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REVIEW (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2730
Garcinia mangostana L.: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review
Dmitriy Obolskiy1, Ivo Pischel,2 Nisarat Siriwatanametanon1 and Michael Heinrich1*
Center for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy (University of London), 29–39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK 2 Phytolab GmbH & Co. KG, Dutendorfer Str. 5–7, D-91487 Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany
Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, Clusiaceae) has a long history of use as a medical plant, mostly in Southeast Asia. This is a review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of mangosteen. Traditionally mangosteen is famous for its antiinﬂammatory properties and is used in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. Other applications include the therapy of various conditions such as dysentery, different urinary disorders, cystitis and gonorrhoea. This review highlights the development of this botanical drug into a widely used nutraceutical. Products derived from G. mangostana are now distributed increasingly all over the world. This has given rise to a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of mangosteen. Central to the biological activity of the species are xanthones which are reviewed in detail. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of individual xanthones as well as extracts of G. mangostana is included. In addition, its potential in terms of developing novel drug leads is assessed. Products containing its fruits are now sold widely as ‘liquid botanical supplements’, but evidence for the health beneﬁts of these products is still lacking. As shown here, a serious weakness in our knowledge is the lack of clinical data and it is not yet clear to what extent the ﬁndings about pharmacological activities are of potential clinical relevance. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.); Clusiaceae (Guttiferae); xanthones; antiinﬂammatory; nutraceuticals; traditional medicine.
INTRODUCTION The term ‘nutraceutical’ was coined in 1989 by Stephen De Felice from the ‘Foundation for Innovation in Medicine’, an educational foundation in the USA (Rapport and Lockwood, 2002). The coining of this term marks both the formal recognition of health beneﬁts of foods and the starting point of what would become a marketing-driven approach to health foods. It is one of many, generally overlapping, concepts which highlight the health beneﬁts of foods and demarcate a borderline area between medicines and food (Etkin and Ross, 1982, 1996). Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants has without doubt served as an example for developing new drugs (Corson and Crews, 2007), but the impact such knowledge has had on developing novel nutraceuticals has been reviewed far less systematically. Therefore, this review looks at an example of a medicinal and food plant which has now become widely available as a nutraceutical (or food supplement). This review assesses the scientiﬁc information on one such nutraceutical Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen), a tropical evergreen fruit tree and the evidence available on its therapeutic beneﬁts.
The fruits of G. mangostana are the most treasured part of this plant and are famous for the remarkably pleasant ﬂavour. Therefore, mangosteen was even named as the ‘queen of tropical fruits’ (Lim, 1984; Ramage et al., 2004). The fruit hull of G. mangostana has been used for hundreds of years around the world, mostly in Southeast Asia, as a medicine for a great variety of medical conditions. Over the past decades, it was shown that mangosteen contains high amounts of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds which were shown to have signiﬁcant biological activities in in vitro systems. This review looks at both the traditional use of the species and the available scientiﬁc evidence.
TRADITIONAL MEDICAL USE Different parts of G. mangostana, mostly fruit hull, bark and roots, have been used for hundreds of years in Southeast Asia as a medicine for a great variety of medical conditions. In India, Thailand, China and other parts of Asia dried and powdered fruit hull is used as antimicrobial agents and for the antiparasitic treatments in dysentery (Ji et al., 2007; Nakatani et al., 2002b; Moongkarndi et al., 2004b; Saralamp et al., 1996; Yu et al., 2007) as well as externally for healing wounds, suppurations and chronic ulcers (Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara, 1992). Mangosteen leaves and bark are recognized to have strong antiinﬂammatory properties and therefore an ointment derived from them is used
Received 25 June 2008 Phytother. Res. 23, 1047–1065 (2009) Revised 20 September 2008 DOI: 10.1002/ptr Accepted 5 October 2008
* Correspondence to: Michael Heinrich, Center for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy (University of London), 29–39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
2–2. More recently. Hermaphrodite ﬂowers are situated singly or in pairs at the tips of young branchlets. 2000) which occur commonly in only a few higher plant families. mangostana is an erect slow-growing tree that has a pyramidal crown. demethylcalabaxanthone. fungi and lichens. contain numerous veins that are joined together by a vein running parallel to a midrib. Suksamrarn et al. mangostana have been in use for the treatment of skin infections. The astringent qualities of mangosteen are also used for preventing dehydration and the loss of essential nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract in case of diarrhoea. 2. 8-deoxygartanin. including G. in Northern Australia. The inner bark contains yellow. Moongkarndi et al. 1992. 1996a. G. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS The major bioactive secondary metabolites of G.. in Table 1 the terms pericarp or whole fruit (with seeds) are given without speciﬁcation of pericarp part used.. dark green and glossy above and yellowish-green beneath. stem and seed was reported by several authors (Ee et al. mangostanin and mangostinone (Ji et al. Therefore. Harrison. 2002a). The arils of the seeds are represented as 4–8 triangular segments of white. the presence of these compounds in the heartwood. The leaves have a cuneate base. thick. There are four sepals and four ovate. 2006.. gartanin. Suksamrarn et al. Many of the species bear edible fruits. bitter latex. Ramage et al. It attains 6–25 m in height and has dark-brown or nearly black bark.5 cm long and 1. