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Diaper
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"Nappy" redirects here. For other uses, see Nappy (disambiguation) and Diaper (disambiguation). For the geological term, see diapir.

Disposable baby diaper with resealable tapes and elasticated leg cuffs.

Different kinds of outer diapers.

A diaper (in North America) or nappy (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and many other Commonwealth countries) is an absorbent garment worn by individuals who are incapable of controlling their bladder or bowel movements, or are unable or unwilling to use a toilet. When diapers become soiled, they require changing; this process is often performed by a secondary person such as a parent or caregiver. Failure to change a diaper on a regular enough basis can result in diaper rash. Diapers have been worn throughout human history. They are made of cloth or disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of fabric such as cotton,

2 Cloth Diaper 2. Plastic pants can be worn over diapers to avoid leaks. Luvs. Diapers are usually worn out of necessity rather than choice. Terms such as "incontinence pads" can be used to refer to adult diapers. Currently. and people working in extreme conditions such as astronauts. However.1 Etymology 1. These can include the elderly. learning an infant’s body language.1 Disposable 2. cost. An alternative to infant diapers is the infant potty training method or elimination communication. Contents [hide] • 1 History ○ ○ • 2 Types 1. bamboo or microfiber and can be washed and reused multiple times. those with a physical ormental disability. and reacting quickly enough to reach a suitable spot for elimination. emotional fulfillment. they can also be used by adults who suffer from incontinence or in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable.3 Debate ○ 3.hemp. It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits. disposable diapers are the most commonly used. Disposable diapers contain absorbent chemicals and are thrown away after use. with Pampers.1 Children  3. owing to issues ranging from convenience.[1] This method is more commonly used in third-world countries whose citizens do not possess the financial means to purchase baby diapers.2 Development ○ ○ ○ • 3 Usage 2. and Huggiesbeing some well-known brands in the industry.1 Training pants . but with modern cloth diapers.1. a technique that involves sound association. The decision to use cloth or disposable diapers is a controversial one. and their effect on the environment. people such as infantilists and diaper fetishists wear diapers recreationally for comfort. although there are exceptions. this is no longer necessary. Diapers are primarily worn by children who are not yet potty trained or suffer from bedwetting. health. or sexual gratification.

[5] [edit]Development This section is written like a personal reflection or essay and may require cleanup./ pull-ups ○ ○ • • 4 See also 5 References 3.[2] The Middle English word diaper originally referred to the type of cloth rather than its use. and later came to describe a white cotton or linen fabric with this pattern. This type of pattern was calleddiapering and eventually gave its name to the cloth used to make diapers and then to the diaper itself.[4] This usage stuck in the United States and Canada following the British colonization of North America. "diaper" was the term for a pattern of small repeated geometric shapes. cut into geometric shapes. (April 2011) . traced back to 1590s England. but inBritain the word "nappy" took its place.2 Adults 3. Most sources believe nappy is a diminutive form of the word napkin.[3] The first cloth diapers consisted of a special type of soft tissue sheet.3 Animals [edit]History [edit]Etymology "Another bear the ewer. the third a diaper" —One of the earliest known uses of the word in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Please help improve it by rewriting it in anencyclopedic style.

