Question 1) What do you undesrtand by an Information System? Explain variouscategories of information system Ans.

Information System is a combination of people, hardware, software, communication devices, network and data resources that processes (can be storing, retrieving, transforming information) data and information for a specific purpose. The operation theory is just similar to any other system, which needs inputs from user (key in instructions and commands, typing, scanning). The inputted data then will be processed (calculating, reporting) using technology devices such as computers, and produce output (printing reports, displaying results) that will be sent to another user or other system via a network and a feedback method that controls the operation. With the helps of Information System, businesses are able to process and operate its daily works more accurate and easier. All data and information are stored in electronic database which is much safer and easier to be attached then traditional method. The main kinds of information systems in business are described briefly below: Executive An Executive Support System ("ESS") is designed to help senior management make Support Systems strategic decisions. It gathers, analyses and summarises the key internal and external information used in the business. A good way to think about an ESS is to imagine the senior management team in an aircraft cockpit - with the instrument panel showing them the status of all the key business activities. ESS typically involve lots of data analysis and modelling tools such as "what-if" analysis to help strategic decision-making. A management information system ("MIS") is mainly concerned with internal sources of information. MIS usually take data from the transaction processing systems (see below) and summarise it into a series of management reports.

Management Information Systems

MIS reports tend to be used by middle management and operational supervisors. Decision-Support Decision-support systems ("DSS") are specifically designed to help management make Systems decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. DSS comprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analyse the options and alternatives. DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet and databases to create "what-if" models. Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge Management Systems ("KMS") exist to help businesses create and share information. These are typically used in a business where employees create new knowledge and expertise - which can then be shared by other people in the organisation to create further commercial opportunities. Good examples include firms of lawyers, accountants and management consultants. KMS are built around systems which allow efficient categorisation and distribution of knowledge. For example, the knowledge itself might be contained in word processing documents, spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations. internet pages or whatever. To share the knowledge, a KMS would use group collaboration systems such as an intranet.

floppy disk drive. sound and graphics. pictures. Show with reference to a block diagram. All the input devices perform the following functions. Transaction Processing Systems ("TPS") are designed to process routine transactions efficiently and accurately. Perhaps the best example is the wide range of software systems that exist to improve the productivity of employees working in an office (e. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. magnetic tape.Systems to calculate the weekly and monthly payroll and tax payments . for example: . Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. A business will have several (sometimes many) TPS. Explain the functions of various unitsbriefly Block Diagram of Computer : A computer can process data. Microsoft Office XP) or systems that allow employees to work from home or whilst on the move. Input Unit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem.g.Billing systems to send invoices to customers . Accept the data and instructions from the outside world. etc. the structure of a digital computerand the interconnection of various units. . within and out of the business Office Automation Systems Office Automation Systems are systems that try to improve the productivity of employees who need to process data and information. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately.Transaction Processing Systems As the name implies. The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse.Stock control systems to process all movements into. Ques2.Production and purchasing systems to calculate raw material requirements .

multiplication. It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. etc and does logic operations viz. Other commonly used output devices are floppy disk drive. It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU.. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. 256MB memory are quite common. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk. 128 MB. The cost of the primary storage is more compared to the secondary storage. etc. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer. 1. =. <. the data being received from the input unit. >. Printers. the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working. the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results. 2. A numeric occupies 2 byte space. The size of the primary storage in a typical PC usually starts at 16MB. the intermediate and final results of the program. the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done. It also does comparison and takes decision. where to store the data after receiving it from the user. Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer. Whenever the results are saved. Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory.e. etc. data bases etc. before they are processed. subtraction. It also saves the data for the later use. and magnetic tape drive. The control unit instructs the input unit. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is used like an archive. The size of the primary storage is specified in KB (Kilobytes) or MB (Megabyte). Therefore most computers have limited primary storage capacity. Arithmetic Logical Unit: All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. again they get stored in the secondary memory. Whenever calculations are required. The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space. CD. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories. Visual Display Unit (VDU) are the commonly used output devices. Each character or a number is represented by an 8 bit code. i. 0 s and 1 s. The data is lost. PCs having 32 MB. It stores several programs. In order to store the data permanently. It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit. hard disk drive. Memory Size: All digital computers use the binary system. when the computer is switched off. The primary memory is temporary in nature. Byte is the space occupied in the memory. division. Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition.Convert it to a form that the computer can understand. Central Processing Unit: The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit. Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world. documents. 48MB. One KB is equal to 1024 bytes and one MB is equal to 1000KB. The CPU is like brain performs the following functions: .

