proved to be great sword-player or gladiator. 1664) slowly reciting the word "Waheguru" till the end. vocal and instrumental music. (5 Vaisakh)." ///////////////////////////////////////////////////// Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was born on Vaisakh Vadi 5. (30th March. Baba Ani Rai Ji. Bhai Gurdas Ji also taught him Gurbani and Hindu Mythology. 1621) in the holy city of Amritsar in a house known as Guru ke Mahal. In the last moment Guru Harkrishan Sahib wished that nobody should mourn him after his death and instructed to sing the hyms of Gurbani. Whose sight dispels all sorrows. . Bikrami Samvat 1678. When his condition became serious. He seldom played with other boys of his age. Where he also learnt classical. His childhood name was Tyag Mal... These words were only meant for the future (Guru) Teg Bahadur Sahib.

Some Chronicles state that Bhai Mehra. Guru Nanak Sahib says: " There can be no love of God without active service." Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib's long spell of silent meditation perfected his will. He developed aspirations towards a life of selfless service and sacrifice.Lal Chand & Bishan Kaur of Kartarpur at an early age on 15 Assu. He never contested the will of his father (Guru). who was a devout Sikh of Guru Hargobind Sahib. got constructed a house for (Guru) Tegh Bahadur Sahib where he lived in complete peace and led a normal life for the next twenty years (from 1644 to 1666). Mata Nanki Ji. Gujri (Mata) was also a religious lady. Haridwar. 1632). he left for Baba Bakala (Punjab). it is seen that the meditation for self-purification and self-attainment of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib is wrongly mis-understood. with a moral and spiritual courage to abide by the will of God. Prayag. Through meditation Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib archived the torch of Guru Nanak creative vision. Bhai Jetha Ji took Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib to Patna. When Guru Hargobind Sahib invested Har Rai Sahib with Guruship. Here he heard the news of the passing away of Guru Har Rai Sahib (6th Oct.1664. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was the first to bow to Guru Har Rai Sahib. Actually. She was disciplined in behaviour and modest in temprament. After some days. Now with this announcement near about twenty-two posers and self-appointed successors sprung up in the small village Bakala. Kiratpur Sahib. Agra. 21.Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was married to Gujri Ji (Mata). Kashi (Banaras) and Gaya. During the stay at Baba Bakala. prophetically uttered only two words "Baba Bakala" meaning that his successor would be found at (Baba) Bakala. A son (Guru) Gobind Singh (Sahib) was born on Poh Sudi Saptmi Samvat 1723 (December 22. It is a totally wrong conception (as some historian point out) that Guru Sahib got constructed a solitary cell in his house where he often used to meditate God.1666). On the way back he reached Delhi on March. Samvat 1689 (September 14. one has to lift others from darkness to liberate the world. Her father was a noble and rich man. A devoted Sikh of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Soon after the death of Guru Hargobind Sahib. where he learnt the arrival of Guru Harkrishan Sahib at the residence of Raja Jai Singh. daughter of Sh. The most prominent among them was Dhir Mal who was the only direct descendant of the eldest son Baba Gurditta Ji and it . Guru Harkrishan Sahib (on the eve of his death). the mother of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib took him and his wife (Gujri) to her natal village (Baba) Bakala near the river Beas. Guru Tegh Bahadur paid visits to many holy and historical places like Goindwal. Mathura. Guru Nanak's spiritual traditions hold that after attaining the divine light. 1661) and decided to return to Kiratpur Sahib. He alongwith his mother and other Sikhs paid visit to Guru Harkrishan Sahib and after expressing profound sense of sorrow and sympathy towards Guru Sahib and his mother Mata Krishan Kaur Ji. In JapJi sahib.

