Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical

ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. Etymologically, the word education is derived from educare (Latin) "bring up", which is related to educere "bring out", "bring forth what is within", "bring out potential" and ducere, "to lead".[1] Teachers in educational institutions direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects, including reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. This process is sometimes called schooling when referring to the education of teaching only a certain subject, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is also education in fields for those who want specific vocational skills, such as those required to be a pilot. In addition there is an array of education possible at the informal level, such as in museums and libraries, with the Internet and in life experience. Many non-traditional education options are now available and continue to evolve. A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At world level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.


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1 Systems of formal education o 1.1 Preschool education o 1.2 Primary education o 1.3 Secondary education o 1.4 Higher education o 1.5 Adult education o 1.6 Alternative education o 1.7 Indigenous education 2 Process o 2.1 Curriculum o 2.2 Learning modalities o 2.3 Teaching o 2.4 Technology 3 Educational theory 4 Economics 5 History 6 Philosophy 7 Psychology

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8 Sociology 9 Education in the Developing World o 9.1 Internationalization 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

[edit] Systems of formal education
Education is the process by which people learn:
• • •

Instruction refers to the facilitating of learning, usually by a teacher. Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor to impart learning to the student. Learning refers to learning with a view toward preparing learners with specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that can be applied immediately upon completion.

[edit] Preschool education
Main article: Preschool education

[edit] Primary education
Main article: Primary education

Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842. Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.[2] Under the Education for All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary

that required skilled workers. or "higher" education (e. "post-secondary". public schools or fee-paying schools. This proved to be beneficial for both the employer and the employee. to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. the grammar school or academy existed from as early as the 16th century. In but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. In the United States. In order to meet this new job demand. to the optional. university. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory. schools for this period. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. Depending on the system. because this improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient. Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world.g. selective tertiary. and in New Zealand Year 1-13 is used. middle schools. colleges. vocational school for adults. or a part of it. are mostly referred to as primary schools. [edit] Higher education . The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school. caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance. high schools were created and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge. the emergence of electrification). or charitable educational foundations have an even longer history. Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910. comprehensive primary education for minors. may be called secondary or high schools. lyceums.. which lowered costs for the employer. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. [edit] Secondary education Main article: Secondary education Students in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School. or vocational schools. and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. gymnasiums.

diplomas. [edit] Alternative education Main article: Alternative education Alternative education. also called tertiary. and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. real estate license. Higher education. research and social services activities of universities. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education. Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. both as a significant industry in its own right. This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual . A number of career specific courses such as veterinary assisting. or academic degrees. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates. ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning and e-learning. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. medical billing and coding. third stage. is the noncompulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies. bookkeeping and many more are now available to students through the Internet. as well as vocational education and training. It takes on many forms. is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education).Main article: Higher education The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). such as a high school. [edit] Adult education Main article: Adult education Adult education has become common in many countries. also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative. Collectively. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. and within the realm of teaching. secondary school. or post secondary education. Higher education includes teaching.

the inclusion of indigenous models of education (methods and content) as an alternative within the scope of formal and non-formal education systems. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[7] focused on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally. independent schools. [edit] Indigenous education Main article: Indigenous education Increasingly.[3] [edit] Learning modalities There has been work on learning styles over the last two decades. While some have strong political. Based on the works of Jung.disability). at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli[5] recommended varying teaching strategies. These alternatives. scholarly. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches. Howard Gardner[6] identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences. [edit] Process [edit] Curriculum Main articles: Curriculum and List of academic disciplines An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught. and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. close relationships between students and teachers. has come to represent a significant factor contributing to the success of those members of indigenous communities who choose to access these systems. or philosophical orientations. and home-based learning vary widely. social sciences. Dunn and Dunn[4] focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc's Type Delineator[8] follows a similar but more simplified approach. humanities and applied sciences. and a sense of community. but often emphasize the value of small class size. . or via some other such method. but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods. mathematics. alternative schools. others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. which include charter schools. both as students/learners and as teachers/instructors. computer science. either at the university.

