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NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN QUANTITY SURVEYING
TENDERING AND ESTIMATING II
COURSE CODE: QUS 210
YEAR 2- SE MESTER 2 THEORY
Version 1: December 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WEEK 1: 1.0 PRICING OF PRELIMINARIES I 1.1 What are Preliminary Items? 1.2 Estimating for Typical Preliminary Items
WEEK 2: 2.0 PRICING OF PRELIMINARIES II
WEEK 3: 3.0 PRELIMINARIES ANALYSIS WORKSHOP 3.1 Preliminary Bill 3.2 Class Workshop
WEEK 4: 4.0 PREPARATION OF TENDER 4.1 Decision to Tender 4.2 Collection of Information 4.3 Enquiries and Quotations 4.4 Visit to Site 4.5 Visit to Consultants Offices 4.6 Receipt of quotations 4.7 Planning and Mid Tender Review 4.8 Preparation Of The Estimate 4.9 Final Review 4.10 Action after Submitting a Tender 4.10.1 Action with a successful tender 4.10.2 Action with an Unsuccessful Tender 4.11 Factors in Pricing General and Special Attendance on Subcontractors
WEEK 5: 5.0 MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING TENDER PRICE 5.1 Factors Affecting Tender Price
WEEK 6: 6.0 PRICIPLES OF ANALYTICAL ESTIMATING 6.1 Elements of a Unit Rate 6.2 Calculation of Unit Rates 6.2.1 Materials 6.2.2 Plant 6.2.3 Overheads 6.2.4 Profit
WEEK 7: 7.0 BUILD-UP HOURLY RATE FOR PLANT & EQUIPMENT 7.1 Calculation of Unit Rates 7.2 Groundworks 7.2.1 Hand Excavation 7.3 Excavation using Mechanical Plant 7.4 Banksmen 7.5 Disposal of Excavated Material 7.6 Earthwork Support
WEEK 8: 8.0 BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR SURFACE EXCAVATION 8.1 Surface Excavation 8.2 Removal of Excavated Materials
WEEK 9: 9.0 BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR CONCRETE WORK I 9.1 Concrete Work 9.2 Reinforcement 9.3 Guide to Using this Student Learning Pack 9.4 Concrete Works 9.4.1 Site Mixed Concrete 9.4.2 Ready Mixed Concrete 9.5 Concrete Reinforcement
WEEK 10: 3
0 BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR CONCRETE WORK II 9.0 BUILD UP UNIT RATES FOR REINFORCEMENT 11.6.1 Guide to Using this Student Learning Pack 14.1 Roofing WEEK 14: 14.2 Ready-Mixed Concrete 9.0 BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR ROOFING 13.0 BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR FORMWORK 12.6.6 Concrete Work 9.1 Site Mixed Concrete 9.10.0 PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR TUTORIAL CLASS 15.0 BUILD UP UNIT RATE FOR MASONRY 14.7 Reinforcement WEEK 11: 11.8 Concrete Work 9.1 Bar Reinforcement WEEK 12: 12.1 Questions 4 .2 Masonry works 14.3 Fact and Figures WEEK 15: 15.1 Formwork WEEK 13: 13.
clerks.2 Estimating for Typical Preliminary Items (1) Site Supervision: These include the salaries and allowances paid to the site agent or engineer and the administrative staff on the site such as cashiers.500 = 20. It will be pipe bone water readily available on site or water has to be transported to site on trucks.000 5 = 10. store controllers etc. Many estimators prefers to inserts a lump sum for all the preliminaries usually worked out as a percentage of the total of the measured works.000 11.g site agent salary / month Housing allowance Transport allowance = Cashier Salary / month Housing allowance Transport = = = 5.0) 1.000 . It is good practice however to put a price to each of the item.000 = 11. when this staff are sent aways from the area in which they normally work and this necessitate them having to leave away from their usual place of residence for a period of time a subsistence allowance may have to be added to cover the additional expenses they will incure e.000 = 2.1 What are Preliminary Items? Preliminary items are items of cost which do not relate to any particular work section and usually listed in the first bill of quantities.500 8.000 2.Course: Tendering and Estimating II Course Code: QUS 210 Contact Hours: 2hrs Course Specification: Theoretical Content General Objective for Week 1: Appreciate the Build-up for Preliminary Items WEEK 1: PRICING OF PRELIMINARIES I (1.000 4.g water for the works. 1.500 20. material checkers. The price quoted should read at after careful consideration of each item as it applies to the particular job at hand e. time keepers.
600 6. = = = 752.600 Pricing for these must cover the cost of: 6 .600 1.500 1.T.200 206. shed for materials.034.000 = 2.600 = 6.600 1.800 1.500 1.000/month = = = 3.000 Add 10% for insurance and I.000 800 500 2300 Contract duration 12 month Add 1 month before project and Add 3 months for defect liability period Total month 16 16 months x 47.F Add 25% for profit and overhead (2) Site Accommodation The contractor is usually expected to provide and maintain temporary site accommodation for (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Supervising consultant on site Site agent and site staff Hut for workmen Storage.Clerk Salary / month Housing Transport Store controller Salary / month Housing Transport Messenger Salary / month Salary / month Housing Transport = = = 1.000 75.600 = = = 3.200 827.300 47.500 6. tools etc.500 6.
lift. The usual thing is to allow for (a) cost of transporting plant to site (b) Hire rate for the period plant is on site (c) Cost of maintenance on site (d) Profit and overhead 7 30. tractor.5m2 54. dumpers.5m2 60.5m2 7. drills.500 Less resale value of items (about 27%) 149. the contractor is expected to allow for this items whether they are purchased specifically for the project or they are already owned by the firm or they are to be hired for the period they are required on the project.5m2 7.5m2 7. hoist.000 N400. generating set.000 Demolish and cart away from site including making good @ 500/m2 x 61m2 = (3) Mechanical Plant This include all mechanical plant not allocated to unit rate such as cranes.000 .(a) Initial construction of accommodation (b) Removal on completion and making good ground disturbed (c) Maintenance of accommodation throughout duration of the project (d) Furniture including ventilation and air conditioning (e) Overhead and profit from these estimator must remove the resale value of items are still useable at the end of the projects e.g Site office Initial construction cost Architect office Engineer office Quantity Surveying Site agent General office Contractor’s room Rest room Circulation space 10% 7.5m2 61m2 61m2 at 9.000 = 549.5m2 10m2 12m2 2. forklift etc.5m2 55m2 5.
plumb lines. Whatever they may be. that are associated with a particular trade are not aloe for. in pricing consideration is usually given to the following. here. the contractor may purchase scaffolding for use in the work. plumb level. If the project is large enough to used up small tools such as paint brushes. (4) Scaffolding The total height and the type of construction determined the amount and type of scaffolding required for a project. sand papers etc. guage etc. wheel barrows. paint brushes etc. portable drills.(3) Tools This include items such as shovels. They are usually taken care of in the tool allowance included in the all in-labour rate for such fields. smaller tools such as hammer. (a) Hire rate for the duration of the project (b) Labour cost for erecting scaffolding on site (c) Labour cost for adopting scaffolding for special uses (d) Labour cost for dismantling scaffolding at the end of the project (e) Transportation cost for bringing to site and removing from site all scaffolding (f) Profit and overhead 8 . batch boxes. then the cost of such are included in the unit rate for the items that required their use in pricing consideration is given to the cost of purchasing of the tools less their resale value. trowel.
000/day Based on these allowances total quantity of water can be estimated for the whole project and priced at prevailing water tanker rate for that areas. Therefore no need to estimate approximately (v) Cost of disconnection. overhead tank. water pipes and water pumps. certain allowance can be made for concrete work 480 liters/m3 For Block work Rendering Workman hut Site accommodation 350 liters/m2 30 liters/m2 2000/day 20.WEEK 2: PRICING OF PRELIMINARIES II (6) Water For The Work Water required for the project is provided in either of the two ways supply by water tankers if the site is far from a source or pipe bone water. (b) Cost of cleaning and maintaining tanks. removal of pipe and making good defect (vi) Overhead and profit 9 . pipe work and its pumps. (c) Cost of removal of water storage and temporary pipe work and making good ground disturbed (d) Overheads and profits (a) Pipe Bone Water: Pricing will include (i) Cost of water connection by water board (ii) Cost of labour and material for laying pipes (iii)Cost of temporary storage (iv) Water rate are usually charged as flat rate per plot. It may be necessary to write out an approximate estimate of the quantity of water required for the project from previous project. Cost of Temporary Storage: This include (a) Cost of labour and materials in constructing surface tank. In pricing consideration is given the following: If the site is far from the source: Cost of water supply by water tanker.
pricing will include Temporary Road In certain building and civil engineering construction. temporary road have to be constructed from the existing road to the site in order to get access to and make possible the distribution of materials to various part of the site. gravel (d) Cost of maintaining the road for the duration of the project (e) Cost of removal of temporary road if not required at completion of all works on site and making good ground disturbed (f) Overhead and profits (9) Temporary Telephone If the project requires the telephone.(7) Lighting and Power for Work As in the case of water. blinding. pricing will include (a) Cost of telephone installation by telephone organization in this case NITEL (b) Cost of telephone bills 10 . removal and making good Cost of transporting generating set to site and removal on completion of project. the constructor must arrange for telephone communication to be installed on site for easy communication for the duration of the contract. Overhead and profit Cost of connection to the electrical authority Cost of cables. wiring and light fittings Cost of running and maintaining generating set for duration of project Cost of labour and materials for constructing temporary sheds for generators Cost of dismantling shed. Temporary road may also be required is first worked and priced with the following considerations (a) Cost of labour during clearing the road (b) Cost of excavation either by hand or by mechanical plant (c) Cost of labour and materials in laying laterite. pricing will include (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (8) cost of hiring generating set for the duration of the project. wiring and light fittings Cost of electricity bills Cost of disconnection on completion of project Cost of hiring a standby generator in case of electricity failure Overhead and profit (b) Electrical supply from electrical authority mains. Cost of cables. provision of power is effected in either of two ways (a) Power generating set: If site is far from existing mains.
cable sewers. (c) Providing a nurse or medical attendant (d) Maintaining first aid box (e) Removal (f) Protective clothing such as overall.(c) Cost of maintenance (d) Cost of disconnection\ (e) Overhead and profit (10) Control of Traffic and the Additional Cost Reconstruction and repairing of existing road. diversions and access to adjoining houses. (b) The provision of access road to adjoining houses. shops. garage etc. element. bandages etc. may become necessary. lying sewers. fire fighting equipment (h) Overhead and profit 11 . antiseptics. nose mask. face mask. water mains etc. shops etc. (c) Additional cost of work on existing road where traffic is involved (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (11) Cost of delays to progress of work due to traffic and congestion The presence of existing water mains. boot eye shield (industrial goggle) (g) Safety equipment such as hose. Watching and lighting the work Overhead and profit Welfare and Safety of Work People This will comprise the cost of (a) First aid box (b) Drugs. ear plug. in existing roads and construction works in congested areas may create the necessity for closing part of some road temporarily to traffic. The following should be given consideration (a) control of traffic which involves (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cost of speed breakers Cost of constructing barriers Cost of red flags Cost of labour flagging traffic Cost of providing diversion Cost of removal of sign board to adjoining house. shops. culverts etc. garages etc (i) Cost of labour and materials to provide pedestrian and vehicular access to shops. cars and park etc. houses. In such cases the provision of one way traffic control.
