This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SUITCASES OF STORIES
2005, Marilyn A. Hudson, Revised edition 2008. 5658 NW Pioneer Circle Norman, Oklahoma 73072 Phone 405-701-3996 www.freewebs.com/whorlbooks
Hudson, Marilyn A. (1955- ) Story Horizons : Storytelling Training Manual./ Norman, Oklahoma: Hudson House Publishing, Whorl Books Thumbprint Imprint, 2005. cm.; p.55 (approx.)
Revised edition, 2008.
1. Storytelling – Instruction and Training.. 2. Children’s literature. 3. Shared Reading. 4. Parents and Reading. I. Hudson, Marilyn A. (1955- ).
CHAPTER 1 Storytelling Start Up CHAPTER 2 Story Friends CHAPTER 3 Story At Home CHAPTER 4 Story In Class & Library CHAPTER 5 Story In Sacred Spaces CHAPTER 6 Dark & Story Night
The story drew to its conclusion, throughout the room it seemed that no one breathed, but then a collective sigh was heard. Down toward the front a small voice cried out in awed surprise, “I was there!” For the creator of tales – spoken, written, or visual – what better accolade could one receive? To know that what you have done transported the audience to another place or another time. I have often visualized our ancient ancestors, huddled in a cave, clustered around a protective, warming fire, telling the very first stories. “So – what was your day like?” “I had quite a time, I can tell you that!” “Tell us.” Said one of the others crouched by the opening. “This Ice Age is so boring; nothing but snow, ice, and clouds.” “Okay. Here is what happened... A hunter, a gatherer, and a Mastodon walked into a clearing….” Or, something similar.
Stories have been there every step of the way as humanity walked over the distant horizon to discover the world around them. Stories served to tell people they were not alone in their fears, dreams, and struggles. They produced a common body of experience so that others could learn from them. They served to identify a group, maintain their faith, and instruct on the values they felt were important to pass along to successive generations.
What Is The Purpose of this Manual? The purpose of this manual is to provide to the aspiring storyteller a) basic start up helps to become a storyteller, b) materials and resources for the storyteller perfecting their craft, and c) helps for specialized areas of interest (home, class, library, religious settings, and writing).
Why Tell Stories? Stories connect people to the wisdom and experience of the past.
Stories provide examples for people making decisions. Stories set the foundation for change (organizational, educational, and personal). Stories entertain and enlighten. Stories feed the imagination.
FIRST THINGS FIRST One of the first things learned in school was that a story has three parts: a beginning, middle, and an end. The secret to the success of the final product depends on how those elements are used. Think of a car since it also has minimally three components: body, tires, and engine. The end result will be much better if the parts are put together in a logical whole where each part performs the function it is best suited to perform. Visualize the parts of the story as a mountain you are attempting to climb.
Analyze a story of your choice into scenes or movements representing the BEGINNING, MIDDLE, and
END elements. Notice that the beginning will include some introduction that sets the stage, introduces characters, explains the problem and PULLS THE READER/LISTENER IN. The middle section will connect the events, contain the action, propels the story forward to the CLIMAX. Here the problem is faced and solved. The end of the story comes quickly after the high point of the story seen in the climax and presents the RESOLUTION to almost all the problems, and challenges that propelled the action in the story. Like guests at the end of a party, be brief and quickly conclude the story.
TYPES OF TALES Stories come in various forms. Some tellers find that they have a natural strength in one or more of these, some can work with ease through them all, be aware each is individual – find the voice that is true and comfortable for you.
Folk tales Family /personal
Fairy Tales Inspirational/ Religious
Science and why Tales
Lesson / moral tales Jump tales & trickster tales
SHARING STORIES – Bits & Pieces Some of the most common means of sharing stories: Read aloud from a written work. Oral Storytelling Puppets Musical story/songs Acting out/ theatrical Tandem told stories Dance Magic Writing/Visual expression
Terms: ORAL STORYTELLING = Stories told STORY SHARING or STORY READING = Stories read from a book to one or more
Settings for Storytelling: include educational, business, religious, counseling centers, health care, and care facilities.
7 Basic Plots (more or less). Commonly recognized are: person faces nature; person faces person; person faces the environment; person faces machines/technology; person faces self; and person faces a deity/religion/philosophy. Some authorities say there may be as many as 40 basic plots, while others insist only three. Almost all stories fit within these 7 basic forms.
PLOT THEMES. A theme is the guiding idea of a story. Try this: review some favorite movies, books, or stories and identify the theme. Some popular and well-known themes include “love conquers all” (AN AFFAIR TO REMEMBER); “family is important” (RV); “the quest” (STAR WARS); “to have friends be a friend”; etc. List your favorite books, movies, & stories. What do they have in common? Why do you like them?
Speaking the Lingo of Literature GENRE= a style of writing (i.e., Mystery, Western, Adventure); SETTING= Past, present, future; mountains, desert; empty house; POINT OF VIEW= How the reader or listener gets their view of the story; PLOT = action of a story; MYSTERY = story where action is hidden and must be revealed or discovered.
HEAD WORK Make a list of several stories or films that you really enjoy. What do you like about each one? What do these have in common? What does this say about you and your culture? What are the negative aspects of these same works? What do the negative elements say about you, and your upbringing? Would your parents or grandparents have appreciated these same stories or books? Why or why not?
BECOMING A STORYTELLER
Every person has the potential to be a storyteller. There are no “born tellers” – only people with differing levels of gifts in sharing human experiences. Everyone is already involved in the process of story sharing every time they share their experiences, recount historic events, tell a funny anecdote, and share core values. All these individuals need to become intentional story bearers is for them to make the decision that they will learn to do it better, with greater self-confidence and skill.