will make the softest of diaper coverings. in some absorbent barrier. In the 19th century. inside which specially absorbent napkins (diapers). are contained. The constant problem to be overcome was nappy /diaper rash and infection. In 1951 the Paddi patent was granted for the USA and The whole of the World. the disposable diaper/ nappy gradually evolved through the inventions of several different people. depicting the changing of a diaper. In the 20th century. crumbled into balls. a housewife in the UK . She applied for the patent in April 1948. started developing and making Paddi. However cellulose wadding was rough against the skin and when wet. In 1947. would do equally well and are very cheap and soft") Once available rubber pants would sometimes be used over the cloth diaper/ nappy to prevent leakage. Here is an extract from 'The Modern Home Doctor' written by doctors in the UK in 1935. see below at 1A. soft bits of good Turkish towelling. held in place with a fastening . soft. especially during the night period in which it is most important to prevent habit formation 1A -(squares of butter muslin or Harrinton’s packed rolls of “mutton cloth” in packets.eventually the safety pin. a 2-part system of a disposable pad (cellulose wadding covered with cotton wool) and an outer plastic. allowing the baby to lie for some time with faecal matter in contact with the skin. Wrapping children not yet toilet trained. "Nice old. were the two main causes of serious problems. adjustable garment with press-studs/ snaps. Hugo Drangel of the Swedish paper company Pauliström suggested an idea of placing sheets of paper tissue (cellulose wadding) inside the cloth diaper/ nappy and rubber pants. the modern diaper/ nappy began to take shape and mothers in many parts of the world used cotton material. light. it was granted for the UK in October 1949 and in November 1949 she signed a contract with Robinsons of Chesterfield who then went into full production.Valerie Hunter Gordon. Initially she used old parachutes for the garment). properly washed.Unpleasant duties byAdriaen Brouwer. Cloth diapers in the United States were first mass produced in 1887 by Maria Allen. The concern was that lack of air circulation would make this worse. Playtex . These should rarely be soiled once regular habits have been inculcated. and easily washed. In 1950 Boots the Chemist agreed to sell Paddi in all their UK branches.[6] In 1944. It was later found that poor hygiene inefficiently washed and bleached nappies and infrequent changes of nappy. Doctors were antagonistic to this because they believed that the rubber would act as a poultice and damage the baby's skin. Shortly after that. is as old as human history. In the 1930's Robinsons of Chesterfield had 'Destroyable Babies Napkins' listed in their catalogue for the wholesale market. In the UK nappies were used made out of terry towelling. sold for polishing motor-cars. with often an inner lining made out of soft muslin.

“The double gusset folded areas tend to readily conform to the . In 1956. by adding a garment (again making a 2-part system like Paddi). along with his project group including William Dehaas (both men who worked for the company) invented what would be trademarked "Pampers". "This one will fly. declaring they would never allow their wives to "put paper on their children. Paddi was extremely successful for many years until the advent of 'all in one' diapers. realising the enormous potential of the product. Connecticut.Marion Donovan from Westport. Hugo Drangel's daughter Lil Karhola Wettergren. with the purchasing managers. Victor Mills. Playtex. Marion Donovan could not find a manufacturer. the diapers themselves were not launched into the market until 1961. However she met the same problem. Presented to Fred Wells as 'project p-57' (this was the plane Wells had taught American pilots to fly during WWII). Parke-Davis. (Patented in 1951) She later went on to develop a disposable 2-part system .com/Marion-Donovan. the disposable diaper industry boomed and the competition between Procter & Gamble's Pampers and Kimberly Clark's Huggies resulted in lower prices and drastic changes to diaper design. Valerie Hunter Gordon made over 400 Paddis herself using her sewing machine at the kitchen table. Mothers increasingly wanted freedom from washing nappies so that they could work and travel causing an increasing demand for disposable diapers / nappies During the 1950s. in 1956 elaborated her father's original idea.wikipedia. Mills stated.like Paddi (with a garment and a disposable pad). who were male." see Pauliström Mill History http://sv. but was unable to persuade any manufacturer to take on the product http://www. In the UK in 1948. As stated in Procter & Gamble's initial 1973 patent for the use of double gussets in a diaper. and Molnlycke did enter the disposable diaper market.and several other large international companies tried unsuccessfully to buy out Paddi from Robinsons.women-inventors. In America.asp Initially the big manufacturers where unable to see the huge commercial possibilies of disposable nappies. another housewife . In Sweden.[7] Over the next few decades. Several improvements were made. Procter & Gamble began researching disposable diapers. Her husband had unsuccessfully approached several companies for help and it was only a chance meeting with Sir Robert Robinson at a business dinner that got things going.org/wiki/Paulistr%C3%B6m After the second world war. Kendall." Although Pampers were conceptualized in 1959. companies such as Johnson and Johnston. life changed for many women.uk In America.org. For more information go to http://www. developed a waterproof diaper cover known as the "Boater" using a sheet of plastic from a shower curtain into which was placed a cloth diaper.paddi. on the other side of the Atlantic. such as the use of double gussets to improve diaper fit and containment.

