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Autumn Doles 4th period Extra credit project

Ch.1 Section 1 questions: Introduction to Chemistry

1. What is chemistry? Pg.4 Answer: the study of matter and the changes that it undergoes. Explanation: Because chemistry focuses mainly on matter and how it goes through different phases and stages to balance out correctly in the end. 2. Why do living organisms on earth exist? pg.5 Answer: Because they are protected from high levels of UVB by ozone. Explanation: The ozone is a thick layer that blocks living things from being highly exposed to, to much UVB. 3. What is the ozone made of? pg.5 Answer: The ozone is made of oxygen, is a substance in the atmosphere that absorbs most harmful radiation before it reaches earths surface. Explanation: Oxygen is what we breathe in to survive on earth and it surround it. 4. Do CFCs harm us or help us? pg.7 Answer: No CFCs help us they, because they are nontoxic and stable and do not readily react with other substances. Explanation: CFCs are made by scientist in a laboratory to help us no harm us theyre not natural substances. Summary: This section focuses on chemistry and what it is. It describes in vague detail what chemistry focuses on and why. Also it gives you different terms that wrap it all up into one. It also talks about the ozone layer which is what surrounds in protects us from UVB rays. Chapter 1 sec 2: Chemistry and Matter 1. Does matter have one form? Pg.9 Answer: No matter the stuff of the universe has many different forms. Explanation: Matter has three very distinct forms solid, liquid ,gas.

2. How do you define matter? Pg.9 Answer: Matter is defined by mass. Explanation: Mass is a measurement that reflects the amount of matter. 3. What is a basic understanding of chemistry? Pg.11 Answer: Chemistry is a central to all sciences biology, physics, earth science, etc. Explanation: Chemistry is in the middle of all the other sciences. 4. Do the areas of chemistry overlap? Pg.11 Answer: Yes they do, all areas work together. Explanation: Different types of chemist could study the same things. Summary: This section talks about how chemistry and matter work together. It introduces you to matter and how it works. It explains to you the basics of chemistry the fundamentals. This section is about how chemistry really gets started. Ch. 1 sec 3 Scientific Methods 1. What is a scientific method? Pg. 12 Answer: A systematic approach used in scientific study. Explanation: because its a organized process used by scientists to do research. 2. What are the steps of the scientific method? Pg. 12 Answer: Observation, hypothesis, experiment, revised hypothesis, conclusion, theory. Explanation: The method has different steps that lead you to the correct conclusion. 3. Are experiments important in a scientific method? Pg. 14 Answer: Yes the experiment is the most important part of the method. Explanation: Without an experiment theres no point in having a hypothesis or conclusion because it wont be right. 4. What is the scientific law? P. 16

Answer: a relationship in nature to develop further hypotheses and experiments to explain why these relationships exist. Explanation: Science needs some nature and realistic thinking and this law provides that. This particular section gets more into the natural part of chemistry. It also discusses the scientific method. The scientific method is what scientist use to figure things out. This section was a lot more informative.

Chapter 2 Analyzing Data

Section 1: Units and Measurement 1. Is there one more than one type of unit? Pg. 32 Answer: Yes there are several different units. Explanation: The units are different because they are measurements of different things. 2. Were units always exact? Pg.32 Answer: No they were not in ancient times they were far from exact. Explanation: In ancient times people would measure distance and things by taking extra steps so it wasnt always exact. 3. What is a base unit? Pg. 33 Answer: a defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an object or event in the physical world. Explanation: A base unit is independent of other units. 4. What is a derived unit? Pg. 35 Answer: A unit that is defined by a combination of base units. Explanation: Volume and density are measured in derived units. Section one of this chapter introduces you to measurements in chemistry. The basic units are volume and density. Volume is the space occupied by an object while density is a physical property of matter. Those two go hand and hand. Section 2: Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis

1. When writing in scientific notation the two numbers above are known as the? Pg. 40 Answer: coefficients Explanation: scientific notation can be used to express any number that is a number between 1-10 known as the coefficient. 2. Is multiplying and dividing scientific notation a one or two step process? Pg. 43 Answer: Its a two step process Explanation: Multiplication and division doesnt require answers to be the exponents to be the same. 3. What is a dimensional analysis? pg. 44 Answer: is a systematic approach to problem solving that uses conversion factors to move, or convert from one unit to another. Explanation: because a conversion factor is already a ratio. 4. Can percentages be used as conversion factors? pg.44 Answer: Yes they can Explanation: A percentage is a ratio. Now this section is a little more interesting because it talks about conversion factors. Conversion factors are a ration of equivalent values having different units. Whats so interesting about conversion factors is how its all apart of an analysis a dimensional analysis that is. Which is a systematic approach to problem solving. Section 3 Uncertainty in data 1. Do accuracy and precision mean the same thing? Pg.47 Answer: to some people but to scientist they have a very different meaning. Explain: Accuracy is how close a measured value is to an accepted value. While precision refers to experiments. 2. What is the formula for the error equation? Pg. 48 Answer: error= experimental value-accepted value