The imposters were glad to accept only two coins. but the ministers of the holy place shut its doors against him and he was not allowed to enter.. He offered everyone only two coins and non-of them challenged... But due to his prayer to the Guru Sahib. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib with his entire family reached Amritsar (about November. came to pay his obeisance and 500 gold coins as offerings to the Guru Sahib. But h was disappointed as he sensed something wrong. Makhan Shah Lubana. he also visited Talwandi Saboke. On hearing this a large number of Sikh devotees assembled there and paid their homage to the true Guru. He kept aloof from them. occurred one day. But Guru Sahib returned it to Dhir Mal while forgiving him. It is to be noted that wherever Guru Sahib went. which changed the whole scene deciding the dispute forever. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib reached Kiratpur Sahib in May 1665. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib did not pressed or forced his entry but returned calmly and reached Kiratpur Sahib via Vallah. Then in the month of August 1664. Banger and Dhandaur. He went to see the Guru who was meditating in a lone house. One day he learned from some villagers that there was also another Guru named Tegh Bahadur Ji. a rich trader and a devout Sikh from Tanda district Jehlam (now in Pakistan). they retaliated and took possession of (Guru) Granth Sahib lying with Dhir Mal.was he who possessed the first copy of Guru Granth Sahib prepared by Guru Arjan Sahib.Guru Ladho Re. It is said that earlier his ship full of merchandise was caught in a storm. Guru Tegh Bahadur accepted the spiritual succession but never liked to be dragged into the mire of competition with the imposters. arrived at village Bakala and acknowledged Baba Tegh Bahadur Ji as the Ninth Nanak. This incident ravaged Dhir Mal and he with the hired ruffians.). at village Bakala. When he offered two coins to Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. but the atmosphere remained same at Village Baba Bakala. Tarn Taran Sahib. A bullet hit Guru Sahib and when the Sikhs learnt about this attack. Everyone contested to be the real 'Guru'. . He immediately climbed to the roof of the same house and cried loudly that he had discoverd the true Guru (Guru Ladho Re. 1664) to pay obeisance at Harmandir Sahib. He made up his mind to offer 500 gold coins in lieu of the safety. Khandur Sahib. Reaching village Bakala he had to encounter so many 'Gurus'. An incident. attacked Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. Before reaching Kiratpur. his ship was saved. At this Makhan Shah could not contain himself with joy. Goindwal Sahib. the later questioned that why Makhan Shah was breaking his own promise offering only two coins instead of five hundred. there he established new Manjis (preaching centres of Sikhism). Khem karan. Sikh Sangat headed by some prominent Sikhs from Delhi. This situation puzzled the innocent Sikh devotees for a few months..

. Many prominent Sikhs like Bhai Mati Dass Ji.. Resuming his mission further. (December. Bhai Sati Das Ji. When Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was coming at Dhamdhan in the Banger area in December 1665 a Mughal enforcement officer Alam Khan Rohella arrested him alongwith Bhai Sati Das Ji.From Dacca... Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib proceeded further towards Dacca via Mongair.. Then Mata Gujri Ji was expecting a child.. Sahibganj and Kant Nagar in October 1666. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib set out for a long journey towards the east in order to strengthen the Sikh nation by setting up new preaching centers and renewing the old ones. After a brief stay at new founded town. . But before leaving for these places he made necessary arrangements under the supervision of a devout Sikh lady known as Mata Paidi for the safe stay of his family members at Patna during the rainy season... It was like a long-march for the sake of suffering humanity. A Gurdwara Sangat Tola now marks the place where Guru Sahib used to deliver holy sermons to the audience. supported Guru Sahib in religious sittings during these tours. He also visited Benaras and Sasaram and then reached Patna in the month of May 1666. 22.. This mission raved the othodox regime of the Mughals.. At Dacca Guru Sahib established a big Sangat (Hazuri Sangat) with the help of ardent followers like Almast Ji and Natha Sahib. . The entire family of Raja Jai Singh was a staunch follower of Guru Sahib and hence they treated him not like prisoner but endorsed great respect and also secured the releasing orders from the imperial court.. All these were produced before the court of the empror Aurangzeb. Bhai Dayal Das Ji and Baba Gurditta Ji. He left Anandpur Sahib in August... It was here that Guru Sahib heard the news of the birth of his son..In June 1665 Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib bought some land from Raja of Bilaspur near Makhowal village on the bank of River Satlej and founded a new town Chak-Nanki after revered name of his mother Nanki.. 1665 alongwith many staunch sikhs such as Bhai Mati Das Ji. Guru Sahib was released after about two months. At all the places Guru Sahib halted. Guru Sahib proceeded towards Jatia Hills and Sylhet where he established a preaching Centre for Sikh Sangat and reached Chittagong via Agartala. son of Raja Jai Singh Mirza. Bhai Moti Das Ji. Later this town was renamed as Sri Anandpur Sahib.. Guru Sahib reached Mathura and then Agra and from here he reached Allahabad via Etawah. Bhai Dayal Das Ji and Bhai Jetha Ji apart from his close family members. It was his second missionary tour.. Bhai Dayal Das Ji and some other Sikh followers under the imperial orders from Delhi. Kanpur and Fatehpur....1666) at Patna... because large crowds began to attend the gatherings and sought the Guru's blessings.. Calicut (now Kolkata). (Guru Gobind Singh Sahib) who was born on Poh Sudi Saptami (23 Poh) Bikrami Samvat 1723. Bhai Sangtia Ji. who orderd to handover them to Kanwar Ram Singh Kachhwaha. Bhai Sati Dass Ji.. Satsangat and Kirtan (recitations of Verses from Guru Granth Sahib) were held daily and religious sermons were delivered.