Basic layers are an outer shell of breathable polyethylene film or a nonwoven and film composite which prevents wetness and soil transfer. the diaper is less likely to leak or. In fact. This allows quick and easy fitting and provides a snug and comfortable diaper fit that will neither bind nor wad on the infant…as a result of this snugger fit obtained because of this fold configuration. and elasticised waist bands. its containment characteristics are greatly enhanced. .[13] A disposable diaper may also include an inner fabric designed to hold moisture against the skin for a brief period before absorption to alert a toilet training or bedwetting user that they have urinated. the first patent for the use of double gussets in a diaper was in 1973 by the Proctor and Gamble Company[12] Some diapers lines now commonly include wetness indicators. resealable tapes. product innovations include the use of superabsorbent polymers. Other common features of disposable diapers include one or more pairs of either adhesive or velcro tapes to keep the diaper securely fastened. They are now much thinner and much more absorbent. Some diapers have tapes which are refastenable to allow adjusting of fit or reapplication after inspection. Most materials in the diaper are held together with the use of a hot melt adhesive which is applied in spray form or multi lines.thigh portions of the leg of the infant. and the 1984 introduction of super-absorbent material from polymers known as sodium polyacrylate that were originally developed in 1966. Elasticized fabric single and double gussets around the leg and waist areas aid in fitting and in containing urine or stool which has not been absorbed. an elastic hot melt is also used to help with pad integrity when the diaper is wet. in other words.[9][10] [edit]Types [edit]Disposable Ever since their introduction several decades ago.which are now undergarments. the "hourglass shape" so as to reduce bulk at the crotch area. Modern disposable baby diapers and incontinence products have a layered construction.”[8] Further developments in diaper design were made. in which a chemical included in the fabric of the diaper changes color in the presence of moisture to alert the carer or user that the diaper is wet. such as the introduction of refastenable tapes. [11] which allows the transfer and distribution of urine to an absorbent core structure where it is locked in. The product range has more recently been extended into children's toilet training phase with the introduction of training pants and pant diapers . and a layer nearest the skin of nonwoven material with a distribution layer directly beneath which transfers wetness to the absorbent layer. an inner absorbent layer of a mixture of airlaid paper and superabsorbent polymers for wetness.

Some disposable diapers include fragrances. [edit]Cloth Diaper Baby cloth diaper filled with extra cloth. Stool is supposed to be deposited in the toilet. Baby with Cloth Diaper . but is generally put in the garbage with the rest of the diaper. Care of disposable diapers is minimal. and primarily consists of keeping them in a dry place before use. lotions or essential oils in order to help mask the scent of a soiled diaper or to protect the skin. with proper disposal in a garbage receptacle upon soiling.

