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2‐year, 24‐hour Design Storm A 2‐year, 24‐hour design storm is a nationally accepted rate that represents the largest amount of rainfall expected over a 24‐hour period during a 2‐year interval. The rate is the basis for planning and designing stormwater management facilities and features. Account Classification The method in which suppliers of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil classify and bill their customers. Commonly used account classifications are "Commercial," "Industrial," and "Residential." Suppliers' definitions of these terms vary from supplier to supplier and from the definitions used in CBECS. In addition, the same customer may be classified differently by each of its energy suppliers. ACH The number of times per hour a volume of air, equivalent to the volume of space, enters that space. Acid Rain The precipitation of dilute solutions of strong mineral acids, formed by the mixing in the atmosphere of various industrial pollutants (primarily sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) with naturally occurring oxygen and water vapor. Acidification Build‐up of acidity in soil and water bodies from acid precipitation, which gains acidity as it falls through an atmosphere containing certain pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide from coal‐burning power plants. Adapted vegetation Adapted (or introduced) plants reliably grow well in a given habitat with minimal winter protection, pest control, fertilization, or irrigation once their root systems are established. Adapted plants are considered low maintenance and not invasive. Adaptive Reuse Adapted reuse is the renovation of a space for a purpose different from the original. Adequate Transit Service During weekday peak periods, at least four buses (including bus rapid transit), streetcars or light rail trains per hour OR at least 5 heavy passenger rail or ferries per weekday peak period. Adjacent Site A site having at least 25% of its perimeter bordering sites that has been previously developed. Any fraction of the perimeter that borders waterfront will be excluded from the calculation. For the purposes of this definition, a street or roadway does not constitute previously developed land. Adsorption The property of many solid surfaces, especially porous ones like carpet or ceiling tile, to attract and retain molecules from the air, for example, volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aerosol Adhesive Aerosol adhesive is an aerosol product in which the spray mechanism is permanently housed in a non‐refillable can. Designed for hand‐held application, these products do not need ancillary hoses or spray equipment. Aerosol adhesives include special‐purpose spray adhesives, mist spray adhesives, and web spray adhesives. (SCAQMD Rule 1168) Aggregate Building A streamlining method. USGBC offers this method only for a few select LEED credits that are often implemented and the results tracked for groups of buildings, i.e., the LEED‐EB materials purchasing credits. The volume customer reports the sustainable performance for the whole group or for defined sub‐groups, along with its method of verifying that the performance of each building within the group is similar (though not necessarily identical) to that of the group as a whole. Similar performance across the buildings is required; this is NOT intended as a method of simply averaging widely different performance within the group. Agrifiber Board A composite panel product derived from recovered agricultural waste fiber from sources including, but not limited to, cereal straw, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower husk, walnut shells, coconut husks, and agricultural prunings. The raw fibers are processed and mixed with resins to produce panel products with characteristics similar to those derived from wood fiber.
Agrifiber Products Agrifiber products are made from agricultural fiber. Examples include particleboard, medium‐density fiberboard (MDF), plywood, oriented‐strand board (OSB), wheatboard, and strawboard. AHU: 1.Air‐handling units (AHUs) are mechanical indirect heating, ventilating, or air‐conditioning systems in which the air is treated or handled by equipment located outside the rooms served, usually at a central location, and conveyed to and from the rooms by a fan and a system of distributing ducts. (NEEB, 1997 edition) 2.A type of heating and/or cooling distribution equipment that channels warm or cool air to different parts of a building. This process of channeling the conditioned air often involves drawing air over heating or cooling coils and forcing it from a central location through ducts or air‐handling units. Air‐handling units are hidden in the walls or ceilings, where they use steam or hot water to heat, or chilled water to cool the air inside the ductwork. Air Quality Standards The level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that are not to be exceeded during a given time in a defined area. (EPA) Air Source Heat Pump A type of heat pump that extracts heat from the outside air and brings it inside the building. Most heat pumps in use today are air source. Airborne Particulates Total suspended particulate matter found in the atmosphere as solid particles or liquid droplets. Chemical composition of particulates varies widely, depending on location and time of year. Sources of airborne particulates include: dust, emissions from industrial processes, combustion products from the burning of wood and coal, combustion products associated with motor vehicle or non‐road engine exhausts, and reactions to gases in the atmosphere. (EPA) Albedo Albedo is synonymous with solar reflectance. Alternative Daily Cover Alternative daily cover is material (other than earthen material) that is placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging. Alternative‐fuel Vehicles Alternative‐fuel vehicles use low‐polluting, non‐gasoline fuels such as electricity, hydrogen, propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, methanol, and ethanol. In LEED, efficient gas‐electric hybrid vehicles are included in this group. Ambient Lighting Lighting in a space that provides for general way finding and visual comfort, in contrast to task lighting, which illuminates a defined area to facilitate specific visual work. Ambient Temperature Temperature of the surrounding air or other medium. (EPA) Ancillary Learning Spaces Spaces for informal learning. These spaces include, but are not limited to, corridors, cafeterias, gymnasia and indoor swimming pools. Angle of Maximum Candela The direction in which the luminaire emits the greatest luminous intensity. Anticorrosive Paints Anticorrosive paints are coatings formulated and recommended for use in preventing the corrosion of ferrous metal substrates. Area Median Income The median, or middle, income of a county as defined and available from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Area‐weighted SRI An area‐weighted SRI is a weighted average calculation that may be performed for buildings with multiple roof surfaces to demonstrate that the total roof area has an average solar reflectance index equal to or greater than that of a theoretical roof 75% of whose surfaces have an SRI of 78 and 25% have an SRI of 30.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of how fast biological organisms use up oxygen in a body of water. Baseline Irrigation Water Use Baseline irrigation water use is the amount of water used by conventional irrigation in the region. such as medium‐density fiberboard (MDF). Bioaccumulation Process by which toxins can build up progressively through the food chain. water closets.1–2007. Bioremediation is generally a form of in‐situ remediation and can be a viable alternative to landfilling or incineration Bisphenol‐A An ingredient in the production of polycarbonate plastics that is a suspected endocrine disrupter. Most binders are made with formaldehyde. Biobased Generally. showers. and engineered lumber. It is determined by dividing the weight of the recycled content by the overall weight of the assembly. Assembly Recycled Content Assembly recycled content is the percentage of material in a product that is either postconsumer or preconsumer recycled content. but wastewater from toilets and urinals is always considered blackwater. Bleed‐off Bleed‐off. and urinals. ecology. is the release of a portion of the recirculating water from a cooling tower. or blowdown. Informative Appendix G. Audio frequencies range roughly from 15 Hz to 20 kHz. Automatic Fixture Sensors Automatic fixture sensors are motion detectors that automatically turn on and turn off lavatories. Blackwater Blackwater definitions vary. such as food. 3 . Biking Network A continuous network consisting of one or more of the following: bicycle lanes or trails at least 5 feet wide or roads designed for a speed of 10 miles per hour or slower. It is used in water quality management and assessment. Sensors can be hard wired or battery operated. or bathtubs is considered blackwater under some state or local codes. and environmental science. Audio Frequency A sound wave normally audible to humans.Arid Watershed Watershed that receives less than 20 inches of rainfall per year. those toxins became more concentrated. and services Attendance Boundary The attendance boundary is used by school districts to determine which students attend what school based on where they live. animal feed. to exclude products that already have established markets. as defined in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90. and lumber. small organisms often store toxins in fat tissue. Bioremediation The use of microorganisms and vegetation to remove contaminants from water and soils. sinks. Biological Control Biological control is the use of chemical or physical water treatments to inhibit bacterial growth in cooling towers. classification of products and materials derived from plant and animal sources as opposed to minerals. systems. ASTM Voluntary standards development organization which creates source technical standards for materials.S. Binder Glue used in manufacturing wood products. and when larger organisms eat them. Baseline Building Performance Baseline building performance is the annual energy cost for a building design intended for use as a baseline for rating above standard design. products. particleboard. Wastewater from kitchen sinks (perhaps differentiated by the use of a garbage disposal). this water carries dissolved solids that can cause mineral buildup. Also known as BPA. Department of Agriculture has a program to promote the use of emerging biobased products that defines them more narrowly. The U.