and introduced many Islamic fundamentalist programs like special taxes for the Hindu traders. The main and . He demolished many important and sacred Hindu Temples. He helped villagers in many ways. At this time Raja Ram Singh son of Late Raja Jai Singh who was already present at Dacca in order to make arrangements for his expedition to Assam. Here he identified himself with the sorrows and sufferings of the common masses. On the other hand Guru Sahib established many new preaching centres of Sikhism at these places. met Guru Sahib and sought blessings. In the way. Guru Sahib returned Anandpur Sahib in February 1671. A reign of terror was let loose on the Hindus in India by the Muslim theistic state. During this tour Guru Sahib meditated on the banks of river Brahmaputra at Dhubri in Assam where stands a Gurdwara known as Sri Damdama Sahib. Augranzeb made up his mind to rout out Hinduism from India by hook or crook. They were produced before an imperial court at Delhi but released shortly. He spent about two years there peacefully preaching Sikhism. Guru Sahib toured this area about one and half year. They were also advised to start dairy farming and in this respect many cattle heads were also distributed free of cost among the poor and landless farmers. They were also deprived of basic amenities like fresh drinking water. Thus Guru Sahib identified himself with the common masses. 1670 and returned Patna. In 1672. milk and even simple food. Earlier Guru Nanak Sahib also sanctified this place. Guru Sahib did so. Chronicles state that some Sikh Gurudwaras were also demolished.Guru Sahib returned Dacca in 1668. To cope with the scarcity of water many community wells were dug on the behest of Guru Sahib by performing Kar-Sewa (free service). but the people were hard working and poor. At this stage many followers of Sakhi Sarver (a muslim outfit) entered into the fold of Sikhism. Guru Sahib left Assam in April-May. (Some Chronicles state that Raja Ram Singh met Guru Sahib at Gaya). Socially and economically this area was backward and almost neglected. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib heard of these black deeds of Aurangzeb and moved towards Punjab. there was a peaceful settlement instead of bloody conformation between the ruler of Kamrup and Raja Ram Singh. and erected mosques in place of them. The prosecution of Hindus was the most outrageous feature of his reign. It is said that by the grace of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. Guru Sahib and Sikh Sangat assisted them in planting trees on barren stretches of land. religious tax (Zazia) for non-Muslims. Raja Ram Singh requested Guru Sahib to accompany him during the expedition. Guru Sahib was arrested at Agra along with many of his prominent Sikhs in June 1670. As Guru Sahib was already touring the Far East places. Guru Sahib set out for another religious journey towards Malwa region in Punjab. Celebration of Diwali and Holi was forbidden.

