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(ཐེག་ཆེན་གྱི་སྙིང་ ་་་ངང) ་པོའི་
Milan Shakya Phd Candidate
ithin the vast corpus of Tibetan Buddhist literature is a genre of writings that stands prominent for its inspirational power, poignant fervor, and pragmatic or down-to-earth practicality, of which the Tibetan people have been so enamoured for generations. It alludes to a collection of texts that describes spiritual practice known as Lojong or Mind Training in English (་་ངང). Lojong embodies the practice of Mahāyāna thought transformation. The teachings of Lojong are said to have originated in the Kadampa (བཀའ་གདམས་པ) tradition, the earliest of the organized Tibetan Buddhist denominations after second transmission of Buddhism (བསྟན་པ་ཕྱི་དར)1 in Tibet. It was established in 1057 AD by Dromtömpa Gyalwa Jungnay (འབྲོམ་སྟོན་རྒྱལ་བའི་འབྱུང་གནས) on the basis of the teachings of his master Atīśa Dīpaṅkara Śrījñāna (ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ). The central theme of Lojong teachings is the cultivation and increase of Mahāyāna Buddhism‟s loftiest ideal, generation of thought of Enlightenment (Skt: Bodhicittotpāda; Tib: སེམས་སྐྱེད) or the desire to attain perfect Enlightenment for the benefit of sentient beings (འགྲོ་བའི་དོན་དུ་ཡང་དག་པར་རྫོགས་པའི་སངས་རྒྱས་འགྲུབ་པའི་ འདོད་པ). 2
MEANING OF LOJONG The Tibetan word Lojong (་་ངང་ is composed of two words: Lo (་) means mind. It can be ་) translated into Sanskrit as mati. So, in this context, Lhündup Sopa3 writes that the term lo can be
History of the introduction and spread of Buddhism in Tibet can be divided into two periods: 1. Earlier Transmission of Buddhism (བསྟན་པ་སྔ་དར tenpa ngadar) and 2. The Later Transmission of Buddhism (བསྟན་པ་ཕྱི་དར tenpa chidar). In the former period, Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism was established while in the latter period, Kadampa, then Sakya, Kagyü and Gelug were established. For details about the History of Tibetan Buddhism, please see: John Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism (New York: Snowlion Publications, 2007). pp. 137-205. 2 cittotpāda parārthāya samyak sambodhi kamatā || Abhisamayālaṅkāra. See: Ram Shankar Tripathi (ed.), prajñāpāramitopadeśaśāstre ācārya haribhadraviracitā abhisamayālaṅkāravṛttiḥ sphuṭārthā, (Sarnath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1921), p. 5. The volume contains the Tibetan translation as well. The Tibetan title is: ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་མན་ངག་ གི་བསྟན་བཅོས་མངོན་པར་རྟོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་ཀྱི་འགྲེལ་པ་དོན་གསལ་བཞུགས་སོ་༎༎་ she rab kyi pha röl tu chin pe menga: gi ten cö gnön tog pe gyen kyi ḍel pa ḍön sel śhu so||), p. 13. The verse: སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པ་ནི་གཞན་དོན་ཕྱིར༎་ ཡང་དག་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་འདོད་ ༎༎་ sem kye pa ni śhen ḍon chir. yang dag dzog pe jangchub dö||). 3 Geshe Lhündup Sopa is recognized worldwide as one of the great living spiritual masters of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. He is particularly renowned for maintaining the high standards of scholarly learning while personally embodying
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 1
understood as an abbreviation for “the thought intent on enlightenment.”4 Another word jong (སྤྱོང) is construed in Tibetan as “to purify, to cleanse”. Its Sanskrit equivalent is śodhana. The word jong is also said to convey several interrelated but distinct meanings. According to Thubten Jinpa5, jong can have four different meanings. First, jong can be understood to refer to training which leads one to acquire skills or achieve a field of knowledge. Second, jong can also refer to habituation or familiarization with a particular mode of being or thinking. Third meaning of jong can be cultivating specific mental attributes such as great compassion or Bodhicitta. The fourth meaning may be purification or cleansing in the sense of purifying one‟s mind of craving (འདོད་ ཆགས་), hatred (ཞེ་སྡང་), and delusion (གཏི་མུག་).6 Judging from the various connotations given above, synthetically, lojong may be understood to carry the meaning of transformation, so that a process of training, habituation, cultivation and cleansing catalyzes a profound transformation from ordinary afflicted state to originally changed perspective of enlightened state centered on