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Rock Physics and Fluid Substitution Modeling
4D feasiblity study
Rock physics modeling
The degree oI changes in seismic response to production within the reservoir are highly
dependant on the physical properties oI the reservoir rocks. Accurate modeling oI these
properties Irom existing data will allow consideration oI their eIIect on the 4D response.
Modeled acoustic/elastic properties include Vp, Vs, bulk density, bulk Poisson's ratio, and
reIlectivity, both at normal incidence and nonvertical incidence. The rock physics model will
allow variation in Iluid saturation, Iluid properties, and reservoir pressure, allowing Iluid
substitution modeling to represent realistic reservoir changes. Because many oI the input
parameters to rock physics modeling are oIten not well known, this task should include a
sensitivity analysis, thus giving guidance toward what additional petrophysical data acquisition
may be desirable prior to 4D data analysis.
Fluid substitution modeling
Fluid substitution models can be used to assess the eIIect oI diIIerent reservoir scenarios on the
4D response. Scenarios modeled will determine expectations oI reservoir production changes.
Examples include, but are not limited to:
O Saturation change representing water inIlux Irom iniection well or a natural aquiIer
O Pressure change in areas where reservoir pressure is not maintained by iniection and/or an
aquiIer
O Fluid property changes representing the release oI solution gas as reservoir pressure Ialls
below the bubble point
O A combination oI saturation, pressure, and Iluid property changes as predicted by simulation
oI reservoir production
O Changes in the overburden or reservoir physical rock properties brought about by production
induced geomechanical changes.
Related Resources
O The next generation oI rock physics models (Hart's E&P September 2010)
Request More InIormation about Rock Physics and Fluid Substitution Modeling.
2
ntroduction to Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)  3D
Models and Shockwave Movies
ntroduction
In the previous tutorials we discussed primary and secondary
minerals that are commonly Iound in soil environments: Primary
Mineralogy and Clay Mineralogy. Many clay minerals Iound in soils
have the ability to develop a net negative charge which is satisIied
through the electrostatic adsorption oI cations. This interaction is
similar to how a magnet attracts iron Iilings. Although the Iilings are
held by the magnet one can easily remove them. Similarly the cations
adsorbe to colloid surIaces are exchangeable or available Ior plants
and microorganisms. We can deIine Cation Exchange Capacity or
CEC as "the sum total oI the exchangeable cations that a soil can
adsorb". Cation exchange capacity is an extremely important
property oI soils Irom both an agricultural and environmental
standpoint. For example, without CEC essential nutrient cations such
as potassium and calcium would have to be continually supplied as
inorganic Iertilizers throughout a growing season. In this tutorial we
will discuss negative charge development on clay minerals, the
distribution oI cations around negatively charged clay surIaces, and
cation exchange reactions that supply nutrient cations to plants and
microorganisms.
Computer Requirements
The 3D models and CEC demos
listed on this page require the
use oI Quick Time or
Shockwave Plugins. II your
computer does not have these
plugins, they can be
downloaded by clicking
Quicktime or Shockwave .
Follow the directions Ior
downloading. Once the
download is complete you may
have to reboot your computer.
II you are having diIIiculties e
mail me or talk to someone at
the computer help desk by
dialing 2314357.
Charge Development on Clay Surfaces
The clay Iraction oI the soil consists oI secondary minerals that are extremely small in size.
These particles are too small to be seen with an ordinary light microscope and must be viewed
using electron microscopes. Most clay particles are smaller than 2 um (2 millionths oI a meter).
Because oI their small size soil colloids have a very high surIace area or surIace per unit mass.
Soil colloids small size, high surIace area, and net negative charge make their surIaces extremely
reactive. Below are electron micrographs oI the clay minerals montmorillonite (leIt) and
kaolinite (right). The white and black bars in the pictures represent a length oI 2 uM.
3
SurIace charge on soil colloids is developed in two ways: isomorphic substitution (permanent
charge) and deprotonation oI surIace Iunctional groups (pH dependent charge). pH dependent
charge occurs on the edges oI layer silicates, on variable charge minerals such as oxides oI Fe
and Al, and organic matter. It is called pH dependent charge because it increases in magnitude as
the pH oI the aqueous soil environment increases. Most oI the pH dependent charge associated
with agricultural soils is due to the deprotonation oI organic Iunctional groups. As the pH oI the
soil environment increases weak acid Iunctional groups such as the carboxylic acid donate a
proton and generate negative charge:
COOH + OH

÷ COO

+ H
2
O
One practical way to increase the CEC oI agricultural soils is to increase the organic matter
content through tillage practices and increase the pH by adding lime.
Isomorphic substitution is the replacement oI one atom by another oI similar size in a crystal
lattice without disrupting or changing the crystal structure oI the mineral. II you remember Irom
the clay and primary mineral tutorials, cations are coordinated to oxygen or hydroxyl anions in
mineral structures. The negative charge oI the anions is balanced by the positive charge oI the
cations that are coordinated to it. Net negative charge is developed when a cation oI similar size
and less positive charge substitutes Ior one oI higher positive charge. Isomorphic substitution can
also take place between cations oI the same charge or a cation oI higher positive charge. In the
case oI isomorphic substitution between cations oI the same charge no charge is developed. In
the case oI isomorphic substitution between a cation oI higher positive charge with one oI lower
positive charge a net positive charge is developed. The important thing to remember is that
isomorphic substitution only occurs between cations oI similar ionic radii. In the tutorials below
we will be strictly dealing with permanent charge developed through isomorphic susbtsitution.
4
Use the tabIe beIow to identify the atoms and moIecuIes which make up the cIay
mineraIs:
Coor key for Cay Mnera Modes
Slllcon ALom
Alumlnum ALom
Maaneslum ALom
EXAMPLE: somorphic substitution of Mg
2+
for Al
3+
in the octahedral layer of a 2:1 clay
mineral. (Click on the buttons and use the mouse to rotate the mineral models.)
In this case Mg has a ¹2 charge, Al has a ¹3 charge, O has a 2 charge. II the rectangles below
represent the octahedral layer in a 2:1 clay mineral then the substitution oI one Mg
¹2
Ior one Al
¹3
will give rise to one negative charge. Add the charges generated by each aton to get the overall
charge.
Al
2
C
2
CP
2
(no
charae)
AlMaC
2
CP
2
(mlnus 1
charae)
Now let's take a 2:1 dioctahedral soil clay mineral. In this mineral there is no isomorphic
substitution  Si in the tetrahedral layer and Al in the octahedral layer. Now let's take the same
mineral and isomorphically substitute 6 Mg
2¹
atoms Ior 6 Al
3¹
atoms in each oI the octahedral
layers. Each one oI these Mg
2¹
cations will give rise to one negative charge. In soil science we
express CEC as cmolc per Kg (that's centimols oI charge). Each negative charge generated by
isomorphic substitution gives rise to 1 molc. So based on the number oI brown octahedrons (18
molc/mineral) and the overall molecular weight oI the mineral picture (calculated by adding up
each Si, Al, Mg, and O and multiplying each one by their molecular weight ÷ 8741.1 g/mineral)
this mineral will have an overall negative charge or CEC oI:
18
molc
mlneral
x
mlneral
8741 a
x
1000
a
ka
x
100
cmolc
molc
ƹ
206
cmolc
ka
This concept will become clearer when we talk about CEC and view the CEC demos.
3
Electrical Double Layer
The net negative charge generated by clay particles will be balanced or neutralized by adsorbing
cations. Additionally some oI this negative charge will be used to exclude or repel anions Irom
the area adiacent to the negatively charged clay surIace. This repulsion or exclusion is oIten
called negative adsorption. ThereIore there will be a greater concentration oI cations adiacent to
the clay surIace and an area Iarther away where there is a greater concentration oI anions.
Eventually, the distribution oI cations and anions will be the same as the bulk solution. The
combination oI the negatively charged clay surIace and unequal distribution oI cations and
anions (compared to the bulk solution) adiacent to the clay particle is called the electrical double
layer (EDL) or diIIuse double layer (DDL). Remember that we are talking about a phenomenon
that occurs on the microscopic level, thereIore the actual thickness and volume oI the electrical
double layer is extremely small. When viewing the shockwave demo Ior EDL notice that the 18
molc developed in the clay due to isomorphic substitution is balanced through the electrostatic
attraction oI cations and repulsion oI anions. The EDL encompasses the negatively charged clay
particle and the aqueous environment that is inIluenced by its charge.
CCLCk kL¥ ICk CA1ICN5 AND ANICN5 IN 5nCCkWAVL
DLMC5
P
+
k
+
Ca
2+
Cl
Ŵ
Al
3+
In all oI the demos below we scaled ions similar to their hydrated radii in aqueous environments.
