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Period of Intuitive Nursing It dated from pre-historic times, was practiced among primitive tribes and lasted through the early Christian era. Nursing was “untaught” and instinctive. It was performed out of compassion for others, out of wish to help others. A. Beliefs and Practices of the Pre-Historic Man 1. He was a nomad, his philosophy of life: “best for the most” and “law of self-preservation” 2. Nursing was a function belonged to women – she took good care of the children, the sick and the aged. 3. He believed that illness was caused by the invasion of the victim’s body by evil spirit, using black magic or voodoo. 4. He believed that the medicine man called “shaman” or witchdoctor had the power to heal by using white magic. The shaman used hypnosis, charms, dances, incantations, purgatives, massage, fire, water, herbs, etc. as means of driving illness from the victim. He also practiced “trephining” (drilling a hole in the skull with a rock or stone without benefit of anesthesia), as a last resort to drive evil spirits from the body of the afflicted. B. Nursing In the Near East Beliefs and Practices 1. Man’s mode of living changed from nomadic style to an agrarian society into an urban community life. 2. Man developed means of communication and the beginnings of a body of scientific knowledge. 3. Nursing remained the duty of slaves, wives, sisters or mothers. 4. Care of the sick was still closely related to religion, superstition and magic, added astrology and numerology in medical practice. 5. There was the birth of three religious ideologies: Judaism, Christianity and Mohammedanism. Contributions to Medicine and Nursing
C. Nursing In the Far East 1. China a. Imbued with beliefs of spirits and demons, - boy babies were given girl’s names and dressed in girl’s clothes to avoid evil befalling them. b. Practiced ancestor worship which prohibited the dissection of human body. c. Gave the world knowledge of material medica (pharmacology); a prescribed method of treating wounds, infections and muscular afflictions. d. There was no mention of nursing; it is assumed that care of the sick was done by female members of the household. 2. India a. Men of medicine built hospitals, practiced an intuitive form of asepsis, and were proficient in the practice of medicine and surgery. b. Sushurutu – made list of functions and qualifications of nurses. For the first time in recorded history, there was reference to the nurse’s taking care of patients. These nurses were described as combinations of pharmacists, masseurs, physical therapists and cooks. D. Nursing in Ancient Greece a. Nursing was the task of the untrained slave. b. Introduced the caduceus, the insignia of the medical profession today. c. Hippocrates, here in Greece is given the title “Father of Scientific Medicine” E. Rome: a. Transition from Pagan to Christian Philosophy took place. There was contrast between the materialism of the pagan society and the spirituality of the converted Christians. b. Romans attempted to maintain vigorous health, because illness was a sign of weakness. c. Care of the ill was left to the slave or Greek physicians; both groups were looked upon as inferior by Roman society. d. Fabiola – a worldly, beautiful Roman matron who became a converted Christian through the help of friends Marcella and Paula; made her home the first hospital in the Christian World. II. Period of Apprentice Nursing
1. Babylonia: Code of Hammurabi – provided laws that covered every facet of Babylonian life including medical practice. The medical regulations established fees, discouraged experimentation, designed specific doctors for each disease, and gave each patient the right to choose between the use of charms, the use of medications or a surgical procedure to cure his disease. There was no mention of nurses or nursing. 2. Egypt: a. Introduced the art of embalming, which enhanced their knowledge on human anatomy. b. Developed the ability to make keen clinical and hospital personnel. Slaves and patient’s families nursed the sick. 3. Hebrews: a. Moses wrote the five books of the Old Testament. b. Emphasized practice of hospitality to strangers and the acts of charity (Book of Genesis –O.T.) c. Promulgated laws of control on the spread of communicable disease and the ritual of circumcision of the male child. (Book of Leviticus) d. Reference to nurse is as midwife, wet nurse or child’s nurse, whose acts were compassionate and tender, the outpouring of maternal instincts. e. Moses – “Father of Sanitation”