suburban.1–2007) BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method.K. For aggregate floorspace statistics. Building Floorspace All the area enclosed by the exterior walls of a building. regulations. including indoor parking facilities. or under used industrial and commercial facilities/sites where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination (may include hazardous substances. Brownfields Abandoned. Breathing Zone The breathing zone is the region within an occupied space between 3 and 6 feet above the floor and more than 2 feet from walls or fixed air‐conditioning equipment.Bleed‐off Rate The frequency with which the dissolved minerals and dirt are removed from the cooling tower. The fan creates a continuous flow of pressure into the unit (or out of the unit when using theatrical fog to locate leaks). is the release of a portion of the recirculating water from a cooling tower. idled. Blower door test A blower door test gives an overall value for air tightness of a space. basements. or blowdown. It varies depending on the mineral content and scaling tendency of the entering water. developed in the U. A Btu is an acronym for British thermal unit and is defined as the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. hallways. and alarm reporting. floorspace was summed or aggregated over all buildings in a category (such as all office buildings in the United States). design assumptions. electrical and plumbing systems in the project building. Building Footprint Building footprint is the area on a project site used by the building structure. both finished and unfinished. or contaminants). and other nonbuilding facilities are not included in the building footprint. and optimize building control subsystems. and references to applicable codes. and elevator shafts. pollutants. Devices detect the rate of pressure retention and loss due to possible air leaks in the construction. Energy consumption is expressed in Btu to allow for consumption comparisons among fuels that are measured in different units. and land excluded from development by law or other prerequisites of LEED for Neighborhood Development. indoor environmental quality criteria. Building Engineer A qualified engineering professional with relevant and sufficient expertise who oversees and is responsible for the operation and maintenance of mechanical. (EPA) Btu A unit of energy consumed by or delivered to a building. the first widely used green building rating system. landscapes. equipment scheduling. including lighting. including system descriptions. currently used primarily in the U. When used in density calculations. at normal atmospheric pressure. and in Hong Kong. BMP Best Management Practice BOD Basis of design (BOD) includes design information necessary to accomplish the owner's project requirements.K. the calculation for buildable land excludes: public streets and other public rights of way. stairways. The testing unit consists of a calibrated fan that is sealed onto the unit entrance. (ASHRAE 62. the building operating plan may also be known as "Owner's Operating Requirements" or similar. organize. and guidelines. standards. lobbies. Building Automation System (BAS) A building automation system (BAS) uses computer‐based monitoring to coordinate. Parking lots. Building Operating Plan A general documentation summarizing the intended operation of each base building system described in the systems narrative. and can help identify air leaks. or rural areas. The 4 . Building Density Building density is the floor area of the building divided by the total area of the site (square feet per acre). Blowdown Bleed‐off. They can be in urban. this water carries dissolved solids that can cause mineral buildup. EPA's Brownfields initiative helps communities mitigate potential health risks and restore the economic vitality of such areas or properties. defined by the perimeter of the building plan. Buildable Land The portion of the site where construction can occur. in the early 1990s.
Examples of open cases are produce. duct static pressure. dessert displays. The plan accounts for all the monitored space conditions used to control the base systems. with mopping of hot asphalt between layers and topped by a mineral‐surfaced layer or by gravel embedded in a heavy coat of asphalt. temperature variations). "Open" refers to cases or cabinets with no covers or with flexible covers made of plastic or some other material.. Cases or Cabinets Refrigeration in open or closed units for the purpose of selling. room pressurization. that products be recyclable indefinitely. and ice machines. sunlight. which serve to separate and protect the interior from the elements (precipitation. Building Shell The exterior walls. etc. Aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. CBECS The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national sample survey that collects information on the stock of U. as a way to "offset" or negate their negative environmental impact.operating plan includes the time‐of‐day schedules for each system for each of the eight day types (Monday to Sunday plus holidays). including kidney damage. High exposure to cadmium can cause a variety of health problems. hung in strips or curtains to stop the flow of warm air into the refrigerated space. part of the state government. occupancy. In LEED. These guidelines require. wind. Built‐Up Roof A roof covering consisting of several successive layers (each of which is called a "ply"). Carbon offsets are typically purchased by consumers of fossil fuels or products using fossil fuels. the mode of operation for each system when it is running (occupied vs. under‐counter coolers.). air temperature. C&D Construction and demolition C2C A protocol developed by McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry that establishes guidelines for the manufacture of products in ways that harmonize with natural systems. Campus Bus A campus or private bus is a bus or shuttle service that is privately operated and not available to the general public. displaying. commercial buildings. and their energy consumption and expenditures. night. their energy‐related building characteristics. (EPA) Buildout The time at which all habitable buildings on the project are complete and ready for occupancy. and deli cases. and was allowed to keep it. either through cooperative ownership or through some other mechanism. day vs. such as beverage display coolers. light level. grocery coolers or freezers. i. "Closed" refers to units with doors that shut. CO2 levels. Cadmium A naturally‐occurring element and source of pigments that were once a staple in paints. relative humidity. Building‐Related Illness Diagnosable illness whose cause and symptoms can be directly attributed to a specific pollutant source within a building. and sandwich preparation units. as well as any seasonal variations in operations patterns. Car Sharing A system under which multiple households share a pool of automobiles. floral display coolers. contain no hazardous ingredients. 5 . and be manufactured using renewable energy. Carbon offset A fiscal unit measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide‐equivalent (CO2e) representing six main categories of greenhouse gases. unoccupied. a campus or private bus line that falls within 1/4 mile of the project site and provides transportation service to the public can contribute to earning credits. dairy. or storing perishable materials. one carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide (or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases). CARB The California Air Resources Board. roof.S. for example. is charged with maintaining clean air. Commercial buildings include all buildings in which at least half of the floorspace is used for a purpose that is not residential. usually of roofing felt. and the desired indoor conditions or setpoints for each schedule or mode. etc. but now is largely phased out in architectural coatings except for certain specialty products. and lowest floor of a building. The operating plan accounts for any differences in needs or desired conditions for different portions of the project building. salad bars. This agency is unique at the state level: California was the only state that had such an agency before the passage of the federal Clean Air Act.e.
Although chromium is an essential nutrient. CDD A measure of how hot a location was over a period of time. and hall and ceiling fixtures of commercial buildings with residential type lights. 2. the base temperature is 65 degrees Fahrenheit. demolition. and Liability Act. manufacturing. and the period of time is one year. or CERCLA. wall sconces. The cooling degree‐day is the difference between that day's average temperature and 65 degrees if the daily average is greater than 65. and land‐clearing (CDL) debris includes all of the above plus soil. CDL Construction. can be used to qualify wood for a point in the LEED Rating System. They combine the efficiency of fluorescent lighting with the convenience of standard incandescent bulbs. relative to a base temperature. Light is produced the same way as other fluorescent lamps. ionization.industrial. A light bulb designed to replace screw‐in incandescent light bulbs. including all successive stages of processing. Chromium A naturally occurring metal used to make chrome. and corrosion in cooling towers. to meet stated ecological and other criteria. transformation. vegetation. Runoff chemicals may include gasoline. and sometimes used to tan leather. they are often found in table lamps. but it may still be found in some products. and rock from land clearing. Outlines the provisions necessary to comply with Phase I and Phase II of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. or cogeneration. or BIAX lamps. Its usage has been greatly reduced. CFLs are typically 3 to 4 times as efficient as incandescent light bulbs. and salts. Certified Wood Wood from a source that has been determined. and scale‐inhibiting chemicals to control biological growth. some chromium compounds are carcinogenic. and buildings used for religious worship. CHP Combined heat and power (CHP). which include requirements that the wood be tracked through its chain‐of‐custody. Small fluorescent lamps used as more efficient alternatives to incandescent lighting. CFL. but only the Forest Stewardship Council's standards. through a certification process. (EPA) 3. Compact fluorescent bulbs have either electronic or magnetic ballasts. used in some wood treatment compounds. conditioning. There are numerous forest certification programs in general use based on several standards. CGP EPA's Construction General Permit. scale. and they last 8 to 10 times as long. or agricultural." such as schools. Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) – light source in which the tube is folded or twisted into a spiral to concentrate the light output. Cooling degree‐days for a year are the sum of the daily cooling degree‐days for that year. 6 . so they include building types that might not traditionally be considered "commercial. and distribution. as well as surrounding streets and parking lots. Enacted in 1980. Chain‐of‐Custody Chain‐of‐custody (COC) is a tracking procedure for a product from the point of harvest or extraction to its end use. generates both electrical power and thermal energy from a single fuel source. oil. and exposure to ultraviolet light. In this report. it is zero if the daily average temperature is less than or equal to 65. CFL 1. Chemical Treatment Chemical treatment includes the use of biocidal. CBECS data is used in LEED energy credits. Chemical Runoff Water that transports chemicals from the building landscape. is more commonly known as Superfund. Compensation. CERCLA The Comprehensive Environmental Response. CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are hydrocarbons that are used as refrigerants and cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. to rivers and lakes. Also called PL. Twin‐Tube. antifreeze. Alternatives to conventional chemical treatment include ozonation. CERCLA addresses abandoned or historical waste sites and contamination by taxing the chemical and petroleum industries and providing federal authority to respond to releases of hazardous substances. dispersant. correctional institutions.