The hydrated radii oI the cations used to scale the ions are listed below:
Ion
nydrated
rad n nm*
Al
3+
0Ŧ90
Ca
2+
0Ŧ60
k
+
0Ŧ30
Cl
Ŵ
0Ŧ30
P
+
0Ŧ90
*lrom Llndsav
6
(1979)
When you click on the demo make sure that you observe the cations and anions that are
inIluenced by the negatively charged clay particle. Also, notice that in the bulk solution there are
an equal amount oI cations and anions  this is the concept oI electroneutrality which must
occur in soil environments.
Cation Exchange Capacity
So Iar we have talked about charge development in soil colloids and the distribution oI ions
around these charged surIaces. Since cations adsorbed to mineral surIaces are held via weak
electrostatic interactions they are available to plants and microorganisms through exchange
reactions. For example, plants can secrete protons (H
¹
) that can exchange or displace a nutrient
cation such as potassium on a colloid surIace. The colloids negative charge is satisIied by the
proton and the K
¹
enters the aqueous environment which can be absorbed by the plant via mass
Ilow. The are several important characteristics oI cation exchange:
1. The exchange reaction is rapid
2. The exchange reaction is diIIusion controlled
3. The exchange reaction is reversible
4. The exchange reaction is stoichiometric
5. Selectivity oI one ion over another
The Iirst three points are pretty straight Iorward and we will discuss the IiIth pooint in the next
section. The Iorth point is important and merits Iurther explanation. The negative charge
generated on a soil colloid via isomorphic substitution can be satisIied by mono, di, or trivalent
cations. In the case oI trivalent cations such as Al
3¹
, 1 cmol can satisIy 3 cmolc on the colloid
surIace. Similarly 1 cmol oI Ca
2¹
can satisIy 2 cmolc while 1 cmol oI K
¹
can satisIy 1 cmolc on
the colloid surIace. Or in other words it will take 1/3 cmol oI Al
3¹
or 1/2 oI a cmol oI Ca
2¹
or 1
cmol oI K
¹
to satisIy 1 cmolc on a colloid surIace. This is what is meant by stoichiometry oI the
exchange reaction (point number 4). The important thing to understand here is the diIIerence
between cmol and cmolc. The cmolc oI charge is used to quantiIy CEC. It is a Iundamental unit
used to normalize cations oI diIIerent valence that can adsorb to colloid surIaces. So 1 cmolc oI
Al
3¹
÷ 1cmolc oI Ca
2¹
÷ 1 cmolc oI K
¹
. This is the Iundamental unit and puts cations oI diIIerent
valence on an equal playing Iield allowing soil scientists to quantiIy CEC.
This can get a little conIusing so let's demonstrate this point using some models. The colloid
surIace in the models is the same surIace used to demonstrate isomorphic substitution  all oI the
brown polyhedra are Mg
2¹
cations that have isomorphically substituted Ior Al
3¹
in the octahedral
layers. ThereIore, the mineral shown in the model has a charge due to isomorphic substitution oI
7
18 molc. II we expressed this as cmolc/kg (similar to the previous calculation Ior the section on
isomorphic substitution) this mineral would have a CEC oI 206 cmolc/kg. This amount oI
isomorphic substitution is greater than what is Iound in naturally occurring montmorillonites but
is in the range Iound in naturally occurring trioctahedral vermiculites. We used this high CEC to
demonstrate the concept oI cation exchange in our demos. II you scroll up you will Iind the color
key Ior the ions used in these models. When you click on the CEC models you will notice
cations in the interlayers oI the clay mineral as well as cations in the bulk solution. II you
remember Irom the EDL demo some oI the negative charge on the surIace is used to repel anions
(negative adsorption). Also, cations in the bulk solution need to be neutralized by anions
(concept oI electroneutrality). Again Ior the purposes oI our model all the negative charge oI the
colloid is satisIied by cations adsorbed in the interlayer. Also, only cations (not associated
anions) are shown in the bulk solution that will be involved in exchange reactions.
One more concept and we will get to the CEC demo  ase saturation. This is a Iairly simple
concept  the percent oI the exchange complex that is occupied by base cations. Base cations are
calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium. They are called base cations because they can be
associated with strong bases (i.e NaOH or KOH). Acid cations are H
¹
and Al
3¹
. Al
3¹
is
considered an acid cation because it can generate protons through hydrolysis reactions:
[Al(H
2
O)
6
]
3+
+ H
2
O ÷ [Al(OH)(H
2
O)
5
]
2+
+ H
3
O
+
When you view the CEC demos pay particular attention to the nature oI the exchange complex.
II you want to calculate base saturation add up the molc oI base cations adsorbed in the
interlayers by the molc oI acid cations and multiply by 100  you should come up with about
22°. This is typical Ior highly weathered Southeastern soils that have not been managed (i.e.
lime additions). We will discuss ion selectivity and the nature oI the exchange complex aIter we
view our Iirst 2 models. The Iirst model (monovalent exchange) demonstrates a proton
displacing potassium Irom the exchange complex  a ¹1 cation exchanging Ior a ¹1 cation. In
the second model (monovalentDivalent exchange) Ca
2¹
is exchanged by 2 ¹1 protons
illustrating point number 4 above (stoichiometry).
Nature of the Lxchange Compex
now leLƌs flnlsh bv Lalklna abouL polnL #3 aboveŦ Some caLlons wlll have a preference over oLhers for Lhe
neaaLlve surface charae of a soll colloldŦ ln aeneral Lhls wlll be relaLed Lo Lhe charge of Lhe caLlon and lLs
hydrated radŦ lor example Lhe followlna order of preference ls observed for caLlons wlLh a dlfferenL
valence (mlxed serles)ť
Al
3¹
~ Ca
2¹
÷ Mg
2¹
~ K
¹
÷ NH
4
¹
~ Na
¹
In the case oI cations with the same charge or valence the order oI preIerence Iollows the order
oI decreasing hydrated radii:
8
Cs
¹
~ Rb
¹
~ K
¹
~ Na
¹
~ Li
¹
The above orders oI preIerence can be summed up using Coulombs law which states "The Iorce
oI attraction between opposite charges is directly proportional to the charges on the ions and
inversly proportional to the square oI the distance between the charges". In other words the
greater the charge the greater the Iorce oI attraction and the greater the distance between the
charges the lesser the Iorce oI attraction. In highly weathered soils such as the Southeastern USA
and the tropics the high rainIall leaches monovalent and divalent cations and the exchange
complex becomes dominated by Al
3¹
(low base saturation). In arid and semiarid climates base
cations are conserved and the exchange complex will be dominated by mono and divalent
cations (high base saturation). ThereIore, in order Ior many highly weathered soils to be
productive Irom an agricultural standpoint we must lime them to increase their base saturation.
The Iirst Iarmer in the USA to recognize the importance oI lime was a Virginia Farmer named
Edmond RuIIin who used oyster shells on his Iields. Today there are a variety oI liming sources
available to Iarmers. When lime is applied to soils it dissolves releasing a cation (usually Ca
2¹
)
that displces Al
3¹
Irom the exchange complex. Although Al
3¹
is preIerred the concentration oI
Ca
2¹
in the soil solution is so great that it can overwhelm or displace the Al
3¹
by mass action.
Once the Al
3¹
enters the soil solution it can hydrolyze (see above reaction) releasing protons that
are neutralized by the carbonate and bicarbonate ions generated Irom the lime.
The demo below demonstrates how Ca
2¹
can displace Al
3¹
Irom the exchange complex. Pay
careIul attention to the stoichiometry oI the reaction.
That's it!!  a relatively simple introduction to charge development and CEC on soil colloids.
Remember that the actual reactions represented in the above demos are much more complex in
natural environments. Understanding charge development and CEC oI soils allows us to better
manage our soils Ior crop production and understand the bioavailability and mobility oI
contaminants in the subsurIace.
How ar¢ tb¢ cation ¢xcbang¢ capacity {CEC) and p¢rc¢nt bas¢ saturation
calculat¢d for tb¢ soil t¢st r¢port?
To d¢t¢rmin¢ tb¢ cation ¢xcbang¢ capacity {CEC), calculat¢ tb¢ milli¢quival¢nts of H, K, Mg,
and Ca p¢r ŵŴŴg of soil {m¢q]ŵŴŴg soil) by using tb¢ following formulas:
Pţ meq/100a soll ƹ 8 (8Ŧ00 Ŵ buffer pP)
kţ meq/100a soll ƹ lbs/acre exLracLed k Ƹ 782
Maţ meq/100a soll ƹ lbs/acre exLracLed Ma Ƹ 240
Caţ meq/100a soll ƹ lbs/acre exLracLed Ca Ƹ 400
naţ meq/100a soll ƹ lbs/acre exLracLed na Ƹ 460
9
The total CEC will be the sum oI the calculations Irom the 5 previous equations.
