You are on page 1of 10

Devandran

Assignment 2 CSC 249: Fundamentals of Networking ASSIGNMENT 2: Wireless and Mobile Communication

CSC 249

ABSTRACT
Data communication is the exchange of data in form of 0s and 1s between two devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire cable. Wired communication refers to the transmission of data over a wire-based communication technology such as telephone networks, cable television or internet access and fiber optic communication. Problems that occured using wired communication are users unable to move from one place to another place to use the communication and sometimes due to cables defect may cause system to delay due to not being robust. To overcome these problems, wireless communication is introduced where wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or wires. For current technologies, wireless communication can be categorized into three sections which are Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and WiMAX. WiFi used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and other electronic devices that require some form of wireless networking capability. Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices. WiMAX is a telecommunications technology that provides for the wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular-type access. In this research paper, each of these three categories of wireless communication will be explained in detail about the IEEE specification in terms of protocols.

INTRODUCTION Wireless communication transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor between sender and receiver. Instead, signals are broadcast through air or water and thus are available to anyone who as a device capable of receiving them such as NICs, APs and routers. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems such as radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks and network terminals which use some form of energy, for example radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

Devandran

Assignment 2 GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF WIRELESS SYSTEM

CSC 249

Figure 1 Architecture of IEEE Project 802 IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks. More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying variable-size packets. The services and protocols specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower to layers which is Data Link and Physical of the seven layers OSI networking reference model. IEEE 802 splits the OSI Data Link layer into two sub-layers which are Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). LLC is the same for the various physical media such as Ethernet, token ring, and WLAN. The LLC sub layer is primarily concerned with multiplexing protocols transmitted over the MAC layer when transmitting and demultiplexing when receiving. It also provides flow and error control through a retransmission of dropped packets when indicated. An LLC header tells the Data Link layer what to do with a packet once a frame is received. For example, a host will receive a frame and look in the LLC header to find out where the packet is destined for such as the IP protocol at the Network layer. MAC provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that make it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multipoint network, typically a LAN or MAN. MAC layer emulates a full-duplex logical communication channel in a multipoint network. This channel may provide unicast, multicast or broadcast communication service.

Devandran

Assignment 2 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES Wi-Fi

CSC 249

Wi-Fi (WLAN) is the trade name for the popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. Wi-Fi technologies are supported by nearly every modern personal computer operating system, most advanced game consoles and Laptops, and many printers, and other peripherals. Wi-Fi uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, the organization that owns the Wi-Fi term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. IEEE specifically developed 802.11b for WLAN technology that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band which uses direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

Figure 2 Detailed Architecture of Wi-Fi In 802.11, the MAC sub-layer is responsible for the channel allocation procedures, protocol data unit (PDU) addressing, frame formatting, error checking, and fragmentation and reassembly. The transmission medium can operate in the contention mode exclusively, requiring all stations to contend for the channel for each packet transmitted. The medium can also alternate between the contention mode, known as the contention period (CP), and a contention free period (CFP). During the CFP, the medium usage is controlled by the AP, thereby eliminating the need for stations to contend for channel access. IEEE 802.11 supports three different types of frames which are management, control, and data. The management frames are used for station association and disassociation with the AP, timing and synchronization, and authentication and deauthentication. Control frames are used for handshaking during the CP, for positive acknowledgments during the CP, and to end the CFP. Data frames are used for the transmission of data during the CP and CFP, and can be combined with polling and acknowledgments during the CFP. The modulation used in 802.11 has historically been phase-shift keying (PSK). The modulation method selected for 802.11b is known as complementary code keying (CCK), which allows higher data speeds and is less susceptible to multipath-propagation interference.