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION The genus Garcinia (Clusiaceae) includes 50–300 species of evergreen trees and shrubs native to Asia. The petals’ colour is green with red spots on the outside. for example. The structure of the xanthene-9-one is symmetrical and carbons are counted based on a biosynthetic convention.. G. Australia.. The seeds are usually ﬂattened. The rind decoction is administered to relieve diarrhea. 2004b.. garcinone B. 2007). gummy. Pharmacological activities of xanthones have aroused great interest to this class of substances. Ltd. tropical and southern Africa and Polynesia. 2006. 2007). mangostana.. The ﬂesh is slightly or distinctly acid in ﬂavour and is claimed as very luscious and delicious (Corner. wounds and for the relief of diarrhea (Jung et al.. Gopalakrishnan et al. The fruit is capped by the prominent calyx at the stem end and with 4–8 triangular remnants of the stigma in a shape of a rosette at the apex.1002/ptr . garcinone D. The leaves are thick. 1992. dysentery and different urinary disorders.5–11 cm wide.. 23. METHODS OF ISOLATION AND STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF XANTHONES Xanthones is a class of polyphenolic compounds with a skeleton of a xanthene-9-one. acute apex. Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara.. Wieble and Downton. 1-isomangostin. Leaves are opposite.. 2002. Sato et al.1048 D. a bark extract called ‘amibiasine’ has been used for the treatment of amoebic dysentery (Moongkarndi et al. Suksamrarn et al.. cystitis. Hawaii. The decoction can additionally be applied externally as an astringent lotion (Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara. 3-isomangostin. The petiole is 1. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra. 2003). 2002). juicy and soft ﬂesh. 1995. Indonesia. 2004a. 2004. Nakatani et al. 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone. 3. purplish-white on the inside.5 cm in diameter. A tea made from mangosteen fruits is used widely as a tonic for fatigue and low energy states. OBOLSKIY ET AL. Brazilians use similar tea as a digestive aid. 2003). 2007. mangostana found in the literature and their structures have been included (Table 1). Peres et al.. yellowish-green inside. Some authors refer to fruit rind and fruit hull which are basically parts of fruit pericarp. Sakagami et al. smooth externally. 2006.. gonorrhoea and gleet. The literature lacks clarity in deﬁning the speciﬁc parts of G.. A root decoction is administered by women with menstrual disorders... In the Philippines and Malaya a tea made from the rind and decoction of the leaves and bark is used as a febrifuge as well as in the treatment of diarrhoea. Harrison.. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons.. The colour is usually from dark-purple to red-purple. In the present proﬁle all known secondary metabolites of G. mangostanol. mangostana fruits that were used for extraction of active compounds. 2004). STRUCTURE. Their petals are usually yellowish-green edged with red or mostly red and are quickly shed. Suksamrarn et al. mangostana has also found medical use in Caribbean and Latin America. 2006. hyperkeratosis and other skin disorders such as psoriasis (Matsumoto et al. 1987. 1992). 9–25 cm long and 4.. garcinone E. Shape is ovateoblong or elliptic. mangostana were found to be α-mangostin and γ-mangostin (Jung et al. 2002. Sakagami et al. Mangosteen is believed to be native to Malaysia and has been introduced.. 2006. The fruit is round. The rind contains bitter yellow latex and a purple. Southern India. 1997). Central America. 2004). 2002). The rind is 6–10 mm thick. The ﬂowers carry a lot of stamens although they bear no pollen as they have no anthers. ﬂeshy petals. The ﬂowers are 4–5 cm in wide and may be male or hermaphrodite on the same tree. 2005. Walker. The majority of investigations are focused on extraction and structure elucidation of xanthones from the fruit hull or pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Asai et al. for treating eczema. Thailand and other tropical countries (Ji et al. They form clusters of 3–9 at the branch tips. The majority of Phytother. short-stalked. The major constituents from the xanthone fraction of G. In Thai folk medicine the fruit hulls of G. 2002. More than 60 other xanthones were isolated from different plant parts of G. 1988. 2003. Puripattanavong et al. Moreover. In Venezuela parasitic skin infections are treated with poultices of the fruit rind (Chairungsrilerd et al. This is a distinctive chemical structural component that is represented as the tricyclic aromatic ring system. The fruit may be seedless or have 1–5 fully developed seeds with ovoid-oblong shape. 2005. mangostana are xanthone derivatives (Jung et al. Brazil. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. staining juice.6 cm wide. Sato et al. red in cross-section.. mangostana including β-mangostin. Res..5 cm long.4–7.. entire margin.
Ltd. Suksamrarn et al. REVIEW 1049 Table 1. (2003) Suksamrarn et al. 23.2a]xanthen-11-one Whole fruit Chin et al.10trihydroxy-2-(2hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3. (2005). Whole fruit (16E)-1. (1995).1002/ptr .GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. (2003. Ee et al. Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). (2006). Res. mangostana Compound name XANTHONES α-Mangostin Structure Plant part References Pericarp. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987). Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987). Jung et al.2-Dihydro-1. (2005). 2003. Stem. (2002. Chen et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Ee et al. (2006). Peres et al. (2006). 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. (2002. Chin et al. (2008). Stem γ-Mangostin Pericarp. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987).6. (2006). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Asai et al. Whole fruit. Matsumoto et al.7-dimethoxy-2-(3methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone Heartwood (16E)-1-Hydroxy-8-(3hydroxy-3-methylbut-1enyl)-3. Chairungsrilerd et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1. (1996b). Jung et al. Malathi et al. (2008) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (2000) Harrison (2002). Puripattanavong et al. Sakagami et al. Chairungsrilerd et al. Arils. 2006).7-trimethoxy-2(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone Heartwood Harrison (2002). (1995). Gopalakrishnan et al. Sakagami et al. (1996b). Seed Asai et al. Secondary metabolites of G. (2006). 2006). (2008). Whole fruit. (1997). Suksamrarn et al. Matsumoto et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) β-Mangostin Pericarp.8. (2002). (2000). Matsumoto et al. 2006). (2003). Suskamrarn et al. (2003). Phytother.6-Dihydroxy-8-(3hydroxy-3-methylbut-1enyl)-3.