LkAMÞLL
LA8
NCŦ
5AMÞLL
NCŦ
5CIL
CCDL
5CIL
Þn
8UIŦ
Þn
Þ k Mg Ca Na
113282 3 4 3Ŧ1 7Ŧ70 168
vP
221
P+
28
L+
400
L+
12
Pţ meq/100a soll ƹ 8 (8Ŧ00 Ŵ 7Ŧ70) ƹ 2Ŧ40
kţ meq/100a soll ƹ 221 Ƹ 782 ƹ 0Ŧ28
Maţ meq/100a soll ƹ 28 Ƹ 240 ƹ 0Ŧ12
Caţ meq/100a soll ƹ 400 Ƹ 400 ƹ 1Ŧ00
naţ meq/100a soll ƹ 12 Ƹ 460 ƹ 0Ŧ03
ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ
1ota CLC ƹ 3Ŧ83 meq/100g so
To calculat¢ tb¢ p¢rc¢nt bas¢ saturation, divid¢ tb¢ sum of tb¢ K, Mg, Ca, and Na {tb¢
bas¢s) in m¢q]ŵŴŴg soil by tb¢ CEC {all tb¢s¢ valu¢s w¢r¢ calculat¢d abov¢). Multiply
tb¢ r¢sult by ŵŴŴ¾.
xAMÞL
k ƹ 0Ŧ28 meq/100a soll
Ma ƹ 0Ŧ12 meq/100a soll
Ca ƹ 1Ŧ00 meq/100a soll
na ƹ 0Ŧ03 meq/100a soll
CCƹ 3Ŧ83 meq/100a soll
1oLal for bases ƹ k + Ma + Ca + na ƹ 1Ŧ43 meq/100a soll
Þercent base saturaton ƹ (1Ŧ43 Ƹ 3Ŧ83)(100Ʒ) ƹ 37Ʒ
10
'clay Determination The Concept
¢finitions:
Vclay Vs Vshale
These two terms can have diIIerent meaning with diIIerent users.
In PETROLOG we consider:
Vclay ÷ Clay bound water plus dry clay solids. (Vclay ¹ Vmatrix ¹ PHIE ÷ 1.0)
A sand is a Iormation that contains less than 30° clay.
A Shale is any clay that has less than 30° sand.
V dry clay ÷ Vclay  VBW
VBW ÷ PHIT  PHIE
Conc¢pt
The determination oI Vclay is probably the most diIIicult part oI any interpretation as all clay
indicators tend to be pessimistic.
Most users use only the GR as a clay indicator however the GR is oIten a very poor clay
indicator particularly in thin laminated sand shale sequences, in the presence oI glauconite and
where the Iormation Iluid is hot (Uranium rich)
Using GR only as a clay indicator can result in lost pay and/or missed reservoirs.
To avoid missed reservoirs Petrolog, by deIault, will compute all clay indicators and it is up to
the users to disallow some oI them should the Iinal Vclay be not to their satisIaction.
MPORTANT: This approach has the additional advantage to show iI the clay points Irom
diIIerent indicators are consistent since the same clay points are used in the computation oI PHIE
and PHIT.
11
Petrolog has a buildin logic to turn oII any clay indicators that have insuIIicient resolution to be
meaningIul.
The clay indicators uses are:
O Gamma Ray
O Spontaneous Potential
O Sonic
O Neutron
O RT
O Density Neutron
O Sonic Density
O Neutron Sonic
O M / N
O External EVCLAY
The Iinal Vclay can be computed using any oI the Iollowing options:
O Minimum
O Functioned
O HodgesLehman
O ModiIied Hodges Lehman
O Weighed
Petrolog v10.2 Help Manual
'R Determination
¢¢ gr Logging tools
Input curv¢s:
O GR
utput curv¢s:
O 'R:
12
The computed VGR is unlimited and can be either negative or greater than 1.0. This is to allow
users to Iinely adiust the parameters to Iit the results between 0 and 1.0.
Input param¢t¢rs:
O GR clean
O GR clay
O Vclay GR type
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
VGR is not computed iI (GR clay  GR clean) · 20 API.
Many users conIuse GRmin with GR clean and GRmax with GRclay.
II a sand contains a minimum oI (say) 10 ° clays, then GRclean should be lower than
GRmin.(e.g. Gas sands oI Queensland)
(e.g. some GR logs recorded in the Middle East will show intervals with GR ÷ 5 API, others with
20 API and others reading 45 API. GRmin is none oI these since the lower value represent Salts
or Anhydrite, The middle value are clean limestone and the high GR values are clean dolomites.
There is no clay in any oI these Iormations and GRmax is never seen.)
13
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 8 zone parameters that can be used Ior VGR determination. For most cases,
only the Iirst two entries are needed. The last 5 entries are needed Ior some oI the special
Iunctions. (e.g. GR50° is used on the user deIined Steiber equation)
All entries except Ior Vclay GR type can be interactively selected Irom the GR vs RWA XPlot
shown in Figure 2
Calculations:
IGR ÷ (GR  GR clean)/(GR clay  GR clean)
O Lnearť
VGR ÷ IGR
14
F&RE 2
Figure 2 shows the GR vs RWA ZPlot.
The lower point represent the GR clean and RW values Ior this zones. Moving this point will
automatically update the zone parameters and modiIying the zone parameter will alternatively
move the point on the screen.
The upper point represent both GR clay and RWB Ior this zone.
The line ioining the two point represent the equation used. (Here ÷ Linear.)
O Asymmetrcť
13
This equation requires 4 sets oI points as shown in Iigure 3 namely: (GR clean, 0.0), (GR1,
Vcl1), GR2, Vcl2), (GR clay, 1.0)
Vclay is computed as Iollows:
II (GR · GR clean) then VGR ÷ 0.01
else iI (GR · 0.5*Gr1) then VGR ÷ 0.5*Vgr1*(GRGR clean)
else iI (GR · Gr1) then VGR ÷ 0.5Vgr1¹ (GR  0.5*Gr1)/(0.5*Gr1) * (0.5*VGr1)
else it (GR · Gr2) then VGR ÷ VGr1 ¹((GR GR1)/(Gr2Gr1)) * (VGr2VGr1)
else iI (GR · (GR2 ¹ 0.5*(GrClay  Gr2))) then VGR ÷ Vgr2 ¹ ((GRGr2)/(0.5*(GR clayGr2))
* (0.5*(1.0  Vgr2)
Else iI (GR · GR clay) then VGR ÷ (0.5 * (1.0Vgr2) * Vgr2) ¹ (GR0.5*(GR clay  Gr2))/(GR
clay  0.5*(GR clay  Gr2))
else VGR ÷ 1.0
16
FIGURE 3
Figure 3 shows GR Vs VGR ZPlot and the shape oI the asymmetric equation beIore processing.
The Asymmetric equation is a variant oI the Steiber equation, Larinov and Clavier equation that
is both more Ilexible and more accurate in the high Vclay range where all other equations tend to
read too high a Vclay.
The Lower part oI the asymmetric equation is ideal to handle Glauconitic equation to make the
VGR match the core results.
The upper section works best in the Far Eats where thick beds oI shales with diIIerent GR
readings overlay each other. (Say 200 m with GR clay ÷ 150 API Iollowed by 150 m GR reading
180 API.
Both 150 and 180 values can be made to read near 95° clay in the same zone using the
asymmetric equation.
The same equation can be used to give the low volume oI clays in the sand a completely diIIerent
property to the adiacent shales.
O 5teber 1ţ 2ţ 5 and user defned equatonsť
17
F&RE 4
Figure 4 shows the curvature oI the Steiber 2 equation compared with the Vclay computed with
the Asymmetric equation.
The Steiber equation is as Iollows:
IGR ÷ (GR  GR clean)/(GR clay  GR clean)
VGR ÷ IGR / (IGR ¹ A * (1.0  IGR))
Where:
A ÷ 1 Ior Steiber 1
18
A ÷ 2 Ior Steiber 2
A ÷ 3 Ior Steiber 25
The Steiber 50° is the value oI A which can be interactively and graphically selected using Z
Plot shown in Figure 4.