It extends from the founding of religious nursing orders in the Crusades which began in the 11th century to 1836, when the Deaconess School of Nursing at Kaisserwerth, Germany was established by Pastor Fliedner and his wife. It is called the period of “on-the-job training”. Nursing care is performed without any formal education; performed by people who are directed by more experienced nurses. Religious orders of the Christian Church were responsible for the development of this kind of Nursing. A. The Crusades
Crusades – holy wars conducted in an attempt to recapture the Holy Land from the Turks who denied Christian pilgrims permission to visit the Holy Sepulcher. Military Religious Orders established hospitals and staffed them with men. Military Religious Orders and their works 1. Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (Italian) – devoted to religion and nursing. Discipline was strict, it also established the organization of rank, advocated principles of complete and unquestioned devotion to duty and traditional obedience to superiors
hospitals were established for the car of the sick. the orphaned and the widowed. everything in life had to be based upon scientific fact for nothing else was true. 4. They established tent hospitals for the wounded. They worked seven days a week. Practice of environmental sanitation and asepsis were non-existent. despite her wealth. The wrath of Protestantism swept away everything connected with Roman Catholicism in schools. She provided for orphans and fed from 300-500 persons daily at her gate. 3. the value of women was still concentrated in her role as a wife and a mother. 16th century. Catherine of Siena – the first “lady with a lamp”. the poor. Living in blighted slum areas. obtain an education. 3. The Oblates – (12th Century) order similar to Beguines. stole the patient’s food and used alcohol as a tranquilizer. Skepticism was the result of political. But this progress in nursing is brought to a halt by industrial and political revolution and the Reformation in the 16th century. The hospitals were gloomy. service and chastity. slept in cubbyhole near the hospital ward or patient and ate scraps of food when they could find them. Knights of St. Ursulines c. In England. Found in 1170 by priest Lambert Le Begue 3. Only by entering a convent could she follow a career. Augustinians Nurses during the rise of religious nursing orders. there were also the rise of the religious nursing orders for women. Nurses fled for their lives. 4. 2. the crusades and the guilds. preacher and reformer of society and the church. Other Religious Nursing Orders: a. which was the largest school of Nursing under religious auspices and operated exclusively for men in the United States. There was overcrowding of patients – three or four patients. St. 2. 2 . She pledged her life to the service at the age of seven and was referred to as a little saint. 3. Ambition for power and the antagonism resulting from the attempts to achieve this power replaced human empathy. The Dark Period of Nursing . Benedictines b. St. There was little employment and an education was only for the rich and the titled. She worked continually in her hospital and in the homes of the poor. nursing saints had emerged despite the many obstacles faced. These left the world in the following situation: 1. people entered hospital only under compulsion or a last resort. She was a hospital nurse. the younger nuns washed soiled linens. Teutonic Knights (German) –took active part in the subsequent wars in the Holy Land. despite wards and plague. beds were filthy. They were unsanitary. hundreds of hospitals were closed. Louisa de Gras (Nee de Marillae) – first superior and cofoundress of “The Community of Sisters of Charity” III. she lived her life frugally.all of the three orders believed in devoting their lives to poverty and service to the poor. there was also rise of Religious Nursing Orders. Because of problems of poverty and poor health. she employed those who were able to work. regardless of diagnosis or whether alive or dead may have shared one bed. The masses of people huddled in slums as a result of famine. She fed the sick with her own hands. worked under