discovering the subject of the course. which are an "interactive. The learning modalities[9] are probably the most common: • • • Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned. such as Virtual learning environments. and provides new ways to engage students.[13] [edit] Teaching Teachers need to understand a subject enough to convey its essence to students. One such tool are virtual manipulatives. and coach and the student more into the role of active learner. Although it is claimed that. new instructional strategies put the teacher more into the role of course designer.[12] Guy Claxton has questioned the extent that learning styles such as VAK are helpful. different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness. While traditionally this has involved lecturing on the part of the teacher. and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Good teachers can translate information. [edit] Technology Main article: Educational technology Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. good judgment. & . Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information. teachers must be highly qualified. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students. the goal is to establish a sound knowledge base and skill set on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences. discussion facilitator. retain and pass to others.[14] With the passing of NCLB in the United States (No Child Left Behind). Studies from the US suggest that the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance. This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning.It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning "modes". Web-based visual representation of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing mathematical knowledge" (Moyer. In any case. depending on their preferred learning modality. Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities. particularly as they can have a tendency to label children and therefore restrict learning. experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand.[10] recent research has argued "there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into general educational practice. Computers and mobile phones are used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). Bolyard. including Multimedia."[11] A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.

allowing for easy access and use in a variety of educational settings. along with faculty and administrators. television and. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.[citation needed] Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. such as radio and television. the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka.[19] The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy in developing countries. Motivation and retention counselors. recorded audio and video. and telephony. Virtual manipulatives can be easily accessed on the Internet as standalone applets.[17] Older ICT technologies. Emerging research into the effectiveness of virtual manipulatives as a teaching tool have yielded promising results.[21] Similarly. In short.Spikell. store.[18] In addition to classroom application and growth of elearning opportunities for knowledge attainment. and manage information. For example. disseminate. which have long been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio. and in many cases superior overall concept-teaching effectiveness compared to standard teaching methods. although print remains the cheapest. 2002).[22] The term "computer-assisted learning" (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. Usually. have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning. if these are used at all. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels. virtual manipulatives are dynamic visual/pictorial replicas of physical mathematical manipulatives. in recent years. can impact the potential academic success of students by provision of technology based experiences in the University setting. the Internet. the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print. and audio conferencing technologies. broadcasting technologies (radio and television).[15] Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a “diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate. suggesting comparable.”[16] These technologies include computers. educators involved in student affairs programming have recognized the increasing importance of computer usage with data generation for and about students. broadcast radio and television. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS). various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. [edit] Educational theory Main article: Education theory . online programming. which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions. create. due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.[20] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU). established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning. in both formal and non-formal settings.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. However. there is a large literature. generally related back to the work of Jacob Mincer. since the 18th century. [edit] Economics Main article: Economics of education It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth.[26] At the individual level.[24] Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions[25] and the role of cognitive skills. The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling. application and interpretation of education and learning. pedagogy and andragogy. a country's ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of "human capital".[28] Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis famously argued in 1976 that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production on the other. but is also controversial. This work has motivated a large number of studies. "theory" has become an umbrella term for a variety of scholarly approaches to teaching.[29] [edit] History This section needs additional citations for verification. assessment and education law. In the 20th century. Its history begins with classical Greek educationalists and sophists and includes. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references.[23] Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. (November 2010) Main article: History of education .Education theory is the theory of the purpose. Therefore.[27] on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital of the individual. technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation. most of which are informed by various academic fields. which can be seen in the below sections.

UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.The history of education is the history of man as since its the main occupation of man to pass knowledge. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating. trading. gathering food. Due to population growth and the proliferation of compulsory education. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially. Nowadays some kind of education is compulsory to all people in most countries. religious practices. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. president of the Freie Universität Berlin 1994.A depiction of the University of Bologna. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. etc. The evolution of culture. skills and attitude from one generation to the other so is education. Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. and schooling. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC. eventually followed. Italy The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen.[30] [edit] Philosophy Main article: Philosophy of education . and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge.. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. "began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770". formal education.