(12) Temporary Fencing. (d) Wages for workmen (e) Hiring of watch dogs (f) Removal of sheds and lightening on completion of project and making good ground disturbed (g) Overhead and profit (14) Removing Rubbish and Site Clearance on Completion of Project. templates and ropes or line (b) Hiring of theodolite. lorry and labour loading such lorry transporting the rubbish from site (c) Labour and materials cleaning up door. (b) Plant. Fans Gantries and Similar Items. Screeds. Each will comprise the cost of (a) Labour and materials (b) Maintenance (c) Removal and making good (d) Overhead and profit (13) SITE SECURITY: This will comprise (a) Cost of labour and materials to construct temporary security shed post (b) Labour and materials to installed security lighting. (d) Overhead and profit (15) Site Meeting: this will Comprise the Cost of: (a) Provision of stationeries at each meeting (b) Provision of refreshment at each meeting (c) Wages of attendant (d) Overhead and profit (16) Setting out of the Work: this will comprise the cost of (a) Pegs. Hoardings. stationeries. This involves the cost of (a) Labour and materials clearing off such rubbish. precise level and other survey equipment (c) Bringing to site and removing from site all the above name equipment 12 . intruder alarms (c) Furniture. windows etc.D card etc. tags. I.
(d) Fees for engineer and the assign team (e) Overhead and profit 13 .
conditions imposed by the employer etc.1 Preliminary Bill The preliminaries bill gives the contractors the opportunity to price overheads which is described in the Code of Estimating Practice as “the cost of administering a project and providing general plant. A contractor must calculate the cost of the preliminary items separately for each contract. site staff. SMM7 recommends that fixed and time-related charges should be identified separately in a bill of quantities. 3.2 Class Workshop The appendix below is a summary of the bill for the case study project. 14 . Procedures: The work book will be made available to students at the beginning of the lecture.WEEK 3: PRELIMINARIES ANALYSIS WORKSHOP (3. Students will then be asked to sit in groups of between 3 and 4 to discuss their understanding and set up query list on the project. each group will be required to use the preliminaries breakdown form to identify percentage allocation of each preliminary item across the table and to provide justification for the allocation on each item. On relatively simple contracts preliminary costs may be in the order of 10 – 15% of the contract sum whereas on complex contracts this figure could be much higher. size of contract. facilities and site based services and other items not included in bill rates. After about 30 minutes. no two contracts are the same. Time will be allowed for students to read and comprehend the notes. Students will be expected to appreciate and be able to work out how preliminary items in the bill are priced and distributed between time or cost related and fixed charges for the purpose of monthly valuations. Preliminaries costs vary from contract to contract depending on complexity of work.0) 3. A fixed charge is defined as “the cost of work which can be considered as being independent of duration” A time-related charge is defined as “the cost of work which is to be considered as dependant on duration”. specialist plant and equipment required.
00 400.00 950.082.00 500. 1 Bill No.200.00 400.401.250.19 15 .028.000.00 1.00 500.00 1.Appendix 1 attached shows the tender submission details and actual progress achieved on site for monthly valuation purposes on a typical construction project.00 1.00 2.16 6.00 Temporary Lighting & Power Programme Watching Site Hoarding Temporary Roads Setting Out Drying the Works Cleaning Away Rubbish Water for the Works Insurance Against Injury to Person and Property Total Bill No.800. APPENDIX 1 Bill No.017.00 £30.00 1.33 9. Preliminaries A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q Supervision Plant Scaffolding Welfare Facilities Site Huts Site Telephones TENDER SUBMISSION DETAILS £ 14.16 1. 3 External Works A B C D E Soiling and Seeding Paths and Pavings Retaining and Screen Walls Drainage Fencing £ 4. (a) Allocate the preliminaries to ‘time related” and “lump sums” sections (Use form Appendix 2).27 2.00 3.00 727.00 200.00 400.100.00 1.000.822.214.171.124.
00 Bill No. 4 Prime Cost Sums Nominated Sub-Contractor A B C D E F Piling Profit General Attendance Specialist Landscaping Profit General attendance 5% Item 5% Item £ 8.642.526.350.14 £184.12 9.16 35.610.316.00 12.00 11.00 600.18 4.150. 3 £ 23.416.13 12.00 900.112.500.14 17.011.16 29.44 18.127.12 14.41 31.216.Total Bill No.00 1.00 425.00 27.00 16 . Wall and Ceiling Finishings Glazing Painting and Decorating £ 1.000.000.516. 2 Measured Work A B C D E F G H J K L Demolition Excavation and Earthwork Concrete Work Brickwork and Blockwork Roofing Woodwork Plumbing and Mechanical Installations Electrical Installations Floor.11 Bill No.200.000.00 170.00 600.526.00 Nominated Suppliers G H J K Kitchen Equipment Profit Sanitary Fittings Profit 5% 5% 18.
400.00 250.00 25.610. 4 5% 5% 5% 5% 1.00 500.00 TOTAL TENDER SUM £325.00 Statutory Undertakings N O P Q R S T U Water Main Connection Profit Gas Main Connection Profit Electrical Main Connection Profit Sewer Connection Profit 5% Total Bill No.11 Bill No. 3 Bill No.00 9.150.00 70.L M Ironmongery Profit 5% 5.00 Tender Summary Bill No.575.050.00 £78. 5 Preliminaries Measured Work External Work Prime Cost and Provisional Sums Daywork 30.00 184. 4 Bill No.000.00 25.00 500.575.028. 1 Bill No.200.11 78.413.00 1.00 23.00 60. 2 Item A complete Item B complete Item C complete Item D complete Item E complete 17 . 2 Bill No.
Accept a quotation of £10122.00 agreed.50 from Keane & Bonney Piling Ltd. 3 Item A 20% complete Item B 20% complete Item C 40% complete Item D 40% complete Bill No.000 Item L £2.000 Item J £6. It was observed that the Piling nominated sub-contractor had erroneously left out the main contractor’s discount in their quotation for the works.600 Item G £8.000. Materials on Site £6.Item F 50% complete Item G 40% complete Item H 40% complete Item J 20% complete Item L 10% complete Bill No.000 Item N complete Item P complete Item R complete Bill No. Effect the necessary corrections before valuation. The following AI’s were received from the Architect in respect of the following Prime Cost and Provisional Sums: 1. 18 .237 agreed. 5 Variations £9. 4 Item A complete Item D £8.
5. Accept a quotation of £27500.2.00 from Smith & Smith for the supply of ironmongery.00 from Kitchen & Sons for the supply of kitchen fittings. Accept a quoation of £19012. 4. 19 . Accept a quoation of £8820. Accept a quoation of £13176. 3.00 from Landson Landscape plc.00 from Loo Ltd for the supply of sanitary fittings.
APPENDIX 2 JCT 80 Breakdown of Preliminary Items Cost Related Supervisor Plant Welfare Site Huts Telephones Temporary Lighting power Programme Watching Site Hoarding Temp Roads Setting Out Drying the works Cleaning Rubbish Water Insurance TOTALS and Time Related Start Finish Lump Sums Total 20 .
21 . GENERAL OBJECTIVE FOR WEEK 4: Know the tendering procedures.Questions: (1) Define prelimiaries and give three examples of a “prelimiary item” (2) How do contractors price these items? (3) Define fixed costs and provide five examples of an item you think would be priced as a fixed cost item (4) Define time related costs and give five examples of preliminary items you think a contractor would price as a time-related cost.
Firm price or fluctuating price tender required Current workload and timetable for project After reviewing the above information. contracts manager etc to determine a preliminary programme. The work which has to be undertaken in a typical 4 week tender period comprises: • • • • • • Despatching enquires Visit consultants offices Visit the site Receipt of quotations and examinations The ‘mechanical’ process of pricing the tender documentation Meetings with plant manager. 6th Edition.0) Reference: CIOB (1997) Code of Estimating Practice. working conditions. 4. conditions of contract. Ascot: CIOB The preparation of a tender can be divided into six stages. If it is decided that a tender should be submitted. If it is decided not to submit a price.2 Collection of Information The time allowed for preparing a tender is always limited. Architect. the estimator must plan the programme very carefully.1 Decision to Tender The tender documents arrive and the estimator records all relevant information such as: • • • • • • • • The time allowed for preparing the tender Drawings available The approximate value and extent of the project The client. construction methods and likely plant requirements.3 Enquiries and Quotations 22 . the tender documents should be returned immediately to the architect/supervising officer. management must decide whether to tender for the project or decline the invitation.WEEK 4: PREPARATION OF TENDER (4. Q. 4. access to site.S and other consultant Value of main contractors own work Project Details eg phased work. 4. the contractor move to the next stage.
attendance etc to be provided by the main contractor Anticipated commencement and completion dates The form of contract and details from the appendix The terms of payment Date by which the quotation is to be submitted Address and details of the site 4. egress and possible site layouts 23 . specifications and if possible copies of drawings.4 Visit to Site The visit to site can be made after all enquires have been despatched and before prices begin to come back. materials. Enquires should state clearly: • • • • • • • • • The items to be priced The terms of the main contract The period for which the quotation is open for acceptance The plant.Suppliers Enquires should state: • • • • • • • The specification of the material The quantity required The anticipated delivery dates The terms upon which the price is required The date by which the quotation is required The address of the site and access details Period for which the quotation is open for acceptance Sub-contractors Photocopies of the relevant parts of the bill of quantities. The visit to the site will enable the estimator to produce a report giving the following information: • • • • The position of the site in relation to roads etc Names of local and statutory authorities Details of site/ground conditions. should be sent out to perspective sub-contractors. spot items etc Site access.
