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1. In a classic Magic deck, land cards come in five types Mountain, Forest, Island, Plains and Swamps. a) How many classic land cards must I have to guarantee that there are at least 5 of some type? 20 cards could be 4 of each type; so 21 guarantees five of one type b) What does the pigeonhole principle say about a hand containing 36 classic land cards? 36/5 rounds up to 8. The pigeonhole principle says that there at least 8 of one type. 2. Apply the pigeonhole principle to show that in a group of 20 people, there is either a set of 4 mutual friends or 4 mutual strangers. Select one person; call him/her A. Of the remaining 19, there are at least 10 friends of A or 10 strangers (since 19/2 rounds up to 10). First, suppose the 10 are friends of the first person. Select one person from these 10; call him/her B. If 4 of the remaining 9 are friends of B then either they are a set of mutual strangers or they include a pair of friends who A and B give a group of 4 mutual friends. Otherwise at least 6 of the remaining 9 are strangers to B. By the case done in class, this group of six contains at least 3 mutual friends or 3 mutual strangers. The former case leads to a group of 4 mutual friends with A; the latter a group of 4 mutual strangers with B. Next suppose the 10 are strangers to the first person. Again select one person from these 10; call him/her B. If 4 of the remaining 9 are strangers to B then either they are 4 mutual friends or there is a pair of strangers who together with A and B give 4 mutual strangers. Otherwise at least 6 of the remaining 9 are friends of B. By the case done in class, this group of six contains at least 3 mutual friends or 3 mutual strangers. The former case leads to a group of 4 mutual friends with B; the latter a group of 4 mutual strangers with A. 3. a) How many permutations of the numbers 0 99 are there? 100!

b) How many 4-permutations contain 4 consecutive numbers in increasing order? There are 97 choices for the first number (0-96) and just 1 choice for each position after that. So in total 97. c) How many 4-permutations contain exactly 3 consecutive numbers in increasing order and in consecutive positions?

Consider first those of the form N|N+1|N+2|M. If N is any number 00-96, then N+1 and N+2 are given and there are 96 choices for M. If N=97 then N+1 and N+2 are given and there are 97 choices for M. (N=98 or 99 dont work). In all there are (97) (96)+(1)(97)=9409. There are also 9409 of the form M|N-2|N-1|N. The final total is 18,818 4. What is the probability that a 5 card poker hand contains (i) exactly one ace, (ii) cards of distinct values, (iii) five cards of the same suit (flush), (iv) five cards of the same suit with consecutive values (straight flush), (v) a royal flush (10, J, Q, K, A of the same suit) i) The number with one ace is C(4,1)C(48,4) since we pick one ace from 4 and the other 4 cards from the remaining 48 cards. The probability is C(4,1)C(48,4)/C(52,5)=0.299

ii) The number with distinct values is C(13,5)45 since there are 5 values to pick from 13 choices and 4 cards of each value. The probability is C(13,5)45 /C(52,5)=0.507 iii) There are C(12,4) ways of getting a flush. The first card be anything this fixes the suit-, We must the have 4 more cards of this suit from the 12 that remain. The probability is C(12,4)/C(51,4)=0.00198. iv) The lowest value in the straight can be an A, 2, 3,10 from which the other 4 cards are then determined. Since there are 4 suits, this gives 40 possibilities. So the probability is 40/C(52,5)=0.00006 v) There are just 4 royal flushes one for each suit. So the probability is 4/C(52,5) 0.0000015 5. a) How many rearrangements are possible from the letters of MISSISSIPPI?, ALABAMA?, FLORIDA? IIIIMPPSSSS. So 11!/(4!4!2!) = 34,650 AAAABLM. So 7!/4! = 210 ADFILOR. Simply 7! = 5040 b) How many 3 letter words can be made from the letters of the word FLAGSTAFF? (i.e. the F can be used up to 3 times, A up to twice and G, L, S, T at most once.) AAFFFGLST. Thus (6)(5)(4) = 120 words with distinct letters Double-A words. There are 3 positions for the other letter and 5 ways to pick that letter so 15 words. And the same number of double-F words. There is also FFF. In all therefore there are 120+15+15+1 = 151 possibilities. 6. (i) Two cards are dealt in blackjack with the best possible hand consisting of an ace together with 10, J, Q or K. What is the probability of getting this from a) a single deck, b) a double deck, c) a 5-deck?

a) There are C(16,1) ways of getting a value-ten card and C(4,1) ways of getting an ace. There are C(52,2) ways of drawing two cards. So the probability is C(16,1)C(4,1)/C(52,2) = 0.04827 b) In a similar way to part a), the probability is C(32,1)C(8,1)/C(104,2) = 0.4780 c) In a similar way to parts a) and b), the probability is C(80,1)C(20,1)/C(260,2) = 0.04752 The probabilities are very similar for single, double and triple decks. (ii) Suppose you have noticed that only one J, two 10s and no Q, K or A have occurred in the first 20 cards to be dealt, how does this change the above probabilities? a) C(13,1)C(4,1)/C(32,2) = 0.1048 b) C(29,1)C(8,1)/C(84,2) = 0.0666 c) C(77,1)C(20,1)/C(136,2) = 0.0537 So given some card-counting the difference is much greater. The moral of this story is that it is better business for a casino to play with multiple decks. 7. a) In how many ways can 12 identical stolen televisions be distributed among 5 thieves? We have 12 identical TVs (denoted by xs) and five thieves (for which we can use four dividing lines |. So we ask how many arrangements are there of the word xxx| xxx|xxxxx|xx|xx. The answer is C(16,4) = 1820 b) In how many ways can the 5 thieves leave with 12 televisions and 10 VCRs? Do the TVs and VCRs separately and multiply. Along the same lines as part a) we therefore have C(16,4)C(14,4) = (1820)(1001) = 1,821,820 8. Girl Scout Cookies come in eight varieties. a) In how many ways can I order 6 boxes? We can think of this problem in which choices include ooo||||o|o||o. There are C(13,6) = 1716 b) In how many ways can I order 6 boxes with exactly 2 Samoas? Remove the two Samoas. We need four more boxes with 7 choices. So C(10,4) = 210 c) In how many ways can I order 6 boxes with at least 2 Samoas? Remove two Samoas. We need four more boxes with 8 choices. So C(11,4) = 330

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