Bangar and Dhamdhan. Tahla Sahib. Guru Sahib started his journey towards Delhi after installing his son (Guru) Gobind Sahib as the Tenth Nanak in July 1675. the Brahmins especially the Kashmiri Pandits led by Pandit Kirpa Ram Dutt approached Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib at Anandpur Sahib in May 1675. Makrora. Bhai Moti Das Ji. before the imperial summons reach Anandpur Sahib. Thousands of Kahmiri Pandits were massacred and their property was looted. When Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib reached near village Malikpur Ragharan near Ropar.important halts of Guru Sahib were Patiala (Dukhniwaran Sahib). Haridwar and Kashmir were identified for this purpose. Dar-ul-Islam and to achieve this goal as soon as possible. Samaon. Bhai Sati Das Ji and many more devoted Sikhs followed Guru Sahib. They were given an ultimatum either to embrace Islam or to be prepared for death. At this juncture. There was a wave of mass conversion in India and Sher Afgan Khan an imperial viceroy first tried this practice in Kashmir. arrested Guru Sahib and some of his prominent followers. the Hindu Pandits and Brahmins (the preaching class) of Kashi. the Kashmiri Pandits presented a petition to the Emperor and in lieu of this an imperial court of Delhi. It is regretted that all this was done under the very nose of many so-called brave Hindu and Rajput kings and chiefs who were also subordinate to the imperial state of Delhi. issued summons asking Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib to appear in the said court. Bhiki. They told their tales of woe to Guru Sahib and requested to protect their honor and faith. Gobindpura. On the other hand the secret newswriters of the Mughal Empire dispatched exaggerated and subjective reports regarding the religious activities of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. They even did not raise a minor voice of protest against the nefarious acts of Aurangzeb. Bhai Dayal Das Ji. Now it was the turn of Guru Sahib who remained calm & quite. After long discussions with the prominent Sikhs and Kashmiri Pandits. As it is mentioned earlier that the Muslim theistic state executed forceful conversions in order to make India. Kurukshetra. The authorities offered . They were only silent spectators aiming at their own ends. These preaching tours and social works irked the Muslim fundamentalists and created a fear-psyche among the upper privileged classes. Guru Sahib made up his mind to sacrifice himself for the cause of "Righteousness" and for the freedom of "Dharma"(Religion) On the advice of Guru Sahib. But on the other hand. and Talwandi in Bhatinda. an imperial armed contingent led by Mirza Nur Mohammad Khan. Guru Sahib heard their views and agreed to resist the nefarious act of forcible conversions by peaceful means. Prayag. Guru Sahib toured these areas about one and a half years and returned Anandpur Sahib in 1675. He kept them in a prison at Bassi Pathanan and tortured daily. All types of atrocities were let loose on them.

For an example we may quote him. but returned. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib ‘Hind di chadar’ sacrified his life for the cause of Dharma. truth and the betterment of humanity. he says: Bhai Kahu kau det naih naih bhai manat ann. covered it carefully and set out of Anandpur Sahib. ////////////////////////// . It caused confusion and havoc in and around the city. or (3) to prepare himself for death. He reached Kiratpur Sahib. It made them feels that they could protect their religion (Dharma) only but the defense of arms. It exposed the fundamental theistic nature of the contemporary state. Guru Sahib was also a great poet and thinker. 1675 AD. or (2) to embrace Islam. (Gurdwara Sis Ganj also marks the place where the head was cremated. near Anandpur Sahib on 15th November. Guru Sahib accepted the last.” The cremation of head was performed with full honour and proper ceremonies on the next day. It proposed the way for the final stage in creation of the Khalsa. got included in Guru Granth Sahib by the 10th master. (Gurdwara Sis Ganj at Chandni Chowk marks the place where the execution was done. He was received with great honour by young Guru Gobind Rai and honoured as “Rangretta Guru Ka Beta.) The martyrdom of Guru Sahib had for reaching consequences and deeply influenced the history of India. finding the house burning and the inmates weeping bitterly.) Taking advantage of the same situation the other part of the body of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was whisked away by a brave Sikh Lakhi Shah Lubana a famous merchant and contractor and he immediately built up a pyre inside his house and set fire to it in the evening. Under these circumstances Bhai Jaita Ji. highlighted tyranny and injustice. took away the holy head of Guru Sahib. acknowledge his alone as a man of true wisdom) Guru Sahib written Grbani in fifteen Raagas apart from 57 salokas. (Now Gurdwara Rakab Ganj in New Delhi. marks the place. the authorities ordered the executioner (Jallad) to sever the head from the body. It made the people of India hate Aurangzeb and his government as never before and turned the Sikh Nation into militant people. which played the most important and significant role in the history of India. On seeing Guru Sahib adamant and immoveable. Guru Gobind Singh Sahib.) There was a furious storm after this brutal deed. he who holds none in fear. kahu nanak sunu re mana gaini tahi bakhan. placed it in a basket.three alternatives viz : (1) To show miracles. mor in afraid on anyone. Thus whole house including other valuables were burned and destroyed. It is said that a royal police guard arrived at the scene in search of the body. (SGGS 1427) (Sayth Nanak. The order was implemented. as one of his Slokas. The historians quote this date as November 11.

