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Water Safety Plan for Water Quality Management The Singapore Experience

Josephine Leong Yin Hou, Senior Chemist Technology & Water Quality Office, PUB

Country Information

Land Area Population Average Annual Rainfall Average Water Demand

697 km2 5 mil 2,400 mm 1.3 mil m3/day


To deliver and sustain a clean and healthy environment and water resources for all in Singapore.

Regulates the quality of piped drinking water supplied by water suppliers from their tratment plants and through water mains in Singapore

Singapores national water agency that manages the nations water supply, water catchment and used water in an integrated way. The major supplier of piped drinking water

Environmental Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations
The Schedule Water Safety Plan / Water Sampling Plan

8 0 0 2

Notification, Remedial Measures, Records Keeping

Code of Practice on water safety and sampling plans as a guidance document

Definition of Water Safety Plan

A plan describing the risk assessment and risk management measures that are or are to be used in order to minimize the likelihood of any piped drinking water failing to comply with the water quality standards specified in the Schedule of the Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water Regulations)
Methodology and Key Step : Chapter 4 (Water Safety Plans) of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality WHO document on Water Safety Plans

Water Safety Plan

WSP Framework
National Environment Agency

Health Based Targets

(The Schedule listed in the Piped Drinking Water Regulations)

Water Safety Plan (PUB/water suppliers)

(Code of Practice on Piped Drinking Water Sampling and Safety Plans)

Water Safety Team*

(plan, develop, verify and implement)

System Assessment
(reservoir, treatment plant, distribution networks)

Effective Monitoring/ Control Measure

(Water Sampling Plan)

Management / Communication Plan

(corrective actions SOP for normal and incident conditions, notification )

(Audit) * Multidisciplinary including those who should have the knowledge of the system and have the authority to implement the necessary changes to ensure that safe water is produced and supplied.


Overview of Implementation of Integrated Management System in PUB

ISO 9001:2000 certification in 2003 for the scope of management, operation and maintenance of waterworks. Certifications for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP); ISO 14001 (Environmental Management Systems) and ISO 18001 (Occupational Safety & Health Management Systems in Feb 2006

=> Integrated 4-in-1 Management System

Overview of Implementation of Integrated Management System in PUB

Principles of HACCP
Conduct a hazard analysis Identify critical control points (CCPs) Establish critical limits Identify monitoring procedures Establish corrective action procedures Verify/validate HACCP Plan

10 Steps of WSP

Water Safety Plan

Assemble the team Describe the water supply system Undertake a hazard assessment and risk prioritization Assess the system Identify control measures Define monitoring of control measures

Catchment Establish record keeping and & responsibility Waterway

Water Supply Plant

Water Establish procedures to verify that Supply the Network water safety plan
Develop supporting programs Prepare management procedures (corrective actions) for normal and incident conditions Establish documentation and communication procedures

Water Sampling Plan

Quality of Drinking Water

Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (3rd Edition & 2nd Addendum) USEPA Drinking Water Standards Operational Control Limits

Drinking Water Quality in Waterworks and Distribution Network

Waterworks Outlets Distribution Network Chemical Bacteriological

EPH (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations [Mandatory] WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality EPA Drinking Water Standards Operational Control Limits



100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

100% pass

>95% pass

100% pass

> 95%pass

100% pass

Integrated Water Quality Management

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Catchment & Waterway
Legislation Land-Use Control
Protected Water Catchment
only non-pollutive activities allowed

Unprotected Water Catchment

housing developments and non-pollutive industries with stringent pollution control measures implemented allowed

Erosion and Sedimentation Control Catchment Surveillance Algae control Water quality monitoring
on-line/ fish monitoring system

Fish culture

Aquatic plant removal

Water Safety Plan (Catchment & Waterway)

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Catchment & Waterway
Water Pollution Control and Drainage Act Trade Effluent Regulation Cattle Act Poisons Act Environmental Public Health Act National Parks Act Public Utilities Act Public Utilities (Reservoir & Catchment Areas) Regulations
Water Safety Plan (Catchment & Waterway)

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Catchment & Waterway
Erosion and Sedimentation Control
Ensures minimum bare surface Provides effective silt control measures perimeter concrete-lined cut-off drains Silt fence Silt traps / sedimentation basin storage tanks Silt treatment system

No bare Surfaces

Silt fence

For more details, please refer : website

Water Safety Plan (Catchment & Waterway)

Lined perimeter cut-off drain

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Catchment & Waterway

Catchment Surveillance

Water Safety Plan (Catchment & Waterway)

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Water Treatment Plant
Multi-Barrier Concept of Water Treatment Online monitoring of water quality at critical control points
Raw water, dose water, settled water, filtered water, finished water etc. Raw water (conductivity <500), Dose water (pH 5.5 6.5), filtered water turbidity for filter breakthroughs (< 0.3 ntu)

Membrane Integrity Tests (MIT) to determine if there is any fibre breakage Over/ under dosing of treatment chemicals
Regular maintenance, calibration and availability of standby equipment Alarm system if control parameter exceed control limit Training of operators

Regular check for cracks/leak and scheduled wash of clear water tank

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Multi-Barrier Concept of Water Treatment Control Measures Water Treatment Plant
SCREENING Cl2 Lime Alum Polymer







Fluoride Lime Cl2


Urbanised Catchment Protected Central Water Catchment

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Water Supply Network
Service reservoir / Distribution Networks
Online WQ monitoring Manned by armed guards / Intrusion detection system Maintain residual chorine to prevent biofilm formation Regular turnover of water supply SOPs (leak detection, cross contamination)