the influence of religious taboos and social restrictions of their culture and education. She built hospitals for the sick and the needy. Clare of Assisi c. Third Order (Tertiary Order) – composed of members who devoted their lives to the order in their home town. intellectural and ideological revolutions. wealth and leisure. and people struggled against one another for power. First Order – found by St. This extends from 17th to 19th centuries. improved their communities. There were no provisions for the sick. Older nuns prayed with and took good care of the sick. made considerable progress under the influence of Christianity. obedience. from the period of Reformation until the civil war. Properties of hospitals and schools were confiscated. Clare – foundress of the Second Order of St. Hospitals were poorly ventilated. and most of all performed nursing in the homes and in the hospitals. 5. cheerless and airless. prophetess. orphanages and hospitals. THE RISE OF SECULAR ORDER . gave nursing care to the sick and afflicted. who devoted their lives to the service of suffering mankind. Orders of St. wars and the introduction of machinery. and perform acts of charity that her faith taught would help her gain grace in heaven. Lazarus – established primarily for the nursing of the lepers in Jerusalem after the city had been conquered by the Christians.2. The world of nursing. The Beguines – composed of lay nurses. 2. took vows of poverty. she was the 25th child. She used all her wealth to make the lives of the poor happy and useful. Nursing became the work of the least desirable of women – women who took bribes from patients. obtain an education. Born of humble Italian parents. Queens. It may be said that nursing owes its foundation to the work of benevolent men and women. Vincent de Paul organized the charity group called “La Charite” and the uncloistered who were dedicated to doing God’s work in caring for the sick. and perform the acts of charity that her faith taught would help princesses and other ladies of royalty. During this period (Apprentice Nursing). Francis of Assisi himself b. went fishing in streams to help provide for the many sufferers. St. In this period. and other ladies of royalty. Secular Orders founded: 1. Class lines could now be bypassed in some parts of the world. who established Alexian Brothers Hospital School of Nursing. princesses. founded by St. the people sank into a brutal and immoral way of life. 4. St. Through these years (12th – 16th centuries). Although Christian teaching gave equality to all men. Alexian Brothers – were members of the monastic order found in 1348. Second Order – the Poor Clares. made their beds. Francis of Assisi (1200-present) a. To avoid idleness. no one to care for the sick. The religious upheaval led by Martin Luther destroyed the unity of Christian faith. The school was closed in 1969.during this period. Elizabeth of Hungary – “The Patroness of Nurses” – the daughter of a Hungarian King. Among them are: 1. Francis of Assisi. Only by entering a convent could she follow a career.
Linda Richards – first graduate nurse in the U.S. Directed the nursing of the injured. literature. She believed that schools of nursing should be self-supporting and not subject to the whims of the hospital base 2. Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston 3 . social problems of places she visited. 1860 – the day the cornerstone of nursing in England was laid. new conquests and new trade routes. Mother Mary Aikenhand – established by the Irish Sisters of Charity to bring back into nursing the dedication of the early Christian era. She entered the Deaconess school of nursing at Kaisserwerth Preparation for nursing: (a) 3 months training at Kaisserwerth. Events and Persons during this Period 1. John Howard – a prison reformer who helped improve living conditions and gave prisoners renewed hope. harsh. Government. Madam Jeanne Mance –first laywoman who worked as a nurse on the North American continent. 