was invented and patented in 1961 by Edward Moonan of Boonville. most cloth diapers are fastened with hook and loop tape (velcro). such as the use of the hour glass shape. cloth diapers consisted of a folded square or rectangle of cloth. manmade materials. fastened with safety pins. snaps." an alternative to traditional safety pins.[16] Many design features of modern cloth diapers have followed directly from innovations initially developed in disposable diapers.[15] Modern cloth diapers come in a host of shapes. bamboo. or a combination of both. Today. Other natural fiber cloth materials include wool. NY. which consist of a water-resistant outer shell sewn with an opening for insertion of absorbent material inserts. Types of Modern Cloth Diapers[18][19][20][21] Prefolds – Prefold diapers are a rectangle of layered cloth. or an inner elastic band for better fit and containment of waste material.Cloth diapers are reusable and can be made from natural fibers. Safe Diaper Clip from mid-1960s. Several cloth diaper brands use variations of Procter & Gamble's original 1973 patent use of a double gusset inPampers[17]. . They are often made from industrialcotton which may be bleached white or left the fiber’s natural color. sewn together in the center third to create a thicker layer. Traditionally. or a Snappi. The "Safe Diaper Clip. Manmade materials such as an internal absorbent layer of microfiber toweling or an external waterproof layer of polyurethane laminate(PUL) may be used. They come in several sizes to correspond with a baby’s weight range. all-in-one diapers with waterproof exteriors. due to simultaneous development in the disposable diaper industry. Hennie Visser invented the Snappi diaper fastener as an alternative to diaper pins. materials to separate moisture from skin and the use of double gussets. Polyester fleece and faux suedecloth are often used inside cloth diapers as a "stay-dry" wicking liner because of the non-absorbent properties of those synthetic fibers. including preformed cloth diapers.[14] The "Safe Diaper Clip" never took off.fitted diaper with covers and pocket or "stuffable" diapers. and unbleachedhemp.

Cloth diapers place less stress on landfills as compared to single-use disposable diapers. Fitteds are fastened shut in three ways: pins. or folded in thirds and laid inside a cover. Flats require a cover to be waterproof. Flats – Flat diapers are a single large layer of cloth that must be folded into the correct size to fit a baby. All-in-two diaper – An all-in-two. Flats must be pinned or Snappi’d to stay on the baby. they take longer to dry since they are thicker than other options.diaper (AI2) is a diaper that can function as an all-in-one diaper or as a diaper cover. Fitteds – Fitted diapers look similar to a disposable diaper and are made of a few layers of absorbent cloth material. but also require . thus the name all-in-two. or lay in insert that can be removed and replaced with a clean insert after it has been wet. They require a separate cover to be waterproof. A pocket diaper must be washed after each diaper change. With the insert removed the diaper can be used as a cover over a prefold or fitted cloth diaper. Pocket diapers look similar to disposable diapers. snaps. Prefolds must be washed after each diaper change but the cover can be reused several times if it is not soiled with feces. The pocket is stuffed with absorbent material to customize an absorbency level for each baby. sewn together with a moisture wicking inner layer and an attached absorbent flap. Pocket diapers often come in one size that can be adjusted with snaps and hook and loop tape (velcro) to fit a baby over a wide variety of weight ranges. Typically microfiber cloth is used to absorb the moisture away from the babies skin to prevent diaper rash. The cover of an all-in-two only needs to be laundered if the diaper is soiled and the cover needs cleaning. AIOs can be sized for a particular weight range or one-sized to adjust to a wider weight range. An all-in-two diaper has a snap in. or hook and loop tape (velcro). however. AIOs must be washed after each diaper change. Cloth diapers require dry storage as well. All-in-one diaper – An all in one (AIO) diaper consists of a waterproof outer layer. AIO diapers are the most convenient diapers to use since there is only one item to put on the baby.Prefolds are fastened with pins or a Snappi. They require a cover to be waterproof. Fitted diapers come in several sizes to fit a baby’s weight range. Pocket diapers – Pocket diapers consist of a waterproof outer layer and a moisture-wicking inner layer that are sewn together on three sides to create a stuffable pocket. Fitted diapers must be washed after each diaper change but the cover can be reused several times if it is not soiled with feces. Flat diapers must be washed after each diaper change but the cover can be reused several times if it is not soiled with feces. and equipment and supplies for cleaning. Pocket diapers dry more quickly than all-in-one diapers because they have less material in them.