8 Preparation Of The Estimate It can be divided into 4 stages: 1. terms etc 4.9 Final Review 24 .7 Planning and Mid Tender Review The project is discussed with other managers to determine a preliminary programme.• Facilities for disposal of surplus excavated materials etc 4. construction methods. 4. the estimator may require further details of manufactured joinery. services. 2. The establishment of all-in rates for key items i.6 Receipt of quotations Prices received from sub-contractors and suppliers are examined for sufficiency. steelwork joinery fittings etc.5 Visit to Consultants Offices It may be that only drawings showing plans and elevations will be sent out with the tender documents and that further details and working drawings can be examined at the consultants’ offices e. Sufficient plant is already owned or is it necessary to purchase/hire additional items.g. labour. It would be desirable to sub-let any further work. before these sections can be priced accurately. site layouts and what other plant. It must be decided whether: • • • • • • • All labour can be obtained locally or will it be necessary to recruit for the project. sequence of work. labour and site staff are required. gang costs. The selection of domestic sub-contractors and suppliers 3. Contract starting and completion dates Any work to be done in stages Work to be sub-let by main contractor Work to be done by nominated sub-contactors (if JCT 98 form) The preliminary programme should also be prepared containing the following information: 4. The use of these ‘all-in’ rates together with costs per unit for materials to calculate unit rates for each item in the bill 4.e. plant costs etc. The pricing of the preliminaries and project overheads 4.
risk and scope for profitability the ‘mark up’ is determined and the actual tender figures calculated. the costs at that time should be compared with a meaningful valuation of work done in order to check that the job is ‘on target’ 25 . 4.10 Action after Submitting a Tender 4. penalties etc are the same as those contained in the tender documents The bills have been copied correctly from the original The drawings are those which were circulated with the tender documents Disseminate information Information should be made available to those responsible for purchasing. construction planning and plant.The consideration of the estimate to produce a tender is the responsibility of management. Following evaluation of the alternatives.10. The estimator and other senior staff will prepare reports for consideration by management who will consider the following items before determining the tender figure. A record of all tenders should be kept together will the results (if known) for future reference. The decision being made within the framework of company policy. to be kept for future pricing Cost/Value Reconciliation At regular intervals during the construction period. • • • • • • • • • • Project reports Conditions of contract Contractual and construction risks Terms of the quotations from sub-contractors Capital required for the project Technical and management staff required Current workload Market Conditions Competition Reputations of client.1 Action with a successful tender Check contract documents to ensure that: • • • The dates. consultants and area. Feedback information Feedback from site on labour and plant outputs etc.
protection of adjoining buildings and the public and restrictions on the use of mechanical plant. the provably length of haul in the disposal of surplus soil also needs consideration. grubbing up and disposal of their roots.2 Action with an Unsuccessful Tender It the tender has been unsuccessful the contractor must assess why this is the case. Most buildings requires constant floor levels and this will involve considerable excavation and fill on its slopping site. materials and other cost. (4) Ground conditions: Where the strata is low load bearing capacity. Suppliers and sub-contractors should be notified of results as soon as possible. Factors in Pricing General and Special Attendance on Subcontractors Each site has its own peculiar characteristics which can have considerable influence on the total cost of development. the steeping of strip foundation increase their cost. Some of the more important factors are: (1) Location of site: .Due to higher wastages. Some parts of the areas are subject to higher rainfall than others and this can lead to a greater loss of working time even within the same region. The cost of excavation in rock could be five to eight times as expensive as working in normal ground. (2) Demolition site clearance: A site may contain buildings which requires demolition. A project on a remote country site may involve long length of temporary access road and temporary power cable for electricity supplies and increase cost of transporting operatives and materials and components. Some locations may be more vulnerable to vandalism and theft and so require more costly protective measures. Where ground water is close to the surface of the site. A wet site may also involve raising temporary sheds and offices on brick bases and more costly temporary 26 .10. It may be necessary to introduce pile or other more expensive types of foundation. costly pumping operations may be needed. a very expose site may make working conditions more difficult and costly. Raft foundations on made up ground or in areas liable to mining subsidence may be three trust as expensive as normal strip foundations where as pile foundation used to convey loads to a deeper load bearing strata could be as much as five times as expensive. Taking these problems will incure additional cost. the cost of operating on different sites can vary widely. Furthermore. another site may be cleaned of all obstruction. the more greater will be the cost of foundation and earthwork. Records of tenders submitted must be kept and estimators must evaluate their performance. paved areas which requires breaking up and trees which requires felling. The most steeply slopping. (3) Contours: Few sites are entirely level.4. it is expensive to erect a similar building in an urban area than in a provincial setting.
roads. The types of strata will also influence the form and extent of timbering or other means of supporting that will be needed to the sides of excavations. 27 . GENERAL OBJECTIVE FOR WEEK 5: Know factors affecting tender figures.
materials will be cheaper than where they are not so available. It depends on the point of view let us say you are a contractor. The base cost of construction therefore comprises of expenditure on materials. labour and plant. inconveniences allowances etc. materials are cheaper where they are produced e.g if you can buy cement directly from Ashaka. it may be necessary to import from an area where such labour is available. the price will be a lot cheaper than in Kaduna because of transportation and profit margins of middlemen and so on. Imported materials for similar reasons are more expensive than locally produced materials. your costs are your expenditure on labour. (2) Availability of Materials: When required materials are readily available in an area where a project is to be executed. contractors are anxious to out bid themselves so as to stay in business. materials and plant. 28 . but to these are also a variety of factors that affect this basic cost: - 5. (3) Availability Of Labour: Where a certain type of labour is not readily available in the area where a project is to be constructed. When the market is burying with many project. these add to the cost of construction. so construction cost tends to be lower. Some inducement may have to be offered before such labour will move from its base such as transportation. Generally. the quantities of materials. Most consultants are busy and competition is not keen.1 Factors Affecting Tender Price (1) Market Condition: The volume of work in progress in the area at a given point in time affect construction cost. However during ausle times when there are few projects. The client’s cost of land. accommodation. consultant fees and so on. tender price list are generally high.WEEK 5: MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING TENDER PRICE (5.0) “Construction cost” is a broad phrase or term and can be interpreted to mean cost of any sort to anyone associated with construction work. labour and plant required for a job are determined & attaching prices to these defines the basic construction cost.
there may be time to apply remedial action. existence of buried pipes and cables may involve major cost to re-root such. Also. The ground water level when close to surface will involve costly water pumping operation. the more expensive will be the construction cost e. Incentives scheme may have to be introduced to increase labour productivity. labour and plants to the airport site will increase the cost of construction. (5) Location: The standard of living in an area affects the cost of construction. the additional cost of transporting materials. (6) Location of Site: The particular location of the site can have significant effect on cost. The nature of ground may necessitate more complex form of foundation. a project may need to be completed in a very short time. It is also more difficult to work at such height. this tends to push up construction cost. Labour charges for 29 . (7) Time Consideration: For certain reasons. Labourers may be required to work overtime and overtime rates are usually higher than normal rates. all these will increase the cost of construction. (8) Site Condition: May affect the construction cost of a particular building. protection of adjoining buildings and the public. Steeply sloping site may involve major cost in cutting and filling requirements.g the same building to be constructed in Barnawa and also near Kaduna Airport will cost differently. a site in a congested or restricted area also gives rise to major problems such as delivery & storage of materials and components. Kaduna or Enugu. the longer it takes and more difficult it is to get the point of execution of works. Remote site may require additional cost for the provision or access roads and temporary services or the provision of additional security measures. A wet site may involve rising temporary sheds and offices above ground level and they involve more costly temporary roads.(4) Transportation: The farther a site is from town. restriction on the use of mechanical plants and so on. Closure supervision is necessary as mistake must be avoided. (9) Total Height of Building: The higher a building is. People are willing to pay higher prices for construction in places like Lagos and Abuja than are to pay in other places like Benin.
They usually carry little general overhead and keep very few permanent staff Medium contractors usually have a board of at least two but not more than five directors they employ a few more permanent staff. the higher their cost. (11) Class of Contractors: There are various types of contractors in the market. fiscal policies such as exchange rates. The rates for the small contractors therefore tends to be much lower than for large contractors (e. Small contractors comprises of one man board of directors. to decide which are likely to affect construction cost and how. Also. import restrictions and duties.N. Large contractors have a lot of times publicly owned with many share holders having at least six members on their board of directors. labour policies. hoist. Generally.C when a contract is carried out) (13) Types of Consultants: 30 . fleet of cars and equipments. Some clients are willing to and are capable of paying more for construction than others.g AG Ferrero and small firms) (12) Type of Client: the type of client or developer can affect the cost of construction. some clients have methods to be taken into consideration while estimating construction cost (e. the level of profit expected by the share holder of larger firms is a lot more than that required by the smaller contractors. there is also the cost of providing additional safety measures and insurance. elevators etc.working at great height are higher than abnormal height. the larger the firm. Also. Also. will tend to increase the cost of very tall building over the cost of building requiring the same quantities at ground level.L will pay on time than N. large office space and a lot of staffs of various discipline.P. the need for special scaffolding. (10) Legislation: Has a way of affecting construction cost in dramatics manner as we have seen in Nigeria over the years e.N. have a reasonable office and possess some equipment and official cars.T. an estimator need to keep an eye on legislation.g U. interest rates etc.g minimum wage. These gives rise to different classification. tower crane. in for costing construction cost.
their initial designs are not detailed and they rely a lot on instructions on site. GENERAL OBJECTIVE FOR WEEK 6: Use rate analysis to price items in the bill of quantities. Many variations occur and delays are frequent. These will add to the cost of construction.- Architect: . (14) Types of Tendering: Open tendering generally brings lower prices than selective tendering.Some architects are very difficult to work with. Contractors are therefore known to increase their prices by a certain percentage when it is known that they would be working with particular consultant. 31 . The same applies to Engineers and other designers. and this in turn result in lower price than negotiated tendering which brings the highest price of fall.