Ques3 What do you understand by a database management system? Explain theadvantages of database management system over conventional file orienteddata processing syatem. However. If somebody tries to associate a second engine with a given car. However. we want the DBMS to deny such a request and display an error message. so that the information remains consistent throughout the database system and users cannot tell or even know which server in the DBMS they are using. analyze its data and update it according to the users privileges on data. Backup and replication Copies of attributes need to be made regularly in case primary disks or other equipment fails. Functionality drawn from such applications has begun appearing in mainstream DBMS's as well.. document storage and like uses. is still on descriptive attributes on repetitive record structures. A periodic copy of attributes may also be created for a distant organization that cannot readily access the original. For example. the DBMSs of today roll together frequently needed services or features of attribute management. at least when aimed at the commercial data processing market.It performs all calculations. When data is replicated between database servers. DBMS usually provide utilities to facilitate the process of extracting and disseminating attribute sets. Example: "How many 2-door cars in Texas are green?" A database query language and report writer allow users to interactively interrogate the database. By externalizing such functionality to the DBMS. the main focus. It takes all decisions. Rule enforcement Often one wants to apply rules to attributes so that the attributes are clean and reliable. with . "Efficient" means that the data which is stored in the DBMS can be accessed quickly and "compact" means that the data takes up very little space in the computer's memory. Specialized databases have existed for scientific. the system is said to exhibit replication transparency. Features commonly offered by database management systems include: Query ability Querying is the process of requesting attribute information from various perspectives and combinations of factors. Ans: A database management system is the system in which related data is stored in an efficient and compact manner. Thus. The phrase "related data" is means that the data stored pertains to a particular topic. we may have a rule that says each car can have only one engine associated with it (identified by Engine Number). imaging. It controls all units of the computer. applications effectively share code with each other and are relieved of much internal complexity.

allowing a human expert to make the necessary adjustments after reviewing the statistics collected. Automated optimization For frequently occurring usage patterns or requests.changes in the model specification such as. grouping. in this example. or (in the most elaborate models) through the assignment of individuals and groups to roles which are then granted entitlements. Change and access logging This describes who accessed which attributes. Fast response to information requests: Because data are integrated into a single database. hybrid gas-electric cars. programs do not have to be modified when types of unrelated data are added to or deleted from the database. cross-referencing. sorting. non-integrated files. or when physical storage changes. what was changed. Multiple access: Database software allows data to be accessed in a variety of ways (such as through various key fields) and often. Rather than have each computer application implement these from scratch. and when it was changed. The principal advantages of a DBMS are the followings: Flexibility: Because programs and data are independent. Ideally such rules should be able to be added and removed as needed without significant data layout redesign. Security For security reasons. and so on. or by the assignment of individuals and privileges to groups. In some cases the DBMS will merely provide tools to monitor performance. it is desirable to limit who can see or change specific attributes or groups of attributes. This may be managed directly on an individual basis. averaging. A true DBMS offers several advantages over file processing. they can rely on the DBMS to supply such calculations. by using several programming languages (both 3GL and nonprocedural 4GL programs). some DBMS can adjust themselves to improve the speed of those interactions. Lower user training costs: Users often find it easier to learn suchsystems and training costs may be . Computation Common computations requested on attributes are counting. summing. In many businesses. complex requests can be handled much more rapidly then if the data were located in separate. Logging services allow this by keeping a record of access occurrences and changes. faster response means better customer service. rules may need to change.

Less storage: Theoretically.reduced. all occurrences of data items need be stored only once. System developers and database designers often use data normalization to minimize data redundancy. . which would increase userproductivity. Also. thereby eliminating the storage of redundant data.Also state the advantages and limitations of each technique. Question 4) Explain the various file-accessing techniques in data management system. the total time taken to process requests may be shorter.

Typically. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other. WAN: The wide area network. in a home network) or as many as thousands of users (for example. which is built into Macintosh computers. is a communications network that makes use of existing technology to connect local computer networks into a larger working network that may cover both national and international locations. fiber optics are used to create the link between networks located in different facilities. There are many different types of LANs Ethernets being the most common forPCs. the server has applications and data storage that are shared in common by multiple computer users. but the distances are limited. and there is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices. Beginning with the local area network and going up to the wide area network. as well as data. This is in contrast to both the local area network and the metropolitan area network. Usually. The following characteristics differentiate one LAN from another: topology : The geometric arrangement of devices on the network y y y y y bus ring star tree mesh Major local area network technologies are: Ethernet Token Ring LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates. Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Here is how the wide area network functions. Each node(individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executesprograms. in an FDDI network). much faster than data can be transmitted over a telephone line. and why it is so important to communications today.Quest 5 . Most Apple Macintosh networks are based on Apple's AppleTalk network system. LAN A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. A local area network may serve as few as two or three users (for example. within an office building). connected devices share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example. which provides communication within a restricted geographic area.What is meant by Local Area Network and Wide Area Network?Differentiate between them and give one example of each. The concept of linking one computer network with another is often desirable. especially for businesses that operate a number of facilities. Ans. by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions. this is most easily accomplished by using existing telephonytechnology. such aslaser printers. WAN Topologies . often referred to as a WAN. Essentially. but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN.

