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KINGFAHDUNIVERSITYOFPETROLEUM&MINERALS

SystemsEngineeringDepartment

ISE420SixSigmaProject

ReducingDeliveryTimeforGraffiti
Restaurant

TeamMembers
FareedHussein254603
RizwanKhan259871
KhaledGhofaily256123

Team Evaluation Form


Your name: Fareed 254603 Khaled 256123 Rizwan 259871
PERSONNEL EVALUATION: Please enter the names of your team members in the first row and complete the following personnel
evaluation.
1 = Excellent, 2 = Good, 3 = Acceptable, 4 = Marginal, 5 = Unacceptable

Rizwan
Khan

Fareed
Hussein

Khalid
Ghofaily

Attended team meetings

Was punctual

Was willing to listen to others

Gave the project a high priority and willingly accepted


responsibilities

Helped to identify and clarify problems

Was willing to discuss disagreement and adapt

Helped to make sure that everyone understood the solution

Completed assigned tasks as promised and on time

Saw what had to be done and did it without prompting or pressure

Name of team member

1 = Too much (+60%), 2 = Above Average (40%-60%), 3 = Average (25%-40%), 4 = Below Average (15%-25%), 5 = Too little (less 15%)

43-2

41-2

42-2

The most valuable contribution of each team member was

Minitab

Data
Acquisition

420 tools

Who is the Most Valuable Player? (you can mark 0 or more)

Member net contribution

TEAM EVALUATION: Evaluate your teams performance on the following dimensions. Assign a score of 1 where you believe your teams
process is faulty and a score of 5 where you think your team is functioning well. [5: Highly effective - 1: Ineffective]
.Decision Making

Collaborative
5

Cooperation
Ability to handle
Conflict/Differences

Explore and solve conflicts

Balance of Participation

Balanced workload

1
1
A few do most of the work

1
Digresses/off schedule

Don't keep other members informed


4

People do own thing, show no appreciation


4

Members identify with their team


5

Avoid or ignore

Members give others support


5

Team Spirit

Members do only own work

Full, open and spontaneous


5

Support

Focused/on schedule
5

Communication

Members help others out


5

Focus/On Schedule

Unilateral

1
No team spirit

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

2.

3.

4.

INTRODUCTION: ........................................................................................................... 3
1.1.

Background: ................................................................................................................ 3

1.2.

Project Overview: ........................................................................................................ 3

DEFINE: ............................................................................................................................ 4
2.1.

Problem Statement: ..................................................................................................... 4

2.2.

Team Building: ............................................................................................................ 4

2.3.

Graffiti Layout: ........................................................................................................... 4

2.4.

Defining Values: ......................................................................................................... 5

2.5.

Project Metrics: ........................................................................................................... 6

2.6.

Project Process Map (General):................................................................................... 7

2.7.

Project Objective: ........................................................................................................ 8

2.8.

Project Plan: ................................................................................................................ 8

2.9.

Define Checklist: ......................................................................................................... 8

MEASURE ........................................................................................................................ 9
3.1.

Data Gathering: ........................................................................................................... 9

3.2.

Data Observation: ...................................................................................................... 10

3.3.

Process Capability Analysis: ..................................................................................... 11

3.4.

Gage Study: ............................................................................................................... 12

3.5.

Detailed Process Map: ............................................................................................... 13

3.6.

Summary of Measure: ............................................................................................... 14

ANALYZE: ..................................................................................................................... 15
4.1.

Data Stability Check: ................................................................................................ 15

4.2.

Causes and its Effect (Fishbone Diagram): ............................................................... 16

4.4.

Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA): .................................................................. 17

4.5.

Critical Xs: ............................................................................................................... 18

4.6.

Analyze Summary and Checklist: ............................................................................. 18

5.

6.

7.

IMPROVE: ..................................................................................................................... 19
5.1.

Xs and their Actions: ............................................................................................... 19

5.2.

Detailed Process Maps (Improved): .......................................................................... 20

5.3.

Improved Data Gathering: ......................................................................................... 22

5.5.

New Process Capability: ........................................................................................... 23

5.6.

Improve Summary and Checklist: ............................................................................. 23

CONTROL:..................................................................................................................... 24
6.1.

Statistical Process Control (SPC): ............................................................................. 24

6.2.

Out of Control Action Plan (OCAP): ........................................................................ 26

CONCLUSION: .............................................................................................................. 28

APPENDIX I (Project Proposal Form / Questionnaire) ................................................. 29


APPENDIX II (Improved FMEA) .................................................................................... 30
APPENDIX III (Old Process Time, N=100) ..................................................................... 31
APPENDIX III (Old Process Time, N=100) ..................................................................... 32
APPENDIX IV (Improved Process Time, N=50) ............................................................. 33
APPENDIX V (Gage R&R Data, observations=3) .......................................................... 34
APPENDIX VI (Log-Sheet) ............................................................................................... 35
APPENDIX VII (Evaluation Sheet) .................................................................................. 36

1.

INTRODUCTION:

1.1.

Background:
Six Sigma is a statistical concept that measures a process in terms of defects and is

used to represent the range of values of a population with a normal distribution as


mathematically 99.73 percent of all values can be expected to fall within a range that extends
from three sigma below and three sigma above the population mean. Six Sigma enthusiasts
seek exponentially higher quality results having as an ultimate goal of virtually all products,
attributes, or 2 services being with specification ( 6) thus producing fewer than 3.4
defects per million even when shift of 1.5 occurs.

1.2.