not his aim. arriving there in company with his playmates. The Var Sri Bhagauti Ji Ki. and courted death on 11 November 1675. He was barely nine years of age when a sudden turn came in his life as well as in the life of entire Sikh community. In the midst of his engagement with the concerns of the community. a group Kashmiri Brahmans. he had founded on the banks of the River Yamuna and to which site he had temporarily shifted in April 1685. Takht Sri Harimandar Sahib. the Ninth Guru. Guru Tegh Bahadur soon aftenwards proceedcd to the imperial capital. On the site of the house at Patna in which Gobind Rai was born and where he spent his early childhood now stands a sacred shrine. popularly called Chandi di Var. As the Guru sat reflecting what to do. driven to desperation by the religious fanaticism of the Mughal General Iftikar Khan." remarked Gobind Rai in his innocent manner. in Bihar. Distress will then be expunged and happiness ushered in. however. Guru Tegh Bahadur. one of the five most honoured seats of religious authority (takht. mostly in Braj. Returning to Patna in 1670. Much of Guru Gobind Singh's creative literary work was done at Paonta. was then travelling across Bengal and Assam. 23rd Poh 1723 Bikrami Samvat (22 December 1666) at Patna. He had a natural genius for poetic composition and his early years were assiduously given to this pursuit. was born Gobind Rai Sodhi on Poh Sudi 7th. The choice of a warlike theme for this and a number of his later compositions such as the two Chandi Charitras. For him it was a means of revealing the divine principle and concretizing a personal vision of the Supreme Being that had been vouchsafed to him. he was destined to lead. Gobind Rai was escorted to Anandpur (then known as Chakk Nanaki) at the foothills of the Sivaliks where he reached in March 1672 and there his early education included reading and writing of Punjabi." "None could be worthier than yourself to make such a sacrifice. young Gobind Rai. was his first composition. His father. lit. 1675). written in 1684. Poetry as such was. Delhi. Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed Guru on Maghar Sudi 5th (11 Maghar). 1732 Samvat (11th Nov. visited Anandpur to seek Guru Tegh Bahadur's intercession. was made to infuse martial spirit among his followers to prepare them to stand up against injustice and tyranny. He had grown into a energectic youth. Early in 1675. replied. She will be redeemed only if a truly worthy person comes forward to lay down his head.Guru Gobind Singh Sahib The tenth and the last Guru or Prophet-teacher of the Sikh faith. he directed his family to return to the Punjab. as records Koer Singh in his Gurbilas Patshahi 10. His Japu and the composition known as Akal Ustati . throne) for the Sikhs. The father. Braj. Sanskrit and Persian languages. The poem depicted the legendary contest between the gods and the demons as described in the Markandeya Purana . "Grave are the burdens the earth bears. asked "Why he looked so preoccupied". he gave attention to the mastery of physical skills and literary accomplishment.