Another common application of EDI involves the direct exchange of standard business transaction documents³such as purchase . Frame Relay and X. computer-retrievable data format that permits information to be transferred from a computer program in one location to a computer program in another location without rekeying. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites 6) a WAN cannot share a printer 7) A WAN is more expensive than a LAN. In many cases. the direct debit of consumer accounts to make mortgage or utility payments. EDI is used for electronic funds transfer (EFT) between financial institutions. and the exchange of computer tapes. office. EDI differs from electronic mail in that an actual transaction is transmitted electronically. Differences: LAN 1) LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network covering a small geographic area. Star. controlled. such as the telephone system. EDI includes the direct transmission of data between locations.. and managed by a single person or organization 3) LANs have a high data transfer rate 4) Have a small geographical range and do not need any leased telecommunication lines 5) LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves 6) Computers in a LAN can share a printer.25 for connectivity over the longer distances 3) WANs have a lower data transfer rate as compared to LANs 4) Have a large geographical range generally spreading across boundaries and need leased telecommunication lines 5) Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks. 7) Less costly 8) A LAN uses the Ethernet standard WAN 1) WAN (Wide Area Network) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. Tiered Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. which facilitates such common transactions as the direct deposit of payroll checks by employers.25 for connectivity over the longer distances. Frame Relay and X.e. Ring. disks. or national boundaries Internet is the best example of a WAN 2) WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management WANs tend to use technology like ATM. 8) WAN uses the T1 standard Assignment B Quest 3 What do you understand by electronic data interchange? What is thepurpose of EDI? State its advantages over traditional paper-based documenttransfer syatem. rather than a simple message consisting primarily of text. or group of buildings Network in an organisation can be a LAN 2) Typically owned. if they are all in the same LAN. or other digital storage devices.Peer-to-Peer. transmission using an intermediary such as a communication network.T Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the electronic movement of data between or within organizations in a structured. regional. and the electronic payment of federal taxes by businesses. Mesh. content-related error checking and some degree of processing of the information are also involved. like a home. WANs tend to use technology like ATM. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan.

orders. In a non-EDI environment. Information Access EDI systems permit myriad users access to a vast amount of detailed transaction data in a timely fashion. Overall. In solving these problems. envelope stuffing. reconciling. It also requires far less storage space." Kenneth C. and bills of lading³from one business to another via computer. labor-based processes are much more expensive in the long term EDI alternatives. such dissemination of information is possible only with great effort. Accuracy EDI systems are more accurate than their manual processing counterparts because there are fewer points at which errors can be introduced into the system. EDI is a tool that enables organizations to reengineer information flows and business processes. EDI offers a number of benefits to businesses and³thanks to the rapid evolution of the related technology³is becoming more readily available to small businesses all the time. While automated equipment can help with some of these processes. matching. it is subject to automated processing and analysis. Because EDI data is already in computerretrievable form. stamping. sorting. making it easier for customers or distributors to order from them rather than from competitors. Benefits of Edi over paper EDI saves money and time because transactions can be transmitted from one information system to another through a telecommunications network. while manual processing methodologies necessitate steps like keying and filing that are rendered unnecessary through EDI." EDI was developed to solve the problems inherent in paperbased transaction processing and in other forms of electronic communication. etc. in which information is held in offices and file cabinets. "EDI may also provide strategic benefits by helping a firm 'lock in' customers. Laudon and Jane Price Laudon wrote in their book Management Information Systems: A Contemporary Perspective. invoices. most managers will agree that labor costs for document processing represent a significant proportion of their overhead. EDI is also used by retail businesses as part of their electronic scanning and point-of-sale (POS) inventory replenishment systems. Labor costs In non-EDI systems. It directly addresses several problems long associated with paper-based transaction systems: y y y y Time delays Paper documents may take days to transport from one location to another. signing. . manual processing is required for data keying. eliminating the printing and handling of paper at one end and the inputting of data at the other. document storage and retrieval. and it cannot hope to match an EDI system's timeliness. In general.

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