outdoor temperature. cool. Examples include particleboard. difficulties arise when specific issues are not directly addressed by LEED information/guide Circadian Rhythm The rhythm of an organism's vital functions with relation to the daily cycle of the natural environment. Climate change refers to any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature. Among the predicted effects are a significant cooling in Western Europe due to changes in the jet stream. plywood. Comfort Criteria Comfort criteria are specific design conditions that take into account temperature. which are affecting climates differently in different places. and rising sea levels due to the melting of polar ice and glaciers. cardboard. 7 . Compositing Toilet Systems Composting (or Nonwater) toilet systems are dry plumbing fixtures and fittings that contain and treat human waste via microbiological processes. humidity. Environmental Protection Agency. (ASHRAE 55–2004) Comingling Recycling A process of recycling materials that allows consumers to dispose of various materials (such as paper. (U. Neither generation of electricity without use of the byproduct heat. floors. The reorganization of office space due to relocation of an employee from one workstation to another. Churn is the movement of workstations and people within a space. and strawboard. seasonal clothing. Clerestory Windows Pronounced and sometimes spelled "clear‐story. full‐height walls and demountable partitions. The recyclable materials are not sorted until they are collected and brought to a sorting facility. or reorganization of an entire office. Climate Change 1. air speed. if operable. plastic. CO2 Carbon dioxide Cogeneration The simultaneous production of electric and thermal energy in on‐site. wheatboard. It does not include exterior windows and doors. defined by long‐term weather conditions which affect the heating and cooling loads in buildings. 2008) 2. Natural daylight is assigned a CRI of 100. outdoor humidity. distributed energy systems.Churn 1. waste heat from the electricity generation process is recovered and used to heat. and built‐in case goods in the completed project. interior doors. Used by design team members experiencing difficulties in the application of a LEED prerequisite or credit to a project. Class I Bikeway Bicycle or multi‐use facilities that are completely separate from the vehicular right‐of‐way. and expected activity. precipitation." these are vertical. typically. nor waste‐heat recovery from processes other than electricity generation is included in the definition of cogeneration. or close‐to‐vertical. CIR Credit Interpretation Ruling. or dehumidify building space. and other non‐incandescent lighting equipment to describe the visual effect of the light on colored surfaces. used by manufacturers of fluorescent. employee turnover.The increase in global average temperatures being caused by a buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. and metal) in one container that is separate from waste. oriented‐strand board (OSB). This temperature change is leading to changes in circulation patterns in the air and in the oceans. An individual building was assigned to a climate zone according to the 45‐year average annual degree‐days for its National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Division. windows high in the wall of a building that bring daylight deeply into the building and. The standard Class I bikeway has pavement that is 8 feet wide however the exact design requirements for Class I bikeways differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. metal halide. The zones were determined according to the 45‐year average (1931‐1975) of the annual heating and cooling degree‐days (base 65 degrees Fahrenheit). Completed Design Area Completed design area is the total area of finished ceilings. or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). Climate Zone One of five climatically distinct areas. can help ventilate the space.S. medium‐density fiberboard (MDF). Color‐rendering Index (CRI) A scale of 0 to 100. Composite Wood Composite wood consists of wood or plant particles or fibers bonded by a synthetic resin or binder. 2. Typically.
designed. however. or 9‐hour days for 9 of 10 consecutive days. Construction Waste Management Plan (CWMP) A plan that diverts construction debris from landfills through the processes of recycling.0929 square meters.. Cycles refers to the number of times dissolved minerals in the water are concentrated compared with makeup water. operated. A higher concentration ratio results from a lower bleed‐off rate. increasing the ratio above a certain point. Energy estimates may be converted to metric units by using the relationship: 1 Btu is approximately equal to 1. Concentration Ratio Concentration ratio is the ratio of the level of dissolved solids in the recirculating water to the level found in the entering makeup water. and one gigajoule (109 joules) is approximately 278 kilowatt hours (kWh). CxA The commissioning authority (CxA) is the individual designated to organize. transmission. Conversion Losses The amount of energy lost during generation. particularly electricity. 8 .000 joules. although much more extensive testing may also be included. Commissioning (Cx) is the process of verifying and documenting that a building and all of its systems and assemblies are planned. Cooling Equipment The equipment used for cooling room air in a building for human comfort. Construction IAQ Management Plan A construction IAQ management plan outlines measures to minimize contamination in a specific project building during construction and describes procedures to flush the building of contaminants prior to occupancy. increasing the ratio above a certain point. Cx 1. leads to scaling. The CxA facilitates communication among the owner. mechanical and electrical equipment are tested. Construction General Permit EPA's Construction General Permit. and occupancy. construction. Cycles refers to the number of times dissolved minerals in the water are concentrated compared with makeup water. increasing the daily hours and decreasing the number of days in the work cycle. instead of working 8‐hour days Monday through Friday. tested. Conductivity Meter A device that measures the amount of nutrients and salt in water. employees work 10‐hour days for 4 days per week. This ratio is also called the cycles of concentration. Floorspace estimates may be converted to metric units by using the relationship: 1 square foot is approximately equal to 0. not to water flow over the tower or to on‐off cycles. one kilowatt hour is exactly equal to 3. A higher concentration ratio results from a lower bleed‐off rate. not to water flow over the tower or to on‐off cycles. At a minimum. and maintained to meet the owner's project requirements. 2. designer. installed. Conversion Factors Estimates are presented in customary U. lead. leads to scaling.e. however. and distribution of energy sources. units. For example.Compressed Workweek A compressed workweek rearranges the standard workweek (5 consecutive 8‐hour days in a week). and review the completion of commissioning process activities. and water savings diminish after a certain level. The process of checking the performance of a building against the owner's goals during design. Cycles of Concentration Concentration ratio is the ratio of the level of dissolved solids in the recirculating water to the level found in the entering makeup water. i. and contractor to ensure that complex systems are installed and function in accordance with the owner's project requirements.055 joules. the ratio of consumption to energy source‐specific floorspace.S. including plant and unaccounted‐for uses. Conditional Energy Intensity Total consumption of a particular energy source(s) or fuel(s) divided by the total floorspace of buildings that use the energy source(s) or fuel(s). Outlines the provisions necessary to comply with Phase I and Phase II of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. salvaging and reusing. This measure is used in the fuel‐specific detailed tables. Also know as a EC meter.600. and water savings diminish after a certain level. This ratio is also called the cycles of concentration.