O Larnov Cd kock
VGR ÷ (2`(2*IGR)  1.0) / 3.0
1hls equaLlon ls verv slmllar Lo Lhe SLelber 1 quaLlon
O Larnov 1ertary
VGR ÷ 0.083 * ( 2.0` (3.7058 * IGR)  1.0)
1hls equaLlon ls verv slmllar Lo Lhe SLelber 3 equaLlon
O Caver
II IGR · 1.0) then
VGR ÷ 1.7  SQRT(3.38  (IGR ¹ 0.7)`2)
else
VGR ÷ IGR
EndiI
1hls equaLlon ls verv slmllar Lo a SLelber 1 equaLlonŦ
'SP Determination
19
¢¢ logging tools
Input curv¢s:
O SP
utput curv¢s:
O 'SP
Input param¢t¢rs:
O SSP
O SP clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
vSÞ ls noL compuLed lf A8S (SSÞ) Ƽ 20 mvŦ
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 2 zone parameters that can be used Ior VSP determination. II the SP log has
been normalized properly SP clay should be 0.
SSP is the diIIerence between the SP log values in shales and in sand.
It is recommended to normalize the SP log using the SP driIt corrections graphically when
viewing the Composite log plot.
The SSP is reduced in the presence oI hydrocarbons
SSP is not Iully developed in thin laminated sand/shale sequences.
SSP is unreliable in tight Iormation.
20
Calculations:
VSP ÷ 1.0  (SP  zSPclay)/zSSP
Cther Appcaton for 55Þ
The SSP value is also used to compute RW(SP).
'S Determination
¢¢ dt logging tool
Input curv¢s:
O DT
utput curv¢s:
O 'S:
Input param¢t¢rs:
O Dt Matrix min
O Dt clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
VS is not computed iI (Dt clay  Dt Matrix min) · 30 us/It.
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 2 zone parameters that a used Ior VS determination. These values can either
be entered interactively Irom the SonicDensity or SonicNeutron ZPlots or manually entered in
the zone control Iile.
IMPORTANT: DT clay is used Ior other clay indicators using the sonic log and Ior other
computations like the pseudo DTc and DTSc.
21
DT clay is also used to compute the M clay in the M  N clay indicator.
Calculations:
O Lnearť
VS ÷ (DT  Dt Matrix min)/(DT clay  Dt Matrix min)
Petrolog v10.2 Help Manual
'SD Determination
is tb¢ clay from tb¢ onic ¢nsity Xlot.
Input curv¢s
O RHO (g/cc)
O DT (us/ft)
utput curv¢s
O 'SD:
Input param¢t¢rs
O RHOMA (deIault ÷ 2.65 Ior sandstone) (MPORTANT: Also used Ior SSS and TWA
models and to set the lithology when RHOB is missing or iI the PEF is bad or missing)
O DT Matrix Min. (Dt matrix minimum ÷ Dtm)
O DTclean m RHO ÷ 2.2 g/cc ( or DT2)
O RHO clay (Also used to compute PHIT and PHIE aIter clay corrections).
O DT clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
vSu ls noL compuLed lf Vsdd ƽ Ŵ 8Ŧ0
where Vsdd ƹ ( D1 cay Ŵ D1 Matrx mn ) * ( 2Ŧ2 Ŵ knCMA )
( knC8 cay Ŵ knCMA ) * ( D12Ŧ2 Ŵ D1 Matrx mn)
22
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 6 zone parameters that can be used Ior VDN determination.
A clean line Ior VSD ÷ 0.0 is traced between the Iollowing pair oI points: (RHOMA, DT matrix
min) and (2.2, DT ( 2.2)
The 100 clay line passes through a parallel line to the clean line and through the RHOB clay and
DT clay point as shown in Iigure 2
Calculations:
x ƹ ( u1 Ŵ u1 mln ) * ( 2Ŧ2 Ŵ 8PCMA )
( 8PC8 Ŵ 8PCMA ) * ( u12Ŧ2 Ŵ u1 maLrlx mln)
VDN ƹ k / Vdnd
23
F&RE 2
Figure 2 shows the Sonic Density ZPlot with Vclay in the Z axis.
The Clean line passes through (DT matrix min, RHOMA) and (DT2, 2.2) and is plotted as a
continuous orange line in Figure 2.
Rhobc is also known as the wet clay points. It is critical in the calculation oI PHIE and PHIT, to
determine the M and N clay points and to compute RHOMA clay used in the reconstructed
RHOB.
DTc is the Sonic clay point also used to compute VS Sonic. It is also used to reconstruct the a
pseudo sonic and pseudo DT shear.
24
RHOMA: DeIault ÷ 2.65 is used Ior the clean line and also as the matrix density to compute
porosity in the shaly  sand models. CA&TON: Lead RHOMA at 2.65 Ior sandstone as it is the
parameter that will be used in the porosity determination.
uality Control:
II both the RHOB and DT clay points are correct, the M and N clay points will also be correct.
Check the VSD curve on the right oI the XPlot to see iI VSD reads 100° over shale beds. II
negative Vs and VSD are measured then readiust your clean line.
Where the density is aIIected by bad hole eIIects, the VSD will show Negative values. II the
Density is bad Ior Vclay determination it is also bad Ior PHIE and PHIT and the cutoII values
Ior DRHO, CALI and RUGOS
Petrolog v10.2 Help Manual
'RT Determination
¢¢ ild lld logging tools
Input curv¢s:
O RT
utput curv¢s:
O 'RT:
Input param¢t¢rs:
O RT clean
O RT clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
VRT is not computed iI ABS (Log10(RT clean)  Log10(RT clay)) · 0.7.
FIGURE 1
23
Figure 1 shows the 2 zone parameters that a used Ior VRT determination. These values can either
be entered interactively Irom the GR Vs RWA ZPlot or directly Irom a composite log plot with
RT plotted as a curve.
MPORTANT: RT clay is also used in the resistivity saturation equations and is thereIore
critical Ior both VRT and SW.
Calculations:
O Linear:
VRT ÷(Log10(RT)  Log10(RT clay) / (Log10(RT clean)  Log10(RT clay))
Int¢ractiv¢ ¢l¢ction of RT clay:
26
FIGURE 2
Figure 2 is a typical ZPlot oI the GRVS RWA with Vclay plotted in the Z axis and all Vclay
curves traced on the right.
The upper circle will determine the Iollowing zone parameters:
O GR Clay as used in the Gamma Ray clay indicator
O Rwb as used in the ModiIied Waxman Smits equation
O RT clay. (Computed using PHICP clay, RWB and the Archie equation.) This value oI RT
should be equal to RT measured.
uality Control:
Plot all the Vclay indicator next to the ZPlot and check the VRT.
27
In Figure 2 VRT is the dark green trace. It is Ialling on the Vclay ÷ 100 line which conIirms the
good selection oI RT clay.
VRT matches the cleanest sand in the water bearing sands.
Note that in the above example, VRT ÷ 100° in the hydrocarbon bearing interval above the
shale bed. This is because, in this reservoir, RT oil ÷ RT clay ÷ 12 Ohmms.
The deIault Ior RT clean ÷ 1000 Ohmms and this should be adiusted to Iit the interval.
'DN Determination
VDN is the Vclay Irom the Density Neutron XPlot.
Input curv¢s
O RHO (g/cc)
O NPH (v/v)
utput curv¢s
O 'DN:
Input param¢t¢rs
O RHOMA (deIault ÷ 2.65 Ior sandstone) (MPORTANT: Also used Ior SSS and TWA
models and to set the lithology when RHOB is missing or iI the PEF is bad or missing)
O PHN min.
O NPH m RHO ÷ 2.2 g/cc ( or PHIN2.2)
O RHO clay (Also used to compute PHIT and PHIE aIter clay corrections).
O PHN clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
vun ls noL compuLed lf Vdnd Ƽ 0Ŧ06Ŧ
where Vdnd ƹ ( ÞnIN cay Ŵ ÞnIN mn ) * ( 2Ŧ2 Ŵ knCMA )
( knC8 cay Ŵ knCMA ) * ( ÞnIN2Ŧ2 Ŵ ÞnIN mn)
28
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 6 zone parameters that can be used Ior VDN determination.
A clean line Ior VDN ÷ 0.0 is traced between the Iollowing pair oI points: (RHOMA, PHIN min)
and (2.2, PHIN ( 2.2)
The 100 clay line passes through a parallel line to the clean line and through the RHOB clay and
PHIN clay point as shown in Iigure 2
Calculations:
x ƹ ( ÞPln Ŵ ÞPln mln ) * ( 2Ŧ2 Ŵ 8PCMA )
( 8PC8 Ŵ 8PCMA ) * ( ÞPln2Ŧ2 Ŵ ÞPln mln)
VDN ƹ k / Vdnd
29
F&RE 2
Figure 2 shows the Density Neutron ZPlot with Vclay in the Z axis.