WHAT STORIES ARE BEST FOR ORAL TELLING? Family history stories, magazines, newspapers. Events from your childhood or personal experiences Folktales, fairy tales, myths and history books Simple picture storybooks
WHERE DO YOU FIND SOURCES FOR STORIES? The 398.2 area of the library The picture book area of the library or a bookstore Older family members or people in the community Newspaper articles, old magazines Historical events, oral histories, or biographies of historical people
HOW DO I LEARN AND TELL A STORY? Find a story you really like (you will be living with it for awhile) Become familiar with the story (read it several times)and any different versions Picture in your mind the major parts of the story in the beginning, middle, and end. Practice telling it to yourself. Repeat adding details. Repeat until story is firmly in your mind. Tell it often and enjoy.
HOW DO YOU GAIN SKILL AS A STORYTELLER? Tell every chance you can. Record yourself: are you too fast, too slow, too soft-spoken, too monotone? Add a gesture to bring your story alive Practice using voices to help tell the story. Add a prop (a hat, an object from the story, a visual, a costume, or puppets) Add music from hands or an instrument Review what works, delete what does not, and keep learning more stories. Become a member of a group that will provide training, feedback, and constructive criticism. Attend training events, workshops, and concerts. See if the library carries tapes or CD’s of well-known storytellers - listen and learn.
Bauer, C. Caroline Baur’s New Handbook for Storytellers. 1993. Cabral, L. Len Cabral’s Storytelling Book. 1997. Hamilton, M. Stories in My Pocket. 1996. Macdonald, Margaret Read. Three Minute Tales. 2004. Pellowski, A. The World of Storytelling. 1977. Storytelling Etiquette http://lis.uiuc.edu/~ccb/storytelling_etiquette.html at
Storytelling: It’s Not Just Kid’s Stuff, Milbre Burch homepage at http://www.laig.com/kindcrone/article_2.html Story Cue Cares at http://www.ils.unc.edu/~!sturn/storytelling/cuecard.html (blank form) http://www.ualberta.ca/~lmireau/plan.html (tips on building cue cards)
QUICK GUIDE ONE. Marilyn Hudson Basics of Telling A Story
A story that is told can be 1-15 min. long, however, most stories are in the 3 to 10 minute range. The teller stands before an audience and speaks to convey a story that has a beginning, a middle, and an end; variations include sitting and moving among the audience. Microphones may be needed in some settings. Teller introduces themselves, names the story or shares the theme; if using another’s work proper credit is given. The teller speaks clearly and varies tone, emphasis and volume for interest to the listener.
Listen, Read, View and Analyze
Review folklore in books in the library (they are usually found in the 398.2-398.29 area), listen to tellers in person and on audio tape/CD, watch tellers in person or on a video. What makes them successful? What did you like? What did you not like? What works?
A good story will have usually a universal theme: hope, love, courage, survival, redemption, self-discovery, community values, respect, justice, peace, family, etc.
Enhancing the story
The story experience can be enhanced through the addition of repetitions within the story, participation, chants, songs, sounds, music, props, visuals, costume, or dance. Additionally, puppets (from simple hand creations to complex shadow or marionettes) have been a traditional favorite for some.
Characters Most stories revolve around a character (hero, protagonist, counterpoint). A good story has a memorable and sympathetic figure with which the listener can care and empathize. The character is the “everyman” of the medieval street theater and yet unique enough to peak interest. References Organizations: National Storytelling (www.storynet.org); Territory Tellers of (www.territorytellers.org) Network Oklahoma
Support Groups Join or, if none exists, form a support group. Focus should
be on helping other tellers, self-improvement, and the active, frequent sharing of stories. Avoid groups where there is no opportunity for telling, learning, or where the atmosphere is elitist. Many special interest groups fall into the failure of “talking about” rather than “doing” the activity that brought them together in the first place. Find people who are serious about learning and using stories in a variety of settings.
STORY FRIENDS Connecting with others who like to listen to, create, or share stories Many organizations exist to help the beginning storyteller. Some of the major ones are listed below, and some specific to Oklahoma. Joining with other tellers is an excellent way to improve your craft, especially if the groups can answer the following: Are there educational opportunities to improve my skills? Are there performance opportunities so that I can hone my delivery and stage presence? Is the group supportive and willing to help new tellers?
NATIONAL STORYTELLING NETWORK www.storynet.org Membership is about $50.00 TERRITORY TELLERS OF OKLAHOMA www.territorytellers.org Membership is about $15.00 NETWORK OF BIBLICAL STORYTELLING www.nobs.org OKLAHOMA TELLERS BLOG www.oklahomatellers.blogspot.com NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF BIBLICAL STORYTELLERS www.nobs.org
STORYTELLING AND CHILDREN
STORY AT HOME STARTING WITH BOOKS: Caregivers Helping Parents and
The first stories a child learns are in the home and the nature of that experience will greatly influence how a child develops and functions in society. The idealistic image of “home stories” involves angelic children patiently listening to a story read or shared by a parent.
The reality is often hectic, time strained, and far from calm, so many parents simply opt out of the story altogether. Illustrating this point is a picture book, Five Minutes Peace (Murphy. 1999). It tells of a mother wanting simply to take a bath and the string of family “emergencies” that keep her from that bath.
The most important thing a parent can do with their child, from age 2 to 12, is to make sure they a) are read to/hear stories regularly, b) have access to books, and c) see their parents reading. PERIOD. The value of this PARTICIPATION, ACCESS, and MODELING is true across ALL cultural, economic, and social levels.
Children who experience books, reading, and stories have a much better school success rate than children who did not have those experiences. They learn the language, expand their vocabulary, use critical thinking skills, and develop their imagination. All skills needed to be successful readers and students. One clear discovery is that children benefit from being read to far longer than many parents think. Many assume that since the child has learned to
read they should no longer read to them. Instead, parents then have the opportunity to blend the child’s independent reading with a loving intimate activity, which serves to model reading skills and values. In this way, the parent can be on the spot to address questions raised by themes or events in books. This provides the opportunity for parents to convey to their children their family values or history. Another advantage is that story reading in the family very often leads to storytelling in the family.