Explanation: error is defined as the difference between an expiremental value and accepted value. 3. Are the error equation and percent error equation the same? Pg. 48 Answer: Percent error expresses error as a percentage of the accepted value. Explanation: Percent error is an extra step to the error equation so it cant be the same. 4. Are measurements reported with a lot of significant figures accurate and precise? Pg. 50 Answer: no they are not its very rare that theyre both. Explanation: If different people measured the same thing the answers would all be different but in close range. This section talked about accuracy and precision. Accuracy and precision to most are the same but in reality have very different meanings. What they have in common is that neither are exact. Still similarities dont make them the same.

Chapter 3 Section 1:
1. Is there different states of matter? Pg. 71 Answer: a. Yes there are 3 b. There are 5 c. There is 1 Explanation: The three states are solid, liquid, gas. 2. What state of matter moves the most freely? Pg. 72 Answer: a. Gases b. Liquids c. solids

Explanation: The particles in gases move freely and are not very close together at all. 3. Are physical and chemical properties the same? g. 73 Answer: a. no they are different but can be mistaken b. they are exactly the same Explanation: Chemical properties are more of the internal things that happen in substances. Why physical is outside. 4. What is an example of a physical property of matter? Answer: a. Particular form or state of a substance is a physical property. b. Color change is a physical property c. Smell change Explanation: Physical properties are nothing more than characteristics. In this section youll learn about the properties of matter. Different states of matter which are solids, liquids, gases. Also it goes into detail about how you can get from one to the next. Section 2: Changes in Matter 1. Is a Phase change considered a chemical or physical change. Pg.76 Answer: a. Its considered a physical change b. Its considered a chemical change Explanation: Because its a state of matter which has to do with temperature and pressure which are physical characteristics. 2. What does the state of matter depend on? Pg.76

Answer: a. The temperature and pressure of the surroundings. b. The color and feeling Explanation: Temperature and pressure can change the outside appearance of something & appearance is physical. 3. Can mass be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction? Pg. 77 Answer: a. No b. Yes Explanation: Mass is in everything so I cannot be created or destroyed. 4. Who was the first scientist to use an analytical balance to monitor chemical reactions? Pg. 79 Answer: a. Antoine Lavoisier b. mendeleev Explanation: He studied the thermal decomposition of mercury oxide. You learn a little about the periodic table in this section. The first scientist to notice things on the periodic table was Antoine Lavoisier. You learned how to figure out the difference between a chemical change and a physical change. Chapter 3 Section 3: Mixtures of matter 1. What happens when two or more substances are combined? Pg.80 Answer: a. A mixture is formed. b. A compound is formed

Explanation: A mixture is combination of two or more pure substances. 2. How many different types of mixtures are there? Pg. 81 Answer: a. There are two different types. b. 5 different types. Explanation: The two types are heterogeneous mixture and homogeneous mixture. 3. Whats another name that homogeneous mixtures are referred to? Pg 81 Answer: a. Solutions b. elements Explanation: Solutions are the same as mixtures its the name that people use most often. 4. How do you separate a mixture? Pg. 82 Answer: a. Filtration, distillation, crystallization, sublimation, chromatography. b. Only filtration Explanation: Numerous techniques have been developed that take advantage of different physical properties in order to separate various mixtures. Mixtures are pure substances mixed together. Mixtures and compounds are two very different things even though they may seem the same. Always once substances are mixed together depending on what they are there are ways to separate them again. Chapter 3 Section 4: Elements and Compounds 1. Are elements unique? Pg. 84

Answer: a. Yes each element is different. b. All elements are the same. Explanation: Each element has a unique chemical name and symbol. 2. Are elements being separated by physical or chemical means? Pg. 84 Answer: a. Neither chemical nor physical means can separate an element.

b. Chemical c. physical Explanation: An element is a pure substance. 3. Do elements have similar chemical and physical properties? Pg. 85 Answer: a. Yes they do. b. No they dont Explanation: elements are grouped in the periodic table by their similarities. 4. What does the percent by mass calculate? Pg. 85 Answer: a. The ratio of the mass of each element of the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage. b. The sum of the mass of each element Explanation: It expresses the relative amounts of elements in compounds. This section is about elements and compounds. Elements and compounds are two different

things. In fact elements are basically a more basic version of compounds. They are very similar though.