others, not the self. Really speaking, the entire instructions of Śākyamuni Buddha and their commentaries by different masters are taught as “Mind training teachings” to subdue all types of defilements (ཉོན་ མོངས་). We are here specifically dealing with the development of a specific genre of teaching in Tibet. In other parlance, Lojong or Mind training is here meant to be specific methods for generating and expanding Bodhicitta, particularly through the practice of equality of all sentient beings and exchange of self with them. Clarifying the meaning of Lojong, Lhündup Sopa writes, Lojong principally means to fully train one‟s mind to develop the two types of bodhicitta (conventional and ultimate).7 There is a reference in Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra which was quoted by Gampopa to define these two Bodhicittas:
the qualities of humility, tolerance and compassion. Though trained in his youth in one of the most rigorous Buddhist monasteries in Tibet, Geshe Sopa’s life work has been centered in the heartland of America. There, Geshe Sopa has spent forty years inspiring as a Buddhist monk, a university professor, a committed peacemaker, a consummate teacher. 4 Geshe Lhündup Söpa, Peacock in the Poison Grove: Two Buddhist Texts on Training the Mind, (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001), p. 15. The book contains the root Tibetan verses of the two important Mind Training texts together with their commentaries. The texts are: The Wheel of Sharp Weapons (ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་་་ངང་མཚོན་ཆ་འཁོར་ལོ་༎ theg pa chen po’i lojong tshön tsha khor lo) and The Peacock’s Destroying the Poison (་་ངང་རྨ་བྱ་དུག་འཇོམས་༎ lojong majya dug jom). 5 Geshe Thupten Jinpa, PhD, has been a principal English translator to H.H. the Dalai Lama since 1985. He has translated and edited more than ten books by the Dalai Lama including The World of Tibetan Buddhism (Wisdom, 1993), The Good Heart: The Dalai Lama Explores the Heart of Christianity (Rider, 1996), and the New York Times bestseller Ethics for the New Millennium (Riverhead, 1999). Geshe Thupten Jinpa was born in Tibet in 1958. 6 Thubten Jinpa, (tr.), Mind Training: The Great Collection, (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2006), p. 1. This collection was compiled and edited by Sakyapa scholars Kon chog Gyaltsen and Shonnu Gyalchok between 1350 ca. - 1400 ca. This was translated into English by Thubten Jinpa with the title Mind Training: The Great Collection. It contains forty-three individual Lojong texts and their commentaries. 7 Sopa, op cit. f.n. 4, p. 49.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 2
There are two classes of bodhicitta: ultimate and relative. Relative bodhicitta is a vow to liberate all sentient beings from suffering through compassion. The mind of ultimate enlightenment or (Ultimate Bodhicitta) is beyond the world, free from all elaborations, the supremely pure, subject of the ultimate-stainless, unmoving, and very clear like the continuity of a lamp sheltered from wind. 8
When used in this sense, the term Lojong connotes a short form of the fuller expression “Mahāyāna Mind training”.
Lineage and History of Lojong Practice As already defined, Lojong is a pragmatic and down-to-earth practice of generating Bodhicitta, which is a life-blood of Mahāyāna buddhism. As clearly mentioned in Saṃdhinirmocana Sutra, Śākyamuni Buddha transmitted Mahāyāna teachings in what are generally known as the Second and the Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (dharmacakrapravartana). 9 The Mahāyāna teachings from these two turning were widely spread by two great Mahāyāna Ācāryas Nāgārjuna and Asaṅga in the second and fourth century respectively. So specially in the Tibetan tradition, the lineage of Bodhicitta practice is also traced back to these two Ācāryas. Acārya Nāgārjuna is said to have received the Mahāyāna teachings of second turning from Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī himself whereas Asaṅga received the Mahāyāna teachings of the third turning from Bodhisattva Maitreya. So one lineage of Bodhicitta, a.k.a. Profound Lineage articulated in the Middle Way Philosophy (དབུ་མ་་u mā) stemmed from Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī and the other lineage, a.k.a. Method Lineage articulated in the Mind-only Philosophy (སེམས་ཙམ་་ sem tsam) arose out of Bodhisattva Maitreya.