The purpose of children’s literature is to entertain, but to also open a wide window on a large, strange world in the comfort of a safe and familiar setting. Books, and stories told, allow children to learn about other people’s experiences, learn from the mistakes of others, and recognize a wide array of emotions, that consequences follow actions, the decision making process, and learn how to interact with others.
Difficult subjects of life (death, illness, loss, fear, hate, anger) can be explored from a safe distance together. In this process, the parent can share the family’s values and help prepare the child for the eventual time when
they will face something difficult or know someone who has. An example of this is the book The Smoky Night by Eve Bunting. It tells of a fearful little boy in the midst of the LA Riots of the early 1990’s. The reality for the little boy in the book is that bad things can happen – but it’s balanced by the message that he can be reassured by the presence of his loving mother. His fear is the fear of any child faced with the unknown but the book strives to provide one truth as an anchor holding both the character in the book and the child listening: “bad things can happen, people can be mean, but your family loves you.” No matter how much we might like to, we cannot guard our children from every difficult reality, but we can do the next best thing by sharing family values that can assist in those darker moment of life.
Livo, Norma J. Who’s afraid - ?: Facing Children’s Fears With Folktales. 1994. Niemi, Loren and Elizabeth Ellis. Inviting the Wolf In: Thinking About Difficult Stories. August House. 2001.
SUGGESTED AUTHORS TO SHARE Pre-K to Kindergarten: Look for books by Eric CARLE,
Laurie CARLSON, Denise FLEMING, Mira GINSBURG, Jonathan LONDON, David SHANNON, Jan BRETT, Tomie DEPAOLA, Lois EHLERT, Dav PILKEY, Janet STEVENS, Rosemary WELLS, Audrey and Don WOOD. Stories to share : folklore, short poem stories, songs, participation stories, and finger plays.
K to 3rd : Look for books by David ADLER, Jan BRETT, Eve
BUNTING, Robert BURLEIGH, Ann CAMERON, Eileen CHRISTOLOW, Andrew CLEMENT, Joanna COLE, Tomie DEPAOLA, Leo and Diane DILLON, Betsy DUFFY, Lois EHLERT, Douglas FLORIAN, Nikki GRIMES, Kevin HENKES, James HOWE, Johanna HURWITZ, Eric KIMMEL., Dick KING-SMITH, Lois LOWRY, Patricia MCKISSACK, Mary Pope OSBORNE, Barbara PARK, Peggy PARISH, Ann ROCKWELL, Gary SOTO, Mark TEAGUE, Judith VIORST, YOUNG, Ed. Stories to share: folklore, history, tall tales, participation stories.
3rd to 6th: Look for books by Hans Christian ANDERSON,
AVI, Rudyard KIPLING, Marion Dane BAUER, Darlene Bailey BEARD, Betsy BYARS, Andrew CLEMENTS, Vicki COBB, Bruce COVILLE, Sharon CREECH, Karen CUSHMAN, Paul FLEISCHMAN, Douglas FLORIAN, Jean FRITZ, Nikki GRIMES, Mary Downing HAHN, Virginia HAMILTON, Karen HESSE,
James HOWE, Johanna HURWITZ, Peg KEHRET, Kathleen KRULL, Madeline L’ENGLE, Kathryn LASKEY, Lois LOWRY, Ann MARTIN, Gerald MCDERMOTT, Anna MYERS, Kenneth OPPEL, Katherine PATTERSON, Louis SACHAR, Gary SOTO, Jerry SPINELLI, Ann TURNER, Vivian VAN VALDE, Jacqueline WOODSON, Lawrence YEP, Jane YOLEN, Paul O. ZELINSKY Stories to share: folklore, scenes from a biography, science discoveries, history (pre-Columbian to the Immigration Period).
6th and older: Look for books by Jack LONDON, Richard
PECK, Katherine PATTERSON, Stories to share: folklore, urban legends, biographies, history (Ancient era to Modern era), stories of famous discoveries in science or technology.
Note: Some of the authors write both juvenile and adult books. Be sure to select the juvenile works associated with these authors. The eras of history used above refer to the curriculum range used in public schools for the grade levels mentioned.
STORY ACTIVITIES ™.
A combing of activities with story experience creates a “Storytivity” adventure. Try one of these after reading a book. Retell the story Tell the story from another point of view Draw a picture of one of the characters or the setting of the book Solicit verbal descriptions of the setting or a character Create pictures illustrating a scene from the beginning, middle, and end. Have children put them in correct order. Discuss each character and their personality. What are their strengths? Weaknesses? Create puppets, masks, or flannel figures for retelling the story. Write a different ending to the story. Write a letter to the author. Interview one of the characters.
Locate new words used in the story or book. Use a dictionary to learn their meaning. Write a commercial for the book or author or subject of the book. Write a review of the book.. Make a flyer advertising the book. Make a “story stick”: a tongue depressor or paint stirrer can be turned into a decorated stick that tells a story. Elements of a story are given a symbol and drawn on the stick and the stick is decorated with feathers, yarn, leather, beads, etc. Each one is encouraged to share the story of their stick.
Activities for Young Readers http://pilotonline.com/nic/earlyreaders.html Raising a Reader at http://raisingareader.info/sites.html National Center for Family Literacy at http://famlit.org/ Literacy Tips for the 10 Minute Parent (Between the Lions – PBS) at http://www.pbskids.org.lions/tips/index.html
Clancy, Frank. The Power of Stories. Family Fun. Sept. 1996 (p.42). Cheyney, Jeanne. Fingerplays for Home and School. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Co.,1990. Ring A Ring O’ Roses: Fingerplays for Preschool Children. 10th ed. Flint Public Library. Flint, MI. 1996. Family Storytelling: Pass the Fork, Please at http://familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,2210295,00.html For Parents at http://wwwnwlink.com/~spagnoli/telltips/parents.h tm Hoberman, Mary Ann. You Read to Me, I’ll Read To You: Very short fairy tales to read together Cox. My Family Plays Music. Hru. Tickle, Tickle. Coy. Vroomaloom Zoom. Schafer. “Infants Can Learn DeContextualized Words Before Their First Birthday”, Child Development, vol. 6, Issue 1 (2005).