"[32] As such. the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices. education policy. prescriptive. and/or analytic) to address questions in and about pedagogy. and the relation between educational theory and practice. drawing from fields of metaphysics.. methods. philosophy of education is a "the philosophical study of education and its problems. [edit] Psychology Main article: Educational psychology . forms. it might study what constitutes upbringing and education. as well as the process of learning. it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims. and its methods are those of philosophy". axiology and the philosophical approaches (speculative.its central subject matter is education.[31] "The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. aims. epistemology. or results of the process of educating or being educated. That is.John Locke's work Some Thoughts Concerning Education was written in 1693 and still reflects traditional education priorities in the Western world. or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts. As an academic field. the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline. to name a few. and curriculum.[33] For example. and methods of the discipline. it is both part of the field of education and a field of applied philosophy..

educational technology.[34] Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies. and vice versa.[35] The purpose of education can be to develop every individual to their full . By many. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably. special education and classroom management. Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities. and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. Blazek. achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994). 2006). organizational learning. Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and betterment.A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation rates of students from low income families. bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. [edit] Sociology Main article: Sociology of education The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes. researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists. In universities. possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas. education is understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps. curriculum development. the psychology of teaching. & Raley. including instructional design. departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education. It is informed primarily by psychology. the effectiveness of educational interventions.

Transparency International has identified corruption in the education sector as a major stumbling block to achieving Universal primary education in Africa. [edit] Education in the Developing World This article needs additional citations for verification. once the threshold has been breached. The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes differs according to the sociological paradigm used. . (April 2010) World map indicating Education Index (according to 2007/2008 Human Development Report) Universal primary education is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals and great improvements have been achieved in the past decade. even if the potential economic value of the children's work has increased since their return to school.[36] Additionally. aid architecture. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Recent studies on child labor and poverty have suggested that when poor families reach a certain economic threshold where families are able to provide for their basic needs. yet a great deal remains to be done. parents return their children to school. and the lack of evidence and advocacy. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.potential. This has been found to be true. demand in the developing world for improved educational access is not as high as one would expect as governments avoid the recurrent costs involved and there is economic pressure on those parents who prefer their children making money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education.[37] Furthermore.[36] Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute indicate the main obstacles to greater funding from donors include: donor priorities.

[38] Sustainable capacity development requires complex interventions at the institutional. they should embrace an integrated set of complementary interventions. and a low acceptance rate for good universities. outside intervention should be conditional on an impact assessment of national capacities at various levels. while working towards some short-term achievements. there are uniform. there is no development.School kids in Tanzania But without capacity. Russia has more academic graduates than any other country in Europe. organizational and individual levels that could be based on some foundational principles: • • • • • national leadership and ownership should be the touchstone of any intervention. increased pressure on students in curricular activities Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practised in schools. after 10th grade) . In some countries. partners should commit to a long-term investment in capacity development. A lack of good universities. strategies must be context relevant and context specific. A study conducted by the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning indicates that stronger capacities in educational planning and management may have an important spill-over effect on the system as a whole. though implementation may need to proceed in steps. • • Due to globalization. over structured. inflexible centralized programs from a central agency that regulates all aspects of education. is evident in countries with a high population density.

com. Programmes such as the International Baccalaureate have contributed to the internationalisation of education. experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important. The laptops are widely available as of 2008. In Africa. started with the support of former American President Bill Clinton. An International Development Agency project called nabuur. Instead. The laptops are sold at cost or given away based on donations. • Academic dishonesty Behavior modificationWhat Is Stress? . like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.000 primary and high schools with computer equipment.[41] [edit] See also For a topical guide to this subject. Private groups. the Socrates-Erasmus Programme[39] stimulates exchanges across European universities. In Europe. Not only are the materials becoming more influenced by the rich international environment. NEPAD has launched an "e-school programme" to provide all 600. Education portal Schools portal University portal Book: Education Wikipedia Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. but exchanges among students at all levels are also playing an increasingly important role. India launched EDUSAT. enriching element of an international learning experience.India is now developing technologies that will skip land based phone and internet lines. learning materials and internet access within 10 years. regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another. a group out of MIT Media Lab and supported by several major corporations to develop a $100 laptop to deliver educational software. [edit] Internationalization Education is becoming increasingly international. the Soros Foundation [40] provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. see Outline of education. Also. an education satellite that can reach more of the country at a greatly reduced cost. are working to give more individuals opportunities to receive education in developing countries through such programs as the Perpetual Education Fund. Some scholars argue that. and help close the digital divide across the world. uses the Internet to allow cooperation by individuals on issues of social development. for example. There is also an initiative started by the OLPC foundation. These will enable developing countries to give their children a digital education.