2. Women’s hospital in Philadelphia established a sixmonth course in nursing to increase the nurses’ knowledge while they worked. Should have decent living quarters for their students and they should have paid nurse instructors 3. Among them were: 1. uneducated. Connecticut Training School in New Haven c. a certificate of health from a physician c. Pre Civil War Nursing Nursing was carried on by religious orders both Catholic and Protestants in the U. Joseph Warrington in 1839. Germany. and many others helped found and staff hospitals and gave nursing care during the civil war Mrs. June 15. a. 5. This period traces the growth of Nursing in the United States and includes the social forces exerted and the trends resulting from wars. 2. permission from their nearest male relative Nursing in the New World People began to settle in the North American Continent. Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth.A. Her title during this service was Superintendent of Female Nursing Establishment of English General Hospitals in Turkey 3. 1820 in Florence Italy raised in an atmosphere of culture and affluence learned languages. and Canada – Augustinian nuns. she developed her self. Miss Nightingale ignored bacteriologic research and did not believe in germ theory. Ursuline Sisters.Those women personified in Charles Dickens navel as Sairey Gamp and Betsy Prog – filthy.S. 1. on Sept. However. The Nurse Society of Philadelphia organized a school of nursing under the direction of Dr. Nursing During the Civil War Important Personages: 1. Committee on the Training of Nurses – created by the American Medical Association at the end of the civil war to investigate and make suggestions and recommendations for the training of nurses. from the emancipation of women and from the increased educational opportunities offered to women. Doctors were able to realize the need and advantages of having a qualified nurse.appointed goal – “to change the profile of nursing” she developed the habit at a very early age of keeping a journal of her observations as she traveled she compiled notes of her visits to hospitals and her observations of the sanitation facilities.S. 1860 when Florence Nightingale School of Nursing opened at St. 4. Maryland in 1809. Period of Educated Nursing This period began in June 15. She felt that disease could be eliminated by cleanliness.S. but at the age of 31. Thomas Hospital in London. Florence Nightingale – “Mother of Modern Nursing” – also given the title – “The Lady with the Lamp” born on May 12. Dorothea Lynde Dix – appointed Superintendent of Female Nurses for the U. Requirements for entering the school: a. Thomas Hospital in London – where the Nightingale System of Nursing began. 2. to seek for new adventures. Early School of Nursing in the U. mathematics and social graces from her parents education was rounded-out by a continental tour not contented with the social custom imposed upon her as a Victorian lady. Protestant Sisters of Charity. a log cabin hospital. the need for good nursing she advocated care of those afflicted with the many diseased caused by lack of good hygienic practices She first met resistance from her family of her intention to enter a hospital for nurses’ training. Joseph Habson – chairman b. she finally gained their consent. 2. Clara Barton – founder of American Red Cross Nursing of the injured was left to the religious sisterhoods and to volunteers. 1873. Founded the Hotel Dieu of Montreal. drunken. Bellevue Training School for Nurses in New York City – patterned after the Nightingale System Mrs. from an aroused social consciousness. founded the Sisters of Charity at Emmetsburg.A. St. Several leaders sought reforms for the existing conditions. Should support nursing research and promote continuing education for nurses. 3. Pastor Theodor Fliedner and Fredericka Munster Fliedner established Deaconess School of Nursing at Kaiserswerth. IV. materia medica and dietetics. should correlate theory to practice 4. American Reforms in Nursing 1. Nurses were trained on the hob and attended some courses. character reference from clergymen b. She opposed central registry for nurses. (b) working as a superintendent of the “Establishment for Gentlewomen During Illness” She disapproved the restrictions on admission of patients and considered this as unchristian and incompatible with health care She upgraded the practice of nursing and made nursing an honorable profession for gentlewomen She led the nurses that took care of the wounded during Crimean War. need for preventive medicine. Concept of Florence Nightingale on Schools of Nursing 1. Important Dates. the first organized training school of nurses. They were taught a minimum amount of medical and surgical nursing. Elizabeth Seaton – an American.