Ready To Read: Six Early Literacy Skills at http://www.kcls.org/readytoread/literacyskills.cfm? &printok=0
STORY GOES TO CLASS & LIBRARY
EDUCATIONAL VALUES Storytelling helps to Expand a child’s working vocabulary leading to successful mastery of reading and writing Provide experiences of story structure and such elements as sequence, character, rising action, and conclusion Provide opportunities to develop listening skills, higher critical thinking skills, and visual discrimination Illustrate concepts, historical settings, insights into common human experiences
STORYTELLING : GATEWAY TO LITERACY The best place to start sharing stories is through a folktale or short personal experience tale. Visit the 398.2 section of the library for collections of folktales and fairy tales. The variety of tales is vast: simple picture book stories, fairy-folk tales, participation tales, refrains, music, response tales, and object tales. Introduce new units through story, including science, math and technology. This can intrigue students and put a human face on abstract subjects.
SAMPLE LESSON PLAN Subject Area: Language Arts Grade Range: (with adaptation) 2nd through 12th grade Purpose: Provide students with experience in learning and sharing stories in the oral tradition; develop an awareness of storytelling as an art form and its diversity and similarity across cultures. Description: students use reading skills to process a folklore or written story; students use oral communication skills to share the story with an audience. Students can also use writing skills to
develop and outline (or create a story map) to assist in learning the story. Prerequisite skills: Writing Activities/Tasks: students will read stories; students will draw a story map outlining the major elements of the story. At the culmination of the introduction to storytelling, students will tell a story to their class or another group. Instructional strategies: Instructor or others (guest or videotaped storytellers) demonstrate storytelling. Instructor prepares students for the experience by discussing the storyteller’s art and introducing the storyteller’s rubric used for peer evaluations. Discuss listening skills, audience courtesy, and practice these. First round of storytelling will focus on oral style; later ones can introduce other formats (puppets, electronic, and theater). Tools and resources: Various fairy and folk tales; easy picture books with simple stories; video or storyteller performing or a visit from a local teller; storytelling rubric; paper, pencils.
Skills Addressed: Oklahoma PASS Skills Language Arts (Oral Language/Listening/Speaking Standards 1.2) for all grades International Reading Association Competencies, Area 5.5, rated “C” (“provide opportunities for creative and personal responses to literature, including storytelling”) Assessment: Participation in activity; rubric traits exhibited in sharing stories; awareness of storytelling in society and across cultures.
Teller knows story well
Good Tell It Again! Good Tell It Again! Good Tell It Again! Good Tell It Again! Needs Work
Uses good facial expressions while telling Uses good eye contact while telling Story told has a clear beginning, middle, and end Uses good use of gestures and body Uses good use of voice (clear and loud enough and varied in delivery)
Good Tell It Again! Good Tell It Again!
Suggested Books to Learn and Tell Caps for sale. Slobodkina The Rainbow Fish. Pfister Where the wild things are. Sendak The Lady with the Alligator Purse. Wescott. Unlovable. Yaccarino The Cow who wouldn’t come down. Johnson The Carrot seed. Krauss Rattletrap Car.. Root Dogs noisy day. Dodd
CAUTION: Try to avoid being too restrictive in expectations for students, a fun and positive experience will reap greater rewards, remember everyone is successful in this story process is they really try, evaluation is for self-correction only, and memorization is not necessary for storytelling. Since storytelling is factored into language arts curriculum standards, a teacher may easily incorporate it into reading and language arts blocks.
READING ALOUD: Tips, Hints, and Helps Story reading styles are individual and varied, but the following tips are suggestions for successful and enjoyable story times. They can be adapted as a handy tool for volunteers and guests. For more help on story times see my manual, OFF THE PAGE: Basics Tips for Conducting a Story Time (2005). Planning Before Your Storytime Read the book(s) yourself first. Think about the story and the intended audience. Practice reading it aloud. Hear the rhythm and pace of the text, become aware of the changes in emphasis in voice patterns or style. Note words that may require explanation. Note the pictures at which you wish to pause before turning the pages.
Younger children need stretch and movement breaks. Rehearse any songs or finger plays you plan to use to respond to this need.
Starting Your Storytime For Preschool Children
Greet the children with positive enthusiasm. Tell them your name and explain what you will be doing. Build rapport. Explain expectations of conduct. Assure them there will be times they can speak. Be positive in “selling” the activity. Take roll of children pre-registered giving a special word of welcome to each child. Arrange children in a semi circle, or pie wedge, shape for best visibility of the books or storyteller/storyreader. Chairs are optional as children can be most comfortable on the floor. Make yourself comfortable on a low, comfortable stool or chair. You should be able to slightly rotate your body to see everyone.
Start and end the storytime in the same manner thus setting a pattern with which the children can become familiar. Have a special ritual, song, poem, or special finger play to help settle the children into the “wonder of the story time”. Ring a tiny chime, turn on a special lamp, do special movement poem to signal the time to start.
When introducing each book, hold it to display the cover. Give the title, the author, and the illustrator. Hold the book open in one hand, on one side of your body, so that children can see the illustrations easily. Slightly tilt or turn the book so that all children can see the double page spread. Try to hold the book as steady and motionless as possible. Limit large motions with the book (such as panning the book across the audience); as this can very distracting. Instead try to maintain a steady posture throughout the sharing time.