8-Trihydroxy-3methoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2enyl) xanthone Leaves Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992).1002/ptr .7-Tetrahydroxy-2.3. Phytother. (1995) 1.3. Res.7-Tetrahydroxy xanthone Structure D.6. (2008) 1.6.1050 Table 1. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1.7-Trihydroxy-2. (2007) 1.3. (Continued) Compound name 1. OBOLSKIY ET AL.7-dimethoxy-8-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone Heartwood Harrison (2002).5. 23.8-di-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone Whole fruit Chin et al. (2007) 1.3.5-dihydroxy-2-isopentyl3-methoxy xanthone Pericarp Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) 1.3-Dihydroxy-2-(2hydroxy-3-methylbut-3enyl)-6.5-Dihydroxy-2-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-3methoxy-xanthone Pericarp Asai et al.7-diisoprenylxanthone OH O OH Not stated Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) O OH 1.8-(3-methyl-2butenyl) xanthone P2 Pericarp Yu et al.6-Trihydroxy-7methoxy-2. Peres et al. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. (2000) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons.3.8-Trihydroxy-4methyl-2.8(3-methyl-2-butenyl) xanthone P1 Pericarp Yu et al. Ltd. Plant part Heart wood References Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) 1.
6-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy2-(3-methyl-2-buthenyl)xanthone Leaves Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) 1.7-dihydroxy-2-isopentyl3-methoxy xanthone Pericarp 11-Hydroxy-1-isomangostin Whole fruit Suksamrarn et al. (2006) 1-Hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy3-methylbut-3-enyl)-3. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons.7dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut2-enyl)-8-(2-oxo-3methylbut-3-enyl)-xanthone Heartwood Harrison (2002). Res. 23. (Continued) Compound name 1.6-Dihydroxy-3.7dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut2-enyl)-xanthone Heartwood.7-Dihydroxy-2-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-3methoxy-xanthone Pericarp Asai et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1.GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. (1995). 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. Matsumoto et al.6-Dihydroxy-8-(2hydroxy-3-methylbut-3enyl)-3. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1. REVIEW 1051 Table 1. (2003).6-Dihydroxy-2-(2hydroxy-3-methylbut-3enyl)-3.7-dimethoxy-2-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone Heartwood Harrison (2002). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1-Hydroxy-8-(2-hydroxy3-methylbut-3-enyl)-3.7-dimethoxy-8-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone Structure Plant part Heartwood References Harrison (2002). Ltd.6-Dihydroxy-3. (Vieira and Kijjoa. Harrison (2002). (2003). (2006).6.6.7trimethoxy-2-(3methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone Heartwood Harrison (2002). Stem Ee et al. Suksamrarn et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 1.7trimethoxy-8-(3methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone Heartwood Harrison (2002).1002/ptr . Phytother. 2005) Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) 1.
2. (1996b).2-dimethyl-7-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-2H. Peres et al.6. Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992).3. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987) Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 2.6]-xanthene-6-one Fruit hull Chairungsrilerd et al. Ee et al. Res. (1987).1052 Table 1. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987) 3-Isomangostin Pericarp Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). Ltd. Peres et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra.1002/ptr .6Hpyrano-[3. Jung et al.3.γ-Dimethyallyl)1. Arils Chairungsrilerd et al. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987) Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 3-Isomangostin hydrate Pericarp Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987) Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) 5. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10.9-Dihydroxy-8-methoxy2. (2006).8-bis-(γ. (2000). (Continued) Compound name 1-Isomangostin Structure D. Plant part Pericarp References Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). 23. (2006) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (2000) 1-Isomangostin hydrate Pericarp 2-(γ.7-trihydroxyxanthone Arils Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987). (1996b).7dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone Pericarp. Phytother.8-Tetrahydroxy-1isoprenylxanthone Not stated 2.γ -Dimethylallyl)-1. OBOLSKIY ET AL.
Phytother. Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). (2006) O OH OCH3 Demethylcalabaxanthone O HO OH Whole fruit. (2000) Calabaxanthone Arils Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992).1002/ptr . Ltd. 23.GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. Whole fruit Chairungsrilerd et al. Suksamrarn et al. (2008) 6-O-Methylmangostanin Not stated Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) 8-Deoxygartanin Pericarp. REVIEW 1053 Table 1. (Continued) Compound name 6-Deoxy-7demethylmangostanin Structure Plant part Whole fruit References Chin et al. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987) Cudraxanthone G O OH Pericarp Jung et al. Peres et al. Arils. (2006) 8-Hydroxycudraxanthone Pericarp BR-Xanthone Pericarp Gopalakrishnan et al. Seed Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987). (1996b). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Jung et al. (1997). (2006). Suksamrarn et al. Gopalakrishnan et al. (2003) O O Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (1997). 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. Res.