65 Degrees Fahrenheit) in each NOAA Division. Glazing at this height is the most effective at distributing daylight deep into the interior space. 9 . The Declarant must have had a significant degree of responsibility for the credit. Daylighting Sensors A lighting feature that takes advantage of sunlight to cut the amount of electric lighting used in a building by varying output of the lighting system in response to variations in available daylight. Computed from the Division's daily temperature averages for each year in question and used to assign individual buildings to climate zones." dBA A decibel (dBA) is a sound pressure level measured with a conventional frequency weighting that roughly approximates how the human ear hears different frequency components of sounds at typical listening levels for speech. only the property manager or facility manager may submit verification. Development Footprint The development footprint is the area affected by development or by project site activity. such as participation in or oversight of the implementation or verification. The declarant for credits may be restricted or nonrestricted. For example. Design Light Output Design light output is the light output of lamps at 40% of their useful life. can prepare the submittal documentation. and the building itself are all included in the development footprint. measured for residential buildings as dwelling units per acre of buildable land available for residential uses. Design Intent A written document that details the ideas. Hardscape.60–2002) Declarant A LEED project team member who is technically qualified to verify the content of a LEED credit submittal template. window area. window geometry. for the 45 years. for Sustainable Sites Credit 4. Daylight‐Responsive Lighting Controls Daylight‐responsive lighting controls are photosensors used in conjunction with other switching and dimming devices to control the amount of artificial lighting in relationship to the amount and quality of natural daylight. Dedicated Server A server is usually just the CPU or "case" portion of a computer that is used to manage network resources such as computer files. Daylight Glazing A vertical window area located 7'6" above the floor.000 square feet (40 square feet or less per person). Densely Occupied Space Densely occupied space is an area with a design occupant density of 25 people or more per 1. They are sometimes referred to as "natural lighting control sensors " or "photocells. it does not require much human operation. including contractors or consultants. Density Factor Density factor (kd) is a coefficient used in calculating the landscape coefficient. nonbuilding facilities. concepts. "Dedicated" means that the server performs no other tasks besides server tasks. for others. any team member. It modifies the evapotranspiration rate to reflect the water use of a plant or group of plants. and window height.Daylight Factor The ratio of exterior illumination to interior illumination. databases. or network traffic. and is authorized by the project administrator to sign the template and upload it to LEED Online. access roads. and for non‐residential buildings as the floor area ratio per net acre of buildable land area available for non‐residential uses. so most do not have keyboards or monitors. (ANSI S12. 1931 through 1975. The variables used to determine the daylight factor include the floor area. and criteria that are determined by the owner to be important to the success of the project. but not heating. DHW Domestic hot water (DHW) is water used for food preparation. printers. parking lots. visible transmittance (Tvis). Degree‐Days 45‐Year Average The average of the total annual heating and cooling degree‐days (base. Density The amount of building structures constructed on the project site. expressed as a percentage. cleaning and sanitation and personal hygiene. particularly with reference to the density of the plant material.
increasing air circulation and removal of pollutants. Downstream Equipment Downstream equipment consists of all heating or cooling systems. potentially leading. office equipment.004 inches of water gauge). Examples include native or adapted vegetation. Direct Line of Sight to Perimeter Vision Glazing The approach used to determine the calculated area of regularly occupied areas with direct line of sight to perimeter vision glazing. one of the LEED 2009 rating systems. televisions. The test should involve 15 minutes of measurement. external power adapters. and audiovisual equipment. water bodies. and controls located within the project building and site associated with transporting thermal energy into heated or cooled spaces. Ecological Restoration Ecological restoration is the process of assisting in the recovery and management of ecological integrity and includes biodiversity. EBOM EBOM is an acronym for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance. equipment. secondary distribution systems in the building. reducing energy costs and improving indoor air quality (IAQ). Distributed Water‐Heating System A type of system for heating water (for purposes other than space‐heating) that heats water as needed for immediate use near the location where this water is used. and other features that provide habitat value and are part of the historic natural landscape. Durable Goods Durable goods have a useful life of 2 years or more and are replaced infrequently or may require capital program outlays. Dual‐flush A type of water‐saving toilet that gives a choice of flushes depending on the type of waste — solid or liquid. operate exhaust sufficient to create a negative pressure with respect to the adjacent spaces of at least an average of 5 Pa (0. This includes the thermal connection or interface with the district energy system. Ecologically Appropriate Site Features Ecologically appropriate site features are natural site elements that maintain or restore the ecological integrity of the site. regional and historical context. you may need to test the differential air pressure in the smoking room with respect to each adjacent area and in each adjacent vertical chase with the doors to the smoking room closed. Displacement Ventilation A system in which air slightly cooler than the desired room temperature is introduced at floor level and is lifted up by warmer air to exhaust outlets at the ceiling. Because water is not heated until it is required. Drip Irrigation Drip irrigation delivers water at low pressure through buried mains and submains. Diffusers In an HVAC context. to the migration of contaminants from one space to another. ecological processes and structures. With the doors to the smoking room closed. The testing will be conducted with each space configured for worst case conditions of transport of air from the smoking rooms to adjacent spaces with the smoking rooms' doors closed to the adjacent spaces. and is usually located in more than one place within a building. Examples include furniture.02 inches of water gauge) and with a minimum of 1 Pa (0. From the submains. Durable Goods Waste Stream The durable goods waste stream consists of durable goods leaving the project site that are fully depreciated and have reached the end of their useful lives for normal business operations. and sustainable cultural practices. diffusers disperse heating. with a minimum of one measurement every 10 seconds. 10 . appliances. cooling.Differential air pressure The difference in air pressure between two spaces. unvegetated ground. exposed rock. The test can be conducted by a mechanical engineer. Drip irrigation is a high‐efficiency type of micro‐irrigation. The area determination includes full height partitions and other fixed construction prior to installation of furniture. When using a designated smoking room ror environmental tobacco smoke control. diffusers filter and disperse light. water is distributed to the soil through a network of perforated tubes or emitters. this equipment is more energy efficient. ideally preventing uncomfortable direct currents and in many cases. or ventilation air as it enters a room. In light fixtures. in the case of a pressure difference. It is often called a "point‐of‐use" water heating system. and terminal units. ECM Energy conservation measures are installations or modifications of equipment or systems intended to reduce energy use and costs.
Higher efficacy indicates higher efficiency. transportation. waterway sedimentation and airborne dust generation 11 . leachate. and motor controls for the ventilation system to reduce the air‐ conditioning load. 2. and air‐conditioning (HVAC) conservation feature consisting of indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity sensors. ventilation. motors. as the ratio of the total consumption for a set of buildings to the total floorspace in those buildings. Embodied Energy 1. the measured levels at which toxins cause harm to organisms. the ratio of light output (in lumens) to input power (in watts). Energy Intensity The ratio of consumption to unit of measurement (floorspace. Energy‐Related Space Functions The use of space in the building for one or more of three specific functions: commercial food preparation. Endocrine Disrupter Chemical that mimics natural hormones. which are based on humidity and temperature. dampers. Ecotoxicity Generally. Not included as an EMCS are time‐clock thermostats. Electrical Conductivity (EC) Meter An electrical conductivity (EC) meter measures the amount of nutrients and salt in water. as well as the inherent energy captured within the product itself. and may interfere with reproductive development or alter behavior in offspring. more outdoor air is brought into the building. such as estrogen. EPP Environmentally preferable products (EPP) are those identified as having a lesser or reduced effect on health and the environment when compared with competing products that serve the same purpose. The energy intensity can also be computed for individual buildings. Embodied energy is the energy used during the entire life cycle of a product. Emissivity Emissivity is the ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature. Conditional energy intensity and gross energy intensity are presented. which is used in the manufacture of epoxies and polycarbonate plastic. activities requiring large amounts of hot water. and software to manage a building's use of energy for heating. and security. Wherever the temperature and humidity of the outdoor air are more favorable (lower heat content) than the temperature and humidity of the return air. EMCS Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) is an energy management feature that uses mini/microcomputers. ventilation. often including the fuel value of its constituent parts as well as transportation to its point of use. Electrical engineers are concerned with electrical devices and systems and with the use of electrical energy. etc. number of workers.) Energy intensity is usually given on an aggregate basis.Economizer An economizer is a device used to make building systems more energy efficient. including its manufacture. or volatile gases during production or degradation of manufactured materials. safety. total floorspace in buildings that use natural gas. The energy expended in the process of creating a product. and disposal. air conditioning. instrumentation. harmful effects produced in the environment by chemical residues. Energy Source‐Specific Floorspace Total floorspace of those buildings that use a particular fuel. lighting. Examples include HVAC enthalpy controls. and/or business‐related processes. Electrical Engineering Electrical and electronics engineering is the practical application of electricity. Among common chemicals believed to be endocrine disrupters are phthalate plasticizers used in PVC plastic and bisphenol‐A. Environmentally Preferable Purchasing A United States federal‐wide program (Executive Order 13101) that encourages and assists Executive agencies in the purchasing of Environmentally Preferable Products and services. ESC An Erosion and Sedimentation Control (ESC) plan is a collection of measures designed to reduce pollution from construction activities by controlling soil erosion. control equipment. These systems may also manage fire control. Specifically. for example. Economizer Cycle A heating. Efficacy In lighting. and separate computer areas.