Introducing the first book is important. Have your body language, tone of voice, and language indicate how you want the children to respond. Your opening will set the tone for all that follows. Use your own voice (especially as a new reader): steady, natural, but animated. Keep it simple. Do not rush and have good volume. Enunciate clearly. At natural times in the story turn to the children, make eye contact, and draw them into the story. Try to maintain the attention of the story – in a positive manner. Invite them back to the story without embarrassing them. This is where the adults in the room help maintain order. Allow the children to absorb the text at their own pace: meaning that you should read slowly (but in an interesting way) and pause before turning each page. Encourage children to have fun by participating in refrains or chants. Set this up at the start and provide a clear clue for them to join in.
Be cautious of interrupting the story by adding unnecessary comments or by asking questions (save those for a second read through of the book). Although predicting can be a valid reading tool – it can be akin to someone talking during a movie. Carefully limit and target the groups and times for use of this tool. It is best to ignore spontaneous interruptions from children or to simply indicate that they wait. Through a simple hand gesture (finger to lips). It is always best to have a helper monitor the children if the group is large or boisterous.
From One Book to Another
A transition from one book to a subsequent one may be as simple as saying: “The next book I will be reading for you is called *title+.” As you gain more comfort and knowledge of the books, you may wish to point out linking themes or similarities: “Here is another book about a curious animal and its adventures”; share information about the author or the
illustrator in a sentence or two, maybe with a tag “…watch out in this book and see if you see any ways the pictures are the same.” Transitions may take the form of an action such as a fingerplay or a song. This is especially useful with smaller children. Always have a display of other books children (or parents) might wish to check out to read at home. Ideally, a page or booklet with book lists and activities is useful and good PR.
Ending Your Storytime
Display the books you have read, give a cheer for the books, or have a closing song or chant. (see section on activating story times). Thank the children for being such good visitors and listeners to positively reinforce good behavior. Tell them when you or someone else will be reading again. Encourage them to visit the library for more good times and books to read.
Finally, give yourself a treat for doing a wonderful thing! You are exciting children with a vital experience – the joyous adventure of reading and literature.
Activating Your Storytime
Move beyond passive listening (auditory) to engage the kinesthetic, visual, and logical learner. Music, drama, action rhymes, chants, and cheers are all means to “activate” the story time. SONGS. Use a gathering Song to cue behaviors and set a tone. “Story Time Is Here” (M.H.; Tune: Farmer in the Dell) Story time is here. Story time is here Gather round and sit right there, Story time is here! Use a Cheer or Chant to generate enthusiasm and allow children needing movement or speech to be involved (thus reducing some behavior problems).
LIBRARY CHANT BOOKS! (M. Hudson) Books, books, books! / Read, read, read! Hey, everybody, that’s what I need! (REPEAT) Read-to-me, read-to-me, read-to-me YAH! Read-tome, read-to-me, read-to-me YAH! (REPEAT)
RHYMING PLAY Apple Tree (Adapted from Traditional, M. Hudson) There’s a BIG old apple tree! See those RED apples? GRINNING down at me. SHAKE that tree so very hard PICKING up the apples all over my yard! Repetitions involve students in a fun and positive manner while helping them in the physical use of language (speaking out loud, pronunciation, inflections, etc.)
DRAMA, DANCE, & MUSIC
Employ the theater arts: Have children act out, retell, or use puppets, stuffed animals, or flannel figures to tell the story. All of these assist the kinesthetic while also instill a sense of the patterns useful in reading and math skill development. Put on a CD that has music supporting the story time theme and move! Slow classical pieces to visit dreams, hip-hop, classic rock to pump up the energy levels, form a conga line and dance around the room! Dance, sway, march, hop to the music using crepe paper streamers, ribbons, hoops, or decorated paper plates! Teach simple dance steps for American square dance, Irish step dance or jig, ballet, tap or clogging. Make instruments! Teach them how to make a comb Kazoo! VISUAL A standard of most reading times using drawing, collage, crafts or other mediums. Move beyond this to also encourage visual discrimination skills (remember Where’s Waldo?) and concepts of artistic quality in picture books (warm colors, lines, textures) and how
that helps “tell” the story (a great way to utilize those Caldecott Award winners and nominees).
SOME FAVORITE BOOKS TO READ ALOUD
Caps for Sale. E. Slobodkina. The Rattletrap Car. P. Root. Dogs Noisy Day: A story to read aloud. E. Dodd. 2002 Roar! A Noisy Counting Book. P. Edwards. 2000 Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People’s Ears. V. Aardema. First Strawberries. J. Bruchac. Clever Tom and the Leprechaun. L. Shute Does a Cow Say Moo? J. Hindley Splish, Splash, Spring! J. Carr. Walk the Dog. B. Barner Stand tall, Molly Lou Melon. P. Lovell. 2001
“Teaching Storytelling: A Position Statement from the Committee on Storytelling.” NCTE, A Professional Association of Educators in English Studies, Literacy, and Language Arts: Positions and Guidelines, located at http://www.ncte.org/positions/teaching_storytelling.shtml Storytelling Skills Rubric. Heather Frost. www.storyarts.org/classroom/usestories/storyrubric.html Storytelling. Position Papers. www.Californiareads.org/position/story.htm Storytelling: It’s Wide Ranging Imput in the Classroom. ERIC Digest #34. www.indiana.edu/~eric_rec/ieo/digests/a34.html Brand, Susan Trostle. Jeanne M. Donato. Storytelling in Emergent Literacy: Fostering Multiple Intelligences. Delmar. 2001. Homza, Jennifer. “Tell me a story: Storytelling in the school LMC.” School Library Media Activities Monthly, April 2001 (p. 19) Brodie, Carolyn S. “Sharing Stories: Storytelling Suggestions.” School Library Media Activities Monthly. December 2001 (p. 33). Tennessee Reading Association. “Support Storytelling Project’ www.pampetty.com/storytelling.htm
Frost, Heather, classroom storytelling, www.storyarts.org/classroom Watt, Letty. “Storytelling in the Classroom: Putting the Book Aside.” Reprinted from the March 1988 issue of the Texas Teller at http://tejasstorytelling.com/classrm.html “Story-go-round” at www.unicef.ca/eng/unicef/story/sotry_go.html “Adding Storytelling themes to the classroom” at http://www.griffin.peachnet.edu/ga/cobb/FACS/EducatorTip s/storythemes.htm Storytelling Cue Cards at www.ils.unc.edu/~sturm/storytelling/cuecards/
Author Note: Many of the resources presented in this section were previously presented in workshops I conducted from 1999 to 2004 (Encyclo-Media, Oklahoma Library Association, Metropolitan Library System) and in training materials I prepared for the office of Outreach Services, Metropolitan Library System, Oklahoma City (2002). PBS also used part of this for training purposes for their volunteer program for community readers.