The production of an estimate normally involves the calculation of unit rates i.1 Elements of a Unit Rate To analyse something is to break it down into its constituent parts and study each part in detail. Labour Materials Plant Unit Rate Overheads Profit 6. Analytical estimating is therefore the most accurate form of estimating as each resource and unit rate is analysed and costed individually.0) 6. specifications and drawings or where the contractor has measured and prepared their own quantities of work. As found in a Bill of Quantities. Therefore analytical estimating involves the analysis and costing of construction resources to produce an estimate.2 Calculation of Unit Rates Unit Rates maybe calculated in one of two ways: • • Net Rate – (Excludes Overheads and Profit) Gross Rate – (Includes Overheads and Profit) 32 .WEEK 6: PRICIPLES OF ANALYTICAL ESTIMATING (6. This form of estimating is used for pricing contracts with bills of quantities. a cubic metre of concrete or a metre of skirting.e. the cost of an individual measured item for example a square metre of brickwork.
In our industry most estimators will calculate costs based on net rates these will then be enhanced later to include overheads and profit. weekly or piecework basis. 6. In-Direct – These workers are self employed or referred to in industry as ‘on the lump’ these are often labour only sub-contractors without the normal costs of employment along with the other legal protections such as redundancy. The Resources which compromise a unit rate are labour. 2. daily. Gross rates are sometimes referred to as allin rates. In the construction industry labour is often employed in two main ways.2 Plant 33 . in addition to the actual cost of the material the estimator must also consider: • • • • Transportation costs Unloading and Stacking costs Materials movement on site Extra Materials to compensate for: o Wastage o Allowance for materials being measured net in B o Q o Loss in consolidation.2. the employer pays all the costs of employment including for example national insurance and sick pay amongst others. Directly employed operatives are usually paid in accordance with a working rule agreement which will specify the rates and allowances to be paid. Labour may be paid for on an hourly.2.1 Materials Several factors affect the cost contractors pay for materials. In the box below highlight the factors you think impact on the price a contractor pays. In the material element of a unit rate. materials and plant. these are: 1. Ultimately the actual rates paid for labour will depend on market forces. However. sick pay and minimum notice periods. shrinkage etc Note: Where prices of materials are described by suppliers as ‘ex works’ this means the price at the factory and delivery costs will have to be added. 6. some contractors are trying to move away from the national wage bargaining and introduce local wage rates. Direct – Often referred to as ‘cards in’.
gas. scaffolding. costed and included in the contract sum.g. as a lump sum in the preliminaries bill or. hire or lease plant. hosepipes.Plant may be divided into two main categories. site office costs. office equipment. lorries. 34 . The cost of these items is expressed as a percentage of a company’s turnover and included in the tender. dumpers. the costs of which can be allocated to contracts in differing ways. postage. expenses. The costs of these items are included in the tender. let alone to a specific unit rate e. electricity. more accurately. water. mixers etc require a more complex approach. spades. maintenance of buildings and equipment etc. rents. hire or lease mechanical plant. a wheelbarrow may be used on several contracts in its lifetime. The purchase of plant must be viewed as an investment on which a return is required. on longer contracts a list of non-mechanical plant items is prepared. telephones. storage facilities and other preliminary / site organisation costs. Non-Mechanical Plant Basic items of plant including – barrows. trestles.3 Overheads Overheads may be defined as the cost of maintaining (running) the contractors organisation. Only detailed analysis will show whether it is in the contractor’s interest to buy. rates. (2) Project or Site Project site costs including non – productive (manual) site staff. Items are priced as individual items and may be fixed or time related costs or a mix of fixed and time related costs. Mechanical Plant Mechanical plant such as excavators. 6. small powered hand tools etc With the exception of scaffolding and one or two other items it is virtually impossible to allocate the cost of non-mechanical plant items to a contract. Contractors may buy. Mechanical plant can be very expensive. The cost may be included in overhead charges as a percentage.2. There are two types of overheads: (1) Head Office Annual cost of staff salaries. insurance.
However. 35 .4 Profit The amount of profit that a contractor can make is determined by a number of factors largely outside the remit of an estimator. Explain the difference between net and gross unit rates 3. or may have to make commercial decisions regarding profit margins. In both cases they may be party to. Define non-productive time and holiday credits. which produce working rule agreements 5. Student Questions 1. Define analytical estimating 2. Factors affecting profit levels are: • • • • • • Market forces of supply and demand Amount of competition Who the competitor are Size / Value of contract Risk involved in contract Interest rates. List the elements of a unit rate 4.2. in larger companies the senior or managing estimator may be a member of the management team and in smaller companies / firms the estimator may be a director or the managing director. Identify the organisations.6.
clay. soil. or other similar price book.2. rock Depth of excavation Ground water Time of year when excavating Mechanical or hand excavation Distance and availability of tips Estimated bulking of materials 7.94 hours/m3 36 .g. Materials and plant prices can be obtained from builders' merchants and plant hire firms. basements Ground conditions e. depth 2. In the following unit rate calculations the hourly labour rates used are £9.50 for craft operatives and £7.0) 7.1 Calculation of Unit Rates The following sections cover the calculation of unit rates. You may use the Wessex Price Book. but you must think carefully about each element and calculation before commencing. depth 1. pits. 7.00m 3.00 for labour operatives. The process of calculating unit rates could be described as “mechanical” because you must consider each of the unit rate elements in turn. In practice estimators must always use productivity outputs analysed from site feedback and the current cost o f other resourcs.25 hours/m3 3. trenches.15 hours/m3 3. for information on the output/productivity of labour and plant.1 Hand Excavation Excavation work is usually measured in cubic metres (m3) Typical labour outputs for excavating in firm earth . sand.25m Trenches max. Some rates may include all elements.WEEK 7: BUILD-UP HOURLY RATE FOR PLANT & EQUIPMENT (7.00m Basements max.2 Groundworks SAQ 2 Explain how the following factors may affect unit rates for groundworks? • • • • • • • • Type of excavation e.g. others only one. Reduce levels maximum depth 0.
Labour.75 --------22 . unit of measure m3 2. Excavate to reduce levels max.03 ====== 22 .ADD the following factors for other ground conditions .2. depth 0.28 ---------25 . depth 2.25 hours for a labourer @ 7. Ditto basements max. say 10% Gross Unit Rate per m3 2 .3 Calculate net unit rates for the following .25m in firm earth.75 TQs 1 . Ditto to reduce levels depth 0. unit of measurement m3.00m in firm earth. 1.25m in compact gravel unit of measure m2 (square metres) 7.2 Mechanical Excavation 37 .p 3.00m in dry clay unit of measure m3 3. £ .00/hour Net Rate per m3 If you want a Gross Rate add for overheads and profit. Dry or wet clay Compact gravel Rock not requiring a compressor Running silt or sand 20% 50% 75% 100% Example Excavate trench maximum depth 1.
Rates for different types of mechanical plant vary enormously between contractors depending on the method used to calculate the costs. This method is neither the simplest nor most complex method which can be used but it does produce realistic costs. When calculating “all-in” hourly rates for mechanical plant the following items should be considered . • • • • • • • • • • • Capital cost Depreciation Interest on capital Expected life of plant Number of hours worked per annum Maintenance Insurance Road licence Operators wage Fuel Lubricants Think about how the above factors will affect the hourly cost of mechanical plant.000 6% compound 5 years 1600 10% of capital cost per annum included in company overheads £200 per annum £7-50 per hour 38 .000 £6. Capital cost (purchase price) Residual Value (resale/scrap value) Interest on capital Expected Life Hours worked per annum Maintenance costs Insurance Road Licence Operative's rate £37. Example The following is one method of calculating the all-in hourly cost of a mechanical excavator.
000-00 6.000-00 ------------31. Total cost for 5 years divided by total hours worked in five years £63006 / (1600 hours x 5 years) £7-88 Running Charge Drivers wages 1856 hours @ £7.200-00 320-00 ------------Total for 1600 hours 17.000-00 ------------63.Fuel Lubricants 5 litres/ hour @ 40p/litre allow 10% of fuel costs £ p Standing Charge Capital Cost Less Residual value Depreciation Interest 6% compound on £37.440-00 ------------Therefore cost per hour is Standing Charge Running Charge £17440 / 1600hours £10-90 £ 7-88 £10-90 --------- Therefore total cost per hour is: Total Hourly Cost £18-78 39 .000-00 12.506-00 18.920-00 3.006-00 ------------- Therefore cost per hour is.500-00 1.50 Fuel 1600 hours x 5 litres/hour x 40p/litre Lubricants 10% of fuel costs 13.000 over 5 years Maintenance 10% of capital cost per annum Road licence £200 per annum for 5 years Total for 5 years 37.
3 Excavation using Mechanical Plant Excavate trenches maximum depth 2.200 per annum £7-50 per hour 10 litres per hour@ 80p/litre 10% of fuel costs 7. what is the output in hours per m3 ? Recalculate the rate using your output in hours per m3. 40 . Calculate the net rate per m3 using an excavator with an output of 5m3/hour for excavating and loading into lorries. Capital cost Residual Value Interest on capital Expected Life Hours worked per annum Maintenance costs Insurance Road Licence Operatives rate Fuel Lubricants allow £68. 7.000 6% compound 10 years 2160 10% of capital cost per annum £3000 per annum £1. make sure the excavator operator is working to the correct line and level and trim the sides and bottoms of excavations when necessary. underground services.e.00m in clay.4 Banksmen Banksmen are usually employed to supervise excavator/s.76 SAQ 3 The output of the excavator may also be expressed in hours per m3 . They check the excavation for obstacles i.====== TQ 4 Using the following information calculate the "all. Hourly cost of excavator / output in m3 per hour £18-78 / 5m3 per hour £3 .000 £5.in" hourly cost for a 16 ton tipper lorry .