A footcandle (fc) is a measure of light falling on a given surface. fc 1. Exemplary performance In LEED. A traditional method of ex‐situ remediation is pump‐and‐treat technology that uses carbon filters and incineration. Faucet aerator A device designed to save water and reduce splashing by adding air to a stream of water. Fluoropolymer A polymer (compound made up of many identical molecules linked by chemical bonds) containing the element fluorine. floors. Footcandles decrease with distance from the light source.000 built square feet. has come under scrutiny as a "likely carcinogen. The process by which bodies of water are starved of oxygen and light by algae and other plants that multiply due to excessive concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Treatment of the contaminated media occurs in another location. up to 50 of which are known to cause cancer. On the same site. and is exhaled by smokers. The added nutrients stimulate excessive plant growth. External Overhangs or Awnings A conservation feature designed to reduce the transmission of light into a building. Eutrophication 1.000 square feet of built building floor area. pipes. Eutrophication is the increase in chemical nutrients. A key constituent in making some fluoropolymers. As a general rule of thumb. The metric equivalent of a foot candle is 10. this rule varies on a case by case basis. or secondhand smoke. It is the total non‐residential building floor area divided by the total buildable land area available for non‐residential uses. which is based on the light output of a standardized candle. one footcandle is the amount of light that is received one foot from a light source called a candela. so check the credit requirements.5 would be 5. in an ecosystem. promoting algal blooms or weeds." 12 . ETS Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).76 lux.5 would be 15. sold under DuPont's Teflon trademark. It is expressed in millimeters per unit of time.0 would be 10. typically a treatment facility. frequently including home septic systems.ET Evapotranspiration (ET) is the loss of water by evaporation from the soil and by transpiration from plants. 2. One footcandle is defined as the quantity of light falling on a 1‐square‐foot area from a 1 candela light source at a distance of 1 foot (which equals 1 lumen per square foot).000 footcandles.0 would be 20. ID credits for exemplary performance are awarded for doubling the credit requirements and/or achieving the next incremental percentage threshold. Flat Coatings Coatings that register a gloss of less than 15 on an 85‐degree meter or less than 5 on a 60‐degree meter. and cigars. an FAR of 2. The non‐metric measurement of lumens per square foot.000 square feet of built floor area. For example. or lumens per square meter. usually found at the tip of a faucet. These include any type of overhang (including architectural) or awning on the outside of the building designed to limit solar penetration. Typical sources include fertilizer runoff and poorly managed wastewater treatment systems. 2. More advanced methods of ex‐situ remediation include chemical treatment or biological reactors. The enhanced plant growth reduces oxygen in the land and water. Meeting these thresholds can earn additional points through Innovation in Design (ID) or Innovation in Operations (IO) points. Floor Area Ratio Floor Area Ratio (FAR) is the measure of the density of non‐residential land use.000 built square feet and an FAR of 0. while exterior daytime levels can range from 100 to over 10. and walls. an FAR of 1. perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). such as the nitrogen and phosphorus often found in fertilizers. Ex‐situ Remediation The removal and treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater. an FAR of 1.000 compounds. consists of airborne particles emitted from the burning end of cigarettes. certain credits have established thresholds beyond basic credit achievement. However. reducing water quality and fish and other animal populations. These particles contain about 4.000 square feet of buildable land area. Footcandles can be measured both horizontally and vertically by a footcandle meter or light meter. the most recognized fluoropolymer is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). on a site with 10. Exfiltration Exfiltration is air leakage through cracks and interstices and through the ceilings. A common range for interior lighting is 10 to 100 footcandles.
Full‐Cost Accounting A method of monetizing the environmental and social impacts. and other symptoms. it can cause watery eyes. Full‐Time Equivalent Full‐time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the project building. coughing." 13 . burning sensations in the eyes. bathroom wash basins. Full Cutoff Luminaire A full cutoff luminaire has zero candela intensity at an angle of 90 degrees above the vertical axis (nadir or straight down) and at all angles greater than 90 degrees from straight down. and environmental impacts." as "untreated household wastewater which has not come into contact with toilet waste. third‐party verification that forest products are produced and sold based on a set of criteria for forest management and chain‐of‐custody controls developed by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). indigenous rights.1 ppm. or a garage door that is not designed as an entrance for pedestrians. window geometry. Defined by the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) in its Appendix G. Formaldehyde 1. Glazing Factor The ratio of interior illuminance at a given point on a given plane (usually the work plane) to the exterior illuminance under known overcast sky conditions. and water from clothes‐washer and laundry tubs. titled "Gray water Systems for Single‐Family Dwellings. chest tightness. rather than the force of gravity. The variables used to determine the daylight factor include the floor area. It shall not include wastewater from kitchen sinks or dishwashers. Part‐ time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per week divided by 40. 2. It is designed to use less water than conventional flush toilets. Multiple shifts are included or excluded depending on the intent and requirements of the credit. nausea. dizziness. Additionally. Fuel‐Efficient Vehicles Fuel‐efficient vehicles have achieved a minimum green score of 40 according to the annual vehicle‐rating guide of the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. and throat. Part‐time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per week divided by 40. the lower edge of the shield is at or below the lowest edge of the lamp. Multiple shifts are included or excluded depending on the intent and requirements of the credit. as well as financial costs. Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring VOC found in small amounts in animals and plants but is carcinogenic and an irritant to most people when present in high concentrations. showers. skin rashes. visible transmittance (Tvis) and window height.000 lamp lumens does not numerically exceed 100 (10%) at an angle of 80 degrees above nadir. Grey water includes used water from bathtubs. This does not include any door that is exclusively designated as an emergency exit. labor rights. legal issues. Functional Entry An entryway that is designed to be used by pedestrians and is open during regular business hours. such that all light shines down. Fully Shielded In a fully shielded exterior light fixture. wheezing. multiple benefits. This applies to all lateral angles around the luminaire. Functional Performance Testing The process of determining the ability of the commissioned systems to perform in accordance with the owner's project requirements. window area. FSC Independent. Graywater: 1. to discharge water into the bowl of a toilet or urinal. When present in the air at levels above 0. and asthmatic and allergic reactions. LEED uses a simplified approach for its credit compliance calculations. A known carcinogen with no known safe exposure level.Flushometer A device that utilizes pressure from the water supply system. an international nonprofit organization. FTE Full‐time equivalent (FTE) represents a regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the project building. basis of design (BOD). Formaldehyde occurs naturally. the candela per 1. causing headaches. but appears in unnaturally high concentrations in many buildings because it is an ingredient in binders used in many building materials and furnishings. associated with a product or process. FSC criteria for certifying forests around the world address forest management. mental impairment. nose. and construction documents.