It's the body's way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus. Long-term stressful situations can produce a lasting. This can wear out the body's reserves. ready to rise to a challenge. or sitting down for a final exam. A little of this stress can help keep you on your toes. such as when a driver has to slam on the brakes to avoid an accident. Good Stress and Bad Stress The stress response (also called the fight or flight response) is critical during emergency situations. The hypothalamus signals the adrenal glands to produce more of the hormones adrenaline and cortisol and release them into the bloodstream. and metabolism. can cause stress. strength. Pupils dilate to improve vision. Ongoing or long-term events. breathing rate. standing by to respond again when needed. But stress doesn't always happen in response to things that are immediate or that are over quickly. leave a . The nervous system senses continued pressure and may remain slightly activated and continue to pump out extra stress hormones over an extended period. and they cover a whole range of situations — everything from outright physical danger to making a class presentation or taking a semester's worth of your toughest subject. These hormones speed up heart rate. It can also be activated in a milder form at a time when the pressure's on but there's no actual danger — like stepping up to take the foul shot that could win the game. The events that provoke stress are called stressors. Working properly. And sweat is produced to cool the body. But the stress response can also cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly.Stress is a feeling that's created when we react to particular events. The human body responds to stressors by activating the nervous system and specific hormones. All of these physical changes prepare a person to react quickly and effectively to handle the pressure of the moment. This natural reaction is known as the stress response. The liver releases some of its stored glucose to increase the body's energy. and heightened alertness. low-level stress that's hard on people. stamina. blood pressure. too. like coping with a divorce or moving to a new neighborhood or school. And the nervous system quickly returns to its normal state. Blood vessels open wider to let more blood flow to large muscle groups putting our muscles on alert. the body's stress response enhances a person's ability to perform well under pressure. getting ready to go to a big dance.

person feeling depleted or overwhelmed. Continue BackContinue BackContinue Back 1 • 2•3•4 • • • • For Teens For Kids For Parents For College Students MORE ON THIS TOPIC • • • • • • • • • • Going to a Therapist Cutting Anxiety Disorders Abusive Relationships Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Depression Contact Us Print Additional resources . and cause other problems. weaken the body's immune system.

and cognitive impairment (e. Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities.g. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury.. In turn.• • • Send to a friend Reprint guidelines Bookmark this page Share this page using: What are these? • • • • • Delicious Buzz up! StumbleUpon Digg This Facebook Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. death. substance abuse). post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.. concentration and memory problems). dissatisfaction. anxiety.). Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health.g. tension. Contents [hide] • • • • 1 Prevalence 2 Health and Healthcare Utilization 3 Causes of Workplace Stress 4 Signs of Workplace Stress . fatigue. resources.[2] or in extreme cases.g. depression.[1] Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions. or needs of the worker. etc. such as cardiovascular disease.. including psychological disorders (e..g. aggression. maladaptive behaviors (e.

and away from extremities. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. The increment rose to nearly 150%.[6] On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations.[9] There are four Main physiological reactions to stress: • • • • Blood is shunted to the brain and large muscle groups.[1] Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. Energy-providing compounds of glucose and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. as well as how work stress can lead to hypertension and coronary artery disease. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers.[4] Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations. along with other stress-induced illnesses tend to be quite common in American work-places. an increase of more than $1. These diseases. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress.[5] Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. causing a state of keen alertness as well as sharpening of hearing and vision. Researchers have been studying how stress affects the cardiovascular system. skin.[1] One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.[3] Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago. In a 1998 study of 46. known as the reticular activating system. . The immune and digestive systems are temporarily shut down. and organs that are not currently serving the body. goes to work.000 workers.700 per person annually.[7] Additionally. [6] High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. An area near the brain stem. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses.[8] Physiological reactions to stress can have consequences for health over time.[1] [edit] Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems.• • • • 5 Prevention 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit] Prevalence Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace.