6 Earthwork Support Defined in the Standard Method of Measurement as . banksman’s rate £7. calculate the cost per m3 for disposing of excavated material off site Note . 7.5m3 of bulked clay Output of excavator 5m3 per hour Distance to tip 5 miles round trip Average speed 20 miles per hour Tipping time 15 minutes Tipping charge £20 per load 7. The following items are all variables (will vary on every contract) therefore a new rate must be calculated for each contract Assume .TQ 5 Recalculate the last rate and include for one banksman supervising two excavators. 16 ton lorry will carry approx. 6. It is measured to the faces of all excavations over 250mm deep. “Whatever is necessary to support the faces of excavations other than steel sheet piles”.5 Disposal of Excavated Material SAQ 4 Explain how the following factors may affect the cost of disposing of excavated material • • • • • • • • Bulking of material Availability of tips/landfill sites Distance to tip Average speed of lorry Loading time Tipping time Tipping charges/costs Consider alternatives TQ6 Using the excavator and lorry from the previous example and the following information.00 per hour. 41 .
g. Operatives fixing EWS are usually paid an additional allowance for skill and responsibility.00m deep (see sketch) . Materials 100 x 100 150 x 100 150 x 150 200 x 50 Labour Fixing EWS in moderately firm earth to faces of excavation up to 2.77 hours per m2 Ditto in loose ground or running sand (as sketch) 1. which may be less expensive e. This is referred to as a contractor’s risk item The following factors affect the cost of earthwork support .00m apart and up to 2. Timber used for earthwork support (EWS) can be re-used up to say 6 times therefore the cost of providing the timber should be divided by the number of uses to obtain a “cost per use”.65 hours / m2 Hourly rate £7. over excavate and backfill.50 / hour costs costs costs costs £1-92/m £2-88/m £4-32/m £1-92/m 42 .0. • • • • Ground conditions Depth of excavation Distance between opposing faces of excavation Method of support used Contractors should also consider alternative methods of construction.The contractor has to decide what is necessary and cost it accordingly.
50 3.e manual or mechanical (c) Nature of excavation (d) Volume of excavation (bulking) (e) Distance of tipping (haulage) Bulking Sand 12.e 300mm deep and average 150mm.5m3 / labour / day 8.e surface or trench excavation (b) Means of excavation i.1 Surface Excavation In building up rate for excavation. (a) Types of excavation i.00 Task I: Surface excavation n.0m3 / labour / day 4m3 / labour / day labour constant multiplier 0.WEEK 8: BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR SURFACE EXCAVATION (8. the following should be considered.0) 8. Calculate the cost/m3 given that the supervisor is N1500/day and the labourer N700/day 43 .00 1.75 1. considered a gang of 12 labour and the supervisor.00 8.5m3 / labour /day 4.5% Gravel 10% Clay 133 1/3% Rock 50% Multiplier Medium Sand and gravel Natural soil Stiff clay Soft rock Hard rock OUTPUT Excavation Spreading and leveling Wheeling / haulage Placing of concrete 2.
50 38.28 44 10.395/54 Add overhead and profit 20% = = @ 700 = = = 54m3 192.400 495__ 10.5 x 12 = Loabour cost / m3 = 10.395 .30 Cost/m = 3 Add 5% for tools 30m3 346.Used lories/tipper.395 Output of gangs / day = 2. Consider a gang of 12 labourers and 1 supervisor Solution 1 Supervisor @ 1500 12 labouers 5% Tools Output gang / day = 4.e 50m from excavation. 12 labourers and 5% for tools = Out out of gang/day 8.0 x 12 = Labour cost / m3 = 10.33 N1500 N8. Task III Removal of excavated materials using the same distance of cart away is less than or equal to 50m using the same information used for excavation of surface Solution 1 Supervisor.395/96 = 96m3 108.50 415.2 Removal of Excavated Materials Use wheel barrows when the distinction is less than or equal to 50m .5m3 x 12 = Labour cost/m3 = 10.395 = 69.80 8. When the distance is greater than 50m.395 x 1/30 Add profit and overhead 20% Task II Cost of spreading and leveling excavated materials n.400 N495 N10.Solution Labour cost 1 supervisor 12 labourer @ @ 1500/day 700/day N1500 N8.50 97.
5hrs x N600/hr = N1500/hr 45 = 2.88 When lories / tipper are used the following should be considered (b) Cost of hire or cost of owning (c) The capacity of the lorry (d) Total distance to and fro the hill (e) Speed of lorry (f) Tipping time (g) Labour loading the lorry (h) Bulking of materials TASK IV (a) For the cost of hiring plant is 600/hr (b) Capacity of lorry 6m3 (c) Total distance to and fro is 3km (d) Speed of lorry 30km/hr (e) Tipping time 9 minutes (f) Output of labourer loading the lorry is 2hrs / labour /m3 (g) Bulking of materials 133 ⅓% SOLUTION Volume of excavated material = 6/133 ⅓ x 100 = 4.5m3 x 2hrs 4 Traveling time = 3km x 60m = 6mins 30km/hr Total time for loading + traveling + tipping 2.25hrs .Add 20% profit and overhead = 21.66 225.15hr + 6m + 9m Cost of hiring lorry/hr = 2.25 + 6m + 9 2.94 355.25 = 2.5m3 (assume 4 labour) loading time = 4.
Therefore.33/m3 Labour loading Cost for 1 labour /m3 = 150/8 x 2.5hr x 4 labour = Add 5% for tools 187.04 636.88 333.50 = 9.21 Add 20% overhead and profit 106.38 196. cost/m3 = N1500 = 333.33/m3 530.25 46 .
placing and compacting mixed concrete Cost of protecting and curing unset concrete Operatives working with concrete receive additional payments for skill and responsibility.0) 9. Items of plant should be priced separately. hoisting. • • • • • • • Whether ready mixed or site mixed concrete is used Whether concrete is reinforced Surcharges for part loads Location of mixing plant on site Type and size of mixing plant Method of transporting.00/m3 47 . Ready mixed concrete costs £49.5m3 per hour Ready-Mixed Concrete TQ 8 Calculate the cost per m3 for laying plain concrete 20N/mm2 in foundations over 300mm thick laid against faces of excavation. 250Kg of cement at £80 per tonne 600Kg of sand at £10 per tonne 1200Kg of aggregate at £9 per tonne Waste say 5% Concrete mixer all-in rate £2-50 per hour. To produce 1m3 of mixed Grade 15 concrete requires .1 Concrete Work Explain how the following factors may affect unit rates for concrete work .WEEK 9: BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR CONCRETE WORK I (9. Concrete is usually measured in m3 Site Mixed Concrete TQ 7 Calculate the cost of mixing a m3 of Grade 15 concrete on site using the following information .20 per hour Labour out put 0. output 2m3 per hour Labour rate £7.
if this is the case then allow 1% for loss and damage.2 Reinforcement Reinforcement may be bar type or mesh/fabric Waste Bars are usually delivered to site already cut and bent. When laying straight bars or mesh an enhanced labourers rate is usually paid. The percentage to allow for laps will depend on the lap specified e.20 / hour Allow say 20p / m2 for spacers and tying wire 9.00 hours/m3 Labour rate £7. Mesh reinforcement is sheet material therefore allowances have to made for general waste say 2. 150mm side and end laps.20 per hour SAQ 4 What will happen to the labour output if the concrete is laid in foundations 150mm thick? Reinforcement is measured separately in bills of quantities. On complex reinforced concrete work steel fixers are usually paid a craft operatives rate. Mesh costs £14-00 per sheet Labour 0. extensive notes on the various aspects of work you will be measuring followed by a series of three tasks. If straight bars are to be cut and bent on site allow 5% for waste. A193 in beds laid with 200mm side and end laps.05 hours / m2 at £7.Waste say 5% Labour output 1.5% plus an additional allowance for laps.g.3 Guide to Using this Student Learning Pack Throughout this and the series of learning packs you will find.80m x 2.40m if they are to be laid with 150mm side and end laps what % must be allowed for loss in cover due to the laps ? Mesh reinforcement Ref. These tasks are 48 . TQs 9-10 Sheets of mesh are approximately 4. Calculate the rate per m2. Would you expect the unit rate for laying reinforced concrete (excluding the cost of reinforcement) to differ from the unit rate for plain (unreinforced) concrete for similar items of work and if so why? 9.
4. Surcharges for part-loads 4. using the correct measurement layouts. one basic task. Site mixed concrete 2. The second task and third tasks form the second section of the class. placing and compacting mixed concrete When considering concrete there are two main methods of producing concrete: 7.4 Concrete Works As with groundwork. Ready mixed concrete In addition to the method of concrete production when costing concrete work we must also consider concrete accessories including: 1. describe how you think the following factors would impact on cost. Location of site in reference to mixing plant 5. Protection of un-set and curing concrete 1. Formwork 2. 1. Task One In the box below. Ready mixed or site mixed concrete 2.designed to increasingly develop your skills in the aspect of measurement covered by the learning pack. which requires you to copy down a worked example. Operatives working with concrete usually receive additional payments for skill and responsibility 4. 9. before looking at the calculation of unit rates we must understand that our final unit rate will be influenced by several variables. where the class develops into a tutorial based 9. hoisting. and will include. Whether the concrete is reinforced or un-reinforced 3. Method of transportation. Reinforcement 3.1 Site Mixed Concrete 49 . Items of plant concerned with concrete mixing and placing are usually measured separately. Type and size of mixing plant 6.