Res. (1997). Chairungsrilerd et al. (2000). (Continued) Compound name Garcimangosone A Structure D. (2000). Whole fruit Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). (2001). Peres et al. Suksamrarn et al. (2006). Jung et al. (2001). (2006). (2006). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Garciniafuran Heartwood Harrison (2002) Garcinone B Pericarp. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Asai et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Garcimangosone B Pericarp Huang et al. Ltd. Whole fruit Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (2006). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Garcinone E Pericarp. Whole fruit Gartanin Pericarp. Jung. 23. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Garcimangosone C Pericarp Huang et al. (1995). et al. Jung et al.1002/ptr . Peres et al. Suksamrarn et al. (2001). (2006). (2002. Suksamrarn et al. (1995). Peres et al. (1996a). (2000). (2003). Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987). (2003. (1996a).1054 Table 1. Stem Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). Jung et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Asai et al. Whole fruit. Matsumoto et al. 2006) Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). 2006). Gopalakrishnan et al. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. OBOLSKIY ET AL. Suksamrarn et al. (2006). Suksamrarn et al. Chairungsrilerd et al. Plant part Fruit hull References Huang et al. Phytother. (2006) Garcinone C Whole fruit Garcinone D Pericarp.
(2000). (Continued) Compound name Mangosharin Structure Plant part Stem References Ee et al. (2002).1002/ptr . Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Mangostenone C Whole fruit Suksamrarn et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Mangostenone B Pericarp Suksamrarn et al. (2003). REVIEW 1055 Table 1. 23. (2006) Mangostanin Pericarp Harrison (2002). (2002. Phytother. Suksamrarn et al. Ltd. (2006) Mangostenone E Whole fruit Suksamrarn et al. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Mangostanol Whole fruit. (2006) Mangostenone D Whole fruit Suksamrarn et al. (2002). Stem. (2002). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Mangostenol Pericarp Suksamrarn et al. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. Res. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Mangostenone A Pericarp Suksamrarn et al. (2006) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Peres et al.GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. Suksamrarn et al. 2006).
1056 Table 1. Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) BENZOPHENONES Garcimangosone D Pericarp Huang et al. Ltd. (2003) Suksamrarn et al.1002/ptr . Plant part Pericarp. 23. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. OBOLSKIY ET AL. Phytother. (2002). (2006) Smeathxanthone A Pericarp Thwaitesixanthone Whole fruit Suksamrarn et al. (2001) Maclurin Pericarp. Whole fruit References Asai et al. (2006) Matsumoto et al. (2002). Heartwood Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992). Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Trapezifolixanthone Pericarp Suksamrarn et al. (1995) Jung et al. (2006) Tovophyllin A Pericarp Jung et al. Mahabusarakam and Wiriyachitra (1987) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Res. (2006) Tovophyllin B Pericarp Suksamrarn et al. (2006) Vieira and Kijjoa (2005) Jung et al. (Continued) Compound name Mangostinone Structure D.
prenylated xanthones and their derivatives. xanthone dimers. Phytother. Natural xanthones can be subdivided. Yu et al. phenolic and methoxy groups that give a large variety of possible structures. Res. (2002). Suksamrarn et al. REVIEW 1057 Table 1. (1996b).1002/ptr . Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (Continued) Compound name Kolanone Structure Plant part Pericarp References Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) FLAVONOIDS Epicatehin Pericarp Chairungsrilerd et al. 23. glycosylated xanthones..GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. based on the nature of substituents. Ltd. into simple oxygenated xanthones. (2007) ANTHOCYANINS Chrysanthemin Pericarp Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) Cyanidin-3-O-sophoroside Pericarp Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside Not stated Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) xanthones present in mangosteen have a ring system that is substituted with a variety of isoprene. xanthonolignoids and miscellaneous (Pinto et al. 2005).
Malathi et al. 2005. MS data are also very important for preliminary examination of the structure (Peres et al. 2000).25 μg/mL and from 6. Alternaria tenius and Dreschlera oryzae. mangostana have relatively strong antifungal and antibacterial activities. 1 H and 13C NMR spectroscopy is probably the most useful method in the structure elucidation of naturally occurring xanthones. Prenylated xanthones isolated from the fruit hull.8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) xanthone were reported (Gales and Damas. 1. Res. mangostana.8. several 2D NMR techniques such as COSY.3. Sakagami et al. γ-mangostin and smeathxanthone A using authentic and morpholinosydnonimine-derived peroxynitrite methods (Jung et al. Analysis of spin–spin coupling and chemical shifts allows the determination of the structures of substituents and the number of aromatic protons in unknown structures. gartanin.. OBOLSKIY ET AL. Among the compounds tested γ-mangostin was the most active against all the test fungi. 2002. 2001. arils and seeds of G.. An extract of G.. Walker. This was evaluated by the bond lengths and angles. They are also separated and identiﬁed by comparison with standards by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). considerable information on the position of hydroxyl groups can be obtained.1058 D. 2007). respectively. 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin. Antifungal and antibacterial activities Selected xanthones as well as extracts of G.20 μg/mL). thus being a potent substance for preventing the development of atherosclerosis. sodium hydroxide and boric acid shifts.2a] xanthen-11-one. x-ray crystallography derived structures of the main xanthones of mangosteen remained unknown for a long time. synergism between α-mangostin and commercially available antibiotics was investigated. this extract showed high inhibition on TNF-α production generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with Propionibacterum acnes. antibacterial. α-mangostin.. The crystal structures of xanthones that have been elucidated lately revealed that the three-ring system. Additionally. In addition. Recently. 0. The structures of all known xanthones were established mainly by 1H and/or 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The central pyranoid ring in the majority of the cases has an aromatic character.8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone and mangostanin induced quinone reductase in the Hepa 1c1c7 cell line in an in vitro screening assay (IC50.. 2006. The UV spectrum of xanthones depends on its oxygenation and varies in a characteristic manner. ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV).13 μg/mL. 2000.. Antioxidant activity Chin et al. 2007. Additionally. and in combination with vancomycin hydrochloride against MRSA.10-trihydroxy-2(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3. 2006). It was suggested that phenolic hydroxyls in rings A and B as well as isoprenyl groups play important roles in the antifungal mechanism of action of xanthones as the difference in the presence and position of these functional groups inﬂuenced the inhibition.1002/ptr PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS AND PURE COMPOUNDS DERIVED FROM G. HSQC and HMBC have been used widely to elucidate the structures of more complex xanthones (Harrison. infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) (Ji et al. It was suggested that α-mangostin alone or in combination with gentamicin against VRE. The NMR data of a large number of xanthones present in G.. (2005) investigated the antibacterial activity of α-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). 1. there are some small deviations from planarity mainly because of steric factors associated with substituents. α-Mangostin was found to be active against ﬁve strains of VRE and nine strains of MRSA with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 6. The separation of xanthones is commonly carried out by silica gel chromatography using different solvent mixtures. Therefore this plant was claimed to have a remarkable antiinﬂammatory effect and to reduce cell damage. Antioxidant activities were also shown for 8-hydroxycudraxanthone.7-trihydroxy-2. By using sodium acetate. But later on the crystal structure of α-mangostin and 1. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Peres et al. is mainly planar.6-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2. The effects of chelation on the IR frequency of the carbonyl group in hydroxyl-xanthones can be a very helpful feature. Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum. which determines the skeleton of this class of compounds. x-ray crystallography has played an important role in the determination of the three-dimensional structure including the absolute conﬁguration of xanthones. antihistamine.3. mangostana was reported to have very good antioxidant action in the 2. However.5 μg/ mL. mainly individual xanthones. 2002. Vieira and Kijjoa.2 μg/mL) whereas γ-mangostin exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (IC50.. The extract inhibited 50% of free radicals at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL to 12. 2000). 1997).2-Dihydro-1. cytotoxic.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay (Chomnawang et al.68–2.. 2007). Suksamrarn et al. Huang et al. antifungal. mangostana were tested for their Phytother. 0. antiinﬂammation. NOESY. 23. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. Ltd. was tested and a correlation between their structures and biological effects was established (Gopalakrishnan et al. The antifungal activity of naturally occurring xanthones from mangosteen fruit against three phytopathogenic fungi. 2005). Another work showing high antioxidant properties of a xanthone was published by Williams et al.. and should be investigated further in in vivo models. . mangostana has been reported. IR spectroscopy can also be useful in the structure elucidation of xanthones. might be useful in controlling VRE and MRSA infections. Jung et al. (2008) demonstrated the antioxidant activities of selected xanthones. anti-HIV and other activities (Table 2). MANGOSTANA Extracts and pure compounds derived from G. As it was difﬁcult to obtain diffraction quality crystals. (1995). In this paper α-mangostin was claimed to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL). were reported to have a great variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant.
Shigella typhi and Shigella boydii Inhibition of Streptococcus faecalis. (2008) Jung et al. Trichophyton mentagrophyte. Shigella boydii.1002/ptr . (1995) Mahabusarakam et al. Vibrio cholerae growth Inhibition of MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) Antimicrobial activity against VRE (vancomycin resistant Enterococci ) and MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) Sintersmuk and Deekijsermpong (1989) Water extract of pericarp Petroleum extract of pericarp Gritsanapan and Chulasiri (1983) Sutabhaha et al. REVIEW 1059 Table 2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (2006) Yu et al. (2003) α-Mangostin β-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Gartanin 8-Deoxygartanin Pericarp decoction Inhibitory effect on normal and penicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Farnsworth and Bunyapraphatsara (1992) Inhibition of the growth of Shigella dysenteriae.7-tetrahydroxy-2. Vibrio cholerae. mangostana extracts and pure constituents Extract/Compound Pharmacological activity IN VITRO MODELS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Chloroform extract of pericarp P1 (1. Res.3. Escherichia coli. Biological and pharmacological activities (in vitro and in vivo) of G. Shigella sonnei. 23.6. Shigella ﬂexneri. Salmonella virchow and Salmonella welterverdin.6-trihydroxy-7methoxy-2. Shigella dysenteriae.GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L.8(3-methyl-2-butenyl) xanthone) P2 (1. (2000) Antifungal activity against three species of tinea – Trichophyton rudrum.3. Dreschlera oryzae Puripattanavong et al. Salmonella stanley. Salmonella agona. Phytother. (2007) α-Mangostin α-Mangostin and its derivatives ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY Ethanol extract of pericarp Acetone extract of pericarp Methanol extract of pericarp α-Mangostin is acting as a free radical scavenger to protect the LDL from oxidative damage Inhibition of LDL oxidation Williams et al. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. (2006) α-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Gopalakrishnan et al. Microsporum gypseum Antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum. (1997) Sakagami et al.8-(3-methyl-2butenyl) xanthone) Epicatechin Antioxidant effect in DPPH assay DPPH radical scavenging activity Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity Superoxide anion radical scavenging activity Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation Puripattanavong et al. (2005) α-Mangostin Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (2006) Antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging and NBT reduction assay) Radical scavenging and cytokine reducing activity Chomnawang et al. Altenaria tenius. (2007) Reference γ-Mangostin 8-Hydroxycubraxanthone Gartanin α-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Smeathxanthone Ethanol extract of pericarp Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity Antioxidant activities using authentic and morphosydnonimine-derived roxynitrite methods Chin et al. (1997) ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY γ-Mangostin Garcinone D Mangostanin α-Mangostin Demethylcalabaxanthone Strong inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Suksamrarn et al. Salmonella typhimurium. Salmonella typhi. Ltd. Vibrio cholerae. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10.