Devandran

Assignment 2

CSC 249

802.11a uses a modulation scheme known as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) that makes possible data speeds as high as 54 Mbps, but most commonly, communications takes place at 6 Mbps, 12 Mbps, or 24 Mbps. A literature review on implementation of IEEE 802.11b can be put in the picture that Culver City (Heart of Screenland) which is located at west side of Los Angeles, has launched a free broadband Wi-Fi hot spot covering roughly a square mile of downtown streets. Anyone who has 802.11b-compliant computer can access free Internet which is available within the coverage zone. For this project installation, two main organizations have played an important role, the Redevelopment Agency and the Information Technology Department. The city government required them to set up a network that protects its own network and internal communications from viruses, worms, and any intrusions introduced through the public network. So they planned with a secured and manageability network. So they deployed a Wi-Fi network secured by the Vernier EdgeWall network access control (NAC) appliance which enables organizations such as city governments assure secure network access on their wired and wireless networks. The Vernier EdgeWall can be configured to proactively monitor traffic to look for patterns which are indicative of a worm, virus or other form of malware being present. The Vernier EdgeWall connects to the public hot zone, the city hall network, and a broadband line to the Internet. To connect to it, a registration and login solution for the hot spot was created using the Vernier EdgeWall's authentication and redirection features with highly protected. The Vernier Network Access Control solution identifies and authenticates users and systems attempting network access, validates systems to ensure that they are compliant with security policies, quarantines and facilities remediation of non-compliant systems, and authorizes compliant systems so that they can access only those network resources which are permitted by the access policies. The EdgeWall also continues to inspect traffic to ensure that systems remain compliant when they are on the network. It has the ability to take action against systems which become non-compliant, either by redirecting them to a remediation website, quarantining all traffic, or dropping malicious traffic in the data path. From this case study above, WLAN uses spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based on radio waves to enable communication between devices in a limited area, also known as the basic service set. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network. For the home user, wireless has become popular due to ease of installation, and location freedom with the gaining popularity of laptops. Public businesses such as coffee shops or malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers. Some are even provided as a free service. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities. Google is even providing a free service to Mountain View, California and has entered a bid to do the same for San Francisco. New York City has also begun a pilot program to cover all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access. The IEEE 802.11 specification identified several services to provide a secure operating environment. The security services are provided largely by the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol to protect link-level data during wireless transmission between clients and access points. WEP does not provide end-to-end security, but only for the wireless portion of the connection.

Devandran

Assignment 2

CSC 249

Figure 3 Wireless Security of 802.11 in Typical Network Bluetooth IEEE 802.15, a standardization of Bluetooth wireless specification defined by IEEE, is for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). IEEE 802.15 has characters such as shortrange, low power, low cost, small networks and communication of devices within a Personal Operating Space. The initial version, IEEE 802.15.1, was adapted from the Bluetooth specification and is fully compatible with Bluetooth 1.1. Bluetooth becomes widely used specification for wireless communications among portable digital devices including notebook computers, peripherals, cellular telephones, beepers, and consumer electronic devices. The specification also allows for connection to the Internet.

Figure 4 Detailed Architecture of Bluetooth 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) specify standards in on the Physical layer and Data link layer of the OSI model with the four sub-layers which are RF layer, Baseband layer, Link manager and Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP). RF layer which is the air interface is based on antenna power range starting from 0 dBm up to 20 dBm. Bluetooth operates in the 2.4 GHz band and the link range is anywhere from 10 centimeters to 10 meters. Baseband layer establishes the Bluetooth physical link between devices forming a piconet where a network of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion using Bluetooth technology. Link manager sets up the link between Bluetooth devices. Other functions of the link manager include security, negotiation of Baseband packet

Devandran

Assignment 2

CSC 249

sizes, power mode and duty cycle control of the Bluetooth device and the connection states of a Bluetooth device in a piconet. Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) provide the upper layer protocols with connectionless and connection-oriented services. The IEEE 802.15 Working Groups are making progress to improve the Bluetooth standards. They proposed two general categories of 802.15 which are the low rate 802.15.4 (TG4) and high rate 802.15.3 (TG3). The TG4 version provides data speeds of 20 Kbps or 250 Kbps, low power and low cost solutions. The TG3 version supports data speeds ranging 20 Mbps or greater, for multi-media applications. As example, Bluetooth technology was implemented by the Public Transport Company of the municipality of Milan as a part of the innovative INTELLIBUS system by providing wireless diagnostic and preventive maintenance support for the ATM bus fleet. This system was developed by Centro Ricerche FIAT ScpA of Orbassano and Digigroup Srl of Torino under a license agreement, is installed by IRISBUS/IVECO, the European coleader in buses and coaches manufacturing. The project includes a ground information and communication system (SIDIT) which provides wireless download of diagnostic reports at bus return to depot, statistics of vehicle operations and predictive diagnosis of efficiency losses in key systems such as engine cooling. By implementing this system they have benefited such as reduction of vehicle break-down in line, replacement of corrective maintenance with on-condition preventive maintenance and improved management of bus logistics. All vehicles are equipped with a logic unit called VIDAC that connects to the vehicle CAN (Controller Area Network) and MULTIPLEX control networks which enable the ATM SpA depot staff to immediately address the busses requiring urgent maintenance. When the vehicle returns to the refuelling stations after daily service the data are wirelessly downloaded through the on-board Bluetooth Serial Port Adapter to a Bluetooth Communication Controller in the Depot where the controller is equipped with a two Bluetooth antennas, one for identification of the queue of busses and the second handles the data transfer sessions which includes download of alarms logging reports, download of operating and predictive diagnostics reports an on-board VIDAC software update. As from the case study, WPAN is a computer network used for communication among computer devices including telephones and personal digital assistants close to one person. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet. In order to protect the IEEE 802.15 system, IEEE implemented confidentiality, authentication and key derivation with custom algorithms based on the SAFER+ block cipher for Bluetooth. In Bluetooth, key generation is generally based on a Bluetooth PIN, which must be entered into both devices. This procedure might be modified if one of the devices has a fixed PIN such as for headsets or similar devices with a restricted user interface. During pairing, an initialization key or master key is generated, using the E22 algorithm. The E0 stream cipher is used for encrypting packets, granting confidentiality and is based on a shared cryptographic secret, namely a previously generated link key or master key. Those keys, used for subsequent encryption of data sent via the air interface, rely on the Bluetooth PIN, which has been entered into one or both devices.