Project Overview:
The purpose of this project is to solve the food preparation and delivery issue of

Graffiti Restaurant which is located in the premises of King Fahd University of Petroleum &
Minerals, using Six Sigma methodology (D.M.A.I.C). In brief, problems objectives were set
in the Define phase; data was collected and statistically studied in Measure phase. Then in
Analyze phase, all the steps were covered accordingly. Then, improvements and alternatives
were brought forth in Improve phase. Finally, in Control phase, all the changes and
implementations were discussed by following-up all the phases step by step.

2.

DEFINE:

2.1.

Problem Statement:
Graffiti restaurant was established in 2009 and at its initial stages the restaurant

earned a great deal of profit. After some time, the restaurant gradually started to lose their self
motivation and eventually began losing its customer. The main reason for losing the
customers was delay in on-call order deliveries. Our team surveyed the restaurant and
noticed that during the past year, the average number of deliveries with complaints per order
has increased by 20%. It was observed that the average duration time from cooking the
order placed by the customer to the time receives the order is 69 minutes. This project
identifies several reasons for this delay in order deliveries and provides solutions to reduce
them.
2.2.

Team Building:
We formed a cross-functional team and used the Six Sigma DMAIC problem solving

process to identify opportunities for improvement. First, we conducted a qualitative process


analysis to identify potential causes for the number of complaint orders. Next, we set up a
data collection plan at the restaurant. Here, we conducted an observational study over a two
and a half month period of various key input variables versus the number of complaint orders
to determine the major causes of the increase in delay of deliveries. From this study, we were
able to identify several recommendations for our Graffiti Restaurant.
2.3.

Graffiti Layout:

2.4.

Defining Values:
Following are some defining values that were taken into consideration for

understanding the problem in depth.

Who is the customer?


The main customers of the restaurant are the students of KFUPM.

Customer Requirements (VOC):


Customer wants the quality food within the promised timings of delivery.

What is Critical to Satisfaction (CTS)?


The time of arrival of orders to the customers is critical to satisfy. Therefore, voice of
the customer (VOC) has to be satisfied.

Current Project Outputs (Y):


Our motive is to reduce the process variation in order to meet customers satisfaction.

Baseline Unit:
Time(minutes) per Delivery

Defect Definition:
The duration from cooking the order placed by the customer to its delivery is greater
than 75 minutes.

Project (Y) Specifications:


Time from ordering the food to the time customer receives should be less than or
equal to 75 minutes.

Project focus:
Our project focuses the 6 frequently delivered food item to the customer at his home.
We are dealing with on-call deliveries.

2.5.

Project Metrics:
The team has observed and taken the data from the restaurant that will be needed for

quantifying the customers requirements. We took the data of 100 observations and found the
results for 6 different food items that were ordered most frequently by the customers. These
orders include:
-

Chicken Sub

Pizza

Fries

Meat Sub

Hot Dog

Drinks

Since fries and drinks consume less time and are the negligible food items so we did
not put them in our study of defect. Also, we found the time for cooking the Hot Dog; it was
reasonable enough that does not affect the process. However, the most affecting processes
were found to be the cooking time for Chicken Sub, Meat Sub and Pizza. Since the VOC is
75 minutes so we found that there were 11 unsatisfied customers out of 100 observations.
With this information we calculated the throughput yield (TPY), defects per unit (DPU) and
parts per million (PPM) in the following manner.
Unsatisfied Customers: 11 out of 100

DPU: 11 100 = 0.11

TPY: e-DPU = e-0.11 = 0.895 90%

PPM: 0.11 1,000,000 = 110,000

Following graphs shows the Pareto and Pie Chart for the defective process for the 11
unsatisfied customers out of 100.
Pareto Chart of Deffective Processes
Pie Chart of Deffective Processes

30

Category
Chicken Sub
Delivery
Meat Sub
Pizza

100
25

Count

60

15

40

10

20

5
0
Deffective Processes
Count
Percent
Cum %

Percent

80

20

Delivery
11
40.7
40.7

Pizza
8
29.6
70.4

Chicken Sub Meat Sub


6
2
22.2
7.4
92.6
100.0

2.6.

Project Process Map (General):

Following flow chart shows the general process map of the graffiti restaurant.

2.7.

Project Objective:
Since the data shows that the current average delivery time is 69.07 minutes. Our

project objective is to reduce the defect rate of delay in order deliveries of the Graffiti
restaurant by 27%.

2.8.

Project Plan:
To plan the projects objective we built a Gantt chart to time line our team effort into

following segments:

GANTTCHART

Actions

Week
1

Week
2

Week
3

Week
4

Week
5

Week
6

Week
7

Week
8

Week
9

Week
10

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

2.9.

Define Checklist:
Customer

KFUPM Students

VOC

Delivery of quality food with promised timings.

CTS

VOC should be satisfied.

Project Y specifications

Delivery 75 minutes

Project Metrics

TPY = 90%

Process Map

General

Project Objective

Reduce defect rate of delivery by 27%.

Project Plan

Gantt Chart

PPM = 110,000.

3.

MEASURE

3.1.

Data Gathering:
Our team gathered the data by taking 100 observations for each stage of the process

map. Each of our project team members was assigned to a certain task for observing the time
through the stop watch to a particular stage of the process. We gathered the data in the
following four stages:
1. First, each of our team members recorded 3 observations of the cooking time for
these 6 frequently ordered food items. We took the average time of cooking of
each food item and generated the Pareto-chart to see the time consumption for
each of them.
2. Then, the cooking time per order was calculated from the past 100 ordering slips
generated from the POS (Point of Sales) machine, provided by the restaurant.
Eventually, the average cooking time per order was found to be 53.84 minutes per
order.
3. After that, we gave the responsibility to the driver to record his time for delivery
from the restaurant to the customer for these 100 home delivery orders and we
found the average time taken by the car to deliver an order is 15.23 minutes.
4. Finally, we computed the time taken for the order per delivery for each
observation and the average came out to be 69.07 minutes.
Following is the Pareto-Chart that shows the average time consumption for each food
item as observed by our team.
AverageTimeofCooking
18
16
14
12
10
8

TIME

Pizza 16.94
MeatSub 8.93
ChickenSub 7.57
HotDogs
6.5
Fries
4.2
Drinks
0.3

6
4
2
0
Pizza

MeatSub

ChickenSub

HotDogs

Fries

Drinks

3.2.