Ltd. (2005) CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY α-Mangostin Gartanin Cytotoxic properties against breast cancer and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth cell lines Cytotoxic properties against small cell lung cancer cell lines Signiﬁcant human leukaemia HL60 cell growth inhibition. (2003) α-Mangostin β-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Mangostinone Garcinone E 2-Isoprenyl-1.7-Trihydroxy-2. (2004) α-Mangostin α-Mangostin α-Mangostin Matsumoto et al. (2006) Matsumoto et al. (2008) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (Continued) Extract/Compound D. (2003) Matsumoto et al. (2005) Moongkarndi et al. α-mangostin.2-a] xanthen-11-one 6-Deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin Chin et al. (1997) α-Mangostin Ethanol extract of G. 23. antioxidation and induction of apoptosis of SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line Induces Ca2+-ATPase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in PC12 pheochromocytoma (cancer) cells Induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells Antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay Chemopreventive effects in short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay system.10-trihydroxy-2(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3. (2004b) Nabandith et al. It can be suggested that longer exposure might result in suppression of tumour development Complete inhibition of the cell growth of human leukemia cell line HL60 Targeting mitochondria pathway. mangostana Water extract of pericarps followed by ethanol precipitation and fractionating by anion exchange chromatography Crude extract of G. (2004a) Sato et al. (2002) 1. OBOLSKIY ET AL. mangostana Chomnawang et al. (2004) α-Mangostin α-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Ethanol extract of pericarp Matsumoto et al.1060 Table 2.8-di-(3methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone 1. β-mangostin and γ-mangostin were particularly effective Suksamrarn et al. (1996) Voravuthikunchai and Kitpipit (2005) Chanarat et al. Phytother. Pharmacological activity Antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Phagocytic intracellular killing activities against Salmonella enteritidis The results from the disc diffusion method showed that the extract could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes Staphylococcus epidermidis Reference Iinuma et al. resulting in indication of apoptosis in HL60 (human leukemia) cells Cytotoxic effect on all HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as on the other gastric and lung cancer cell lines Quinone reductase inductive activity using Hepa1c1c 7 cells of murine hepatoma Moongkarndi et al. Res. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. (2006) Suksamrarn et al.1002/ptr . (2004) Garcinone E Ho et al.3.7-dihydroxy-3methoxy xanthone Methanol extract of pericarp Antiproliferation.8.2-Tihydro-1.
Res. (1979) Extract of pericarp Pongphasuk et al. Phytother. (1998b) Riscoe et al. (2005) Xanthones CNS DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY α-Mangostin and derivates CNS depression (ptosis.1002/ptr . (2002a) ANTI-HIV ACTIVITIES α-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Non-competitive inhibition of HIV-1 protease Inhibition of the replication cycle of HIV Chen et al. (1998) α-Mangostin OTHER PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES Ethylacetate extract of stem Larvicidal toxicity against mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypty Ee et al. (1979) ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY α-Mangostin 1-isomangostin Antiinﬂammatory activity by both intraperitoneal and oral routes in rats as tested by carrageenin induced hind paw oedema.6-di-O-glucoside Myocardial stimulation. (1996a) Nakatani et al. ether anaesthesia) in mice and rats Shankaranarayan et al. Ltd. Targeting the Plasmodium digestive vacuole IN VIVO MODELS γ-Mangostin Chairungsrilerd et al. (2002b) Chen et al. increasing of blood pressure in frogs and dogs Shankaranarayan et al. cotton pellet implantation and granuloma pouch techniques Antiinﬂammatory effects. (1979) Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. 23. (Continued) Extract/Compound ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY γ-Mangostin Pharmacological activity Reference Inhibition of spontaneous PGE(2) release in a concentration-dependent manner Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of COX-2 protein and its mRNA Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis Antiinﬂammatory activity by inhibition of inducible NO synthase Nakatani et al. decreased motor activity. (2006) Chairungsrilerd et al. Signiﬁcant decrease of paw swelling induced by carrageenan injection Signiﬁcant antiulcer effect in rats Shankaranarayan et al. sedation. (2008) Histaminergic and a serotonergic receptor blocking agents Inhibition of both histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis Chairungsrilerd et al.GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. 5-HT2 receptor agonists act as peripheral vasoconstrictors Inhibition of 5-ﬂuoro-alfa-methyltryptamineinduced head-twitch responses of mice by inhibition of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine 2A receptors Xanthones as potential antimalarial agents. in mice and albino rats. REVIEW 1061 Table 2. (1998a) γ-Mangostin γ-Mangostin acts as a novel speciﬁc 5-HT2A (5-Hydroxytryptamine) receptor antagonist. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. (1996) Vlietinck et al. (2005) ANTIULCER ACTIVITY α-Mangostin Shankaranarayan et al. (1979) CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY Mangostin-3. potentiation of pentobarbital sleeping time. (2004) γ-Mangostin α-Mangostin γ-Mangostin ANTIHISTAMINE ACTIVITY α-Mangostin γ-Mangostin Ethanol extract of pericarp Nakatani et al.