The Clean line passes through (Phinmin, RHOMA) and (PHIN2, 2.2) and is plotted as a
continuous orange line in Figure 2. In the presence oI Gas, PHIN2 should be moved to the leIt oI
the gas points.
Rhobc is also known as the wet clay points. It is critical in the calculation oI PHIE and PHIT, to
determine the M and N clay points and to compute RHOMA clay used in the reconstructed
RHOB.
NPHc is the neutron clay point also used to compute VN Neutron
30
RHOMA: DeIault ÷ 2.65 is used Ior the clean line and also as the matrix density to compute
porosity in the shaly  sand models.
uality Control:
II both the RHOB and NPHI clay points are correct, the M and N clay points will also be correct.
Check the VDN curve on the right oI the XPlot to see iI VDN reads 100° over shale beds.
Where the density is aIIected by bad hole eIIects, the VDN will show Negative values. II the
Density is bad Ior Vclay determination it is also bad Ior PHIE and PHIT and the cutoII values
Ior DRHO, CALI and RUGOS should be altered accordingly. see Bad Hole Logic
'SD Determination
is tb¢ clay from tb¢ onic ¢nsity Xlot.
Input curv¢s
O RHO (g/cc)
O DT (us/ft)
utput curv¢s
O 'SD:
Input param¢t¢rs
O RHOMA (deIault ÷ 2.65 Ior sandstone) (MPORTANT: Also used Ior SSS and TWA
models and to set the lithology when RHOB is missing or iI the PEF is bad or missing)
O DT Matrix Min. (Dt matrix minimum ÷ Dtm)
O DTclean m RHO ÷ 2.2 g/cc ( or DT2)
O RHO clay (Also used to compute PHIT and PHIE aIter clay corrections).
O DT clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
vSu ls noL compuLed lf Vsdd ƽ Ŵ 8Ŧ0
where Vsdd ƹ ( D1 cay Ŵ D1 Matrx mn ) * ( 2Ŧ2 Ŵ knCMA )
( knC8 cay Ŵ knCMA ) * ( D12Ŧ2 Ŵ D1 Matrx mn)
31
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 6 zone parameters that can be used Ior VDN determination.
A clean line Ior VSD ÷ 0.0 is traced between the Iollowing pair oI points: (RHOMA, DT matrix
min) and (2.2, DT ( 2.2)
The 100 clay line passes through a parallel line to the clean line and through the RHOB clay and
DT clay point as shown in Iigure 2
Calculations:
x ƹ ( u1 Ŵ u1 mln ) * ( 2Ŧ2 Ŵ 8PCMA )
( 8PC8 Ŵ 8PCMA ) * ( u12Ŧ2 Ŵ u1 maLrlx mln)
VDN ƹ k / Vdnd
32
F&RE 2
Figure 2 shows the Sonic Density ZPlot with Vclay in the Z axis.
The Clean line passes through (DT matrix min, RHOMA) and (DT2, 2.2) and is plotted as a
continuous orange line in Figure 2.
Rhobc is also known as the wet clay points. It is critical in the calculation oI PHIE and PHIT, to
determine the M and N clay points and to compute RHOMA clay used in the reconstructed
RHOB.
DTc is the Sonic clay point also used to compute VS Sonic. It is also used to reconstruct the a
pseudo sonic and pseudo DT shear.
33
RHOMA: DeIault ÷ 2.65 is used Ior the clean line and also as the matrix density to compute
porosity in the shaly  sand models. CA&TON: Lead RHOMA at 2.65 Ior sandstone as it is the
parameter that will be used in the porosity determination.
uality Control:
II both the RHOB and DT clay points are correct, the M and N clay points will also be correct.
Check the VSD curve on the right oI the XPlot to see iI VSD reads 100° over shale beds. II
negative Vs and VSD are measured then readiust your clean line.
Where the density is aIIected by bad hole eIIects, the VSD will show Negative values. II the
Density is bad Ior Vclay determination it is also bad Ior PHIE and PHIT and the cutoII values
Ior DRHO, CALI and RUGOS
'NS Determination
VSD is the Vclay Irom the Sonic Density XPlot.
Input curv¢s
O NPH (v/v)
O DT (us/ft)
utput curv¢s
O 'NS:
Input param¢t¢rs
O DT Matrix Min. (Dt matrix minimum ÷ Dtm)
O DTclean m RHO ÷ 2.2 g/cc ( or DT2)
O DT clay
O PHN min.
O NPH m RHO ÷ 2.2 g/cc ( or PHIN2.2)
O PHN clay
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
vSu ls noL compuLed lf Vnsd ƽ 5Ŧ0
where Vnsd ƹ ( ÞnIN cay Ŵ ÞnIN mn ) * ( D12Ŧ2 Ŵ D1 Matrx mn)
( D1 cay Ŵ D1 Matrx Mn ) * ( ÞnIN2Ŧ2 Ŵ ÞnIN mn)
34
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the 6 zone parameters that can be used Ior VDN determination.
A clean line Ior VSD ÷ 0.0 is traced between the Iollowing pair oI points: (RHOMA, DT matrix
min) and (2.2, DT ( 2.2)
The 100 clay line passes through a parallel line to the clean line and through the RHOB clay and
DT clay point as shown in Iigure 2
Calculations:
x ƹ ( ÞnIN Ŵ ÞnIN mn ) * ( D12Ŧ2 Ŵ D1 Matrx mn)
( D1 Ŵ D1 Matrx Mn ) * ( ÞnIN2Ŧ2 Ŵ ÞnIN mn)
VN5 ƹ k / Vnsd
33
F&RE 2
Figure 2 shows the Neutron Sonic ZPlot with Vclay in the Z axis.
The Clean line passes through (PHIN min,DT matrix min) and (PHIN2.2, DT2.2) and is plotted
as a continuous orange line in Figure 2.
DTc is the Sonic clay point also used to compute VS Sonic. It is also used to reconstruct the a
pseudo sonic and pseudo DT shear.
NPHc is the neutron clay point also used to compute VN Neutron
PHN2.2 and DT2.2 are the same clean points as used in the DN and SD Xplots
36
uality Control:
II both the PHIN and DT clay points are correct, the M and N clay points will also be correct.
Check the VNS curve on the right oI the XPlot to see iI VNS reads 100° over shale beds. II
negative Vs and VSD are measured then readiust your clean line.
In the above example, the clay point is too close to the clean line and VNS would automatically
be reiected as a clay indicator.
'MN Determination
Input curv¢s
O RHO (g/cc)
O NPH (v/v)
O DT (us/ft)
O MFACT
O NFACT
Tb¢ MFACT {M factor) and NFACT {N factor) outputs ar¢ comput¢d automatically and sav¢d
as curv¢s in tb¢ pro.logdata fil¢.
MFACT ÷ 0.01 * (DTI  DT) / (RHOB  RHOF)
NFACT ÷ (1.0  NPHI) / (RHOB  RHOF)
with RHOB in g/cc. NPHI in V/V and Dt in us/I
utput curv¢s
O VMN
Input param¢t¢rs:
O M50
O RHO clay
O NPH clay
O DT clay
O M clay
O N clay
M clay ÷ 0.01 * (DTI  DT Clay) / (RHOB clay  RHOF)
37
N clay ÷ (1.0  NPHI clay) / (RHOB clay  RHOF)
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
vMn ls noL compuLed lf Vmnd Ƽ 0Ŧ085Ŧ
where Vmnd ƹ M50 Ŵ 0Ŧ11 Ŵ M cay + (0Ŧ22 * N cay)
M30 ƹ M aL nƹ0Ŧ3 on Lhe MŴn ZŴÞloLŦ
1he clean llne ls a llne LhaL passed Lhrouah Lhe M30 polnL and ls parallel Lo Lhe averaae Sandţ LS and uCL
maLrlx polnLsŦ
FIGURE 1
1Ŧ llaure 1 shows Lhe 3 zone parameLers LhaL a used for vMn deLermlnaLlonŦ 1hese values can
elLher be enLered lnLeracLlvelv from Lhe M vs n ZŴÞloL as shown ln llaure 2
MPORTANT: M clay and N clay are automatically calculated whenever the clay points Ior
RHOB, NPHI and DT are changed in the previous ZPlots. This is to make sure that there is a
balance between all clay points.
The M and N clay points can be used Ior quality control oI the RHOB, NPHI and DT clay points
since all three should compute the M and N clay point to Iall correctly on the M/N ZPlot.