unless the user has a high-efficiency washing machine. and increased environmental awareness has led to a growth in campaigns for parents to use reusable alternatives such as cloth or hybrid diapers. depending mostly on how parents wash and dry them.4 million tons of used diapers adding to landfills each year. "An updated lifecycle assessment study for disposable and reusable nappies" by the UK Environment Agency and Department for Environment. resulting in a possible 3. However.[22] Since disposable diapers are discarded after a single use. while parents in more rural areas often find that they must clean diapers using their own cleaning facilities. [edit]Debate An average child will go through several thousand diapers in his/her life. much better results . however. effluents from the plastic. Washing cloth diapers at home uses 50 to 70 gallons of water every three days. and paper industries are far more hazardous than those from the cotton-growing and -manufacturing processes. Food and Rural Affairsstated that reusable diapers can cause significantly less (up to 40 per cent) or significantly more damage to the environment than disposable ones. As an alternative to athome cleaning. Some brands seek to combine cloth and disposable diapers.[24] It is possible. In one cradle-to-grave study sponsored by the National Association of Diaper Services (NADS) and conducted by Carl Lehrburger and colleagues. Sun exposure will kill any remainder and usually resolves any staining issues. these hybrids are cloth diapers with a disposable inner layer.[26] In October 2008. Single-use diapers consume less water than reusables laundered at home. but uses less water and energy per diaper than one laundry load at home. pulp.washing in water with detergent to be properly cleaned. In addition. Generally. which is roughly equivalent to flushing the toilet 15 times a day.[23] An estimated 27.[25] The environmental impact of cloth as compared to disposable diapers has been studied several times. An average diaper service puts its diapers through an average of 13 water changes. The "baseline scenario" showed that the difference in green-house emissions was insignificant (in fact. some locations have a fee-based cloth diapering service that delivers clean diapers and picks up soiled ones. disposables even scored slightly better). results found that disposable diapers produce seven times more solid waste when discarded and three times more waste in the manufacturing process. but more than those sent to a commercial diaper service. to buy disposable diapers with a low environmental impact. usage of disposable diapers increases the burden on landfill sites.4 billion disposable diapers are used each year in the US. The method of "dry-pailing" after removal of solid waste and washing on a cold or warm wash removes most bacteria.

"[27]   There are variations in the care of cloth diapers that can account for different measures of environmental impact. which is generally considered an environmentally wasteful crop to grow.000 or more in disposable diapers before being potty-trained. donation of used diapers through recycling groups such as freecycle [4] or to charities such as miraclediapers. "Conventional cotton is one of the most chemically-dependent crops. Cloth nappy users can reduce their environmental impacts by:   Line drying outside whenever possible Tumble drying as little as possible When replacing appliances. such as bamboo and hemp. Cloth diapers are most commonly made of cotton. sale of used diapers through diaperswappers."[29] This effect can be mitigated by using other materials. can last from birth to potty-training. cloth diapers. "The report shows that.[31][32] The cost of washing and drying diapers must also be considered. that's more than any other crop per unit. sucking up 10% of all agricultural chemicals and 25% of insecticides on 3% of our arable land. while initially more expensive than disposables.[30] In contrast.org [5]. Another aspect to consider when choosing between disposable diapers and cloth diapers is cost. Many reusable diaper users take advantage of these resources and may even join communities like livejournal's clothdiapering [6] in order to find ways to make their diaper-washing routine more efficient or get feedback about different types of . using a cloth diaper laundering service involves additional pollution from the vehicle that picks up and drops off deliveries.(emission cuts of up to 40 per cent) could be achieved by using reusable diapers more rationally. cost as low as $300 for a basic set of cloth diapers.[28] Some people who launder cloth diapers at home wash each load twice. in contrast to the use of disposable nappies. For example. if one-sized. The basic set.com [2]. choosing more energy efficient appliances (A+ rated machines [according to the EU environmental rating] are preferred)   Not washing above 60 °C (140 °F) Washing fuller loads Reusing nappies on other children. Yet such a service uses less water per diaper in the laundering process. and thus doubling the energy and water usage from laundering.500 to $2. It is estimated that an average baby will use from $1. it is consumers’ behaviour after purchase that determines most of the impacts from reusable nappies. although costs can rise with more expensive options. considering the first wash a "prewash". Another factor in reusable cloth diaper impact is the ability to re-use the diapers for subsequent children. craigslist [3] or other online communities.