reduced airflow from tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbates the effect. and penthouses with headroom height of 7. it is zero if the daily average temperature is greater than or equal to 65. Project teams should comply with the graywater definitions as established by the authority having jurisdiction in their areas. In the summer. Heat Island Effect Heat island effect refers to the absorption of heat by hardscapes. thus prolonging its life. other sources may include vehicle exhaust. and whether the heat pump was air source." Some states and local authorities allow kitchen sink wastewater to be included in graywater. Ground Source Heat Pump A type of heat pump that uses the natural heat storage ability of the earth and/or the groundwater to heat and/or cool a building. The light bulb uses a halogen gas. the ratio of consumption to gross floorspace. divided by the total floorspace of those buildings. and street equipment. Heat‐recovery ventilator A ventilation system that transmits heat from exhaust air to incoming fresh air. the heat is used to heat the building. open roofed‐over areas. A measure of how cold a location was over a period of time. In the 2003 CBECS. and similar features. ground source. and the period of time is one year. pipe trenches. porches and similar spaces. The geothermal heat pump is more efficient than an air‐source heat pump. residential‐type split system. relative to a base temperature. HCFCs Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are refrigerants that cause significantly less depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer than chlorofluorocarbons." track lights. and outdoor lights. The heating degree‐day is the difference between that day's average temperature and 65 degrees if the daily average is less than 65. heat is extracted from the earth through a liquid medium (groundwater or an anti‐freeze solution) and is pumped to the heat pump or heat exchanger. during the cooling season. Also referred to as a "closed‐loop" system. Heat pumps are vapor‐compression refrigeration systems whose indoor/outdoor coils are used reversibly as condensers or evaporators. including buildings and floorspace where the energy source or fuel is not used.2. specific information was collected on whether the heat pump system was a packaged unit. The International Plumbing Code (IPC) defines graywater in its Appendix C. usually iodine or bromine. Particularly in urban areas. To use that stored energy. Gross Floorspace Total floorspace of a group of buildings. roof overhangs. mezzanine and intermediate‐floored tiers. such as dark. the process is reversed and indoor heat is extracted from the building and transferred to the earth through the liquid. Halogen lamps produce a brighter. Gross Energy Intensity Total consumption of a particular energy source(s) or fuel(s) by a group of buildings. i. used in fire‐suppression systems and fire extinguishers. Halogen Light Bulb A type of incandescent light bulb that lasts much longer and is more efficient than a standard incandescent light bulb. or individual room heat pump. Green‐e Green‐e is a program established by the Center for Resource Solutions to both promote green electricity products and provide consumers with a rigorous and nationally recognized method to identify those products." as "wastewater discharged from lavatories.5 ft or greater. or water source. regardless of which end uses are present or which energy sources or fuels are used within the buildings. whiter light than standard incandescent. Heat Pump A type of heating and/or cooling equipment that draws heat into a building from outside and. showers. ejects heat from the building to the outside. The earth has the ability to absorb and store heat energy from the sun. chimneys. Gross Square Footage Sum of the floor areas of the spaces within the building including basements. They are especially suited to recessed or "canned fixtures. exterior terraces or steps. bathtubs. Heating degree‐days for a year are the sum of the daily heating degree‐days for days that year. There. air‐ conditioners.e. Halons Halons are substances. and its radiation to surrounding areas. clothes washers. depending on the need for heating or cooling. that deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. titled "Graywater Recycling Systems. In CBECS. nonreflective pavement and buildings. that causes the evaporating tungsten to be redeposited on the filament. Heating Degree‐Days the base temperature used is 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Other differences with the UPC and IPC definitions can probably be found in state and local codes. but excluding covered walkways. 14 . and laundry sinks. It is measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the centerline of walls separating buildings..
They can be added together arithmetically when more than 1 source provides light to the same surface. IAQ encompasses available fresh air. furniture. 15 . IECC International Energy Conservation Code IFMA International Facility Management Association Impervious Surfaces Resistance to penetration by a liquid and is calculated as the percentage of area covered by a paving system that does not allow moisture to soak into the ground. contaminant levels. kWh A kilowatt‐hour is a unit of work or energy.HERS Index A scoring system established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) in which a home built to the specifications of the HERS Reference Home (based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code) scores a HERS Index of 100. 1 Hz equals 1 cycle per second. One kWh is equivalent to 3. Horizontal View The approach used to confirm that the direct line of sight to perimeter vision glazing remains available from a seated position. Interior Non‐Structural Components Reuse Interior nonstructural components reuse is determined by dividing the area of retained components by the larger of (1) the area of the prior condition or (2) the area of the completed design. and surface finishes are considered as part of building design. Interior Lighting Power Allowance Interior lighting power allowance is the maximum lighting power (in watts) allowed for the interior of a building. It takes into account the species factor. HFCs are not considered environmentally benign.97%) 0. Integrated Design Building or interior design in which different components. Integrated Pest Management Integrated pest management (IPM) is the coordinated use of knowledge about pests. HEPA filters [High‐Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)] Filters that remove virtually all (99. and other factors. the more energy efficient it is in comparison to the HERS Reference Home. IAQ Indoor air quality: The quality and attributes of indoor air affecting the health and comfort building occupants. KL The landscape coefficient (KL) is a constant used to calculate the evapotranspiration rate. mechanical systems. especially to achieve goals related to sustainability.3‐micron particles. the environment. The lower a home's HERS Index. measured as 1 kilowatt (1. IPC International Plumbing Code IPMVP The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) provides best‐practice protocol for measurement and verification of new construction. Hertz Hertz (Hz) is the unit used to describe the frequency of vibrations (cycles) per second. and the environment. acoustics and noise levels. and microclimate factor of the area. Humid Watershed Watershed that receives at least 40 inches of rainfall each year. while a net zero energy home scores a HERS Index of 0.412 Btu. Horizontal Footcandles Horizontal footcandles occur on a horizontal surface.000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. and pest prevention and control methods to minimize pest infestation and damage by the most economical means while minimizing hazards to people. It uses section drawings that include the installed furniture to make the determination. density factor. property. window placement and glazings. such as the building envelope. Hydrofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are refrigerants that do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer but may have high global warming potential. lighting quality. This standard is referenced in LEED's measurement and verification credits.
Life Cycle Analysis An evaluation of the environmental effects of a product or activity holistically. but with finer texture. Life‐cycle assessment is an analysis of the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product. Long Life. Outbreaks of Legionella pneumonia have been attributed to evaporative condensers and cooling towers. technology. and patios." Life‐Cycle Cost Economic cost of a product or building over its expected life. MDF Medium‐density fiberboard (MDF): Panel product used in cabinets and furniture. In that way it boosts a window's R‐value and reduces its U‐factor. 16 . Rule 608). paved surfaces. Legionella pneumophila Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne bacterium that causes Legionnaire's disease. 2. 2. process. in effect. by analyzing the entire life cycle of a particular material. offering more precise finishing. and. which makes it. Life‐Cycle assessment 1. and water storage tanks. service. (EPA Clean Air Act. operating cost. process. reflective to that heat. It is defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) as "a compilation and evaluation of the inputs.Landscape Area The landscape area is the total site area less the building footprint. when appropriate. Most MDF is made with formaldehyde‐emitting urea‐formaldehyde binder. LPD Lighting power density (LPD) is the amount of electric lighting. similar to particleboard. usually measured in watts per square foot. A measurement of light output. The practice of quantifying and characterizing all the resource and pollution flows associated with a process or product. including first cost. or service. Title VI. It grows in slow‐ moving or still warm water and can be found in plumbing. MERV Minimum efficiency reporting value. or activity. measured between refrigerant charges or over 12 months. Life Cycle Inventory An accounting of the energy and waste associated with the creation of a new product through use and disposal. Strategies include specifying durable materials as well as divisions of interior space that can be easily adjusted. Lux Measurement of lumens per square meter. the coating emits less radiant energy (heat radiation). Loose Fit A general approach to design that allows buildings and interiors to adapt to future uses. whichever is shorter. product. Low‐E Low‐E or Low‐Emissivity Coating: Very thin metallic coating on glass or plastic window glazing that reduces heat loss and heat gain through the window. generally made from wood fiber glued together with binder. outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life‐ cycle. being used to illuminate a given space. for the purpose of documenting its environmental impact. showerheads. cost of disposal or demolition. water bodies. Lumen 1. including straw‐based particleboard. A lumen is a unit of luminous flux equal to the light emitted in a unit solid angle by a uniform point source of 1 candle intensity. Leakage rate The speed at which an appliance loses refrigerant. The leakage rate is expressed in terms of the percentage of the appliance's full charge that would be lost over a 12‐month period if the rate stabilized. Low‐Emitting Vehicles Low‐emitting vehicles are classified as zero‐emission vehicles (ZEVs) by the California Air Resources Board. MDI Methyl Diisocyanate – non‐formaldehyde binder used in some medium‐density fiberboard and particleboard products.