IN THE LIBRARY: STORY TIME PLANNING GUIDE
Use this guide when planning your own story programs. Incorporating one or more activities from each of the four areas will result in a more balanced range of activities. HEARING
Book sharing, storytelling, songs/rhymes, echo readings, cloze activities
Number recognition games; classifying; pattern recognition; order and sequence; greater than/ less than / estimating games
Seeing artwork/ illustrations; letter recognition; color recognition; locating items
Acting out/ drama; dance / movement; tactile experiences; finger plays; clapping (fun and teaches patterns); crayon/scissor use; copying simple designs (small motor & hand & eye coordination)
SAMPLE STORY TIME SEQUENCE
Introduction / Welcome First story Activity (Finger plays, songs, etc.) Second story Activity Third story (depending on age and ability to sit) Concluding activity: Gross motor skills (large action play), craft, etc. Children have different developmental needs at different times in their lives and each has its own unique learning style combination. This means that in a library story sharing time there should be adequate variety to capture the attention of children with various learning styles. This time should also supply the appropriate levels of stimulation (fun activities, various experiences) they need to really enjoy the story time.
When planning such times for young children, be sure to alternate sitting/listening activities with small movement activities to keep the children engaged and improve listening skills. Include experiences to capture the attention of visual, hearing, movement, and thinking learners. Remember that very young children have difficulty focusing on one thing for long periods. This shorter attention span requires briefer format and diverse content that fluctuates between action and sitting. For the best story time management reserve very active movements (getting up, dancing, marching, games, art, etc.) for the conclusion of the entire time together. This will end the session on a high positive note and maintain discipline.
SAMPLE PRESCHOOL STORYTIME
Theme: Summer [use a broad type of theme to allow use of quality materials and avoid settling on “anything” to fit a narrow theme] Introduction: Say “Summer is the time a lot of people head for the water. Some people go to a beach, some people make a beach in their back yard and some people go to a lake. We are going to make a beach party right here.” Opening: Sing a song, hand out carpet squares or beach towels, and settle everyone down on these. “We’re gonna read a book, book, book! We’re gonna have fun, fun, fun! / Clap your hands, Slap your knee – Come on everybody – Sit by me!” (--M.H. 2003) Share 1st BOOK Activity: Pass around seashells, or pictures of beaches, lakes, etc. Talk a little about the item. Make a graph and ask for guesses of how many people have been to a lake, how many to a pool, and how many to the ocean? Activity: Song or motion complementing the previous activity:
“My little baby goldfish He swims around without a sound He swims in circles ‘round and ‘round With a tail that goes : swish!” (M.H. 2003) Share 2nd BOOK [a 3rd BOOK can be added with older children] Closing activity: Toddlers can play beach ball roll, play a game of run into the surf, etc. Older children may make a tiny aquarium using a zip lock bag or plastic bottle. Add a little water, very small amount of dish detergent, food color, some colored sand, and small plastic fish. SOME SUGGESTED STORYTIME TITLES Toddler Level The Three Bears. Barton Carrot Seed. Kraus Bouncing. Hughes I Touch. Isadora Messy Baby. Ormerod
All Fall Down. Oxenbury Five Little Ducks. Raffi Ten, Nine, Eight. Bang ABC Bunny. Gag Pat the Bunny. Read To Your Bunny. Wells Blue Sea. Kalan Color Farm. Ehlert Mouse Paint. Walsh Lunch. Fleming Ten Black Dot. Crews Is it Red? Is it Yellow? Is it Blue? Hoban If You Give A Mouse A Cookie. Numeroff We’re Going On A Bear Hunt Rosen Big Red Barn. Brown The Important Book. Brown
Mr. Grumpy’s Motor Car and/ or Outing. Burningham Jamberry. Degen Feathers for Lunch. Ehlert Is it larger? Is it smaller? Hoban Peter’s Chair. Keats Kitten. Kemp Brown Bear. Brown Bear, What Do You See? Martin Who Said Red? Serfozo Baby Dance. Taylor Piggies. Wood The Big Hungry Bear. Wood
Preschool Level Quack and Count. Baker It Could Have Been Worse. Benjamin Bear’s Busy Family. Blackstone
Island in the Sun. Balafonte You Are Here. CrewsDream Journey. Eduar. Golden Bear. Young One Afternoon. Heo Baby Rattlesnake. Ata Ta The Colors of Us. Katz Baby Says. Steptoe Primary Level (K to 3rd) Powwow. Ancona Mirandy and Brother Wind. McKissack Red Bird. Mitchell Uncle Jed’s Barbershop. Mitchell My Father’s Boat. Garland Baseball Saved Us. Mochizuki Tar Beach. Ringgold In Daddy’s Arms I Am Tall. Steptoe
AGE CHARACTERISTICS TYPES OF MATERIALS PARENT-CHILD TIME
Motor Development; Coordination
“Touch” books, explore textures, colors (vivid); ABC’s; Mother Goose
Shared time in play, stories, song, finger play, talking to child. Play word games, clown, nonsense games
2 TO 7
Personality Dev. / Lang. Have trouble telling difference between object and word symbol Concrete; limited to info based on own experiences; focused on self
Animal Books, easy jokes; riddles; early dictionaries
7 TO 11
Non-fiction; lots of pictures; feelings & relationships; science fiction; single subject focus
Group & Physical activities; outdoor activities; environmental concerns
11 TO 14
Seeks social approval; focus on the group
Diaries; biographies; poetry; self-expression; series books
Social skills; Appearances; volunteer values and skills, sex education; civic service Legal rights; arts; culture (own and others); college plans; work values; money Controversy/d ebates (wants to be heard and have viewpoint taken seriously) ;individual begins to distance from home
14 TO 18