Devandran

Assignment 2 WiMAX

CSC 249

The IEEE 802.16 defines the wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN) technology which is branded as WiMAX. The 802.16 includes two sets of standards, 802.162004 (802.16d) for fixed WiMAX and 802.16-2005(802.16e) for mobile WiMAX. The WiMAX wireless broadband access standard provides the missing link for the last mile connection in metropolitan area networks where DSL, Cable and other broadband access methods are not available or too expensive. WiMAX also offers an alternative to satellite Internet services for rural areas and allows mobility of the customer equipment.

Figure 5 Architecture of WiMAX The 802.16 standard essentially standardizes 2 aspects of the air interface which are the physical layer and MAC layer. In physical layer, 802.16 use Scalable OFDMA to carry data, supporting channel bandwidths of between 1.25 MHz and 20 MHz, with up to 2048 sub-carriers. It supports adaptive modulation and coding, so that in conditions of good signal, a highly efficient 64 QAM coding scheme is used, whereas where the signal is poorer, a more robust BPSK coding mechanism is used. In intermediate conditions, 16 QAM and QPSK can also be employed. Moreover, it supports for Multiple-in Multiple-out (MIMO) antennas in order to provide good NLOS (Non-line-of-sight) characteristics (or higher bandwidth) and Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) for good error correction performance. In MAC layer, the 802.16 MAC describes a number of Convergence Sub-layers which describe how wireline technologies such as Ethernet, ATM and IP are encapsulated on the air interface and how data is classified. In addition, secure communications are delivered by using secure key exchange during authentication and encryption using AES or DES as the encryption mechanism during data transfer. Besides that, MAC layer include power saving mechanisms such as using Sleep Mode and Idle Mode and handover mechanisms. A key feature of 802.16 is that it is a connection oriented technology. The subscriber station (SS) cannot transmit data until it has been allocated a channel by the Base Station (BS). This allows 802.16 to provide strong support for Quality of Service (QoS). In real life application, Max Telecom entered the telecommunications market in Bulgaria which established itself as a new-generation operator by adopting the latest network and business innovations and giving subscribers industry-leading services and capabilities. Greenfield company is gaining international attention with its nationwide network based on mobile WiMAX technology. Max Telecom wanted to extend its modern, highly efficient network to the entire population of the country. A third-party provides Ethernet to the home

Devandran

Assignment 2

CSC 249

for access to base stations in various cities, and Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) lines to connect its headquarters with the smaller cities. The major requirements for the base station selection and overall design are controlling capital expenses and operating expenses by minimizing cell counts and improving in-building coverage, evolving from fixed services such as desktop modems and PCs to mobile services such as handheld and embedded devices as new 802.16e wireless broadband devices become available and enabling a broad range of services for competitive differentiation and to gain market share. Aiming to pioneer mobile WiMAX services, Max Telecom focused its selection process on a rigorous evaluation of the leading WiMAX technologies. The company identified adaptive beam forming as a breakthrough that could enable its aggressive goals. This led the operator to Cisco, a global leader for broadband wireless access solutions. After deploying the new mobile WiMAX solution, scalable capacity can support more services with plans in place for creative service bundles. For example, Max Telecom plans to bundle mobile VoIP and broadband. Moreover, it enables differentiating services including a free TV service such as MaxTV, rebranded Google applications such as mobile MaxApps and a mobile e-mail service such as MaxMail. From the case study above, WiMAX is a specification for fixed broadband wireless MANs that use a point-to-multipoint architecture. It use bandwidth between the licensed 10GHz and 66GHz and between the 2GHZ and 11GHz which is licensed and unlicensed frequency ranges. WiMAX supports very high bit rates in both uploading to and downloading from a base station up to a distance of 30 miles to handle such services as VoIP, IP connectivity and TDM voice and data. WiMAX systems were designed at the outset with robust security in mind. The standard includes state-of-the-art methods for ensuring user data privacy and preventing unauthorized access. To protect on it, WiMAX support for privacy where user data is encrypted using cryptographic schemes of proven robustness to provide privacy. The 128-bit or 256-bit key used for deriving the cipher is generated during the authentication phase and is periodically refreshed for additional protection. WiMAX provides a flexible means for authenticating subscriber stations and users to prevent unauthorized use. The authentication framework is based on the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) EAP, which supports a variety of credentials, such as username or password, digital certificates and smart cards. Besides that, the Privacy and Key Management Protocol Version 2 (PKMv2) is used for securely transferring keying material from the base station to the mobile station, periodically reauthorizing and refreshing the keys. The integrity of over-the-air control messages is protected by using message digest schemes, such as AES-based CMAC or MD5-based HMAC and to support fast handovers, WiMAX allows the MS to use preauthentication with a particular target BS to facilitate accelerated reentry.