including teasing from classmates and health issues resulting from dirty diapers. and need to wear diapers at nighttime to control bedwetting. Paediatric nurse June Rogers claims that the attitude of parents plays a major role in the problem. These factors can alleviate the environmental and financial impact from manufacture. depending on culture. not the parents'. "[S]uper-comfortable nappies" have also been criticized. and that it is the child's decision when to stop wearing diapers. most children no longer need diapers when past two to four years of age. it is becoming increasingly common for children as old as five to still be wearing diapers because of their parents' neglect or the child's opposition to toilet training.[35] The age at which toilet training should begin is a subject of debate and keeping children in diapers beyond infancy can be controversial. leaving the child oblivious to their accident and when they need to go to the toilet. however. commonly referred to as diaper rash.[38] While awake. with family psychologist John Rosemond claiming it is a "slap to the intelligence of a human being that one would allow baby to continue soiling and wetting himself past age two."[36] Pediatrician T. Berry Brazelton. a diaper for older children.reusable diapers.[33] Diapering can also serve as a good experience for parent and child. diaper type. and that toilet training is simply not a priority for many of them. the advanced technology in modern diapers wick wetness away from skin.[36] Brazelton warns that enforced toilet training can cause serious longterm problems. The disposable diaper industry has been accused of encouraging this trend by manufacturing diapers in increasingly larger sizes. This can pose a number of problems if the child is sent to school wearing diapers. sale and use of brand-new reusable diapers.[34] To avoid skin irritation. and the child's personality. the diaper of those prone to it should be changed as soon as possible after it is soiled (especially by fecal matter).[40][41][42] .[36][37] Children may have problems with daytime or more often nocturnal bladder control. until eight years or older. parental habits. as feces contain urease which catalyzes the conversion of the urea in urine to ammonia which irritates the skin and can cause painful redness.[39] However. believes that toilet training is the child's choice and has encouraged this view in various commercials for Pampers Size 6. [edit]Usage [edit]Children Babies may need to have their diapers changed five or more times a day. Teachers' groups—who are attributing the epidemic to an increase in full-time day care use—are requesting that diapered children be banned from the classroom.

[44] Dr Anthony Page of the Creative Child Online Magazine claims that children can get used to their diapers and begin to view them as a comfort.[46] [edit]Adults . so as to avoid alienating those who find wearing diapers at a late age to be embarrassing. Larger versions are available for older children and teenagers who have already been toilet trained but continue to suffer from bedwetting. cites an identical figure. Whereas most diapers are unisex." He called for further studies to be done on the topic. training pants often come in sex-specific versions because children become more aware of gender roles as they grow older. rather than being forced to wet or soil themselves unnecessarily.. these surveys imply that a fetishistic or emotional attraction to diapers may be responsible for these "comfort" cases. and pediatricians such as Brazelton claiming that forced toilet training can cause lasting psychological and health problems.[43] With the development of training pants making it possible for children to change their own diapers.[45] In a series of online surveys. Please help rewrite this section from a neutral point of view. most would rather wear diapers than worry about getting up at night to go to the toilet. of eHealth International. children are wearing diapers at a much older age than they did historically. (November 2010) Because of the increase in older children wearing diapers. [edit]Training pants / pull-ups This section is written like an advertisement.Parents and other carers for children often carry spare diapers and necessities for diaper changing in a diaper bag. Inc. children are able to use the toilet if they feel the need. These training pants are similar to infant diapers other than they require no fastening as they 'pull-up' like normal underwear. and that of the children surveyed. Robert A Pretlow. they are constructed like a diaper with an absorbent core and a waterproof shell and can be worn at any age until the child stops wetting the bed. enabling children to be changed standing up or even independently without adult assistance. Because they can be pulled on and off like underpants. He argues that if Internet users are representative of society as a whole. MD. as it sends a "message of permission" to urinate in their sleep. diaper manufacturers have designed special "training pants" which bridge the gap between baby diapers and normal underwear during the toilet training process. and that "these behaviors are a significant cause of enuresis and incontinence. Available in both cloth and disposable versions.[36] The Children's Health and Wellness website claims that diapering a child can prolong bedwetting. They are intended to be discreet and similar to underwear.