The study of Matsumoto et al. As histamine and prostaglandin are chemical mediators for inﬂammation and/or allergy. 2008.. 2003). cyclization of the C5 group results in a signiﬁcant decrease of activity (Suksamrarn et al. 1987). Nabandith et al. Cytotoxic activity Among a large number of biological activities described for xanthones.. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. Additionally. 1995).37 g/kg mice weight. A study on potential mutagenic effects of G. 2004a). 1996. concerning chronic toxicity of the extract in mice. the in vitro growth inhibitory activity on tumour cell lines appeared to be quite remarkable as they exhibit their activity on a wide range of different cell lines. Recently a clinical trial on a multi-herbal extract containing ‘G. A correlation of structures with effects was also suggested. The authors claimed that xanthones should be tri. epidermoid carcinoma. the extract inhibited prostaglandin E2 release from C6 rat glioma cell line. www. mangostana by applying plant extracts to mice orally. The mechanism was described as an inhibition of Ca2+. the report by Riscoe et al. Suksamrarn et al. 2002b. there are no data from clinical trials to verify these effects in humans. 23. Res. Vlietinck et al. mangostana has a powerful antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic cell death on the SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line (Moongkarndi et al. 2007) and there clearly is a need to initiate clinical research with well deﬁned extracts of G.tropicos.and β-mangostins as well as garcinone B were shown to have strong antituberculosis potential with MIC values of 6. 2002... Other biological activities Nakatani et al. it is necessary to employ the extract at 9. Phytother. Inhibition of release of proinﬂammatory mediators by xanthones was demonstrated in other studies including inhibition of cyclooxygenase. mangostana extract in methanol 50% found that the extract did not show mutagenicity effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. 2000). OBOLSKIY ET AL. (2005) carried out toxicity studies on G. 1998).ATPase that causes induction of cytochrome C release resulting in apoptosis. after an interval of 12 h there was a decrease in the enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (Sornprasit. Ltd. Overall. After injecting mangostin derived from mangosteen pericarp extract into mice (200 mg/kg).. 17% and 43%. mangostana. Sato et al. 2008. mangostana. in particular among young children and pregnant women.. illeg. In contrast. β. prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide synthesis (Chen et al. MANGOSTANA Pongphasuk et al.. 2006). the parasite’s most vulnerable feature could be of future interest. (2005) on xanthones as antimalarial drugs and describing the mechanism of their action by targeting the digestive vacuole. In spite of the fact that a considerable number of studies reported on many useful pharmacological activities of constituents of G. Moreover. One of the most sensational pharmacological effects of G. mangostana inhibited IgEmediated histamine release from the rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cell line. the xanthones should contain tetraoxygen functional groups with two C5 isoprenyl units in rings A and B. (2004) studied the induction of Ca2+-ATPase-dependent apoptosis of PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells through the mitochondrial pathway by α-mangostin. Matsumoto et al. the hot-water extract of mangosteen had no antimutagenicity in TA98 at all (Chanprechakul.and γ-mangostins were claimed to be non-competitive inhibitors of HIV1 protease thus inhibiting the replication cycle of HIV (Chen et al. (nom. the research reported that they found antimutagenicity activity of mangosteen (50% methanol extract) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 (Sripanichkulchai. The health beneﬁts of mangosteen for people need to be proven scientiﬁcally.. 2004. 4 and 8 g/kg/day it induced mortality at a rate of 15%. Malaria is nowadays still one of the most signiﬁcant parasitic diseases in the tropics and sub-tropics with at least 500 million clinical episodes. (2003) showed that the pericarp of G.. However. There are some other investigations published reporting the anticancer activities of xanthones including cytotoxic properties against breast cancer. hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and others (Chin et al. inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra.25 μg/mL. mangostana constituents that was reported by several authors is the antiviral activity. Nakatani et al.. However.1002/ptr .. It was suggested that α-mangostin and its derivates may become valuable pharmacological tools for anticancer therapy. the study found that at the concentrations of 2. but it seems that this line of research and development has not been followed further.org) provided some preliminary evidence about its potential as a slimming agent (Toromanyan et al. (2005) reported on the antiproliferative activities of α-.1062 D. small cell lung cancer. 2004). a 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen fruit may contain useful components beneﬁcial for the treatment of these Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. the study reported that at a concentration of 20 g/kg the extract did not result in mortality in mice at all. For a high anticancer activity. α. physiological responses. TOXICITY OF G. (2002a) found that a 40% ethanol extract of fruit hull of G. Among others α-mangostin showed complete inhibition at 10 μM through the induction of apoptosis of tumour cells. Ho et al.and γ-mangostins. Another investigation demonstrated that a crude methanol extract from the pericarp of G.. It was found that in order to achieve a lethal dose 50% (LD50). 2006). α.and tetra-oxygenated with di-C5 isoprenyl units or with a C5 isoprenyl and modiﬁed groups and it is essential for their antimycobacterial activity (Suksamrarn et al.. Nevertheless. These xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth of human colon cancer DLD-1 cell line with a correlation between the number of hydroxyl groups in their structures and the antiproliferative efﬁcacy. mangostana contains a variety of xanthones with antiproliferative activity against human leukaemia HL60 cells. cambogia’. the data from this study seem to be inconclusive. respectively. a correlation between the structures and cytotoxicity of xanthones was reported. Therefore.