Calculations:
VMN ÷ (M50  0.11  M ¹ 0.22 * N) / Vmnd
38
Int¢ractiv¢ ¢l¢ction of M clay and N clay:
FIGURE 2
Figure2 shows the clean line that can be repositioned by moving the orange circle positioned at
m50 and N ÷ 0.5
The large blue circle represent M clay and N clay
The orange line is the clean line Ior VMN ÷ 0.0
Place an imaginary parallel line through the blue circle Ior VMN ÷ 100°
uality Control:
II both the clay points Ior DT, RHOB and NPHI the blue circle should pass through the green
points at Vclay ÷ 100°.
39
Check the VMN curve on the Vclay curve display on the right and check that VMN plots closed
to the 100° Vclay opposite shale beds.
Clean intervals with either the presence oI gas or secondary porosity will plot above the Sand,
LS and Dolomite points and the M50 line should be moved upwards to avoid measuring negative
VMN
External 'clay Determination
Input curv¢s:
O LVCL (v/v)
utput curv¢s:
O VCL
Input param¢t¢rs:
none
Calculations:
Vclay ÷ EVCL
The external EVCL curve, when available and selected as an input curve in the log analysis over
rides all other clay indicators and will be used in preIerence.
MPORTANT: Even iI a user has an externally computed Vclay to be use in the interpretation,
it is important to also careIully select all the clay points Irom all the logs as the clay points like
RT clay, RHOB clay, NPHI clay, DT clay are required in subsequent phases oI the
interpretation.
When to use E'CL
40
All clay indicators are pessimistic and tend to read too high a Vclay when all the clay parameters
have been properly selected.
The GR clay is probably the best clay indicator but is oIten a very poor clay indicator in the
presence oI solution Uranium and in thin shalesand beds.
Vclay computed Irom an NMR tool can give a much better Vclay in many cases.
The Vclay Irom micro scanner images can also be used eIIectively when all other clay indicator
Iail.
Final 'clay Minimum
Once all clay indicators have been computed the deIault Iinal Vclay is the lowest oI all clay
indicators.
Input curv¢s
O 'R
O 'S
O 'SP
O 'N
O 'RT
O 'DN
O 'NS
O 'SD
O 'MN
Only the indicators that have been computed and allowed will be used in the averaging.
utput curv¢s
O 'CL:
Input param¢t¢rs
O 'clay Flag
41
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the zone parameter that selects the Clay Flag options. This parameter is at the
very top oI all clay parameters.
Equation
The Iinal Vclay
Limit all input clay indicators between 0.0 and 1.0 to remove negative Vclay and Vclay ~ 100°
Takes the 5 lowest values oI the 9 clay indicators (Say: V1, V2, V3, V4, V5)
II there are less that 5 clay indicators available the number oI average pairs is reduced
accordingly
Create 10 averages pairs oI new Vclays using the 5 Vclay used:
e.g. V6 ÷ (V1¹ V2)/2, V7 ÷ V1 ¹ V3)/2, V8 ÷ (V1¹ V4)/2 etc
Add the original 5 clay indicators and sort all 15 clay indicators in increasing order.
The Iinal Vclay is the middle value oI the sorted averages.
Example 1:
Only 4 Indicators are available:
VGR ÷ 0.10
VS ÷ 0.80
VDN ÷ 0.20
V4 ÷ ( VGR ¹ VS) / 2.0 ÷ 0.45
V5 ÷ ( VGR ¹ VDN) / 2.0 ÷ 0.15
V6 ÷ ( VS ¹ VDN) / 2.0 ÷ 0.5
42
The sorted values are: 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.45, 0.50, 0.8 and the middle value is between 0.2 and 0.45
(0.2 is used in Petrolog)
Example 2:
VGR ÷ 0.0
VSP ÷ 1.0
V1 ÷ (0.0 ¹ 1.0)/2.0 ÷ 0.5 and the middle value will be Vclay ÷ 0.5
The ModiIied HodgesLehman average or the CDP Weighed average should be used in
preIerence to the HodgesLehman Average.
NonLinear 'clay
The Iinal Vclay deIault is the Minimum oI all Vclay measurements made and limited Irom 0.0 to
1.0 v/v
The Iinal Vclay can also use diIIerent combinations oI Vclay indicators such as HodgesLehman,
ModiIied Hodges Lehman or Weighed equations
The Iinal Vclay can be recomputed using any oI the nonlinear equations used Ior the GR log.
This option should not be used iI it has already been used on the GR
This option should be used with caution and only over intervals where its use can be iustiIied
Irom core data.
The concept oI this NonLinear option is made on the assumption that, like Ior the GR, the clay
properties within the sands themselves do not necessarily have the same propertied oI the clays
in the thick shales above and below. The CleanClay relationship is thereIore nonlinear and can
be corrected using the options described here below.
43
Input curv¢s:
O 'CL
utput curv¢s:
O 'CL:
The computed VGR is unlimited and can be either negative or greater than 1.0. This is to allow
users to Iinely adiust the parameters to Iit the results between 0 and 1.0.
Input param¢t¢rs:
O Vclay Type
O Vclay inp1 (Used Ior asymmetric equation only)
O Vclay out1 (Used Ior asymmetric equation only)
O Vclay inp2 (Used Ior asymmetric equation only)
O Vclay out2 (Used Ior asymmetric equation only)
O Vclay 50° (Used Ior the user deIined Steiber equation only)
Tbr¢sbold or condition for computations:
none
FIGURE 1
llaure 1 shows Lhe nonŴllnear vclav Lvpes lnpuL parameLersŦ
44
F&RE 2
Figure 2 shows the list oI available nonlinear equations.
Calculations:
Vclay ÷ F * Vclay
O Lnearť
F ÷ 1.0
O Asymmetrcť
This equation requires 2 sets oI points as listed in the input parameters above.
Vclay is computed as Iollows:
II (Vclay · 0.5*Vclay inp1) then Vclay ÷ 0.5*Vclay out1*(Vclay)
else iI (Vclay · Vclay inp1) then Vclay ÷ 0.5Vout1¹ (Vclay  0.5*Vclay inp1)/(0.5*Vclay
inp1) * (0.5*Vclay inp1)
else it (Vclay · Vclay inp2) then Vclay ÷ Vclay out1 ¹((Vclay Vclay inp1)/(Vclay inp2
Vclay inp1)) * (Vclay out2Vclay out1)
else iI (Vclay · (Vclay inp2 ¹ 0.5*(Vclay  Vclay2))) then
Vclay ÷ Vclay out2 ¹ ((VclayVclay out2)/(0.5*(VclayVclay out2)) * (0.5*(1.0  Vclay out2)
else Vclay ÷ (0.5 * (1.0Vclay out2) * Vclay out2) ¹ (vclay0.5*(1.0  Vclay out2))/(1.0  0.5*(1
 Vclay out2))
43
O 5teber 1ţ 2ţ 5 and user defned equatonsť
F&RE 3
Figure 3 shows the curvature oI the user deIined Steiber equation compared with the linear input
Vclay. The blue circle (Vclay50, 0.5) can be displaced at the user's choice to get the Iinal Vclay
along the new line. Figure 2 would calculate A ÷ 2 here above.
The Steiber equation is as Iollows:
Vclay out ÷ Vclay/ (Vclay ¹ A * (1.0  Vclay))
Where:
46
A ÷ 1 Ior Steiber 1
A ÷ 2 Ior Steiber 2
A ÷ 3 Ior Steiber 3
A ÷ any other value when using the User deIined Steiber equation.
The Steiber 50° is the value oI A which can be interactively and graphically selected using Z
Plot shown in Figure 4.
O Larnov Cd kock
Vclay out ÷ (2`(2*Vclay)  1.0) / 3.0
O Larnov 1ertary
Vclay out ÷ 0.083 * ( 2.0` (3.7058 * Vclay)  1.0)
O Caver
Vclay out ÷ 1.7  SQRT(3.38  (Vclay ¹ 0.7)`2)
HodgesLehman 'clay
This averaging is ignored iI EVCL (External Vclay) is used and available in the processed
interval.
Input curv¢s
O 'R
O 'S
O 'SP
O 'N
O 'RT
47
O 'DN
O 'NS
O 'SD
O 'MN
Only the indicators that have been computed and allowed will be used in the averaging.
utput curv¢s
O VCLť
Input param¢t¢rs
O Vcay Iag
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the zone parameter that selects the Clay Flag options. This parameter is at the
very top oI all clay parameters.
Equation
The HodgesLehman average works like this.
O Takes the 5 lowest values oI the 9 clay indicators and calculates 10 average pairs ¹ the 5
lowest clay indicator values.:
O (say: V1 ÷ VDN, V2÷VGR, V3÷VSP, V4÷VS, V5÷VRT will give 15 results as Iollows;
V11÷ (V1¹V1)/2, V12÷V1¹V2)/2 etc ... etc..