kitchens. hallways. restrooms. do not require active maintenance such as mowing. NRC Noise reduction coefficient (NRC) is the arithmetic average of absorption coefficients at 250. and stairwells. Water that is unsafe or unpalatable to drink because it contains pollutants. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity A health condition in which exposure to a wide range of substances. contaminants. they require limited irrigation following planting. or a formula used in assessing the value of an investment. and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters.000 Hz for a material.000. break rooms. a NOAA division contains an average of nine counties. MSDS 1. and provide habitat value. the NOAA division does not follow county borders when weather conditions vary considerably within a county. and the salvage value identified in the MR credits. storage. and disposal of products Multi‐Occupant Spaces Conference rooms. and providing instructions for the safe handling. 2. A State contains an average of seven NOAA divisions. municipal. Group multi‐occupant spaces do not include open office plans that contain individual workstations. informing them of product information on chemicals. Nonpotable Water Nonpotable water: does not meet EPA's drinking water quality standards and is not approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction. minerals. Occasional Furniture Occasional furniture is located in lobbies and in conference rooms. 1. Individuals using these spaces share the lighting and temperature controls and they should have. trainings. Nonregularly Occupied Spaces Corridors. at levels that would not be noticed by the general population. NPV Net present value: The total discounted value of all cash inflows and outflows from a project or investment. or infective agents. The NRC is often published by manufacturers in product specifications. written instructions documenting a method to achieve uniformity of performance. 17 . as is likely to be the case when a county borders the ocean or contains high mountains. at a minimum. Net Project Material Value ‐ Net project material value includes the construction material value and the CSI Division 12 (Furniture and Furnishings) material value. the lesser of materials values for mechanical and electrical components. calculated by taking the present value of an investment's future net cash flows and subtracting the initial investment. It adjusts the evapotranspiration rate to reflect the climate of the immediate area. However. copy rooms. NPDES The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is a permit program that controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. the existence of potentially hazardous ingredients.Microclimate Factor Microclimate factor (kmc) is a constant used in calculating the landscape coefficient. and 2. office supply closets. a separate zone with accessible thermostat and an air‐flow control. particularly for acoustical ceiling tiles and acoustical wall panels. Nonpoint Source Pollution Water pollution from contaminants that are carried by stormwater runoff into water bodies such as streams and lakes. etc. causes medical problems. Native Vegetation Plants indigenous to a locality (native) and adapted to the local climate. NOAA Division One of the 356 weather divisions designated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that encompass the 50 contiguous United States and the District of Columbia. chemical compounds. lobbies. Industrial. classrooms and other indoor spaces used as a place of congregation for presentations. 500. These divisions usually follow county borders to encompass counties with similar weather conditions. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) are detailed. A report that manufacturers of most products are required to make available to installers and purchasers. and chemical mixtures.
and strawboard. Plasticizer Chemical compound added to a material to make it more flexible or softer. The most common plasticizers used in PVC (vinyl) products such as flooring and wallcoverings are various phthalates that are suspected of causing cancer and/or endocrine disruptions. Post‐Consumer Waste material generated by households or by commercial.Octave Band A section of a frequency scale in which the upper band‐edge frequency (f2) is twice the lower band‐edge frequency (f1).. Examples include particleboard. Partially Shielded In a partially shielded exterior light fixture. Picogram A picogram is 1 trillionth of a gram. concepts. tree trimmings. the lower edge of the shield is at or below the centerline of the lamp. leaves. is used for exterior products." 18 . Generally synonymous with "pre‐consumer. and has been found in human and animal tissue around the planet. Percent Lit When Closed The percentage of a building's square footage that is lit electrically during all hours other than the usual operating hours. broken pallets (if from a pallet refurbishing company. with exceptions only as noted in the credit requirements section. discarded products (e. industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end‐users of the product. Excluded from this category is reutilization of materials such as scrap that are generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process. In 2003. PFOA does not appear to break down in the environment. it must be vegetated and pervious. wheatboard. cabinetry and decking) and urban maintenance waste (e. furniture. plywood. toner cartridges. for buildings open 24 hours a day. materials collected through curbside and drop‐off recycling programs. Consists of wood or plant particles or fibers bonded by a synthetic resin or binder. Phenol Formaldehyde Phenol formaldehyde. lighting. Examples include paper.). Open Space Area Open space area is usually defined by local zoning requirements. this question also included whether heating or cooling was reduced during any periods over a normal 24 hour day. Post‐Industrial Refers to material diverted from the waste stream during a manufacturing process. OSB Oriented‐strand board (OSB). PFOA A perfluorochemical (PFC) that is used to manufacture compounds used in Teflon and formerly used in Scotchguard products. grass clippings. pedestrian‐oriented hardscape spaces. and criteria that are determined by the owner to be important to the success of the project. For projects located in urban areas that earn a Development Density and Community Connectivity credit. to minimize light emitted above the horizontal plane. which can no longer be used for its intended purpose. OPR Owner's project requirements (OPR) is a written document that details the ideas. although many of these products are suitable for interior applications.g. or office equipment either manually or automatically when the building is closed. This includes returns of materials from the distribution chain (source: ISO 14021). which off‐gasses only at high temperature. medium‐density fiberboard (MDF). cooling. Percent Lit When Open The percentage of a building's square footage that is lit electrically during usual operating hours. oriented‐strand board. not a pallet‐making company). Each octave band is identified by its center frequency. binders. it is defined for the purposes of LEED calculations as the property area minus the development footprint. open space also includes nonvehicular.. etc. Off‐Hours Equipment Reduction A method of conserving energy by changing the temperature setting or reducing the use of heating.g. Ongoing Consumables Ongoing conusmables have a low cost per unit and are regularly used and replaced in the course of business. batteries. as well as many other applications. A likely carcinogen. Examples of this category include construction and demolition debris. and desk accessories. Only ground areas are calculated as open space. If local zoning requirements do not clearly define open space.
how. discounted by an appropriate interest rate. and pay fair wages. periodic preventive maintenance. Preferred Parking Preferred parking. credit‐specific methods tailored to and suitable for each specific type of building process (i. etc. where an electricity consumer can buy the renewable energy attributes of electricty to support renewable energy. and ice making. Some nonhazardous wastes are also covered under RCRA. where. review of automation trend logs. Rational Method A formula that can be used for calculating stormwater flow rates. Q = CIA. Credit‐level Builds on and supplements the generic QC Plan by providing detailed. ensuring that LEED requirements have been incorporated into its standard building processes. hire local workers. It can also refer to water used in operational processes. This level of the QC Plan describes generic organization‐level checking and verification processes used for any building design. I is the rainfall intensity. PPM Parts per million. treatment. REC A Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) is a certificate representing proof that a given unit of electricity was generated from a renewable energy source such as solar or wind. Process Water Process water is used for industrial processes and building systems such as cooling towers. RCRA The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) addresses active and future facilities and was enacted in 1976 to give EPA authority to control hazardous wastes from cradle to grave. includes designated spaces close to the building (aside from designated handicapped spots). commissioning. This level of QC Plan detail is required for all prototyped or streamlined credits (except for some streamlined approaches in the LEED‐EB setting). Quality Control Plan: Portfolio‐level or schema‐level The general methods the volume review customer uses to ensure that the sustainable intent for its LEED projects becomes reality. transportation.). and A is area. Present Value The current value of one or more future cash payments.Potable Water Potable water meets or exceeds EPA's drinking water quality standards and is approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction. PSU Primary Sampling Unit: A sampling unit selected at the first stage in a multistage area probability sample. or bartered as environmental commodities. PPB Parts per billion. field inspections. Rainforest Alliance Certification Rainforest Alliance certification is awarded to farms that protect wildlife by planting trees. including generation. or operational settings and across multiple types of building project issues and technical goals. traded. It represents the capacity of the unit and is the maximum that it will draw. where C represents a coefficient for physical drainage area. it may be supplied from wells or municipal water systems. what. and disposal. control erosion. discounted parking passes. and guaranteed passes in a lottery system. designated covered spaces. Rapidly Renewable Term describing a natural material that is grown and harvested on a relatively short‐rotation cycle (defined by the LEED rating system to be ten years or less). an MSA (metropolitan statistical area) with surrounding suburban counties. 19 . to what extent. storage. boilers. construction. limit agrochemicals.. Describes all aspects of the customer's internal verification processes: who. These certificates are able to be sold. Rated Power Rated power is the nameplate power on a piece of equipment. even if they are consuming generic grid‐supplied electricity that may be supplied by nonrenewable sources. available to particular users. plan review. protect native vegetation. clothes washing.e. when. A PSU typically consists of one to several contiguous counties—for example. The method is suitable for watersheds smaller than 300 acres in size. such as dishwashing. and chillers.