Data Observation:
Through the 100 POS slips, we recorded the number of food items per order and put

them in excel sheet to plot a Pareto-Chart and see the frequency of orders. Following graph
shows the frequency of orders the 6 food delivered orders.

After gathering all the data, we checked it through Minitab software to observe the
behavior that the data is clean or dirty. We plotted for the cooking time, delivery time and the
total time before the improvements. Following are the results that were come out from
Minitab.
Probability Plot of Old Grafitti, Cooking Time, Delivery Tim
Normal - 95% CI
Old Grafitti Time

Percent

99.9
99

99.9
99

90

90

50

50

10

10

1
0.1

1
0.1

50

60

70

80

90

Delivery Time Per Order

99.9
99

40

50

60

Old Grafitti Time


Mean
69.07
StDev
4.970
N
100
AD
0.402
P-Value 0.353

70

C ooking TimePer Order


Mean
53.84
StDev
4.862
N
100
AD
0.316
P-Value 0.537
Deliv ery Time Per Order
Mean
15.23
StDev
0.8584
N
100
AD
0.203
P-Value
0.873

90
50
10
1
0.1

C ooking TimePer Order

12.0

13.5

15.0

16.5

18.0

10

3.3.

Process Capability Analysis:


To do the capability analysis of the current process of the graffiti restaurant, our team

entered the data for 100 observations in the Minitab and specified the upper and lower
specification limits by surveying 20 students.

Process Capability of Total Time


USL
Within
Ov erall

P rocess Data
LS L
*
Target
*
USL
75
S ample M ean
69.0733
S ample N
100
S tD ev (Within) 4.98244
S tD ev (O v erall) 4.98244

P otential (Within) C apability


Z.Bench 1.19
Z.LS L
*
Z.U S L
1.19
C pk
0.40
O v erall C apability
Z.Bench
Z.LS L
Z.U S L
P pk
C pm

60
O bserv ed P erformance
P P M < LS L
*
P P M > U S L 110000.00
P P M Total
110000.00

E xp.
PPM
PPM
PPM

65

Within P erformance
< LS L
*
> U S L 117118.06
Total
117118.06

70

75

80

1.19
*
1.19
0.40
*

85

E xp. O v erall P erformance


P P M < LS L
*
P P M > U S L 117118.06
P P M Total
117118.06

The upper specification was set as 75 minutes as it is coming from the survey but the
lower specification was undefined because in our case the customer is satisfied anytime
below 75 minutes. According to the process capability chart, we found the zbench = 1.19 and
the sample mean came out to be 69.07 for N=100. So our total PPM = 117118.06. Therefore,
the restaurants process is highly in need of some improvements.

Our team pointed out some critical stages of the process that can be improved easily.
So, to understand the process in depth, we built the detailed process maps for the processes
that take more time for cooking as we can see in the average time of cooking chart. The next
pages will show the detailed process maps of the main consuming time process which include
Pizza, Meat sub and Chicken sub.

11

3.4.

Gage Study:

To check if our reading gage has taken the correct measurements, our team has done a
gage study. For computing the gage study we assigned the operators and the parts as follows
and observed the Minitab output as:
Notations Operators
Parts
Rizwan
Meat Sub
1
Khaled
Chicken Sub
2
Farid
Hot Dogs
3
Drinks
4
Pizza
5
Fries
6

GAUGE R&R
C omponents of V ar iation

Percent

100

time by par t
% Contribution
% Study Var
% Tolerance

10

50

20

0
Gage R&R

Repeat

Reprod

Part-to-Part

Sample Range

20

_
R=0.773

10

LCL=0

2
op

op * par t Inter action


20

_
_
UCL=8.16
X=7.37
LCL=6.58

Average

Sample Mean

10

Xbar C har t by op
1

time by op
UCL=1.990

20

4
part

R C har t by op
1

op
1
2
3

10

0
1

part

By looking at the components of variation chart, part to part variation is larger than the
Gage R&R. The output of the part to part variation exceeds the allowable tolerance. Our
measurement devices and our ability to measure the data is in excellent condition.
12

3.5.

Detailed Process Map:


Meat Sub Detailed Process Map
1.5 s

2.5 s

Collect the recipt

5s

Collect the beef


from Fridge

2.1 s

Read the order

1s

Open the Bread


Drawer

Walk back

10 s

1.5

1s

Take the bread


piece(s)

Close the drawer

9m

Place it on oven

MeatSubPROCESS

15 s
Is salad yes
available/Does
the order
require Salad

Cook beef

Place salad

Average 8.4min/BeefSub
Max
12.5min/BeefSub
Min
9.2min/BeefSub

No
7s

3s

Place beef

9s

Open Salad Bar

3s

Acquire salad

Close Salad Bar

4s

2.5 s

5s
yes

Close Sandwich

Is the wraps
ready

Wrap the
sandwich

Put in a Bag
along with slip

No

7s

Go to Storage
open door

6s

6s

Pull wraps from


drawer

Close storage
room and return

Chicken Sub Detailed Process Map


2.5 s

Collect the recipt

1.5 s

2.1 s

Read the order

Collect the
Chicken from
Fridge

1.5

Open the Bread


Drawer

Walk back

10 s

5s

1s

Take the bread


piece(s)