the Vienna city council proposed that horses be made to wear diapers to prevent them from defecating in the street. which are associated with children and may have a negative connotation. canines. The diapers used on primates. The usage of adult diapers can be a source of embarrassment. The diapers used on equines are intended to catch excretions. In other cases. who . or for older. etc. In some cases. or injured pets who have become incontinent. these are simply baby diapers with holes cut for the tails to fit through. [edit]Animals Diapers and diaperlike products are sometimes used on pets. In 2002. they are diaperlike waste collection devices. they are usually referred to as "adult absorbent briefs" rather than diapers. In the medical community. This is often due to the animal not beinghousebroken.A bag of Abena adult diapers Main article: Adult diaper Although most commonly worn by and associated with babies and children. diapers are also worn by adults for a variety of reasons. laboratory animals. People with medical conditions which cause them to suffer from urinary or fecal incontinence may wear diapers or similar products because they are unable to control their bladders or bowels. are much like the diapers used by humans.[47] and products are often marketed under euphemisms such as incontinence pads. sick. People who are bedridden or otherwise limited in mobility may also wear diapers because they are unable to access the toilet independently. or working animals. as opposed to absorbing them. This caused controversy amongst animal rights groups.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Diaper     Changing table Diaper bag Sanitary napkin Swim diaper [edit]References 1. Diapers are often seen on trained animals who appear on TV shows. which is not a convenient situation for tree-dwelling animals. The campaigners protested by lining the streets wearing diapers themselves.com ^ The Taming of the Shrew . most are physically unable to control their excretions. donkeys were also diapered at the council's behest. 2. in movies. ^ What is Infant Potty Training? Laurie Boucke. The council consulted the RSPCA to ensure that the diapers were not harmful to the horses' welfare.[48] In the Kenyan town ofLimuru. or for live entertainment or educational appearances. which spelled out the message "Stop pooh bags".claimed that wearing diapers would be uncomfortable for the animals. About. [49] A similar scheme in Blackpool ordered that horses be fitted with rubber and plastic diapers to stop them littering the promenade with dung. the free dictionary.[50][51][52] Other animals that are sometimes diapered include female cats and dogs when ovulating and thus bleeding. [edit]See also Fashion portal Medicine portal Look up Diaper in Wiktionary. and monkeys and apes.

^ "The disposable diaper and the meaning of progress . 10 2011 "Reusable Nappies Still Popular". ^ "Cloth Diapering". Retrieved Nov. Retrieved 2010-09-14.org. 18. Richer Investment. Retrieved 2009-02-14. ^ "How disposable diaper is made".diaper history time line". 2010. 4.?". 10. Retrieved Nov. 24. ^ Autumn Beck. ^ "The History of Snappi Fasteners".com. ^ Oxford English Dictionary . "All About Cloth Diapers Blog: Cloth Diaper Systems". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-03-17. ^ "Welcome publisher=babycottonbottoms. 15. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 13. 22. 16. ^ "Cloth Diapers Vs Disposable. ^ "The disposable diaper industry source . Retrieved 2010-01-22. "Diapers Go Green".com. 11. The New Yorker. 12.com. Time. 20. '. bable. 9. 21. ^ "Double Gussets diaper patent". Julii Brainard. 23. 2010. = Feb. 14. 15. 8. Wikipatents.com.com Diapering Guide: Choosing Cloth Diapers"."Diaper" ^ "Diaper". 15. ^ "Diaper Clip Patent".com". ^ Laura Hobek. ^ "Double Gussets diaper patent". Wikipatents. Retrieved 7 October 2010. ^ reusable nappies = April. '. ^ "Nappy". ^ "Double Gussets diaper patent". Diaper Industry Source. '.com. Pamela (2008-01-10). How Products Are Made. 19. Retrieved 2008-03-17. Cloth-Diaper. ^ "babble. 25. Retrieved 2008-03-17.a brief history of diaper manufacturing".3. '. Wikipatents. ^ [1] From Pill Boxes to Bandages 1839-2000 in VHG archive ^ "The Politics of Diapers". ^ Paul. 2010. ^ "How to choose a low-environmental impact diposable diaper?". ^ "What are the components used on a typical disposable diaper". Retrieved Nov. 5. 9 2010 "Cloth Diaper FAQ". 6. 15. . 17. Retrieved 2008-01-12. 7. eytomonline.