making up payroll and paychecks. • Anastacia giron tupas. Ex: heart-lung machines. 13. TB. f) Since health was perceived as a fundamental right. prepacked and pre-prepared hospital equipments i) The nurse of the modern times is constantly assuming responsibilities of patient care that were formerly the sole prerogative of the physician HISTORY OF NSG. people believed in special gods of healing. influenza.MAN –abroad • Socorro sirilan. IV. Dr. Ex: Use of disposable. Caroline Hampton – first to wear the rubber gloves to protect her hands while working as an operating room nurse. IN THE PHILIPPINES I. 1913-1937 – a standard curriculum for school of nursing was prepared. 146) – provided funds for refresher courses for nurses no longer in active nursing and stimulation of recruitments programs for schools of nursing V. living standard and environmental conditions of all people. Trends: a) scientific and technical research b) use of Atomic Energy for medical diagnosis and treatment c) utilization of computers for collecting data. h) Technologic efficiency has relieved nurses from a numerous tedious task. hemodialysis. 4 .S. William Halstead – designed the first rubber glove 10. Clara Louise Maas – engaged in medical research on Yellow fever during the Spanish American war. REVOLUTION THE FIRST COLLEGES OF NSG. etc. Period of Contemporary Nursing The period began at the end of World War II. First decade of 20th century – the age of specialization students were required to have experience in the care of patients in all of the specialized fields 14. establishing a diagnosis. teaching. 12. Edith Louisa Cavell – “Mata Hari” served the wounded soldiers during World War I 17. • Rosa militar. obtaining information. government service and prenatal and maternal health nursing. people believed the evil spirits could be driven away by persons w/ powers to expel demons 3.pioneered in nursing education • Socorro diaz. Nurses had to deal with malnutrition. Last 2 decades of 19th Century – the awakening of the Nursing Profession (American Nurses Association) (National League for Nursing Education) 2 nursing organizations established which were contributory to the upgrading of nursing practice and nursing education 11. there was oversupply of nurses. Bolton Bill (Public Law No. Euphemia Van Rensselaer wore the first nurses’ uniform – the symbol of the nurse Events and Trends: World Health Organization –established by the United Nations to assist in fighting disease by providing health information and improving the nutrition. of chief nurse superintendent. Isabel Hampton Robb – first “principal” of the John Hopkins Hospital School of Nursing a graduate of Bellevue Training School she was the person most influential in directing the development of nursing in the U. use of prostheses for defective tissues. This period includes scientific and technological developments and many of the social changes occurring since 1945. most nurses were unemployed because many hospitals were closed as a consequence of patient shortage. beliefs about causations of disease -another person9enemy or witch) 2. School of nursing. LEADERS IN THE PHIL. EARLY BELIEFS AND PRACTICES 1. d) Use of more sophisticated equipment for diagnosis and therapy.PNA • Cesaria tan. If they used leaves or roots. IN THE PHIL. III.first full-time editor of PNA mag called “the Filipino nurse” II. laws were legislated to provide such right. Ex: Medicare and Social Security laws. National League for Nursing Education the nursing organization that made attempts to set standards of nursing education 16.S. practice of nursing was infiltrated with educational objectives. NSG. transplantation of living tissues and organs. w/ the priest-physician (word-doctors) as intermediary. 21. Julia Stimson – the first woman to hold the rank of Major in the U. they will called herb doctors(herbolaryo) HEALTH CARE DURING THE SPANISH REGIME NURSING DURING THE PHIL. founder. V.pioneered in school health education • Sor ricarda Mendoza.1st fil. during this period she had the ability to identify the problems of nursing education and sought resolution for them she worked for state registration and standardization of nursing education programs and teacher preparation for instruction in schools of nursing 8. 9. g) Nursing involvement in community health is greatly emphasized to support Primary Health Care.first editor of PNA magazine called “the message” • Conchita ruiz. Tucker – developed a comprehensive one-year course to prepare nurses for aerospace nursing at Cape Kennedy 7. October 29. record keeping and billing.tasks of housekeeping takes out of hands of the nurses and delegated to attendants 6. Army Nurse Corps 18.S. 1900-1912 – Nursing service developed not only in the hospital service but also in private duty settlement house nursing (forerunner of PHN). maintaining a perpetual inventory. pacemakers for heart muscle. Colonel Pearl E. 1935-1937 – financial rehabilitation started through a series of Social Security laws passed by the Congress 22.pioneered in hospital social service in san lazaro hospital where she was the chief nurse. Armistice Period – public health work was emphasized. 15. e) The advent of space medicine also brought about the development of aerospace nursing. Miss Jane Delano – directness of the American Nursing Service of the Red Cross during World War I 19. 1929 – beginning of the Period of Great Depression there was severe financial crisis in the U. epidemic and the rehabilitation of those disabled in war 20. Nurse to hold the pos.
• VI. HEALTH NSG. Regarded as the Florence nightingale of Iloilo. Loreto tupaz. Nsg.dean of phil. ORGANIZATIONS 5 .
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