Setpoints Setpoints are normal operating ranges for building systems and indoor environmental quality. SHGC Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The fraction of solar gain admitted through a window.90) is 0 and standard white (reflectance 0.000 Hz. The most common materials used are silver (highest reflectivity) and aluminum (lowest cost). 20 . and production losses for a complete assessment of a building's energy use.60–2002) SBS Sick building syndrome (SBS): Building whose occupants experience acute health and/or comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent therein. Sealed Combustion Combustion system for space heating or water heating in which outside combustion air is fed directly into the combustion chamber and flue gasses are exhausted directly outside. For example.05.00 to 1. emittance 0. Reverberation / Reverberation Time Reverberation is an acoustical phenomenon that occurs when sound persists in an enclosed space because of its repeated reflection or scattering on the enclosing surfaces or objects within the space. For example.00. it incorporates all transmission. Once the maximum temperature rise of a given material has been computed. Source Energy Source energy is the total amount of raw fuel required to operate a building. and adversely affect nocturnal environments. a material may have an absorption coefficient of 0. Sound Absorption Coefficient Sound absorption coefficient describes the ability of a material to absorb sound. and to encourage use of standardized best practices. Sky Glow Sky glow is caused by stray light from unshielded light sources and light reflecting off surfaces that then enter the atmosphere and illuminate and reflect off dust.Regularly Occupied Spaces Regularly occupied spaces are areas where workers are seated or standing as they work inside a building. The materials and shape of the reflector are designed to reduce absorption of light within the fixture. Semiarid Watershed Watershed that receives between 20 and 40 inches of rainfall per year. and a standard white surface has a temperature rise of 14. SRI The solar reflectance index (SRI) is a measure of a material's ability to reject solar heat. a standard black surface has a temperature rise of 90_F (50_C) in full sun. but without a known cause or a definite. Specular Reflectors The mirror‐like backing of a fluorescent lighting fixture designed specifically to reflect light into the room. action is taken by the building operator or automation system. expressed as a fraction of incident sound.50 at 250 Hz. but where no specific illness or cause can be identified. A pattern of health complaints related to poor indoor air quality in a specific building. Complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone. and 0. Standard black (reflectance 0. (ANSI S12. and 80% of incident sound at 1. SOP A standard operating procedure (SOP) manual can be used to document routine operations and maintenance practices. compromise astronomical research.80. The arithmetic average of absorption coefficients at midfrequencies is the noise reduction coefficient. delivery. or administrators are seated or standing as they work or study inside a building.80 at 1. Sky glow can substantially limit observation of the night sky. utility areas. light trespass. debris.90) is 100.1_C). teachers. The sound absorption coefficient is frequency‐specific and ranges from 0. the SRI can be calculated by interpolating between the values for white and black.000 Hz. When the building systems are outside of their normal operating range. This indicates that the material absorbs 50% of incident sound at 250 Hz. Materials with the highest SRI values are the coolest choices for paving. Shielding Shielding is a nontechnical term that describes devices or techniques that are used as part of a luminaire or lamp to limit glare. In residential applications. while delivering light in the desired angular pattern. diagnosable pattern of symptoms. and water vapor. expressed as a number between 0 and 1. as shown by a small temperature rise. Species Factor Species factor (ks) is a constant used to adjust the evapotranspiration rate to reflect the biological features of a specific plant species. emittance 0. and closets or other storage rooms. In schools. these areas are all spaces except bathrooms. or sky glow. they are areas where students.6_F (8. or may spread throughout the building.
Use of a least toxic pesticide or self‐contained nonrodent bait does not require universal notification. roof. and nutrients as well as biological or chemical polishing. Tertiary Treatment Tertiary treatment is the highest form of wastewater treatment and includes removal of organics. hang‐on components.. or door.60–2002) Submeter / Submetering Submetering is used to determine the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific end uses or subsystems (e.Because of the way SRI is defined. Tvis Visible light transmittance (VLT) (Tvis) is the ratio of total transmitted light to total incident light (i. making the vicinity warmer than it would be if the pavement and buildings were not present. TP Total phosphorus (TP) consists of organically bound phosphates. Urban Heat Island A densely populated area in which pavement and buildings absorb.e. (ANSI S12. such as a wall. generally to effluent limits of 10 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD) 5 and 10 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS). TVOC The sum or total of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from a product or measured in a space under certain defined conditions. TSS Total suspended solids (TSS) are particles that are too small or light to be removed from stormwater via gravity settling. store. Suspended solid concentrations are typically removed via filtration. and release solar energy. Standard Error A measure of the precision of an estimate. Chemical precipitation is the typical removal mechanism for phosphorus. the majority of which originates from fertilizer application. and orthophosphates in stormwater. 380–780 nanometers of light passing through a glazing surface divided by the amount of light striking the glazing surface). all other pesticide applications do. particularly hot materials can even take slightly negative values. Toe of the Slope Where there is a distinct break between a 40% slope and lesser slopes. UPC Uniform Plumbing Code Upstream Equipment Upstream equipment consists of all heating or cooling systems. STC Sound transmission class (STC) is a single‐number rating for the acoustic attenuation of airborne sound passing through a partition or other building element. Typically quoted per ton. 21 . equal to the square root of the variance. the more incident light passes through the glazing. Systems Furniture Systems furniture includes panel‐based workstations comprising modular interconnecting panels. the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).. and within 24 hours after application of a pesticide in emergency conditions. TAG LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG): Subcommittees that consist of industry experts who assist in developing credit interpretations and technical improvements to the LEED system. The higher the Tvis value. polyphosphates. Tipping Fees Tipping fees are charged by a landfill for diposal of waste. equipment and controls that are associated with a district energy system but are not part of the project building’s thermal connection or do not interfere with the district energy system. It includes the central energy plant and all transmission and distribution equipment associated with transporting the thermal energy to the project building and site.g. and drawer and filing components or a free‐standing grouping of furniture items designed to work in concert. Universal Notification Universal notification means notifying building occupants not less than 72 hours before a pesticide is applied in a building or on surrounding grounds under normal conditions. the amount of visible spectrum. solids. and particularly cool materials can even exceed 100. A higher STC rating provides more sound attenuation through a partition. as measured in an acoustical testing laboratory according to accepted industry practice.
It uses drought‐adaptable and low‐ water plants as well as soil amendments such as compost and mulches to reduce evaporation. because they use only as much power as needed. VMT Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT): The number of miles traveled by motor vehicles in a specified period of time. They can be added together arithmetically when more than one source provides light to the same surface. WFR Window‐to‐floor ratio (WFR) is the total area of the window (measured vertically from 30 inches above the finished floor to the top of the glass. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are carbon compounds that participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions (excluding carbon monoxide. VOCs : 1. or known irritants at typical levels. and low‐ speed motor vehicles. and can be adjusted continuously. Xeriscaping Xeriscaping is a landscaping method that makes routine irrigation unnecessary. parking areas.Urea Formaldehyde Urea formaldehyde is a combination of urea and formaldehyde that is used in some glues and may emit formaldehyde at room temperature. 22 ." In practice. carbonic acid. by a number of motorists in absolute or per capita terms. A molecule containing one or more carbon atoms that tend to evaporate (volatilize) into the air at typical ambient conditions. The compounds vaporize (become a gas) at normal room temperatures. They are usually streets raised to the same grade as curbs and sidewalks. Some VOCs are carcinogens. suspected carcinogens. VFDs may be used to improve the efficiency of mechanical systems as well as comfort. it is common space shared by pedestrians. metallic carbides and carbonates. Vehicles are slowed by placing trees. Some legal definitions of VOCs are restricted to those that react with sunlight to generate smog. planters. multiplied by the width of the glass) divided by the floor area. such as a day or a year. Vertical Footcandles Vertical footcandles occur on a vertical surface. VAV Variable Air Volume (VAV) is an HVAC conservation feature that supplies varying quantities of conditioned (heated or cooled) air to different parts of a building according to the heating and cooling needs of those specific areas. and other obstacles in the street. carbon dioxide. Woonerf A Dutch word that means "street for living. VFD A variable frequency drive (VFD) is a device for controlling the speed of a motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to it. so that motorists travel at walking speed. 2. bicyclists. and ammonium carbonate). ZEV Zero‐emission vehicles.
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