Place it on oven

ChickenSubPROCESS

Close the drawer

7m

15 s
Is salad yes
available/Does
the order
require Salad

Cook checkin

1s

Average 7.6min/ChickenSub
Max
10min/ChickenSub
Min
6.5min/ChickenSub

Place salad

No
7s

3s

Place chicken

Open Salad Bar

9s

Acquire salad

3s

Close Salad Bar

4s

Close Sandwich

5s

2.5 s

yes
Is the wraps
ready

Wrap the
sandwich

Put in a Bag
along with slip

No

7s

Go to Storage
open door

6s

Pull wraps from


drawer

6s

Close storage
room and return

13

Meat Sub Detailed Process Map


1.5 s

2.5 s

Collect the recipt

2.1 s

Read the order

Is the Dough
Ready made

Walk back

2s

68 s

Move to Bar

3s

Open Salad Bar

Is the
ingredients
ready

2s

1.3 m

7s

Collect Dough

Prepare Dough

Spread Dough

Fit on Plate

4s

Place Ingredients
according to
recipe

9s

5s

Pick Up Plate

10.6
m

Acquire salad

Remove from
Plate

Cook Pizza

3s

Close Salad Bar

3.1 s

12 s

Are boxes
Ready

7s

6s

Go to store

Pick Boxes

Place in box

7s

Walk back

2.5 s
5m
Attach to Slip
Get Dough

PizzaPROCESS

3.6.

Average
Max

16.94min/Pizza
17.2min/Pizza

Min

10.5min/Pizza

Summary of Measure:
After observing these processes and the process capability

analysis, we have discovered that there are some stages in the process
that can be analyzed and improved further to minimize the delivery
time in future.
The process capability analysis from the Minitab showed that the
current process has zbench of 1.19
However indicating the process is in incapable will not provide efficient evidence for the
stability of the process. In the next phase (analyze) we will check whether our process is in
control or not and prove what are the critical xs that will affect the delivery time.

14

4.

ANALYZE:

4.1.

Data Stability Check:


In order to check the stability of data, our team constructed a individual moving-range

control chart and x-bar chart. We have inserted the data for the current process of total
delivery time, in the Minitab to observe the variation of the process. Following is the Minitab
output:

I-MR Chart of Total Time

Individual V alue

U C L=82.78

80

_
X=69.07

70

60

LC L=55.37
1

M oving Range

20

11

21

31

41

51
O bser vation

61

71

81

91

U C L=16.84

15
10
__
M R=5.15

5
0

LC L=0
1

11

21

31

41

51
O bser vation

61

71

81

91

By observing our moving range chart, we found 3 assignable causes that are out of the
control limits which are unexplainable. This proves that our process is out of control and
necessary action must be taken into consideration. Hence, there is no need to observe the xbar chart since the process in an unstable condition.

15

4.2.

Causes and its Effect (Fishbone Diagram):


Following is the fishbone diagram obtained from several brainstorm sessions that

shows the main causes and its effects for our objective.
Method

Machine
Out Dated (c)
Electricity Cut downs (n)

Unorganized process (s)

Lack of Technology (c)


Lack of Supervision (s)

Machine Breakdowns (c)

Long Delivery Time


Few Utensils (c)

Few Employees (c)


Prayer Time (n)

Expired (n)

Different Nationalities (c)


Congested place (n)
Untrained (c)

Delay Supplies (c)

Poor AC (c)

Enviroment

Man Power

Material

n Noise Factors
s Standard Procedure Factors
c Controlable Factors
According to this diagram; we generated the possible causes of increase in delivery time
including: inefficient processes, untrained workers and poor delivery system.
4.3.

Assessing Various Factors:


Following are the factors that were assessed by the team and found to be process

deficiencies and points that can be improved, and shall result in better performing parameters.
Therefore we concentrated on improving these deficiencies which we have predicted to defer
the performance of the process on a proper scale.

Time to prepare Dough for Pizza

Bread Location

Route taken by the driver

Packaging Pizza Box location

Time to cook Beef

Wraps location

Time to cook Chicken

Salad Bar run outs


16

4.4.

Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA):


Based on our factor assessment and fishbone diagram; our team developed an FMEA

to identify in which ways our process can exceed the allowed delivery time and lose customer
satisfaction. We have defined an RPN>200 to be of serious concern for our processes.

17

4.5.

Critical Xs:
The critical xs which follow the criteria (RPN>200) and have a severe impact on our

delivery time are the following:


1) (Order Delivery) Long cycle time for preparing the order
2) (Meat sub Cooking) Time for cooking the meat is taking too long.
3) (Pizza Cooking) Time for making the dough is high.
4) (Delivery process) Position of the car is causing the major delay.
5) (Salad Preparation) When the salad bar is consumed the acquisition of the salad items
is long.

4.6.

Analyze Summary and Checklist:


In summary we have analyzed all possible xs and discarded the uncritical ones

through fishbone diagram and FMEA. We have verified the assignable causes through
control charts. In the Improve Phase we will provide the necessary actions taken against our
critical xs and show whether or not any improvements will be made.
Checklist:
Data Stability Check

I-MR Chart.

Causes & Effect of the Process

Fishbone Diagram

FMEA

Observe RPN>200.

Critical Xs

Order delivery
Meat sub cooking
Pizza Cooking, Delivery Process
Salad Preparation

18

5.

IMPROVE:
This phase will discuss the proposed improvements that were taken place at the

Graffiti restaurant.
5.1.