Chapter 4 section 1
1. Did science exist thousands of years ago? Pg. 102 Answer: a. yes b. no Explanation: No one knew what a controlled experiment was and there were few science tools available. 2. Do Democritus ideas agree with modern atomic theory? Pg. 103 Answer: a. No b. Yes c. Parts but not all Explain: Parts of theory go with the modern one but most of it is outdated. 3. Who was the first Greek philosopher? Pg. 104 Answer: a. Aristotle b. Democritus

c. Dalton Explanation: Democritus was from (460-370 B.C.) 4. What is the law of conservation of mass? pg. 105 Answer: a. Mass cannot be created nor destroyed.

b. mass is conserved in any process such as a chemical reaction Explanation: mass is always saved Section 2: Defining the atom 1. What is an atom? Pg 106 Answer: a. Smallest particle of an element b. The largest particle of an element Explanation: atoms make up elements 2. How are atoms seen? Pg. 107 Answer: a. Microscope b. Stethoscope Explanation: atoms are to small to be seen with your eyes. 3. What are negatively charged particles? Pg. 108 Answer: a. Neutron b. Electrons Explanations: Balances out the atom 4. Is the nucleus the positive charge of an atom? Pg. 112 Answer: a. No b. Yes This section talks about the atom and what it consists of. The atom has a positive charge, negative charge, and no charge. The more of each the more it leans to that option.

Section 3: How atoms different 1. What is a mass number? Pg. 117 Answer: a. Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons b. The sum of the atomic number Explanations: Identifies elements 2. Are elements or compounds found as mixtures of isotopes? Pg. 117 Answer: a. Elements b. Compounds Explanation: elements are in nature 3. What is atomic mass unit? Answer: a. 1 fourth the mass of carbon 12 atom. b. 1 twelfth the mass of carbon 12 atom Explanation: 4. How do you indicate the most abundant isotope of an element? Answer: a. Analyze it b. Count the protons Explanation: analyzing because some elements have fairly abundant number of isotopes.

This section explained isotopes in the atom and the charges. Also it told you how to the isotopes when there is more than one. You were introduced to the atomic mass unit which is a great calculating tool.

Chapter 5 section 1: Light and quantized Energy

1. Who is Rutherford proposal? Pg136 Answer: a. All atoms are negatively charged b. All of an atoms positive charge and virtually all of its mass are concentrated. Explanation: Rutherford made his predictions based off of experiments 2. What year did scientist unravel the puzzle of chemical behavior? Answer: a. 1900s b. 1700s Explanations: Scientists began understanding more and more chemicals and how they react. 3. What type of light is in electromagnetic radiation? Pg. 137 Answer: a. Visible light b. Xrays Explanation: Because visible light travels through space. and what was his

4. How do you determine the amplitude of a wave? Pg. 137 Answer: a. From crest to crest b. Origin to crest Explanation: because figure 5.2 says start from origin to crest. This section talks to you about light. The different and their functions. Some types of light are more dangerous than others. Section 2: Quantum Theory and the Atom 1. What is the lowest allowable energy state of an atom? Pg.146. Answer: a. Ground state b. Excited state Explanation: because its the lowest 2. What is an example of an atomic orbital? Pg. 152 Answer: a. Puffy cloud b. Fuzzy cloud Explanation: because atomic orbitals are three dimensional. 3. How many energy sublevels are there? Pg. 153 Answer: a. 6

b. 4 Explanations: Because of the principal energy level 4. How many orbitals are in the sublevel s? pg. 155 Answer: a. 1 b. 3 Explanation: s is the lowest level This section tells you about the different sublevels. Each sublevel has a different number of orbitals. Orbitals represent the sublevels. Section 3: Electron Configuration 1. What is an arrangement of electrons in an atom? Pg. 156 Answer: a. Nucleus b. Electron configuration Explanation: because lower energy systems are more stable than high energy systems. 2. What principal states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital? Pg 156 Answer: a. aufbau principal b. pauli exclusion principal Explanation: because you have to first determine an elements ground state.

3. If there are two spins in orbital which way must they be represented? Pg. 157 Answer: a. both arrows pointing up b. opposite arrows because the negative charge electrons repel. 4. How many valence electrons does oxygen have? Pg161 Answer: a. 6 b. 8 Explanation: because its in group 16. This section is about the valence electrons and the electron configuration. Also it talks a lot about the orbitals. Each orbital has a different number.