Devandran

Assignment 2 COMPARISONS

CSC 249

Table 1 Comparisons between Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and WiMAX Parameters IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.15 (WiMAX) (Wi-Fi) (Bluetooth) Frequency Band 2GHz 11GHz 2.4GHz 5.8GHz 2.4GHz Range ~ 31 miles ~ 100 meters ~ 10 meters Data Transfer Rate 70 Mbps 11 Mbps 55 Mbps 20 Kbps 55 Mbps Number of Users Thousands Dozens Dozens FUTURE DEVELOPMENT With the emergence of a converged standard for wireless local area networks (WLAN), the stage is set for a multimode marketplace. Much like its wired predecessor, wireless Ethernet (802.11) will flourish in an environment characterized by multimode operation. Uniting the separate 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps technologies of wired Ethernet into the now familiar 10/100 networks accelerated the market's acceptance of wired Ethernet. The same should be expected of WLAN technology and the merging of the 802.11b and 802.11a versions of the standard into 802.11g. Two sets of dynamic forces argue for a multimode WLAN environment. First, it can be stated with some surety that not all standards are created equal. Each of the several versions of the wireless Ethernet standard, 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g, have their own strengths and advantages. Each version of the standard has its own set of operational and economic characteristics. A multimode model ensures that the strengths of all of the modes of operation will persist in the market place. Second, the various market segments, such as the enterprise, the so-called hot-spot or public access segment, and the home and embedded market segments each have a distinct set of demands and requirements that differ from each other. Again, a multimode model of operation is best suited to meeting all of these needs across the broad spectrum of a diverse WLAN marketplace. CONCLUSION Wireless systems have increasingly become the daily use in our lives in the last century because of their instant installation capabilities in addition to obviously cutting huge amounts of capital and time that was otherwise being wasted in manufacture, installation and commissioning which is caused by IEEE. IEEE fully contributed in developing the wireless system. It gives more attention to three particular major areas which are LAN, PAN and MAN. IEEE plays an important role in each of the areas where it will change the meaning of the mobility. Manufacturers are taking wireless and mobile communication to the next level where technology is beyond expectations.

Devandran

Assignment 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY

CSC 249

1) Crow.B.P, Widjaja.I, Kim.J.G, Sakai.P, Investigation of the IEEE 802.11 MAC sublayer functions, 1997 Retrieved October 12, 2008, from http://www.cs.binghamton.edu/~nael/research/widjaja.pdf 2) Case Study on Culver City, 2006 Retrieved October 12, 2008, from http://www.verniernetworks.com/pdfs/Culver_City_CS.pdf 3) Centrio Ricerche Fiat, Bluetooth in Public Transportation Bus Fleet of Milan, Italy, 2002 Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www.bluetooth.com/NR/rdonlyres/235EC2BC-6A4F-4806-85EDDD1666FEF43B/0/atm.pdf 4) IEEE 802.15 and Bluetooth: WPAN Communications, n.d. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www.javvin.com/protocolBluetooth.html 5) IEEE 802.16: Broadband Wireless MAN Standard (WiMAX), n.d. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.javvin.com/protocolWiMAX.html 6) WiMAX Security functions n.d. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.tutorialspoint.com/wimax/wimax_security_functions.htm 7) William Carney, The future of wireless LANs will be Multimode, 2002 Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://focus.ti.com/pdfs/vf/bband/80211_wp_multimode.pdf 8) Detailed Architecture of Bluetooth [Image], n.d. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www.javvin.com/protocolBluetooth.html 9) Comparison between Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and WiMAX [Table], n.d. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from http://www.javvin.com/protocolBluetooth.html 10) Architecture of IEEE Project 802 [Image], from Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition, Behrouz A.Forouzan, Page 536