According to one school of thought. However. 1995. Similarly.[11][12] A person's status in the workplace can also affect levels of stress.[1] Large surveys of working conditions. 2005). In 1990. those who have less control over their jobs) are more likely to suffer stress than powerful workers. especially for women. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people.[edit] Causes of Workplace Stress Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are very important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress. and 2000. Economic factors that employees are facing in the 21st century have been linked to increased stress levels. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. While workplace stress has the potential to affect employees of all categories. increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. were conducted in member states of the European Union in 1990. The following economic factors may lead to workplace stress: . those who have very little influence to those who make major decisions for the company. In other words. By one estimate. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy.[10] A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. However. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. 2005). the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-quarter of their working time was 48%. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. has caused higher expectations and greater competition. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. less powerful employees (that is. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. particularly couples with young children. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. Results showed a time trend suggesting an increase in work intensity. This boon in productivity however. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. Researchers and social commentators have pointed out that the computer and communications revolutions have made companies more efficient and productive than ever before. putting more stress on the employee(Primm. According to the Department of Labor. This viewpoint underlies prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. Managers as well as other kinds of workers are vulnerable to work overload(Primm.[1] Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored.

Design jobs to provide meaning. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to ascertain because chronic diseases develop over relatively long periods of time and are influenced by many factors other than stress. Bringing in an objective outsider such as a consultant to suggest a fresh approach to persistent problems. there is some evidence that stress plays a role in the development of several types of chronic health problems--including cardiovascular disease. musculoskeletal disorders.[14] Introducing a participative leadership style to involve as many subordinates as possible to resolve stress-producing problems. psychological distress. gender. Combat workplace discrimination (based on race.• • • • Pressure from investors.[1] How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress[13] • • • • • • • • • • Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. who can quickly withdraw their money from company stocks. national origin. religion or language). Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. headache. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. Bullying in the workplace can also contribute to stress. and problems in relationships with family and friends. sleep disturbance. upset stomach. [edit] Signs of Workplace Stress Stress-related problems include mood disturbance. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings.[15] St.[1] [edit] Prevention A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. Program activities included (1) employee and . and psychological disorders. Inter-company rivalries caused by the efforts of companies to compete globally The willingness of companies to swiftly lay off workers to cope with changing business environments. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. The lack of trade and professional unions in the workplace. and opportunities for workers to use their skills. stimulation. Nonetheless. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers.

the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities were implemented in a 700-bed hospital.[16] Telecommuting is another way organizations can help reduce stress for their workers. In contrast. for at least some portion of their work schedule. improved work/life balance and higher performance rating by their managers. In this process. Some persons have habit of worrying unnecessarily. Most of us experience stress at one time or another. which are converted to cortisol in the blood stream. Stress disturbs the body's normal way of functioning. In a second study. while that of failure.[17] The word stress is derived from the Latin word "stringi". . and (3) the establishment of employee assistance programs. which means. Hans Selye said in 1956. arranging a world level symposium may be challenging for one person but stressful to another. excessive or prolonged stress can be harmful." One reason that telecommuting gets such high marks is that it allows employees more control over how they do their work. "to be drawn tight". using electronic media to interact with others inside and outside the organization. For example. A situation may be stressful for someone but the same situation may be challenging for others. positive or neutral. Another Definition of Stress According to Richard S Lazarus. Employees that worked from home also had less stress. Telecommuters reported more job satisfaction and less desire to find a new job. education on job stress. humiliation or infection is detrimental. the body is put to extra work resulting in "wear and tear". your adrenal gland releases corticosteroids. Employees defined telecommuting as "an alternative work arrangement in which employees perform tasks elsewhere that are normally done in a primary or central workplace. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. Without stress. Passing in an examination can be just stressful as failing." Stress can be therefore negative." When you are under stress. Stress is unique and personal. Cortisol have an immune suppressive effect in your body." Your body tries to adjust to different circumstances or continually changing environment around you. there would be no life. "a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental tension or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. your body is stressed. In one study. "stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. In other words. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. creative successful work is beneficial. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. The stress of exhilarating. Stress can be defined as follows: Definition of Stress : 1 In medical terms stress is described as. Stress is not always necessarily harmful. stress is a feeling experienced when a person thinks that "the demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.