Xs and their Actions:


By making our FMEA chart, our team has proposed solutions or actions to be made at

the restaurant. Below is the list of actions that were considered for improving of the process
versus their critical xs:

Sr. No.
1

Critical X's

Actions

Long cycle time for preparing the


Periodic training of workers
order

Time for cooking the meat is


taking too long

Reposition bread location, half cook beef


between shifts,

Time for making the dough is


high

Cutting pizza dough according to weight,


prepare boxes and plates,

Position of the car is causing the


major delay

Assigning delivery car inside KFUPM


parameters, Install Red light alert at
delivery pickoff

When the salad bar is consumed


the acquisition of the salad items
is long

Auto-replenishment during idle time

These improvements have been proposed to Graffiti management and will be


implemented in the future. For assigning the car inside the campus, the restaurant has
implemented this solution in order to save time. Our team measured the improved time as a
trial to measure the expected data for 50 observations. The FMEA chart has been updated and
we have recalculated our RPN. Next, we will show our improved process maps with the
calculated time.

19

5.2.

Detailed Process Maps (Improved):


Following are the detailed process maps after doing some changes in the current

process by the help of the critical xs.


Improved Meat Sub Process:
2.5 s

Collect the receipt

1.5 s

2.1 s

Read the order

Collect the beef


from Fridge

1.5

Open the Bread


Drawer

Walk back

10 s

5s

10 s

10 s

Take the bread


piece(s)

7m

Place it on oven

Bread has to be
ready cut in an
accessible place

Close the drawer

15 s
Is salad yes
available/Does
the order
require Salad

Cook beef

Average 7.9min/BeefSub
Max
8.68min/BeefSub
Min
6.95min/BeefSub

Place salad

No
7s

3s

Half cook the beef


Salad must be
prepared
frequently during
free time

Place beef

9s

Open Salad Bar

Imp.Meat Sub
PROCESS

3s

Acquire salad

Close Salad Bar

Wraps must be
prepared
frequently during
free time
4s

2.5 s

5s
yes

Close Sandwich

Is the wraps
ready

Wrap the
sandwich

Put in a Bag along


with slip

No

7s

Go to Storage
open door

6s

6s

Pull wraps from


drawer

Close storage
room and return

Improved Chicken Sub Process:


2.5 s

Collect the
recipt

1.5 s

2.1 s

Read the order

Collect the
Chicken from
Fridge

1.5

Open the Bread


Drawer

Walk back

10 s

5s

1s

1s

Take the bread


piece(s)

5m

Place it on
oven

Bread has to be
ready cut in an
accessible
place

Close the
drawer

15 s

Cook chicken

Is salad
yes
available/Does
the order
require Salad

Imp.Chicken Sub
PROCESS

Place salad

No
Defrost chicken

7s

Place chicken
Wraps must be
prepared
frequently
during free
time
4s

Salad must be
prepared
frequently
during free
time

5s

3s

Open Salad Bar

9s

Acquire salad

3s
Close Salad
Bar

Average 6.9min/ChickenSub
Max
8.26min/ChickenSub
Min
5.89min/ChickenSub

2.5 s

yes
Close
Sandwich

Is the wraps
ready

Wrap the
sandwich

Put in a Bag
along with slip

No

7s

Go to Storage
open door

6s

Pull wraps from


drawer

6s

Close storage
room and
return

20

Improved Pizza Process:

Imp.PizzaPROCESS
Average

12.87min/Pizza

Max
Min

13.90min/Pizza
11.98min/Pizza

21

5.3.

Improved Data Gathering:


Our team gathered the data by taking 50 observations of the orders after doing the

improvements. These improvements have been implemented temporarily as an experiment to


generate new time for the critical xs. Each of our project team members was assigned to a
certain task for observing the time through the stop watch to a particular stage of the process.
We gathered the data in the following four stages:
1. First, each of our team members recorded 10 observations of the cooking time for
these 6 frequently ordered food items. We took the average time of cooking of
each food item.
2. The cooking time per order was calculated from 50 ordering slips generated from
the POS (Point of Sales) machine, provided by the restaurant. Eventually, the
average cooking time per order was found to be 51.84 minutes per order.
3. After that, we gave the responsibility to the driver to record his time for delivery
from the restaurant to the customer for these 50 home delivery orders and we
found the average time taken by the car to deliver an order is 7.15 minutes.
4. Finally, we computed the time taken for the order per delivery for each
observation and the average came out to be 59.01 minutes.
5.4.

Test of Hypothesis:
After making the necessary improvements we would like to prove that the difference

between the old and new mean of the process is considered significant. We will perform a
one-sided 2-sample t-test in Minitab and check the p-value.
Our
P-value>0.05
which means we fail to
reject that there is
significant difference
between our means.
The mean and standard
deviation
of
the
improved process have
been decreased.

22

5.5.

New Process Capability:


From the improved data, we recalculated our process capability and found our z-

bench = 4.68 which is reasonably high as compared to the previous one. The standard
deviation has decreased by 1.57. Therefore the reduction percentage is approximately 31%.
Process Capability of C1
USL
W ithin
Overall

P rocess D ata
LS L
*
Target
*
USL
75
S ample M ean
59.0127
S ample N
50
S tDev (Within)
3.41418
S tDev (O v erall) 3.41418

P otential (Within) C apability


Z.Bench 4.68
Z.LS L
*
Z.U S L
4.68
C pk
1.56
O v erall C apability
Z.Bench
Z.LS L
Z.U S L
P pk
C pm

52
O bserv ed P erformance
P P M < LS L
*
P P M > U S L 0.00
P P M Total
0.00

56

60

E xp. Within P erformance


P P M < LS L
*
P P M > U S L 1.42
P P M Total
1.42

64

68

4.68
*
4.68
1.56
*

72

E xp. O v erall P erformance


P P M < LS L
*
P P M > U S L 1.42
P P M Total
1.42

5.6.