O The 15 results are sorted and the middle value is chosen as the Iinal Vclay. (Ior 5
indicators the pair is position 8 is thereIore chosen.)
O Where Iewer than 5 clay indicators are available this method can give pessimistic values
oI Vclay and the modiIied Hodges/Lehman average can give better results.
Example 1:
Only 4 indicators are available:
VGR ÷ 0.10
48
VS ÷ 0.80
VDN ÷ 0.20
V4 ÷ ( VGR ¹ VS) / 2.0 ÷ 0.45
V5 ÷ ( VGR ¹ VDN) / 2.0 ÷ 0.15
V6 ÷ ( VS ¹ VDN) / 2.0 ÷ 0.5
The sorted values are: 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.45, 0.50, 0.8 and the middle value is between 0.2 and 0.45
÷ (0.2¹ 0.45)/2 ÷ 0.325
Example 2: Only 2 indicators used:
VGR ÷ 0.0
VSP ÷ 1.0
V1 ÷ (0.0 ¹ 1.0)/2.0 ÷ 0.5 and the middle value will be Vclay ÷ 0.5
Modified HodgesLehman 'clay
This averaging is ignored iI EVCL (External Vclay) is used and available in the processed
interval.
Input curv¢s
O 'R
O 'S
O 'SP
O 'N
O 'RT
O 'DN
O 'NS
O 'SD
O 'MN
Only the indicators that have been computed and allowed will be used in the averaging.
49
utput curv¢s
O 'CL:
Input param¢t¢rs
O 'clay Flag
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the zone parameter that selects the Clay Flag options. This parameter is at the
very top oI all clay parameters.
Equation
The ModiIied HodgesLehman average works like this.
PreIerred when Iewer than 4 clay indicators are available.
It uses the same concept as the HodgesLehman average to pick the mid point value aIter sorting
all the clay indicators.
With the mid value ÷ X and the minimum indicator ÷ Y
The modiIied Hodges/Lehman weighed reduces this value as Iollows:
Vclay ÷ X  (X  Y/2)/N
Where N ÷ number oI clay indicators (here 3)
It is easy to see that the larger the number oI clay indicators the smaller the second term
becomes.
Example 1:
Only 3 Indicators are available:
VGR ÷ 0.10
30
VS ÷ 0.80
VDN ÷ 0.20
V4 ÷ ( VGR ¹ VS) / 2.0 ÷ 0.45
V5 ÷ ( VGR ¹ VDN) / 2.0 ÷ 0.15
V6 ÷ ( VS ¹ VDN) / 2.0 ÷ 0.5
The sorted values are: 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.45, 0.50, 0.8 and the middle value is between 0.2 and 0.45
X ÷ (0.2 ¹ 0.45) / 2 ÷ 0.325 ÷ HodgesLehman
Vclay ÷ 0.325  (0.325  0.1)/2) / 3 ÷ 0.2875
Example 2:
Only 2 indicators used:
VGR ÷ 0.0
VSP ÷ 1.0
X ÷ (0.0 ¹ 1.0)/2.0 ÷ 0.5
X  (X  Y/2)/N ÷ 0.5  (0.5  0.0)/2 ÷ 0.25.
In the above example the Vclay would still be too high and the Weighed average would work
better.
Weighed Average 'clay
This averaging is ignored iI EVCL (External Vclay) is used and available in the processed
interval.
31
Input curv¢s
O 'R
O 'S
O 'SP
O 'N
O 'RT
O 'DN
O 'NS
O 'SD
O 'MN
Only the indicators that have been computed and allowed will be used in the averaging.
utput curv¢s
O 'CL
Input param¢t¢rs
O 'clay Flag
FIGURE 1
Figure 1 shows the zone parameter that selects the Clay Flag options. This parameter is at the
very top oI all clay parameters.
Equation
O Sort all clay indicators used and take only the three lowest values L ( Low), M (Mid) H
(High) and apply the Iollowing equation:
O Vclay ÷ ( 3*L ¹ 2*M ¹ H)/6 where N ÷ Number oI clay indicator used)
Example 1:
VGR ÷ 0.10
VS ÷ 0.50
32
VDN ÷ 0.20
Vclay ÷ ( 3* 0.1 ¹ 2 * 0.2 ¹ 0.5 ) / 6 ÷ 0.2
Example 2:
VGR ÷ 0.0
VSP ÷ 1.0
Vclay ÷ ( 2* 0.0 ¹ 1.0) /4 ÷ 0.25
This is halI the value that would be calculated using the HodgesLehman Average.
33
ulk Density Determination
Introduction / Procedures / Calculations / Data Sheets / Comments / ReIerences
Introduction
Bulk density is a measure oI the weight oI the
soil per unit volume (g/cc), usually given on an
ovendry (110° C) basis (Iigure 1). Variation in
bulk density is attributable to the relative
proportion and speciIic gravity oI solid organic
and inorganic particles and to the porosity oI
the soil. Most mineral soils have bulk densities
between 1.0 and 2.0. Although bulk densities
are seldom measured, they are important in
quantitative soil studies, and measurement
should be encouraged. Such data are necessary,
Ior example, in calculating soil moisture
movement within a proIile and rates oI clay
Iormation and carbonate accumulation. Even
when two soils are compared qualitatively on
the basis oI their development Ior purposes oI
stratigraphic correlation, more accurate
comparisons can be made on the basis oI total
weight oI clay Iormed Irom 100 g oI parent
material than on percent oI clay alone. To
convert percent to weight per unit volume,
multiply by bulk density (Birkeland, 1984). The
determination usually consists oI drying and
weighing a soil sample, the volume oI which is
known (core method) or must be determined
(clod method and excavation method). These
methods diIIer in the way the soil sample is
obtained and its volume determined.
llaure 1ť SkeLch
of soll sample Lo
show solld
parLlcle and vold
space
dlsLrlbuLlonŦ
ÞarLlcles shown ln
whlLeţ volds ln
blackŦ 1he
mlneral aralns ln manv solls are malnlv quarLz and
feldsparţ so 2Ŧ63 ls an adequaLe averaae mlneral
speclflc aravlLv for Lhe sand fracLlonŦ 8ulk denslLv
and poroslLv are calculaLed as followsť
A diIIerent principle is employed with the radiation method. Transmitted or scattered gamma
radiation is measured; and with suitable calibration, the density oI the combined gaseousliquid
solid components oI a soil mass is determined. Correction is then necessary to remove the
components oI density attributable to liquid and gas that are present. The radiation method is an
in situ method (Blake and Hartge, 1986). Clod and core methods have been used Ior many years.
Excavation methods were developed in recent years, chieIly by soil engineers Ior bituminous and
gravelly material. More recently the excavation method has Iound use in tillage research where
34
surIace soil is oIten too loose to allow core sampling, or where abundant stones preclude the use
oI core samplers. Radiation methods have been used since the 1950's, especially in soil
engineering (Blake and Hartge, 1986). All the earlier mentioned methods have advantages and
disadvantages according to the samples that are available and the sampling method. This method
oI discussion here is the clod method. The bulk density oI clods, or peds, can be calculated Irom
their mass and volume. The volume may be determined by coating a clod oI known weight with
a waterrepellent substance and by weighing it Iirst in air, then agin while immersed in a liquid
oI known density, making use oI Archimedes' principle. The clod or ped must be suIIiciently
stable to cohere during coating, weighing and handling (Blake and Hartge, 1986). The clod
method is applied commonly by pedologists or paleopedologists.
roc¢dur¢
1. Separate 3 peds Irom each sample (make the volume oI each ped ~35cm3) 2. Tie a string
around each ped with thread so that it can hang Ireely Irom a 2" length oI thread with a loop on
the end. 3. Place each ped in a numbered and weighed beaker, recording the sample and beaker
number on the data sheet. 4. Place the beakers containing the peds in the oven and allow them to
dry over night, remove the beakers, cool in the dessicator, weigh the beakers containing the peds,
and record the data (subtracting the weight oI the beaker Irom the combined weight oI the ped
and beaker). 5. Melt a cup oI paraIIin (wax), stabilizing it between 55°  60°. 6. Dip each ped in
the paraIIin and allow to dry, making sure that the ped is entirely sealed. II there are any holes
noticed, dip a rod in the melted wax and apply a drop oI hot wax to patch the hole. Do not redip
the whole ped, because the wax coating will be too thick. 7. Weigh the coated ped without the
beaker and record its weight. 8. Immerse the ped in water and weigh the beaker and ped on a
triple beam balance using a ring stand to hold the beaker oI water positioned iust above the
balance pan. (note: iI bubbles appear on the surIace oI the coated ped and then break Iree and
rise to the surIace, note this on the data sheet by writing "BBL" next to the "submerged weight".