People suffering from this type of stress get used to it and may even not realize that they are under chronic stress. worried about your job security. If this situation continues for a long time. Causes of Stress Whenever our body feels something not favorable. migraines. 1. Symptoms of this type of tension are headaches. over exertion. while planning a vacation to a hill station you know that it would be stressful at certain times. or similar things. chest pain and heart disease. You should know your level of stress that allows you to perform optimally in your life.Sometime we know in advance that doing a certain thing will be stressful. Types of Stress Three types of stress may be distinguished: Acute stress Acute stress is usually for short time and may be due to work pressure. It is very harmful to their health. disorganized. rapid heartbeat. Many times you do not know in advance and the stress periods may be sudden. Acute Stress Acute stress is common in people who take too many responsibilities and are overloaded or overworked. back pain. This stress is due to poverty. searching something but you misplaced it. muscle aches or body pain. 1. worried about your children. But you are willing to face those challenges. meeting deadlines pressure or minor accident. The situation may not be under your control. Look at the following causes of stress. increased physical activity. but we are willing to doing that. or even years. then our body is working overtime. or worried about your loans or similar things. worried about the illness of your father. Too much stress is harmful. chronic illness and successive failures in life. 3. You may be under stress due to several causes. broken or stressed families and marriages. stomach problems. For example. 2. Chronic Stress This type of stress is the most serious of all the 3 stress types. Causes of Stress at Home . People often work well under certain stress leading to increased productivity. you are under stress when you are worried about something. Symptoms of this type of stress are prolonged tension headaches. always in a hurry and never in time. then it tries to defend itself. There are several causes of stress. hypertension. Chronic stress is a prolonged stress that exists for weeks. For example. These people are generally in positions of importance at their workplace and stressful lifestyle is inherent in them. months.

. other threats. o Setback to your position in society. o Argument or heated conversations with co-workers or boss. o To produce new publications if you are in research area. Argument or heated conversations with spouse. 3. o Sexual molestation.Death of spouse. o To train your staff and take work from them. family. o To meet out deadlines. intermittent or continuous. o Moving house. near relative or friend. Children's behavior or disobedience. Sexual molestation. o Work against will. financial threat. Children's educational performance. colleagues and juniors. o To control staff under you. Other Causes of Stress o Fear. Causes of Stress at Work o To meet out the demands of the job. o Loss of money in burglary. Injury or illness of any family member. o New work hours. Separation or divorce from partner. Pregnancy or birth of a new baby. o Not sufficient money to raise your standard of living. o Your relationship with colleagues. o Uncertainty. o Change of place or change of city or change of country. o Somebody misunderstands you. o Working overtime and on holidays. family members or friends or neighbors. o Not sufficient money to meet out daily expenses or unexpected expenditure. then you should know how you can get stress relief. pick-pocketed or share market. o Threats: physical threats. o o o o o o o o o o If you are under stress. o Excessive work pressure. Hyperactive children. social threats. o Support you receive from your boss. o Promotion or you have not been promoted or your junior has superseded you. Marriage of self or son or daughter or brother or sister. o Lack of sleep. 2. o To give new results. o Change of job. o Harassment.

the average amount of force exerted per unit area. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder o Eustress. • • • [edit] Biological • Stress (biology). The effects of mechanical stress on a polymer can be measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. from the late 1980s . some types include: o Chronic stress. It is the ability of a material to resist being crushed. the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. the set of stresses directed toward the center of a rock mass Shear (geology). [edit] Geological • • • Compression (geology).Stress may refer to: Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Mechanical 2 Biological 3 Geological 4 Music 5 Other [edit] Mechanical Stress (mechanics). positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning o Workplace stress. occurs when a rock is pulled apart in two opposite directions [edit] Music • • • Accent (music) Stress (band). Tensile stress (also referred to as tension) is the stress state leading to expansion. Yield stress. stress caused by employment. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction. an early 1980s melodic rock band from San Diego Stress (Neo-Psychedelic band). Compressive stress. It is the internal resistance a material offers to being deformed and is measured in terms of the applied load. physiological or psychological stress. the response of a rock to deformation usually by compressive stress and forms particular textures Tension (geology).

a medical journal published by Informa plc. card game Stress (linguistics). an Estonian-born Swiss musician (see: de:Stress Other • • • • Stress (game). an episode of the television series The Unit . "Stress" (The Unit). the entrant representing Norway at the Eurovision Song Contest 1968 Stress (musician). from † (album) "Stress".• • • "Stress". phonological use of prominence in language Stress (journal). a song by Odd Børre. a song by French band Justice.

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