During his stay at Paonta. Describing the battle in stirring verse in Bachitra Natak. Following the appointment in 1694 of the liberal Prince Muazzam (later Emperor Bahadur Shah) as viceroy of northwestern region including Punjab. there was however a brief respite from pressure from the ruling authority. Guru Gobind Singh appeared before the assembly dramatically on that day with a naked sword in hand and." Among several other skirmishes that occurred was the Hussain battle (20 February 1696) fought against Husain Khan. Alif Khan. as a last resort. at Nadaun on the left bank of the Beas. Guru Gobind Singh availed himself of his spare time to practise different forms of manly exercises. swimming and archery. The Guru thus established direct relationship with his Sikhs and addressed them as his Khalsa. But they were worsted in an action at Bhangani. to quote Koer Singh. Soon there after Guru Gobind Singh left Paonta and returned to Anandpur which he fortified in view of the continuing hostility of the Rajput chiefs as well as of the repressive policy of the imperial government at Delhi. It is but lawful to take to the sword. on 18 Assu 1745 sk/18 September 1688. Persian term used for crown-lands as distinguished from feudal chiefs. The Guru and his Sikhs were involved in a battle with a Mughal commander. about 30 km southeast of Kangra. and it was never to be used for self-aggrandizement. For Guru Gobind Singh said in a Persian couplet in his Zafarnamah: When all other means have failed. deprecating idolatry and superstitious beliefs and observances. Through his poetry he preached love and equality and a strictly ethical and moral code of conduct. he instructed. At the third call Daya Ram. He preached the worship of the One Supreme Being. In 1698. the local ministers. The institution of the Khalsa was given concrete form on 30 March 1699 when Sikhs had gathered at Anandpur in large numbers for the annual festival of Baisakhi. The glorification of the sword itself which he eulogized as Bhaguati was to secure fulfilment of God'sjustice. an imperial general. such as riding. about 10 km northeast of Paonta. he said that Alif Khan fled in utter disarray "without being able to give any attention to his camp. should come to Anandpur straight without any intermediaries and bring their offerings personally.are in this tenor. a . It was the emblem of manliness and self-respect and was to be used only in self-defence. against whom he had heard complaints. The Guru repeated the call. His increasing influence among the people and the martial exercises of his men excited the jealousy of the neighbouring Rajput hill rulers who led by Raja Fateh Chand of Garhwal collected a host to attack him. spoke: "Is there present a true Sikh who would offer his head to the Guru as a sacrifice?" The words numbed the audience who looked on in awed silence. on 22 Chet 1747 Bk/20 March 1691. The sword was never meant as a symbol of aggression. Sikhs. which resulted in a decisive victory for the Sikhs. Gurbilas Patshahi 10. Guru Gobind Singh issued directions to Sikh sangats or communities in different parts of India not to acknowledge masands.

All the five were led back from the tent dressed alike in saffron-coloured raiment topped over with neatly tied turbans similarly dyed. "Gobind Singh who is himself Master as well as disciple. i. Over the months. a Jatt from Hastinapur." Further injunctions were laid down for the Sikhs. and had his name changed from Gobind Rai to Gobind Singh. "Hail. all beginning with the letter K-the kesh or long hair and beard. At this stagy the besiegers offered. A Sikh must not have sexual relationship outside the marital bond. as the Guru and his Sikhs came out. The Guru himself was able to make his way to Chamkaur. Guru Gobind Singh called them Panj Piare. All of them surnamed Singh. In the ensuing confusion many Sikhs were killed and all of the Guru's baggage. Guru Gobind Singh made three more calls.e. nor smoke tobacco. were required to wear in future the five symbols of the Khalsa. Muhkam Chand. with swords dangling by their sides." as the poet subsequently sang. But soon. a barber from Bidar (Karnataka) responded one after another and advanced to offer their heads. a steel bracelet. a washerman from Dvarka. At last. Kara. short breeches. nor eat the flesh of an animal killed slowly in the Muslim way. the besiegers too were chagrined at the tenacity with which the Sikhs held out. meaning lion. a water-carrier from Jagannathpur. a sword. on solemn oaths of Quran. now invested with authority as Khalsa. They rallied under the leadership of the Raja of Bilaspur. formed the nucleus of the self-abnegating. Their repeated expeditions during 1700-04 however proved abortive . They were enjoined to succour the helpless and fight the oppressor. the Guru and his Sikhs firmly withstood their successive assaults despite dire scarcity of food resulting from the prolonged blockade. initiation by sweetened water churned with a double-edged broadsword (khanda). in whose territory lay Anandpur. the hill monarchs and their Mughal allies set upon them in full fury. to have faith in one God and to consider all human beings equal. Kachch. and Kirpan. 1762 sk/5-6 December 1705. They at last petitioned Emperor Aurangzeb for help. and Sahib Chand. a comb in the kesh to keep it tidy as against the recluses who kept it matted in token of their having renounced the world. These developments alarmed the casteridden Rajput chiefs of the Sivalik hills. to forcibly evict Guru Gobind Singh from his hilly citadel. They must never cut or trim their hair and beards. they marched upon Anandpur and laid a siege to the fort in Jeth 1762 sk/May 1705. with . and asked for another head. was lost. In concert with contingents sent under imperial orders by the governor of Lahore and those of the faujdar of Sirhind. Guru Gobind Singh then introduced Khande Di Pahul. irrespective of caste and creed. Those five Sikhs were the first to be initiated. including most of the precious manuscripts.Sobti Khatri of Lahore. Himmat. safe exit to the Sikhs if they quit Anandpur. came forward and was taken inside the enclosure. These five. the town was evacuated during the night of Poh suds 1. At this Daram Das. Guru Gobind Singh then himself received initiatory rites from five disciples. martial and casteless fellowship of the Khalsa. the five devoted spirits beloved of the Guru. The Guru returned with his sword dripping blood. While the besieged were reduced to desperate straits. 40 km southwest of Anandpur. arose and humbly walked behind the Guru to a tent near by. Kangha.