How would the labour output be affected if the concrete is laid in foundations 150mm thick? 2.2 Ready Mixed Concrete Calculate the cost per m3 for laying plain concrete 20N/mm2 in foundations over 300mm thick laid on or against earth or unbinded hardcore.02 / Tonne Waste allowance say 7.59 / m3 Waste say 5% Labour output = 1. if so why Reinforcement maybe either bar reinforcement or mesh / fabric reinforcement.5 Concrete Reinforcement Reinforcement is measured separately in bill of quantities. if this is the case then allow 1% for loss and damage.Calculate the cost of mixing one m3 of grade 15 concrete on site using the following information: The production of 1m3 of grade 15 concrete requires: • • • • • • 250kg of cement at £92. If straight bars are to be cut and bent on site allow 5% waste On complex reinforced concrete work steel fixers are usually paid a craft operatives rate. When laying straight bars or mesh an enhanced rate is usually paid. What would be the financial impact? (If any) 9. • • • • Ready mixed concrete say £80.68 / hr Questions: 1.68 / hr In addition allow for: 9. Waste Bars are usually delivered to site already cut and bent.00 / hr Labour rate @ £8. Would you expect the unit rate for laying reinforced concrete (excluding the cost of reinforcement) to differ from the unit rate for plain (unreinforced) concrete for similar items of work.70 / tonne 600Kg of sand at £17.4.25 / tonne 1200kg of aggregate at £18.5% concrete mixer @ all – in rate of £3. 50 .00hrs / m3 Labour rate £8.
Mesh reinforcement is sheet material therefore allowances have to be made for general waste. Qu 1.80m x 2.08 per sheet Labour 0. say 2. laid with 200mm side and end laps.40m if they are to be laid with 150mm side and end laps what percentage must be allowed for loss in cover due to the laps? Qu 2 Calculate the rate per m2 for laying mesh reinforcement Ref A193 in beds.05hrs / m2 @ £8. Additional information • • • • Mesh costs £15.g.5% plus an additional allowance for laps. The percentage to allow for laps will depend on the lap specified e. Sheets of mesh are approximately 4.68 / hour Allow say 20p / m2 for spacers and tying wire Waste on mesh 5% 51 . 150mm side and end laps.
WEEK 10: BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR CONCRETE WORK II 9. Items of plant should be priced separately. 250Kg of cement at £80 per tonne 600Kg of sand at £10 per tonne 1200Kg of aggregate at £9 per tonne Waste say 5% Concrete mixer all-in rate £2-50 per hour. • • • • • • • Whether ready mixed or site mixed concrete is used Whether concrete is reinforced Surcharges for part loads Location of mixing plant on site Type and size of mixing plant Method of transporting.20 per hour 9. To produce 1m3 of mixed Grade 15 concrete requires . placing and compacting mixed concrete Cost of protecting and curing unset concrete Operatives working with concrete receive additional payments for skill and responsibility. Concrete is usually measured in m3 9. 52 .2 Ready-Mixed Concrete TQ 8 Calculate the cost per m3 for laying plain concrete 20N/mm2 in foundations over 300mm thick laid against faces of excavation.6.1 Site Mixed Concrete TQ 7 Calculate the cost of mixing a m3 of Grade 15 concrete on site using the following information . output 2m3 per hour Labour rate £7. hoisting.6 Concrete Work Explain how the following factors may affect unit rates for concrete work.6.
Would you expect the unit rate for laying reinforced concrete (excluding the cost of reinforcement) to differ from the unit rate for plain (unreinforced) concrete for similar items of work and if so why? 9. When laying straight bars or mesh an enhanced labourers rate is usually paid.20 / hour Allow say 20p / m2 for spacers and tying wire 9. On complex reinforced concrete work steel fixers are usually paid a craft operatives rate. 150mm side and end laps. The percentage to allow for laps will depend on the lap specified e. Calculate the rate per m2. TQs 9-10 Sheets of mesh are approximately 4.80m x 2. Mesh reinforcement is sheet material therefore allowances have to made for general waste say 2.00/m3 Waste say 5% Labour output 1. if this is the case then allow 1% for loss and damage.00 hours/m3 Labour rate £7.5% plus an additional allowance for laps.7 Reinforcement Reinforcement may be bar type or mesh/fabric Waste Bars are usually delivered to site already cut and bent.g. A193 in beds laid with 200mm side and end laps.05 hours / m2 at £7.Ready mixed concrete costs £49. If straight bars are to be cut and bent on site allow 5% for waste. Mesh costs £14-00 per sheet Labour 0.40m if they are to be laid with 150mm side and end laps what % must be allowed for loss in cover due to the laps ? Mesh reinforcement Ref.8 Concrete Work Concrete Material cement 53 .20 per hour SAQ 4 What will happen to the labour output if the concrete is laid in foundations 150mm thick? Reinforcement is measured separately in bills of quantities.
vibrator 1m3 of ………….600 24.14 5.777.000.73 broken stone agg m 3 cement sand 3 agg m3 0.29 1.84 0..44 0.92 tonnes m tonnes m 0.120 4m3 of aggregate will cost 4 x 900/m3 = 3.44 0. a scrap value of N10.44 @ 14. Calculate the cost/m3 Solution 1m3 cet will cost 1.397.32 0.331.29 6. coarse aggregate cost 900/m3 for a mix of 1:2:4.880 1m3 will cost 24.304 0.524 0.440 sand 3 N3.36 0. sand cost 560/m3.554.76 0.- sand aggregate plant – concrete mixer.42 0.88 0.880 = 7 Add 50% of void and compaction Add 20% overhead and profit Mix shrinkage cement 1:1:2 1:2:4 1:3:6 Plant Cost of mixer/hr The cost of owning and operating a 10/7 concrete mixer.38 0.000 Life span of 6yrs @ 2000 hrs/year Compute the cost/hr 0.880 7m3 = 24. poker.23 0.552 0.88 0. weight 1440 TASK Example a tonne of cement cost N14.000.000 = 20.72 0.44 1066. Assume initial cost of N150.46 (void and compaction here have been taken care of) 54 .160 2m3 of sand will cost 2 x 560/m3 = 11.
798.17/hr 39.045.91 Cost of placing concrete in foundation 6 labourers need @ an output of 4m3/day Cost of 6 labourers = 6 x 400 = Add 5% for tools Cost/m = 2.520 4 3 2.73 319.66/hr Therefore. Capital cost/hr = 150.16 3.537.000 – 10.798.52 1.16 = N189.507.400 120 = 630 Cost of concrete in foundation Cost of conc /m3 Add 5% of waste Cost of mixing / m3 Cost of placing Add 20% for overhead and profit = N6.16 20m 3 3 N1.8 liters @ N22 Oil and grease 20% of capital cost Cost of concrete mixer Cost of mixer / day = 54.88 189. cost /m3 = 3.397.200 160_____ 3.77/hr x 8hrs Cost of labourer / day – 8 labour @ N400 Add 5% for tools Cost of labour and mixer Assume output of mixer / day = 20m Therefore.60/hr 2.Capital cost/hr = initial cost – scrap value Life span (hr) = N11.71/hr = = = = = 438.34__ 43.04 55 .91 630 7.51 N9.000 6 x 2000 Running cost Repairs and maintenance 10% of capital cost = Fueling 1.
WEEK 11: BUILD UP UNIT RATES FOR REINFORCEMENT (11. Allow 5% waste for cutting form straight length 3. It is usually priced in tonne (1000kg) reinforcement supplied to site in which cost of transportation is not included in the calculation for unit rate.5 20 15 25 12. labour cost for unloading and stacking.5 32 10 40 8 50 6 Allow say N1000/tonne for spacers (biscuit) TASK I 16mmø mild steel bars reinforcement in straight and bent bars in suspended slab – kg Solution 56 . for bars in short length e. Allowance for bending wire at intersections has to be made.5 20 15 25 12. Allow 1% waste reinforcement already cut to shape 4. Some times bar reinforcement can be purchased already and bend to shape e.g links and stirrups and labour cost calculated will then only include the cost of fixing on site. cutting.5 32 10 40 8 50 6 Fixing/tonne Diameter 6 Hours NOTE: 1. allow 33% for extra labour Tying wire/tonne Diameter 6 Hours 15 8 15 10 12 12 10 16 8 20 8 25 6 32 5 50 4 63 8 45 10 35 12 27. The labour output should be taken as follows Cutting and bending Diameter 6 Hours 63 8 45 10 35 12 27. bending and fixing are calculated. Assume 3hrs for unloading 1 tonne of reinforcement 2.1 Bar Reinforcement Most bar reinforcement is bought in straight length of about 16ft.2 16 22.2 16 22.g links and stirrups.0) 11.
125 1.125 = = 34.125 2.250_ 40.200 1760_ 36.5hrs @ 50/hr fixing: 22.200_ 35.000 1.960 = 480 24__ 504_ = N1000 30 1030 57 .5hrs @50/hr = = 1.494 2.744 Labour collection = = 1.250 Summary Material Labour = = 38.000/tonne Unloading and stacking 3hrs@400 Allow 5% for waste A2 Tying wire Assume 8kg @ 60/kg Allow 5% for waste A3 Spacers Allow 3% waste Material collection A1 A2 A3 36.A A1 A2 A3 A1 Material 16mmø Tying wire Spacers Materials/tonne (1000kg) B1 B2 Labour Cutting and bending Fixing Assume cost of 16mmø @ 34.960/tonne 504/tonne 1030/tonne)_ 38494/tonne Labour B1 B2 B1 B2 Cutting and bending 22.125 1.
186_ 50.930/tonne = = 50.930 58 .93 N51/kg 50.Add 25% O/P Cost/kg = = 10.
The kind of finishes required i.WEEK 12: BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR FORMWORK (12. 3. erecting and striking of formwork.1 Formwork Formwork measures the actual faces of work covered or to be supplied.e sawn faced or smooth finish. In small contract it may be possible to reuse the same formwork twice depending on the repetitive nature of the work. Normal labour for fabricating. ground finish. Materials Materials 1 x 12 x 12 sawn 1 x 12 x 12 wrought 2 x 4 x 12 4 x 4 x 12 5” nails 4” nails 3” nails Unit Length Length Length Length Kg Kg Kg Rate 130 230 120 180 135 135 135 59 . The following must be taken into consideration in determining the size of the formwork 1. This determine the height of props and types of props. This determine the types of materials to be used as formwork and the surface from finish required is removed. the number of uses required of the formwork this is usually a matter of experience. 5. The amount of material required 2. the height to be supported. 4. biscuit etc.0) 12.