Social; justice minded; ethics explored; careers; less peer pressure; individualism
Law & Mysterious; Psychology; explorations
18 TO 24
Social justice; ethics; self; selfhelp; skill driven; have own beliefs and ideas
Life skills ($ and how-to help) ; self-directed education
Source: U.S. Department of Education
Read Report on Early Intervention http://eduplace.com/rdg/res/prevent/introduction.html at
Suggested Books List for Early / Emergent Readers at http://bnkst.edu/americareads/books.html The Library’s Role in http://www.lili.org/rlrtm1.htm Emergent Literacy at
Fact Sheet on the Importance of Reading to Infants and Young Children at http://www.publishers.org/home/about a/camp/factsheet.htm Storytelling: How to Tell a Tale http://www.libraryspot.com/storytellingfeature.htm at
How To Teach Storytelling, Tampa Storytelling Festival Coaching Manual (c1998) at http://www.tampastory.org/tsf_manual.html
HOW TO GET MORE FROM READING A BOOK :Reading Clubs and Book Discussions
Read Below The Surface What is main theme running through the book serving to unify all the action and characters? Themes may
include “good v evil”, “kindness is its own reward”, “love conquers all”. Look at the style of the author’s writing. Does the author use lots of images, word pictures, lovely language, or a cut-and-style style writing? Does this style aid the author in the story goal? Does the author use symbols in the writing? Another element to be noted can be tone. Is the tone “preachy”, “bored”, or does the author seem to be writing down to the audience? How does the setting function in the story? Does it serve to help move the story forward (integral) or is it merely a background to the story (incidental)? What type of plot has the author developed? Plot is the order of events showing the characters in actions that move the story to its conclusion or climax. Remember plot equals action in a story. Action is usually conflict of some nature. A problem that must be overcome. Common types of plots are: person v person; person v self; person v society; person v nature. In most cases, it is the characters who drive the plot in a story. Who is the main character of the book? How do they reveal their nature to the reader? Is the person positive, negative, mystery? How does the author
convey them to the reader? Characters are often depicted as “round”, well developed presentation including details and motives) or “flat” ,faintly developed lacking any understanding or motive). How the characters respond to the problems drives the story as they face a problem, overcome it, and face another one. Character + Conflict = Plot. DISCUSS WHAT YOU HAVE READ When people share about books they have read they will be stimulated and will stimulate others to exercise higher level critical thinking skills. Book discussions are useful in introducing new books, broadening areas of interest, and improving reading/comprehension skills. Book discussions are therefore useful for many age groups. Book Discussion Group Agreement I will read the book or story selected I will respect the opinions of others I will communicate clearly and participate often in the discussions
I will document my statements as often as I can by sharing the line or paragraphs that illustrate my view or question I will express my opinions about the book/author and not other group members
Some Suggested Books for Children To Read and Discuss Jazmin’s Notebook. Grimes Shimmershine Queens. Yarbrough The Well. Taylor Smokey Night. Bunting Donvan’s Word Jar. Degross Babuska’s Doll. Pollaco Award Books, best sellers, local history
Using Mythic Archetypes to Create Stories ARCHETYPES Myth is variously defined within Western cultures as a) sacred narrative defining origins (folkloric & religious view); b) untruths or lies (the same problem the term “storytelling” has in common parlance) ; c) an expression of the un-conscience mind defining its world (psychological view) ; d) symbolic expression (literary view). Archetypes are common patterns shared by people across time and represent aspects of the human condition. The most common archetypes found in stories are the hero, the villain, the guide, and the prize. The hero normally has a mysterious origin or hidden truth about his birth, he is sent on a journey where he must learn new skills and face his deepest fears. Along the way a troupe is assembled, often including a guide (remember Obi Wan?), and a villain who dogs their footsteps creating problems. The hero, as seen in stories from around the globe, may be of any gender or species. The end of this journey of transformation is a prize that makes all the struggle or pain worthwhile: great riches, a beautiful companion, a safe home or village, peace,
happiness, or the satisfaction of having become a better person as the result of the struggle. SUB-TEXT Archetypes can successfully tell a story within a story serving as point and counterpoint to primary action in the story. When archetypes are seen in a character they strike a cord within the reader or the listener. The element of the “everyman”, the term used in the medieval era for plays portraying a story with which anyone could resonate. Archetypes in a story should evolve naturally and never be forced. In other words setting out to create a story trying to force characters in a role as “Mentor” or “Hero” will always result in a contrived texture to the story. As the story develops, based on the characters involved, these elements may naturally present themselves. This also true for realism without caricature. Remember to avoid the tendency to grab the archetype and beat the reader/listener over the head with it. “This is an archetype, I tell you! An archetype! Did I tell you (wink, wink) that this is an archetype!” On reflection, the reader or listener should be able to assign them the role
as they are discovered, and as they learn more about the many aspects of the character.
LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD:
The familiar fairy tale of the little girl sent to visit her grandmother, who encounters a wolf, and how a wolf tricks the girl is well known. The original tale involves many more complex and adult themes and one popular 17th century version refers to young innocents aboard, in the court of the French King, being preyed on by young men of low reputation. Over the years the more adult themes were softened, the bloody end of the wolf concealed, and the strength and courage of the young girl replaced by the last minute rescue by a woodsman passing by the cottage. For over a hundred years the precautionary tale was replaced by watered down versions. In archetypal terms the story can take on a whole new look if the young woman is seen as a person setting out on their own personal life journey. The story starts with the mother sending the child away. The mother (or parent figure) has prepared the child, given them directions, purpose, set them on the journey toward self-knowledge. The girl (representing the hero, the inner self, wandering soul – take your pick) is set in counterpoint opposition to the wolf
(representing the destroyer, the consumer, that which has no self-control, the animal separated from its human self). She is all that the wolf is not and these two worlds collide on the path through the forest (the route of the journey). The journey, in archetypal terms, is always a time of transformation. It is a time where the inner self (soul) calls to itself to gain important selfknowledge; overcoming obstacles, learning and using new skills, finding new strengths and learning something new about its own origins. It is intriguing that the story focuses on three females at three different stages of life. The story flows from the mother to the daughter to the grandmother. This may be an artifact of the true, or original, meaning and use of the story. One original version, has the girl choosing a “path of needles” and some have speculated that this may be a residual element of an ancient woman centered sewing guild. The same thought informs interpretations of the poisoned garment Medea gave to Jason in the Greek myth of the Golden Fleece. Sewing, like other magical occupations, was sometimes the sphere of women and passed as secret knowledge from mother to daughter. All of which illustrates the way that simple stories may be actually very complex tales serving specific purposes
now lost to modern culture. Or, simply an illustration of how convoluted academic papers can sometimes be as they struggle to add something new to the common body of knowledge. You be the judge. The LRRH Story, does provide a beautiful symbolic illustration of the truism that you can’t know where you are going until you know where you have been. The source of the mother was the grandmother figure (Creator/Source image, guiding force, self-knowledge, balance, authenticity) and for the child to know who she really is in life she has to make the journey of selfdiscovery and learn for herself where her family comes from. She has to face this internal conflict in order to know who she really is as she returns, changed and now whole, but carrying the knowledge of the grandmother, to the mother. Thus, looking at the story being created through the lens of these mythic archetypes, ask some specific questions: What is your character’s SOURCE? What “DESTROYER” is out to get your character? What “OBSTACLES” await your character?
What “TRANSFORMATIONS” must occurs while the character hurries to grandmother’s house? What “NEW KNOWLEDGE” will the character take back home? What is the “OVERARCHING” meaning of the story, the struggle, and the resolution?
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 1948. Campbell, Joseph. The Mythic Image. 1974. Bolen, Jean S. Ring of Power: The Abandoned Child, the Authoritarian Father, and the Dis-empowered Feminine. Keen, Sam. Your Mythic Journey: Finding Meaning in Your Life Through Writing and Storytelling. 1989. Pearson, Carol S. Awakening the Hero Within: Twelve Archetypes to Help Us Find Ourselves and Transform the World. 1991. Moore, Robin. Awakening the Hidden Storyteller. 1991. Vogler, Chris. The Writer’s Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers. 2nd ed.
Samples of Archetypes in Media Star Wars (Paramount, 1977) – Identify the archetypes represented by “Luke”, “Hans”, “Obi Wan” and “Darth Vader”. Discuss how you think the use of archetypes contributed to the success of this film. The Matrix (Warner, 1999) – In the last third of this film two scenes serve to drive home the archetype of the hero: the scene where “Neo” is able to dodge the bullets matching the mysterious hunter’s skill. The other is the moment when he rejects the reality being imposed on him as bullets riddle his body, he transcends and transform in that moment into the “Hero” of myth achieving the impossible, and acting out his destiny. The Wheel of Time series by Robert Jordan (see esp. see vol. One, chapter 9, pg. 110f). “Bugs Bunny” (Warner Brothers) was the modernization of the trickster character from a dozen different cultures.
All of these were wildly popular, and most, have retained great popularity. Does the fact that the characters reflect archetypes make this longevity possible? What are some of the problems and opportunities encountered in creating stories from the mythic fabric of the world? What new examples are emerging via anime, graphic novels, movies, and books?
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
MARILYN A. HUDSON is a graduate of the University of
Oklahoma she has degrees in history and library-information studies and holds certification as both a public librarian and a school library media specialist. She has done postgraduate study in writing and literacy in early child development. She has been telling stories for nearly twenty years around the state and at such events as: the Oklahoma City Arts Festival, various Tellabration! Events, the Lawton Community Theater, Territory Tellers Concert at Oklahoma City’s Wintertales! Additionally, she has been a storyteller for the Metropolitan Library System, the Pioneer Library System, “Faith Breaks” (a radio program), the Chickasaw Regional Library System, Norman Public Schools, Minco Public Schools, Luther Public Schools, among others. She has told as part of various adult and children’s programs in churches in Oklahoma, Kansas, and in Alaska. She performed an original tale on the sampler storytelling CD “Autumn Leaves and Stories Everywhere” (produced by the Territory Tellers 2002). Her writing experiences include a stint as a stringer for the Enid News (Enid, OK); a contributing editor for a national inspirational magazine, an editor for two church periodicals and the Territory Tellers newsletter. In all, she has over 150 published articles/stories to her credit. Her original
Oklahoma tall tale, “Annie Oklahoma” was included in the first Red Dirt Anthology (2004) and “Runestone” followed in volume 2, and “The Bottomless Well” in volume 3. Her other works include ELEPHANT HIPS ARE EXPENSIVE, ONE NIGHTCLUB AND A MULE BARN, SHADOW TALES, OFF THE PAGE! , NIGHT VOICES, and WHEN DEATH RODE THE RAILS. Marilyn is an advocate for libraries; storytelling, early literacy, and helping parents connect with the library for a better tomorrow. She welcomes the opportunity to speak to groups on these subjects.
She can be contacted by writing or email: firstname.lastname@example.org 5658 NW Pioneer Circle Marilyn A. Hudson Norman, OK 73072
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.