The Cincinnati Post (E." January 1991 27. Retrieved Nov. 2010. "Kids at school in nappies". The Courier-Mail.with dire risks to their health". Retrieved 2008-06-05. "Cloth vs.com 30. V. ^ Hannah Davies (2008-06-05). The Daily Mail. 15. 2007. . ^ "The UK Environment Agency / DEFRA study". ^ Carl Lehrburger. Scripps Company).Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2008-08-03. ^ Green Basics: Organic Cotton. "Diapers: Environmental Impacts and Lifecycle Analysis. Retrieved 7 October 2010. ^ Diaper Changes .[dead link] 42. ^ Hannah Davies (2008-06-05). ^ Pretlow. ^ Pull-Ups Training Pants FAQs 44. Jones. 28. ^ Diaper Rash: The Bottom Line 36. Patrick (1998-07-22). ^ The Bed-Wetting Report . 21. ^ Honig. The CourierMail. 33. Mednet 2002.defra. W.26. ^ Larkin. ^ a b c d Delayed Toilet Training Issues 37. ^ "Waste Management"." Scholastic Parent and Child 40. ^ Lois Rogers (2008-06-17).gov. The Washington Post. "The internet can reveal previously unknown causes of medical conditions. ^ "Diaper Facts". 32. ^ "Science and Research Projects". Real Diaper Association. randd. 43. 29. such as attraction to diapers as a cause of enuresis and incontinence". "P&G announces Pampers now a bigger disposable".[dead link] 41. treehugger. ^ Consumer Reports (July 8. disposable diapers: Getting started". A: "Toilet Training Stubbornness. and C.uk. Robert A. "Parents sending kids to school in nappies". Retrieved Nov. 15. Retrieved Nov. 2010. Jocelyn Mullen. ^ Bedwetting and diapers 45. ^ The Bed Wetting Diaper 39. Oct. 2010. Archived from the original on 2006-05-08. "Absolutely potty! How children are still wearing nappies to SCHOOL .Do diapers prolong bedwetting? 46. 38. 31. 15. 2009). Retrieved 2008-06-05.Gentle Child Care 35. ^ Diapering Your Baby 34.

^ "Nappy plan for Blackpool horses". 49. BBC News. You've Gotta Go". 52. BBC News. ^ "Horse nappy plan given go-ahead". 2007-11-13. Jennie Borodko (2001-02). 2007-07-17. Retrieved 2008-02-21. "When You've Gotta Go. ^ "Blackpool horses to get nappies". Retrieved 2008-02-21. ^ "Row as horses told to wear nappies". 2002-09-20. Retrieved 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 51. BBC News. BBC News.47. Retrieved 2008-01-03. Muscular Dystrophy Association. 2007-11-22. BBC News. ^ "Anger at Kenya donkey nappy plan". 2006-10-17. 50. ^ Stack. Categories: Diapers | Underwear | Children's clothing | Infants' clothing | Babycare | Infancy • • • • • • Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • • • • • • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export • • • • • • • • • • Languages ‫العربية‬ Bahasa Banjar Català Česky Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Español Esperanto ‫فارسی‬ . Retrieved 2008-02-21. 48.

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