2” nails Kg 150 Labour output are mostly conveniently calculated/m3 of timber Labour output for suspended slab Description Unloading and stacking Cutting.80m3/gang/day (2carpenters + labour 12m2/gang/day Allowance for waste Cutting and fixing of timber Nails 10% 20% TASK I Sawn formwork to horizontal soffit of suspended slab – m2 Assume 3m height above floot level Solution Materials A1 A2 A3 A4 1 x 12 x 12 softwoods planks 2 x 4 hardwood battens 4 x 4 hardwood props 4” nails Labour 60 .5m3/lbour/day = 250 0. fabricating and erecting Striking Output 2.
00 48.6 x 1.2 for the calculation and divide by 4.00_ 528.00 162.00 12.6m = 3 ⅓ length or 3.260 126_ 1. fabricating and erecting Striking NOTE: 3.00 7 lengths @ 180 add 10% for waste A4 1kg of nail 4” @ 135 Allow 20% waste 61 .00 Allow 10% waste A3 props @ 1.00 72.00 792.8 12.33 + 1 = 4 x 480.00m c/c 4” x 4” x 12 props 24 36 8nr x 3 = 24m 1. This convenient size allow for more length of timber piece to be used and there by simplifies the calculation A1 4nr sawn softwood planks @ 180 Add 10% waste 720.B1 B2 B3 Unloading and stacking Cutting.2 4.00 A2 2 x 4 x 12 battens 2 x 3.6 = 4 x 12 = 7.00m 3.00 27.32m2 after all to arrive at cost/m2.386 135.
8m3 = 1 gang/day = N3.868 3 956 4.32 = = 239 956 Labour Volume of timber 25 x 300 x 3600 x 4nr 50 x 100 x 3600 x 2nr 50 x 100 x 1200 x 4nr Allow 10% for waste Unloading and stacking 2.50m3 = 1 labour / day = N250.0136 0.449m3 0. 0.45m3 = 700 x 0.00 Assume 3 uses Cost/use Cost/m2 = = 2.700 = 126 = = = 0.5 Cutting.45 = N126 2.408 0.108 0.00 162.24__ 0. fixing and erecting (gang) 2 carpenters @ 1500 1 labour @ 700 = = 3000 700_ 3.00 1.Material for collection A1 A2 A3 A4 792.041___ 0.386.00 Therefore.00 N2.868.700 62 .00 582.
45m3 Striking = 3.700 x 4.25 4.081.700 4.8 = 2.32 = 12m 1.0.332__ 3.539.539.25 Labour cost collection Cost of labour = 3.700 x 0.45 = 2.332 = 1.32 = N819.081.25 12m2 = 1 gang/day = 3.32m2 = 3.27 63 .25 0.
Summary Materials Labour = = 221.300.71 Add 25% P/O 64 .27 1.30 819.040.14_ N1.57 260.
WEEK 13: BUILD-UP UNIT RATE FOR ROOFING (13.0)
13.1 Roofing Corrugated roofing sheet, operation output /gang / day Aluminium of galvanized iron unloading + fixing Fixing ridge cap Raking and cutting Straight cutting Asbestors unloading + fixing Fixing ridge cap Raking + cutting Straight + cutting Felt roofing 40m2 35m 30m 30m 30m2 20m 25m 25m 120m2 80m2 80m2 100m2 20m 90m
unloading + laying of layer Spreading bitumen primer Spreading bitumen Spreading chips Laying gutters < 1m girth Raking cutting
TASK I 0.7mmm thick corrugated aluminium long span roof covering fixed to timber purlins (m.s) @900mm c/c with 50mm galvanized drive screw with felt and metal washer including 100mm side laps (measured net) in m-square i.e (100mm2)
(A) Materials A1 0.7m long span Aluminium sheet A2 Galvanized drive screw + washers
(B) Labour B1 Unloading and fixing Laps = (0.75 – 0.10) x 1m = 0.65m2 A1 roofing sheet required = 100m2 0.65m2 = 153.85 Add 5% for waste Cost/m2 = N1200 161.55@1200 = N193,860 A2 Galvanized drive screw Number required = 4no/m2 x 100m2 = Allow 10% for waste N6/screw Cost 440 pieces @ N6 = N2640 Material collection Corrugated roofing sheet Screw + washer N193.860 2,640__ 196.500 400nr 40______ 440 pieces 7.70 161.55m2
Labour A gang / day 2 carpenters (roofers) @1500/day 1 labourer Add 5% for tools @700/day = N3000 = 700 =N3700 =_185_________ 3885/gang/day Unloading and fixing 1 gang /day output = 40m2 66
40m2 = 1 gang / day = N3885 100m2 = 3885 x 100m2 40m2 Summary Materials Labour N196,500.00 9,712.50__ 206,212.50 Allow 25% for profit and over head 51,553.13__ 257,765.63 Therefore, cost/m2 = 257,765.63 = N2577.66 100m2 TASK II 2 layers of bituminous felt roof covering laid on flat weighing 25kg/roll of 20m2 with 100 and 150mm end and side laps respectively and finished with 6mm chipping. Assume 100m2 covering. MATERIAL (1) Felt (2 layers ) (2) Bitumen primer (3) Bitumen (3 layers) (4) chipings Plant Boiler A1 laps (20m x 0.15m) + (0.085 x 0.10m) = 3.085m2 = 3.09m2 Covering capacity / roll Less laps Nr of rolls required = 100m = 5.91 roll Allow 3% for waste = 0.18 6.09 roll/layer Therefore, 2 layers will be required = 6.09 x 2 = 12.18 rolls 67
LABOUR unloading + fixing of felt spreading bitumen primer spread bitumen spreading chippings
20.00m2 3.09____ 16.91m2
15 liters will cost 1600 x 15 20 = N1.75 x 7000 = N12.000 x 660 480 = N27.00 liters = 14.500 200kg 20 220 x 3 660kg A4 Assume a covering capacity of 60m2 / tonne Chippings of tonne required = 1/60 x 100m2 = 1.71_____ 15.18 rolls@2500 = N30.29 liters A3 Bitumen (3 layers) Assume a covering capacity of 2kg (m2 bitumen required / layer = 2 x 100m2 = Allow 10% for waste For 3 layers 480kg / drum of R115 / 15 (type) cost N20.75 tonnes will cost 1.000 Therefore 1.67 tonne Or 100m2 / 60m2 1.250 68 . bitumen required 100m2 7 liters Allow 5% waste 20 liters / drum = 1600 Therefore.000 Therefore 660kg will cost 20.67 tonnes If 1 tonne of chippings cost N7.200 0.450 Bitumen primer A2 Assume a covering capacity of 7m2/liters Therefore.12.
Material Labour Plant = = = 71.50 (d) PLANT: cost of plant/hr N150 Cost of plant/day N150 x 8hrs = N1200 Summary A.830.25 = 3.50 105.25 Output = 80m2 / gang / day (bitumen) 3 layers = 3 x 1.830.00 7.166.400 B1 unloading and fixing Output 100m2 = = 120m2/gang/day (felt) 1/120 x 100 = 0.83 (a layer) = 1.Material cost collection A1 A2 A3 A4 felt primer = bitumen chippings = 1200 = = 27.66 gang @ N1.00 84.50 1.575 = N12.450 2 layers = 2 x 0.66 B4 Output = 100m2 / 100m (chippings) = 1.75 Chippings 1.064.058.66 30.200.064.500 12.250 N71.50 21.63 100m2 = 1.664.00 7.00 12.400.03 Add 25% profit and overhead Cost/m2 = N105.31 69 .83 B2 B3 Output = 80m2 / gang / day (primer) = 100m2 = 1/80 x 100 = 1.
000.797.880 Allow 2% waste 4m3 of sand 4m3 of sand @ N600/m3 Allow 5% for waste Cement Allow 25% for shrinkage Cost/m2 = = 28.60 labour mixing rendering Transport.699.00___ 70 .699.00 397.277.00 20.60 22.499 5m3 N5.40 28.0125m3 1.40 = = = 2.497.400 2.277. loading and unloading 28 bags @ 10 bags = Volume of mortar required 100m2 x 0.5mm thick c/s (1:4) rendering trowel smooth (a) Wall (b) Concrete soffit (100m2) Material Cement 1m3 Sand 4m3 5m3 1m3 cement 28 bags @ 700 = N19.520 20.25m3 Allow 80% 1.00 280___ 19.NOTE: Allowance has to be made for the following Irregularity of surfaces Compression of toweling General waste (residue + application) 80% TASK I 12.00 5.
00 Add 5% for tools 681.625.2. Rendering = 30m2 = 1 gang/ day = N3885 (reference to roof) 100m2 = N3885 x 100m2 = N12.40 = 12.306.25 Summary Material Labour Add 25% P/OH = = 12.25m3 = N1575 2.48_ 33.25__ 14.65 14.912.65 Labour 1.9 6.950 30m2 Labour 1.38 100 = N339.25 27. Mixing 2.912.782.129.25m3 Therefore.950_ 13. Rendering 675 12.38 Cost/m2 = 33.306.823. Mixing = 1m3 = 1 labour day@ N700/day 2.12 71 .823.25m3 of mortar @ 5.25m3 = N700 x 2.699. 2.
foundations etc) 10. and will include.1 Guide to Using this Student Learning Pack Throughout this and the series of learning packs you will find. finish the list of possible variables which could impact on the eventual cost for masonry works.5mm) wall is 59. where the class develops into a tutorial based 14.e. Type of work ( i.000m 225mm x 75mm For a one brick thick wall (225mm) the number of bricks required is 120 etc. Type of pointing 14.5mm) bricks required per m2 of half brick thick (102. extensive notes on the various aspects of work you will be measuring followed by a series of three tasks.3 Fact and Figures Bricks: The number of metric (215 x 65 x 102. one basic task. Working overhand. Task One In the box below. These tasks are designed to increasingly develop your skills in the aspect of measurement covered by the learning pack. straight walls. For any other thickness count the number of half brick thicknesses and multiply by 59.0) 14. which requires you to copy down a worked example.000m x 1. using the correct measurement layouts. 1. at height 11. 8. Quality of finished works 9. proven thus. For different sized 72 = 59 nr bricks .WEEK 14: BUILD UP UNIT RATE FOR MASONRY (14. we must understand that our final unit rate will be influenced by several variables. The second and third tasks form the second section of the class. curved walls.2 Masonry works Before we look at the process for estimating unit rates for Masonry works.