xango. Among the entire segment of US top selling supplements. Mangosteen juice was introduced in 2003 to a global market by one of the food supplement manufacturers which has consequently maintained a generous 80% market share of a mangosteen juice category in which a lot of companies are now active. September 20. curing of cartilage and joint diseases. joint ﬂexibility and intestinal health (http:// www. there are numerous therapeutic claims which are based on a long tradition of use and these do not necessarily correspond to ‘modern’ claims. immunomodulator activity. As a second step. whether you feel them or not’ comprising a total of 42 health beneﬁts. 73. mostly juice combinations of exotic fruits.jp/pressrelease/archive/060324_en. such as antiAlzheimer.5 million for ‘mangosteen’). this approach was an outcome of the previous trend in the US supplement market over the past decades related to antioxidant supplements such as green and black tea. Nevertheless.5% in 2005 and 18% in 2006 resulting in a total sales volume of 147 million USD. . the marketing companies were able to achieve premium pricing for their products. Approval of new drugs is based on scientiﬁc data which demonstrates their safety and efﬁciency. REVIEW 1063 MANGOSTEEN AS A HEALTH FOOD SUPPLEMENT In 2004 after the general signiﬁcant decrease of food supplements in the US market. 2008). Partly. antiosteoporosis and many more. These products are now being sold within the retail channels in more traditional beverage forms. 2008) listed the Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons. For instance. 2006.gov/foi/warning_letters/archive/g6031d. but developing evidence-based nutraceuticals has been discussed in detail and a strategy for globalizing local knowledge systems has been suggested which would increase the beneﬁts obtained to a wider population (Heinrich et al. as pointed out above so far no clinical data is available.health-report. the rise in sales growth of botanicals saw the emergence of a new generation of health products – ‘superfruits’. 2006). CONCLUSIONS This review highlights that while there is relatively detailed phytochemical and some pharmacological information on the use of this plant as a food supplement. is a search in public health-related databases with queries such as ‘Xanthones’ or ‘Garcinia mangostana’ and linking them.html. Due to the given structure of such a network. especially in 2004 and 2005 when liquid supplements such as noni. A number of network marketing companies established a huge global niche market for liquid botanical supplements.htm. 1047–1065 (2009) DOI: 10. anticancer. making unsubstantiated therapeutic claims will result in consumer expectations which cannot be met.fda.1002/ptr . based on our current knowledge products derived from mangosteen may best be considered as (certainly healthy) food supplements. the company began exporting their product to Europe and Asia. Therefore. subsequently. Ltd. As outlined under traditional uses. In 2006. Accordingly. The growth for mangosteen juice was 200% in 2004. Consequentially.html. mangostana may have considerable clinical potential in humans and need to be studied further in in vivo models and ultimately in clinical studies. After the great success of exploiting traditional Western fruits such as elder. Therefore.uk/ mangosteen. there are no clinical data available that would provide evidence of efﬁcacy of mangosteen xanthones or extracts in humans. Extracts and constituents of G. which was the main reason for the enormous turnover of this market category. the marketing hype about mangosteen reached levels of dishonest advertisement and misleading claims about the products. labels and promotes its product for use in the treatment and prevention of different clinical conditions (such as improvement of digestive system. which contain extensive lists of the beneﬁts related to the use of mangosteen preparations or juice. mangosteen juice is available in 16 international markets. accessed May 8. together with the established markets in the USA. Res.co. initiate clinical trials. Phytother. However. Japan.. However. one webpage (http://www. It should be noted that any manufacturer of mangosteen extracts which makes such claims. An internet search resulted in numerous hits (3. anti-Parkinson. Moreover.co. mangosteen and goji juice’s sales were rising strongly. At this stage it is too early to assess what will be the greatest beneﬁts of this fruit and any other products derived from G. Mexico and Australia. The term ‘liquid botanical supplements’ was coined for convenience products. 2006). mangostana. 23. Mostly the direct sales and multi-level marketing companies were extremely active to disseminate the ‘health messages’ around the ‘novel superfruits’. manufacturers are starting to report ongoing research and positive results in establishing the role of xanthones in supporting the immune system. Heinrich and Prieto. linked to supposed health beneﬁts from their traditional usage of the original plant. in 2006 mangosteen juice ranked 22nd and in 2006 has overtaken the sales ﬁgures of green tea (NBJ’s Supplement Business Report.GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. investment in scientiﬁc research using the extracts which are marketed is now a priority in this ﬁeld. work on developing guidelines for daily recommended doses of xanthones intake is ongoing. manufacturers need to provide scientiﬁc data to support the health claims (http://www. Several of the more recent studies in the above section were in fact based on the validation of such claims. blue and black currant berries more and more exotic and foreign fruits were entering the herbal and botanical supplements market. 2007). Canada. companies should start a basic research phase on in vitro activity and. The term ‘liquid botanical supplements’ for this new category of juices expresses alleged health claims of such products. March 3. ‘proven beneﬁts of xanthones – you can feel the difference’ and ‘more beneﬁts . fruits and extracts or concentrates derived from such plants. grape seed as well as other polyphenol-rich juices. manufacturers should focus on safety studies of such products. . Initially. neutralization of toxins) will run the risk that the products intended for such uses are considered as drugs according to current regulations. Unfortunately. The common approach of companies behind those claims for stating the beneﬁts of the products.
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