II the ped Iloats, write "Floater" in the space Ior "submerged weight"). 9. Peel the coating oII
each ped and return it to its beaker. Fill each beaker with water so that the peds will get soggy
and Iall apart. 10. Wet sieve the contents oI each beaker through a ~2mm sieve. Discard all but
the ~2mm Iraction. Return portion to the beaker and place in the oven to dry. 11. Weigh the
~2mm contents oI each beaker and record the weights on the data sheet.
Calculations
1. Adiusted dry weight ÷ (dry weight oI the ped)  (dry weight ~2mm Iraction) 2. Weight oI
paraIIin ÷ (weight oI dry ped) ¹ (paraIIin)  (dry weight oI ped) 3. Adiusted immersed weight ÷
(weight oI ped with paraIIin in water) ¹ 0.1 (weight oI paraIIin)  1.65 (weight oI the ~2mm
material/ 2.65)* 4. SpeciIic gravity ÷ (adiusted weight)/ ((adiusted dry weight)(adiusted
immersed weight))
Record the dry weight oI the ped, ped with paraIIin weight, ped with paraIIin in water weight,
and ~2mm weight.
33
*Note: 0.1(ped with paraIin weightdry weight ped) corrects Ior the buoyant Iorce oI the wax
1.65(~2mm weight/2.65) corrects Ior the ~2mm material assuming a density oI 2.65 g/cm3
Ior that material.
Comm¢nts
The clod method typically yields higher bulkdensity values than do other methods (Tisdall,
1951), because it does not take the interclod spaces into account. The method mentioned here
tries to reduce this error by removing the coating oI each ped, thereby weighing each oI the
Iractions. Care should be practiced to get naturally occurring peds. Peds on or near the soil
surIace are likely to be unrepresentative, due to tilling/plowing in agriculturally used soils. Peds
should be sampled at other depths or Irom areas that may not be used Ior agricultural purposes.
Should bubbles appear on the paraIIincovered ped while submerged in water, or iI the weight in
water increases with time, water is penetrating the clod, thereIore the sample must be discarded.
Precision in calculating the bulk density would require a correction Ior the diIIerence oI the
weight oI the wire in air and in water. However, the error is negligible with thread or a 28gauge
wire. In terms oI overall accuracy, the greater number oI samples used Ior each determination
will signiIicantly reduce the standard deviation. II paraIIin is not available, rubber, saran, wax
mixtures, and oils may be substituted (Blake and Hartge, 1986)
R¢f¢r¢nc¢s
Birkeland, P.W., 1984, Soils and Geomorphology: OxIord University Press, New York, p. 1415.
Blake, G.R., and K.H. Hartge, 1986, Bulk Density, in A. Klute, ed., Methods oI Soil Analysis,
Part I. Physical and Mineralogical Methods: Agronomy Monograph no. 9 (2nd ed.), pp. 363375.
Brasher, B.R., D.P. Franzmeier, V. Valassis, and S.E. Davidson, 1966, Use oI saran resin to coat
natural soil clods Ior bulk density and moisture retention measurements: Soil Science v. 101, p.
108.
Tisdall, A.L., 1951, Comparison oI methods oI determining apparent density oI soils, Australian
Journal oI Agricultural Research, v. 2, pp. 349354.
36
1.1: NPH vs RHO "DensityNeutron"
Crossplot
See Crossplot options and operations on Ior more inIormation on the crossplot toolbar options.
All crossplots are Iully interactive. Changing a constant on one crossplot automatically changes
the value in other crossplots and in the zone control Iile. Changing the zone parameter in the
zone control Iile automatically changes the corresponding point on the crossplot.
A constant can be interactively changed on the crossplot by grabbing any oI the points marked
with . To move a point click once on it then move it and click on the new location to position
it.
It is recommended to click on to shown only the aIIected zone parameters leIt oI the crossplot.
MPORTANT: There is a threshold value which is the distance between the wet clay point
perpendicular to the clean line. Petrolog will automatically reiect this cross plot iI the threshold is
below a cut oI value Iixed in the program. This is to avoid obtaining noisy Vclay when the
resolution is too small to be representative.
37
FIGURE 1: DensityNeutronVclay Crossplot
Figure 1 is the deIault presentation oI the DensityNeutronVclay crossplot Ior all models except
Ior the SSS model which has 2 extra points displayed. See SSS below.
The DN crossplot is the most critical cross plot since it is not only used as a clay indicator but
also to compute PHIT and PHIE. The positioning oI the dry and wet clay points are critical.
There are 5 points that are can be modiIied and Irom leIt to right:
O Point 1: (Phinm. Rhoma). This is the clean matrix line. For Sandstone RHOMA should
be set at 2.65. II a Iixed matrix model is used Ior carbonates use the appropriate
38
RHOMA. It is important to note that the RHOMA is not used to compute porosity when
the CPX or CXP No PEF models are used. See Compute Porosity
O Point 2 (Phin2. 2.2) This point is used to position the clean line when calculating the
Vclay Irom DN . See Density Neutron
O Point 3 (. RhoDryCl) This is the dry clay point and only the RHOB dry is needed since
the point must Iall on the line ioining the wet clay point to the 100° point outside the
chart. The Dry clay point is critical in calculating PHIT and since logs do not ever record
dry clay since it does not exist in nature, this point must be determined Irom core
measurements in a laboratory. Most companies take cores in sands with limited clay
content and the clays within a sand do not necessarily have the same properties as the
adiacent shales. Errors in PHIT can be expected in high Vclay iI insuIIicient core results
are available.
O Point 4 (PhinMax. ) This set a PHImax cut oII to limit the porosity calculated See
Compute Porosity The Neutron point value is calculated automatically so that the lines
Iall on the appropriate Neutron chart used. It is diIIerent Ior diIIerent logging companies
and Neutron tools.
O Point 5 (Phinc. Rhobc) This is the wet clay point use both in the determination oI Vclay
Irom DN, DS and SN and also in computing PHIE and PHIT see Compute Porosity
When changing the wet clay point the M clay and N clay values are automatically
recomputed see 1.4: MFACT vs. NFACT Phinc is also used in calculating VN. See
Neutron
39
F&RE 2: Density Neutron Crossplot with SSS model on
The 5 points described above are complemented by two new points.
O Point 6 (PhinSilt. RhobSilt) This point is used in the Vsilt calculation see Compute
Lithology and the Porosity determination. See Compute Porosity
O Point 7 (PhinSand. RhobSand) This point is used in the Vsilt calculation see Compute
Lithology and the Porosity determination. See Compute Porosity
60
The SSS model has other applications than only computing the Silt. Regardless oI the position oI
the Silt point, the porosity oI the silt point uses RHOMA Ior determining PHI silt. PhiSilt is
automatically calculated and changed in the zone control Iile shown in Iigure 3. However, the
user can manually change the value oI PhiSilt Ior speciIic applications.
Example: The presence oI heavy minerals like pyrite nodes will aIIect almost exclusively the
density log and the points will Iall downward towards an apparent silt point. Correspondingly,
the calculated porosity will be pessimistic. One solution is to increase the value oI PhiSilt so that
the porosity remains high even iI RHOB increases and Iall to 2.65 or higher.
F&RE 3: DN crossplot zone parameters
Changing the values in Figure 3 will move the points in Figure 2 and vice versa.
61
The Bad Hole Display Ilag is normally oII and only the DN points that are in good hole
conditions are plotted when OII.
The PHIN matrix is set so that the clean line Ialls parallel to the sandstone line where porosity is
above 15°. This value is negative to compensate Ior the Neutron log nonlinear sandstone
response in lower porosity readings and may be diIIerent depending on the Neutron tool used.
PHIN matrix is used only Ior the DensityNeutron clay indicator and it is not used Ior any other
purpose.
IMRTANT NTE about tb¢ ¢nsityN¢utron log
The densityNeutron log is probably the best tool to help the Petrophysicist identiIy the type oI
Iormation or lithologies oI a given zone. The appearance oI this cross plot is very useIul and here
are some useIul indicators:
O Points Iall in a relatively straight line Irom the clean sandstone line to the wed clay
points: This is typical oI a laminated clay sequence.
O Points Ialls downward towards the dry clay point. This is typical oI a dispersed clay
sequence.
O Points Ialls along the sandstone line then towards the wet clay point. This is typical oI a
SiltyShalySand model.
The distribution pattern or the direction oI the clay points are also aIIected by the clay type and
many clay types are listed by name in Iigure 1. The density value Ior most clay types are
reasonably constant and in the general direction shown in Figure 1. On the other hand, the
Neutron response to a clay type can vary enormously since it is directly dependant on the amount
oI dewatering a clay has been subiected to.
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