The number of concrete blocks per m2 is 10 nr. Using the following information. however. the thickness of the block will vary.5%. Assume 10mm thick mortar joints. Task Calculate the number of imperial 215 x 73mm bricks required to build one m2 of half brick wall.01m3 per m2.e. e. the time one operative will take to produce one m2 of wall.01m3 = 0. Labour It is the norm for bricklayers to work in gangs. Mortar For each half brick thickness of wall allow 0. calculate net rates for: Information 73 . The old imperial brick is 2 7/8” or 73mm. For waste on blocks allow say 5%. For each vertical joint allow 0.5m2 of 100mm thick blocks per hour in walls Task Express the above outputs in terms of ‘man hours’ per m2 i.5% and 12.02m3) + 0. Blocks The standard size for concrete blocks is 440 x 215mm. Task Calculate the volume of mortar required per m2 for a 100mm thick block wall.bricks the number required per m2 will of course vary. A 2+1 gang will: • • • Lay approximately 70 facing bricks per hour in walls pointed one side Lay approximately 100 common bricks per hour in walls Lay approximately 2. One brick wall (2 x 0. For waste on bricks allows 5% above ground and 2.g. Waste on facing bricks varies between 7. these gangs are usually referred to as 2 + 1 gangs as they consist of 2 bricklayers and 1 labourer.02m3 of mortar per m2 of wall.05m3 per m2.5% below ground.
faced one side with facing bricks in gauged mortar (1:1:6) using direct labour.04 per m3. During the course of the contract.16 per m3. 100mm lightweight block wall in gauged mortar (1:1:6) using in-direct labour 4.Materials Facing bricks £240.53 per hour Labourers £8. Half brick thick skins of hollow walls built entirly of facing bricks in coloured mortar and pointed with a flush joint. waste 5% Cement Mortar (1:3) £76.91 per m3.00 per square metre inclusive of 8% for overheads and profit. the architect proposes to change the design of the wall by incorporating sunken panels of contrasting coloured brickwork in strawbone facing bricks 74 . Cavity wall comprising of half brick thick outer leaf in stretcher bond.00 / m2 Questions Calculate unit rates for the following: 1. 3.00 per 1000 delivered and off-loaded. 6.68 per hour In-Directly employed labour costs Laying facings £300 / 1000 Laying Commons £150 / 1000 Laying blocks £9. A project includes the building of a 2m high one brick thick boundary wall in Edenhall facing bricks in cement lime mortar (1:1:6) around a site 200mm perimeter. faced one side in coloured mortar (1:1:6). internal leaf 150mm thermal block in stretcher bond in cement mortar (1:3). waste 5% Gauged mortar (1:1:6) £74. waste 5% 100mm concrete blocks £8. 5. waste 5% Coloured mortar (1:1:6) £122. waste 5% Directly employed labour costs Bricklayers £11. (using in-direct labour) 2. waste 10% Common bricks £95.00 per 1000 ditto. This wall has been priced by the contractor at £80. One brick thick wall built of common bricks in cement mortar (1:3) using direct labour.50 per m2 ditto. One brick wall in common bricks in English bond.
0m in area at 3.0m x 1. the contractor claims that the inclusion of the sunken panels involves more setting out and cutting and it would take 50% longer to complete Strawbone work compared to Edenhall walling.00 per m3 £63. The contractor claims that the strawbone bricks are more easily damaged than the Edenhall and as such twice the amount of waste will be incurred.00 / hour £9.00 per m3 Mechanical Plant All-in rate for mixer Output constant for mixer MASONRY SAQ 5 Explain how the following factors may affect the cost of masonry items . number of openings 75 £20 per hour 0. • Type of work e. In addition. It is accepted that this increase in cost may be claimed.00 per m3 £180.50 / hour Material delivered to site: Edenhall facing bricks£320. Using the data below.bedded and pointed in coloured mortar. All-In rate for labour Craft operative General operative £12.00 / tonne £130. The panels are to be 1. Furthermore. with justification. determine.00 per m3 £22.5m3 per hour . the cost of labour has risen by 15% since the original price was calculated. complex plan shape. straight walls.g. The contractor proposes to double their price per square metre in order to account for all the above changes.00 / tonne Strawbone facing bricks Building Sand Cement Hydrated lime Coloured mortar £420. If the contractors proposal is reasonable.0m centres for the full length of the wall.
05m3 per m2 TQ12 Calculate the volume of mortar required per m2 for a 100mm thick block wall.5%. For a one brick thick wall (225mm) the number required is 120 etc.g.01m3 per m2 e.5% and 12. Blocks The number of 440 x 215 blocks per m2 is 10.01m3 = 0. Waste on blocks say 5%. For different sized bricks the number required per m2 will of course vary. TQ11 Calculate the number of 215 x 71 bricks required to build one m2 of half brick wall.• • • • • • • • • Quality of work Type of bricks. at height Type of mortar Type of pointing Method of scaffolding used Accessibility of materials Weather conditions Facts and Figures Bricks The number of 215 x 65 bricks required per m2 of half brick thick (102mm) wall is 60. Waste on common bricks allow 5% above ground and 2. Note .02m3 of mortar per m2 of wall For each vertical joint allow 0. 76 .02m3) + 0. Assume 10mm thick mortar joints.5% below ground. blocks or stone used Allowances for waste Working overhand. One brick wall (2 x 0. For any other thickness count the number of half brick thicknesses and multiply by 60 Waste on facing bricks varies between 7.. Mortar For each half brick thickness of wall allow 0.
faced one side with facing bricks in gauged mortar . waste 5% Coloured mortar £80 per m3. waste5% Directly employed labour costs Bricklayers £9. waste 5% 100mm blocks £8.e.m2 (direct labour) Materials Facing bricks £240 per 1000 delivered and off-loaded.5m2 of 100mm thick blocks per hour in walls. the time one operative will take to produce one m2 of wall. Lay approximately 100 common bricks per hour in walls.Labour Bricklayers work in gangs. Laying commons £120 per 1000.m2 (using indirectly employed labour) One brick thick wall built of common bricks in cement mortar . Using the following information calculate net unit rates for . Labourers £7.50 per hour. • • • • Half brick thick skins of hollow walls built entirely of facing bricks in coloured mortar and pointed with a flush joint .50 per m2 ditto. usually 2 bricklayers and one labourer. TQs 13-17 Express the above outputs in terms of "man hours" per m2 i.m2 (direct labour) 100mm lightweight block wall in gauged mortar . Common bricks £85 per 1000 ditto. waste 10%. A 2 + 1 gang will. Lay approximately 2. Lay approximately 70 facing bricks per hour in walls pointed one side.m2 (indirect labour) One brick wall in common bricks in English bond.00 per hour Indirectly employed labour costs Laying facings £190 per 1000. Laying blocks £8 per m2 77 . waste 5% Gauged mortar £60 per m3. waste 5% Cement mortar £65 per m3.
25 Additional Information Allow 5% waste on materials and allow for all materials to be used Eight times Q3. As illustrated in the sketch.53 per hour & Labourers £8.in rate £8.1 Questions Q1.0m long. given: Labour: Productivity rate 1. 100mm diameter flexible jointed PVC drain pipe costs £21.0m deep. Materials: Timber supply price is £325. Unloading timber 1. All .68 per hour Productivity rate: One bricklayer will lay 40 bricks per hour.00 / 1000 78 .03 / hour enhancement for additional skill and responsibility.00 / m3 therefore: 100 x 100 150 x 150 Costs £3.25 Costs £7.00hrs / m3.WEEK 15: PRACTICE QUESTIONS FOR TUTORIAL CLASS (15.50 each and are 1.00 each and are 3.01 per hour plus £2.0m of pipe for uPVC drainage.88 Costs £3. Calculate the gross rate per square metre (m2) for brick wall: half brick thick skim of hollow walls built entirely of concrete common bricks in mortar (1:1:6) pointed with bucket handle joint using directly employed labour given: Labour: 2 + 1 gang – Bricklayers £11.01 per hour plus £2.00m Labour: Productivity rate: 0.28hrs / m2.23 each assume one joint for every 1.14hrs/m for 100mm diameter flexible jointed PVCu drainage.60m long. Flexible joints cost £4. And 0. Materials: 100mm diameter flexible jointed clay drain pipe cost £5.4m for clay drainage and one joint for every 2. Waste Allow 10% waste on pipes and 5% waste on couplings Q2. Calculate the difference in cost per metre (m) for laying 100mm diameter flexible jointed clay drain pipes and the cost per metre (m) for laying 100 flexible jointed uPVC drain pipes in runs not exceeding 5. Calculate the unit rate / m2 for earthwork support in moderately firm earth not exceeding 2.03 / hour enhancement for additional skill and responsibility.31 150 x 100 200 x 50 Costs £4.in rate £8.0) 15. All . Materials: Common bricks cost £95.0m apart and a maximum of 2.20hrs / m for 100mm diameter flexible jointed clay drainage.
5% to net rates for contractor’s overheads and Profit 79 .30 / tonne Materials Usage: Bricks: There are 59nr bricks per m2 Cement Usage: 115 kg per 1000 bricks Sand/Line mix usage: 1.80 per tonne Cement costs £78.25 tonnes per m2 Additional Information Allow 7.Pre-mixed Lime/Sand costs £35.5% waste on all materials Add 12.
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