Improve Summary and Checklist:


In summary we have analyzed all possible xs and discarded the uncritical ones

through fishbone diagram and FMEA. We have verified the assignable causes through
control charts. In the Improve Phase we will provide the necessary actions taken against our
critical xs and show whether or not any improvements will be made.
Checklist:
Xs and their Actions

Actions taken for improving the critical Xs.

Process Maps

Detailed and Improved

Improved FMEA

Appendix II.

Test of Hypothesis

Old vs. New Process

New Process Capability

z-bench = 4.68
23

6.

CONTROL:
Our improvements have shown Cpk = 1.56 which translates to our process ability to

meet its specifications. We calculated our new average time for 50 observations for the
improved delivery process which is = 59.01 minutes. In this phase, we will construct an I-MR
chart to check whether the process is in statistical control. In addition we will provide an
action plan to show how our xs are controlled before impacting the customer.
6.1.

Statistical Process Control (SPC):


Based on our improved data we constructed an I-MR chart as on-line surveillance

technique to detect any assignable causes if any.

I-MR Chart of Improved time


70

Individual V alue

U C L=67.34
65
_
X=59.01

60
55

LC L=50.68

50
1

11

16

21

26
O bser vation

31

36

41

46

U C L=10.23

M oving Range

10.0
7.5
5.0

__
M R=3.13

2.5
0.0

LC L=0
1

11

16

21

26
O bser vation

31

36

41

46

From the Moving range chart we have observed that there are no unusual patterns in
the data and our process is stable. However, the X-bar chart indicates that observation
14gives us the following failed test: 4 out of 5 points more than 1 standard deviation from
center line (one side of CL) which cannot be explained. For observation 39, the following test
failed:
24

One point more than 3.00 standard deviations from center line.
Test Failed at points: 39

The above chart represents the point where the test was failed. This failure was
observed to be the machine breakdown causing the point falling out of the UCL. However,
we have noticed that the rest of the process was stable and in control.

25

6.2.

Out of Control Action Plan (OCAP):


Consequently, the routine and the attentive use of control charts will identify

assignable causes. In identifying and eliminating assignable causes, it is important to


underlying root cause of the problem and to attack it. We have developed an effective system
for corrective action (OCAP) as shown below.

Out of Control

No
Is the order
correctly
taken

Discard Data

yes
Average

Range
Report to
operations
manager

Which test
failed

Average
Increase
Temperature for
cooking

No

Average

Is the beef
half cooked

Is the Chicken
defrosted

No
Boil to defrost

Yes
yes

Is the Dough
cut according
to standards

No

Send Dough plate


to Rework

Yes
Is the Salad
items
available

No

Send Staff to
purchase- Pity
cash

No

Alert Driver and


estimate time for
customer order

Yes
Is the driver
available

Yes

Enter Comment in log describing Data

26

The previous flowchart describes the sequence of the critical xs that might take place
following the occurrence of an activating event. This chart focuses on temperature of the food
and cycle time for preparation.
In conclusion, the mean of the total delivery time will be monitored with an x-bar
control chart and the process variability will be monitored with R-chart. If the R-chart
exhibits an out of control signal, the staff is directed to contact operations manager
immediately. However, if the X-bar control chart exhibits an out of control signal the cooks
will be directed to the following settings
1) Check the temperature settings for the oven and adjust accordingly.
2) Check if the chicken is defrosted.
3) For the Pizza, Check if the dough is cut according to the standards.
If any of the unusual actions occur, the employees of the restaurant are trained and
encouraged to write all comments in a logbook describing what happened, why it happened
and how it happened. The log-sheet involves the following:

What was the name of the operator?

What process he was involved?

What was the action taken to resolve the problem and why?

What was the date and time?

27

7.

CONCLUSION:
The project objective was to reduce the defect rate of delay in order deliveries of the

Graffiti restaurant by 27%. Using the six-sigma approach and tools, we were successful in
reducing the average process cycle time from 69 minutes to 59 minutes which is a reduction
of 14.4%. A summary of our process capability parameters are as follows:
Total

Delivery Mean (min)

time

Standard

Parts per Million

deviation

Old Process

Z-bench (long
term)

69.07

4.98

117118.06

1.19

Improved Process 59.01

3.41

1.42

4.68

All in all, our team suggested the following improvements to be fully implemented to
the restaurant management. We have built an action plan to be used in the restaurant by the
employees. Also, we will provide the restaurant with a log-sheet incase of any out of control
events.
The project was carried out in 5 phases of six-sigma approach i.e. Define, Measure,
Analyze, Improve and Control. Each phase was done accordingly to the plan and brought
forth with the proper statistical tools using Minitab. The improvised study of six-sigma
helped the restaurant to approach their high quality standard and satisfying their customers in
every aspect.

28

APPENDIX I (Project Proposal Form / Questionnaire)

29

APPENDIX II (Improved FMEA)


Key Process Step
or Input
Receive Order

Potential Failure
Mode

Potential Failure
Effects

S
E
V

Place wrong order order rejection

Potential Causes

Cashier's careless
9

Prepare Order

Implementing
Order(Pizza)

Cashier's Screen
does not include
specific items

Delay and error in


order

unavailable Staff,
Machine
breakdown,
Untrained
Employee
Pizza dough>
specified

Delay in cooking
food

Burnt Pizza
9

Time for
Loss of good will
preperation is long

Longer Cycle time

Long queue

Delay in order

6
Implementing
Order(Meat Sub)

Implementing
Order(Chicken
Sub)
Deliver Order

Acquisition of
unnecessery time
bread takes too
long
Beef takes longer Delay in order
time than chicken
Acquisition of
bread takes too
long
Unorganized
delivert Process

ready orders
scattered

Cooking time for


beef in longer

Arrangement of
facility

Dealy in pick off

when salad is out, Unneeded added


replenishment is time to cycle
time consuming

Preparing pizza in
a slower fasion

Defrosting beef
before hand

225

36

288

216

72

288

Reposition Bread Staff


location

315

Half cook beef


between shifts

288

Reposition Bread Staff


location

240

None
6
None
2

56

378

Replinshment
7

Actions
Recommended

Resp.