Befriended by another Muslim admirer. In spite of their overwhelming numbers. helping him at great personal risk. were after the evacuation of Anandpur betrayed by their old servant and escort. but who. Daya Singh and Daram Singh. There he enlisted a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan. Rai Kalha of Raikot. on 20 January 1706. The Guru blessed the 40 dead as 40 mukte. They had fallen fighting desperately to check the enemy's advance towards the Guru's position. the Guru Granth Sahib. From the number of scholars who had rallied round Gura Gobind Singh and from the literary activity initiated. to the faujdar of Sirhind. The five surviving Sikhs bade the Guru to save himself in order to reconsolidate the Khalsa. chided by their womenfolk at home.barely 40 Sikhs and his two elder sons. addressed to Emperor Aurangzeb.1699). the 40 Saved Ones. two of his Muslim devotees. Mai Bhago. Bhai Mani Singh. who had the young children executed on 13 December 1705. the Pool of liberations. There the imperial army. the place came to be known as the Guru's Kashi or seat of learning like Varanasi. and also composed his famous letter. During his stay there of over nine months. His two sons. Gangu. Guru Gobind Singh continued his westward march until. Zafarnamah or the Epistle of Victory. Guru Gobind Singh's two younger sons. i. . Guru Gobind Singh arrived at Talvandi Sabo. as his amanuensis. then in camp in that town. in Persian verse. From Dina. 1687) and Jujhar Singh (b.e. he took position astride the water pool of Khidrana to make a lastditch stand. Mata Gujari. to redeem themselves. Two of the Sikhs. now called Damdama Sahib. a number of Sikhs rejoined him. The site is now marked by a sacred shrine and tank and the town which has grown around them is called Muktsar. The letter was a severe indictment of the Emperor and his commanders who had perjured their oath and treacherously attacked him once he was outside the safety of his fortification at Anandpur. Gani Khan and Nabi Khan. following closely on his heels. It emphatically reiterated the sovereignty of morality in the affairs of State as much as in the conduct of human beings and held the means as important as the end. and his mother. Their grandmother died the same day. The fighting on 29 December 1705 was hard and desperate. Guru Gobind Singh with three of his Sikhs escaped into the wilderness of the Malva. After spending some time in the Lakkhi Jungle country. Guru Gobind Singh reached Dina in the heart of the Malva. 1691) and all but five of the Sikhs fell in the action that took place on 7 December 1705. Ajit Singh (b. were despatched with the Zafarnamah to Ahmadnagar in the South to deliver it to Aurangzeb. with the celebrated scholar. finding the host close upon his heels. 1696) and Fateh Singh (b. Zorawar Singh (b. had come back under the leadership of a brave and devoted woman. The most valorous part in this battle was played by a group of 40 Sikhs who had deserted the Guru at Anandpur during the long siege. caught up with him. the Mughal troops failed to capture the Guru and had to retire in defeat. He prepared a fresh recension of Sikh Scripture.