Customers Premises / Water Reticulation System

Measures to maintain water quality in customers premises Legislation & Enforcement

Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Water Supply Network
Maintaining Water Quality in Customers Premises EN
Liciensed Plumbers Plumbing works for potable/drinking water are only carried out by PUB licensed water service plumbers to ensure safety aspects of drinking water supply not compromised Water Fittings Compliance with stipulated Standards & requirements Professional Engineer/Licensed Plumber to ensure & certify compliance for water installation work Enforcement Provisions for enforcement action are provided under PU Act, Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations


Hazard Assessment Risk Proritisation & Control Measures Water Supply Network
Legislation & Enforcement
Provisions in the Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations Provisions in the Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations Building owners, management agents are required to: maintain & secure their water service installations (including water tanks), notify PUB immediately of any water contamination Once a year, engage a licensed water service plumber to check, clean /disinfect and certify fitness for storage of potable water Security Recommendations of Water Tanks Requirements on security of water tanks Secured and locked access to water tanks

Overview of Water Sampling Plan

NEWater Dosed Filtered Raw Settled Treated


Waterworks Waterworks


Source Water Manual sampling Assessment of longterm quality trend Project in progress for on-line monitoring

Treatment Plants & Service Network Reservoirs Manual on-line /Manual monitoring Sampling at critical control points in Real-time onthe process train line monitoring Real-time on-line monitoring

Customer Random manual sampling at Customers tap



Water Safety Plan

Overview of Water Sampling Plan

Water Safety Plan

Overview of Water Sampling Plan

Water Quality Monitoring Approach
Routine Sampling Over 120 sample/week taken from network 50% direct supply, 50% indirect supply Also include samples from customers premises Re-sample when routine sample exceed typical value Change in network operation or supply source (e.g Desal zone, source from new reservoir) Report from customers on abnormal water supply Sensitive or major events Step up sampling frequency if necessary

Investigatory Sampling

Special Sampling

Water Safety Plan

Water Quality Data Management System

Analysis and reporting Web-based interface Real-time analysis Automated reporting Alert/escalation mechanism

Built-in Six Sigma tools

Data aggregation

Water Quality Data Mgmt System

System Control Centre

Data collection

Water Science Lab

SCADA at plants

Data types



Online quality data

A strategic operation system for water quality management

Water Security
Conventional Fish Tanks Online surrogate parameters sensors Fish Biosensors Water Monitoring Plan Scenario Planning
Online Fish Biosensor

Fish Activity Monitoring System (FAMS)

Water Security
Three Tiered Water Monitoring Plan
First tier water monitoring Rapid screening the likely presence of toxic chemical and biological hazard in water sample within 30 minutes Second tier water monitoring Identify the presence of specific chemical and microbial contaminants within 4 hours Third tier water monitoring Confirm the presence of specific pathogens within 24 48 hours

Water Security

Water Security
Scenario Planning
Carry out desktop analysis/exercise on operation management across the water systems; Identify gaps/weaknesses in the water systems; Develop response/mitigation plans to strengthen PUBs operation management capability and Expose officers to adopt systems thinking mindset and Build up competencies. For example : Generic scenarios such as power failure, drought, flood, fire etc; Deteriorating raw water reservoir quality affecting treatment plant etc and Distribution pipe burst affecting customers etc.

Internal & External Audit Panels

IAP: chaired by local expert in NUS EAP: 5 foreign experts and 2 local experts Independent audit every 6 months
External Audit Panel
Prof Joan Rose (Chairperson) Prof Thomas Grizzard Prof Wolfgang Khn Prof Laszlo Somlyody Mr Michael Wehner Prof Ong Choon Nam Prof Lee Hian Kee

Area of expertise
Microbiology Environmental Engineering/Water Quality Monitoring Water Chemistry Environmental Engineering/Water Quality Monitoring Water Quality and Water Technology Human Health and Toxicology Environmental and Analytical Chemistry


Areas of Audit

Sampling and analysis of water quality including NEWater, reservoir raw water and potable water

Operation and maintenance of NEWater Factories and Waterworks

Major water projects and initiatives undertaken by PUB e.g. Tuas Desalination DBOO, Ulu Pandan NEWater DBOO Plant, Marina Barrage & PunggolSerangoon Reservoir Scheme

Staff training and competency

Emerging Issues & concerns for Drinking Water


R&D in Water Quality

Pumping Mains / SR
Study Flow Pattern in SR

Transmission / Distribution
Study on Nitrification Trace Organics & PPCPs Microbial Ecology in distribution system Improving Water Flow in Pipelines

Minimum Changes in quality

Prevent External Contamination Response of Surrogates

to Toxic Contaminants Event Prediction (SANDIA) Wireless Sensor for Distribution Network (MIT) Developing WQ Sensors for Deployment in Network

Fish Activity Imaging

Consistent, Good Quality

Adequate PMonitoring

R&D in Water Quality

Thank You Thank You

4 - 8 July 2011
Sustainable Water Solutions for a Changing Urban Environment The global platform for water solutions Brings together policymakers, industry leaders, experts and practitioners Address challenges, showcase technologies, discover opportunities & celebrate achievements Key highlights include Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize, Water Leaders Summit (by invitation only), Water Convention, Water Expo & Business Forums
Year No. of attendees No. of countries participated Value of deals, tenders & investments announced No. of co-located events No. of participating companies in Water Expo

2008 2009 2010

8,500 10,000 14,000

79 82 112

S$380m S$2.2b S$2.8b

42 76 120

350 420 514