Penalize worker
after getting 3
orders
incorrect/week

Rest. Manager

Updating screen
software

Staff

Actions
Taken

S
E
V

O
C
C

D
E
T

R
P
N

Manager has
detuct low
amount from
salary

Make
Cashier
repeat order
twice to cook

75

None

None

Lack of process
organization

None

Lack of space
utilization
4

Preparing Salad
Bar

Lack of
coordination, less
drivers

100

Rearrangment
9

Arrangement of
facility

Rearrangment

unnecessery time

Delay in delivery,
Damaged food

Shortage of
machinery

162

None
4

ineffeitiant
process

None
5

Unorganized
process
9

R
P
N

None
5

Lack of
Supervision,
laziness, No
machine
maintenance
Unprecise cut of
Dough size

D
E
T

None

Lack of
Technology

Current Controls

Time is wasted
attaining boxes

O
C
C

Cutting Pizza
Cook
dough acording to
weight
Prepare ready
Staff
plates

Prepare side
boxes

Staff

Introduce new
machine to work
in parallel

Rest. Owner

Assiging Car in
optimal parking
zone

Rest. Manager

Farid

Assigned a pickoff Rest. Manager


point for quciker
pickup

Auto replinshment Staff


in idel tine

Applied

Plates
positioned in
organized
pattern
Boxes
queued
Owner has
ordered
machine (1-22011)
Gathered in
basket
Chef now
precooks
beef
Gathered in
basket
Placed car
Inside
Campus(bac
kside)
area near
delivery
window has
been utilized
Level
Maintained

24

72

36

48

72

15

30

APPENDIX III (Old Process Time, N=100)


Chick
Meat Avg
Avg
enSu
Sub time
time
b
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
2.00 8.93 0.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 1.00 7.57
0.00 8.93 2.00 7.57
1.00 8.93 1.00 7.57

Total+
Hot Avg
Avg
Avg
Avg
Pizza
fries
Drinks
Total Delivery Delivery
Dogs time
time
time
time
(min)
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 6.00 4.20 5.00 0.30 63.77 15.92 79.69
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 57.94 13.44 71.38
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 63.61 15.33 78.94
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 1.00 4.20 0.00 0.30 52.15 14.86 67.01
0.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 5.00 0.30 51.74 15.34 67.08
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 50.37 14.88 65.25
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 51.01 15.95 66.96
0.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 54.65 14.79 69.44
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 5.00 4.20 5.00 0.30 60.93 15.07 76.00
2.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 69.31 15.81 85.12
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 52.08 14.69 66.77
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 56.95 13.76 70.71
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 48.86 14.85 63.71
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 52.08 15.12 67.20
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 43.14 15.58 58.72
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 51.01 15.27 66.28
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 55.10 14.87 69.97
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 53.44 15.43 68.87
0.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 59.68 13.56 73.24
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 53.44 15.35 68.79
0.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 50.08 14.67 64.75
0.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 47.38 15.64 63.02
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 58.31 15.07 73.38
3.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 5.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 58.20 14.98 73.18
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 53.88 16.98 70.86
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 59.94 16.44 76.38
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 48.86 15.46 64.32
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 5.00 4.20 5.00 0.30 59.57 15.91 75.48
0.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 59.38 15.36 74.74
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 56.95 15.46 72.41
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 52.08 16.66 68.74
0.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 55.87 14.69 70.56
0.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 54.51 15.22 69.73
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 56.95 15.62 72.57
2.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 1.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 51.68 14.85 66.53
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 52.08 14.39 66.47
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 55.07 15.51 70.58
0.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 54.51 14.61 69.12
0.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 54.51 16.15 70.66
2.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 55.88 15.08 70.96
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 47.87 16.22 64.09
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 52.08 14.27 66.35
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 1.00 0.30 49.08 15.03 64.11
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 55.21 15.79 71.00
2.00 6.50 0.00 16.94 5.00 4.20 5.00 0.30 59.57 16.28 75.85
1.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 58.31 16.23 74.54
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 2.00 4.20 2.00 0.30 50.30 17.35 67.65
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 53.44 15.18 68.62
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 54.80 16.12 70.92
0.00 6.50 2.00 16.94 3.00 4.20 3.00 0.30 54.95 15.98 70.93
1.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 4.00 4.20 4.00 0.30 56.58 13.99 70.57
2.00 6.50 1.00 16.94 0.00 4.20 1.00 0.30 46.74 13.78 60.52

31

APPENDIX III (Old Process Time, N=100)


1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
2.00

8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93
8.93

0.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
0.00

7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57
7.57

0.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00

6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50

1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
1.00

16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94
16.94

4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
5.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
1.00
5.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
5.00
4.00
2.00
5.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
5.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00

4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20
4.20

4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
3.00
3.00
5.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
5.00
4.00
2.00
5.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
5.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
5.00
3.00
2.00

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30

43.87
47.50
54.47
49.01
50.34
54.80
50.31
51.01
55.88
59.01
51.01
55.87
51.01
47.94
55.10
56.95
53.88
48.57
54.80
43.97
62.44
53.88
54.95
54.51
46.14
58.31
54.58
55.51
55.88
54.58
58.02
46.14
59.45
47.34
51.00
52.08
65.51
61.31
49.01
57.94
49.93
52.44
55.88
58.02
53.44
47.10
53.88
43.80