in Rajasthan. Before he could deal another blow. Cole by name. to conciliate the Guru and make the required arrangements for his journey to the Deccan. as says Tarkh-i-Bahadur Shahi. the Emperor had a letter written to the deputy governor of Lahore. Kam Baksh. The new Emperor invited Guru Gobind Singh for a meeting which took place at Agra on 23 July 1707. Guru Gobind Singh struck him down with his sword. While Bahadur Shah proceeded further South. to attend on the Guru. Madho Das. one of them stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart as he lay one evening in his chamber resting after the Rahras prayer. This weakened the Guru beyond cure and he . had raised the standard of revolt. Here he met a Bairagi recluse. he sent expert surgeons. it broke out again and bled profusely. decisively won by the Prince who ascended the throne with the title of Bahadur Shah. Guru Gobind Singh had. According to Ahkam-i-Alamgiri. on the Godavari. The Guru accompanied him and. as the Guru one day applied strength to pull a stiff bow. Guru Gobind Singh decided to stay awhile at Nanded. according to Sri Gur Sobha by Senapati. and directed him to go to the Punjab and carry on the campaign against the tyranny of the provincial overlords. Guru Gobind Siligh gave Banda Singh five arrows from his own quiver and an escort. towards the end of August. Mun'im Khan. Nawab Wazir Khan of Sirhind had felt concerned at the Emperor's conciliatory treatment of Guru Gobind Singh. including an Englishman. he addressed assemblies of people on the way preaching the word of Guru Nanak. a contemporary writer. and he charged two of his trusted men with murdering the Guru before his increasing friendship with the Emperor resulted in any harm to him. via Shahjahanabad (Delhi) . when the news arrived of the death of the Emperor at Ahmadnagar on 20 February 1707. whom he converted a Sikh administering to him Khande Di Pahul.The epistle Zafarnamah sent by Guru Gobind Singh from Dina seems to have touched the heart of Emperor Aurungzeb. Emperor Bahadur Shah had at this time to move against the Kachhvaha Rajputs of Amber (Jaipur) and then to the Deccan where his youngest brother. including five of his chosen Sikhs. a token contingent of Sikhs which took part in the battle of Jajau (8 June 1707). Guru Gobind Singh despatched for the help of the eldest claimant. He was in the neighbourhood of Baghor. The wound was stitched and appeared to have healed quickly but. The Guru there upon decided to return to the Punjab. Their marching together to the South made him jealous. As the news reached Bahadur Shah's camp. That was the time when the sons of the deceased Emperor were preparing to contest succession. renaming him Gurbakhsh Singh (popular name Banda Singh ). These two pathans Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg are the names given in the Guru Kian Sakhian— pursued the Guru secretly and overtook him at Nanded. arriving at Nanded. the liberal Prince Muazzam. The two camps crossed the River Tapti between 11 and 14 June 1708 and the Ban-Ganga on 14 August. while his fleeing companion fell under the swords of Sikhs who had rushed in on hearing the noise. where. however. already left for the South on 30 October 1706. He forthwith invited him for a meeting.

To quote Bhatt Vahi Talauda Parganah Jind: "Guru Gobind Singh. Before the end came. ending the line of personal Gurus. It was only through the Word that the Guruship could be made everlasting. grandson of Guru Hargobind. The Guru will rescue him.passed away on Kattak sudi 5. The inevitable came to pass when Guru Gobind Singh declared the Guru Granth Sahib as his successor. "will henceforth be in the Granth and the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh thus passed on the succession with due ceremony to the Holy Book. Where the Granth is with any five Sikhs representing the Khalsa. of the family of Guru Ram Das Surajbansi. One day the Word was to take the place of the Guru. Sodhi Khatri. Know this as the truth". asked Bhai Daya Singh. "The Guru's spirit. resident of Anandpur. Guru Gobind Singh had asked for the Sacred Volume to be brought forth. in the Godavari country in the Deccan. In obedience to his orders. 1765 Bk/7 OC tober 1708. and for all time to come to be the Guru for the Sikhs. the Tenth Master. there will the Guru be. now at Nanded. Gosal clan. on Wednesday. parganah Kahlur. The Guru was the revealer of the Word." The Word enshrined in the Holy Book was always revered by the Gurus as well as by their disciples as of Divine origin. son of Guru Teg Bahadur." he said. to fetch Sri Granth Sahib. The Word as contained in the Guru Granth Sahib was henceforth. great-grandson of Guru Arjan. The Guru placed before it five pice and a coconut and bowed his head before it. "It is my commandment: Own Sri Granthji in my place. He who so acknowledges it will obtain his reward. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// . the Guru Granth Sahib. He said to the sangat. 6 October 1708. Daya Singh brought Sri Granth Sahib.

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