16.34
14.76
15.01
14.34
16.01
14.48
14.23
15.97
15.46
15.61
15.71
16.21
16.39
15.29
14.99
13.87
14.53
14.64
14.74
16.89
16.23
14.79
13.18
15.49
15.67
14.17
13.96
14.48
14.19
15.71
15.10
13.56
17.11
14.93
14.76
15.76
16.01
16.23
15.74
14.73
15.41
15.82
13.74
15.84
13.86
15.39
15.81
15.10

60.21
62.26
69.48
63.35
66.35
69.28
64.54
66.98
71.34
74.62
66.72
72.08
67.40
63.23
70.09
70.82
68.41
63.21
69.54
60.86
78.67
68.67
68.13
70.00
61.81
72.48
68.54
69.99
70.07
70.29
73.12
59.70
76.56
62.27
65.76
67.84
81.52
77.54
64.75
72.67
65.34
68.26
69.62
73.86
67.30
62.49
69.69
58.90

32

APPENDIX IV (Improved Process Time, N=50)


Meat
Sub
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

Avg
time
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90
7.90

Chick
en
2.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
0.00

Avg
time
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90
6.90

Hot
Dogs
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
3.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.00

Avg
time
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50
6.50

Pizza
0.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
0.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
0.00
1.00
2.00

Avg
time
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89
12.89

fries
5.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
5.00
4.00
4.00
3.00
6.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
5.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
5.00
3.00
2.00
7.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
6.00
2.00
3.00
1.00
4.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
5.00
6.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
2.00

Avg
Drinks
time
4.20 4.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 4.00
4.20 0.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 7.00
4.20 0.00
4.20 7.00
4.20 0.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 4.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 4.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 4.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 4.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 4.00
4.20 6.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 0.00
4.20 0.00
4.20 0.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 6.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 1.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 5.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 2.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 3.00
4.20 2.00

Avg.
time
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30

Total
56.90
53.89
52.99
49.88
49.29
48.10
49.99
54.28
54.40
48.20
46.69
48.58
53.19
48.88
49.68
48.59
50.39
47.69
49.88
54.59
54.88
53.68
49.58
51.90
49.98
48.09
48.60
55.20
50.58
53.78
54.09
61.19
51.79
47.69
49.99
54.69
51.90
61.09
60.19
55.19
47.79
55.59
54.48
48.59
48.40
53.39
51.49
49.60
52.89
50.58

Delive Total+
ry
Delivery(
5.27
62.17
6.06
59.95
7.26
60.25
7.22
57.10
8.26
57.55
8.49
56.59
6.09
56.08
9.50
63.78
8.06
62.46
7.36
55.56
8.78
55.47
6.20
54.78
8.52
61.71
6.27
55.15
7.49
57.17
7.15
55.74
7.19
57.58
9.55
57.24
7.66
57.54
7.45
62.04
6.73
61.61
5.29
58.97
7.24
56.82
7.21
59.11
5.53
55.51
8.14
56.23
7.81
56.41
5.67
60.87
7.16
57.74
8.94
62.72
6.38
60.47
5.15
66.34
7.34
59.13
6.57
54.26
5.18
55.17
9.08
63.77
9.35
61.25
5.50
66.59
7.89
68.08
5.91
61.10
6.61
54.40
7.00
62.59
6.61
61.09
8.24
56.83
4.71
53.11
5.48
58.87
7.49
58.98
8.96
58.56
7.34
60.23
7.37
57.95

33

APPENDIX V (Gage R&R Data, observations=3)


operator
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
part1
part2
part3
part4
part5
part6

part
time(min) operator
1.00
9.92
1.00
1.00
9.80
1.00
1.00
9.36
1.00
1.00
9.48
2.00
1.00
8.94
2.00
1.00
8.73
2.00
1.00
8.03
3.00
1.00
7.97
3.00
1.00
8.28
3.00
2.00
7.60
1.00
2.00
7.70
1.00
2.00
7.80
1.00
2.00
7.44
2.00
2.00
7.25
2.00
2.00
7.36
2.00
2.00
7.54
3.00
2.00
7.39
3.00
2.00
7.49
3.00
3.00
7.98
1.00
3.00
7.49
1.00
3.00
6.52
1.00
3.00
6.90
2.00
3.00
5.87
2.00
3.00
5.68
2.00
3.00
6.00
3.00
3.00
5.77
3.00
3.00
7.08
3.00
MeatSub
ChickenSub
Hotdogs
Drinks
Pizza
Fries

part
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00

time(min)
0.09
0.57
0.38
0.33
0.40
0.20
0.16
0.27
0.28
17.67
17.55
17.80
16.33
15.56
15.34
17.11
16.31
16.52
2.75
4.07
3.36
5.03
6.00
4.18
4.46
3.18
4.95

Operator1
Operator2
Operator3
Avg.ofAvg.

Avg/
operatar
forpart1
9.69
9.04
8.09
8.93

Avg/
operatar
forpart2
7.69
7.35
7.46
7.57

Avg/
operatar
forpart3
7.33
6.15
6.28
6.50

Avg/
operatar
forpart4
0.34
0.30
0.23
0.30

Avg/
operatar
forpart5
17.67
15.74
16.64
16.94

Avg/
operatar
forpart6
3.39
5.06
4.19
4.20

34

APPENDIX VI (LogSheet)

SrNo.

Operator
Name/ID

Process

ActionTaken

Date

Time

35

APPENDIX VII (Evaluation Sheet)

36