དོན་དམ་པའི་ཡུལ་ཅན་དྲི་མ་མེད་པ་༎་མི་གཡོ་བ་༎་རླུང་མེད་པའི་མར་མེའི་རྒྱུན་ལྟར་ཤིན་ཏུ་གསལ་བའོ་༎༎ (jangchub kyi sem de yang nam pa nyi te. dön dam pa jangchub kyi
sem dang. kun dzob jangchub kyi sem so.....de la don dam jangchub kyi sem don jigten le de pa ṭö pay tha dang ḍel wa. shintu sel wa. don dam pay yül can ḍima me pa. me yo wa. lung me pe mar meyi gyün tar shintu sel baho). Lobpön Gampopa, དམ་ཆོས་ཡིད་བཞིན་གྱི་ནོར་བུ་ཐར་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་རྒྱན་ ༎༎ (dam chö yi śhin gyi norbu tharpa rin pohi gyen), Pecha Folio no. 83.
According to Śāntideva, the Relative bodhicitta can in turn be classified into Aspirational (praṇi bodhicitta) and Application (prasthāna bodhicitta) as clarified in this verse from his Bodhicaryavatara: tadbodhicittaṃ dvividhaṃ vijñātavyaṃ. bodhipraṇidhicittaṃ ca bodhiprasthānameva ca. Bodhicaryāvatāra – 1/15. See: P. L. Vaidya (ed.), Śāntidevaviracitaḥ bodhicaryāvatāraḥ | prajñākaramativiracitayā pañjikākhyavyākhyayā saṃbalitaḥ, (Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute, 1960), p. 11.
For the information about these three turnings, see: John Powers, Wisdom of Buddha: The Saṃdhinirmocana Mahāyāna Sūtra (Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1995): 139-141. The Sūtra is extant only in the Tibetan version compiled in the Kangyur (བཀའ་འགྱུར་), the original Sanskrit is no longer extant. In Tibetan, the Sūtra is called phāgpā gong pā ngepār ḍel pa śhe cha wā thegpā poy do (འཕགས་པ་དགོངས་པ་ངེས་པར་འགྲེལ་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་མདོ་༎)
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 3
From Nāgārjuna, the profound wisdom lineage descended down to Ārya Deva. It was passed on through Buddhapālita, Bhāvaviveka, Candrakīrti, Śāntideva, and Vidyākokila, the elder, Avadhutīpāda. Vidyākokila and Avadhutipāda transmitted this lineage to Atīśa. The Tibetan tradition generally asserts that Bodhicitta is generated in this lineage by the method of Exchange of Self with others (བདག་གཞན་མཉམ་བརྗེ dag śhen ñyam je).10 From Asaṅga, this Method Lineage descended down through Vasubandhu, Vimuktisena, Candragomin, Paranasena, Vinītasena, Vairocana, Ratnasena, Suvarṇadvīpi or Dharmakīrti who is best known in his Tibetan appellation Ser ling pa (གསེར་གླིང་པ) and ultimately to Atīśa. The method of cultivation of Bodhicitta reflected in this lineage is known as Seven Point Cause and Effect instructions (རྒྱུ་འབྲས་མན་ངག་བདུན gyun ḍe menga: dün). 11 The two long lojong lineages can be shortened to those of three masters namely Dharmarakṣita, Maitrīyogī and Dharmakīrti from whom Atīśa received Mind training teachings. Lojong tshog she ma śhug so (་་སྤྱོང་ ་ཚོགས་བདད་མ་བཞུགས་སོ) explains that Maitrīyogī belonged to the lineage that stemmed from Mañjuśrī whereas Dharmakīrti‟s lineage came from Maitreya. 12 Interestingly, Dharmarakṣita is not included in the any of the two lineages.13 The fundamental Lojong teachings that Atīśa received from these Gurus were Wheel of Sharp Weapon (ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་ ་་ངང་མཚོན་ཆ་འཁོར་ལོ) and The Poison Destroying Peacock Mind Training (་་ངང་རྨ་བྱ་དུག་འཇོམས), both attributed to Dharmarakṣita, the Gyer sGom Vajra Song (་་ངང་གྱེར་སྒོམ་རྡོ་རྗེའི་གླུ་དབྱངས) attributed to Maitrīyogī and Levelling out one’s conception (གསེར་གླིང་པས་ཇོ་བོ་ལ་གནང་བའི་མཐའ་འཁོབ་འདུལ་བའི་ཆོས་༎་[་་ངང་རྟོག་པ་ འབུར་འཇོམས་]) and The Stages of the Herioc Mind (་་ངང་སེམས་དཔའི་རིམ་པ་) both attributed to Dharmakīrti.
Geshe Ngawang Dhargyey, Tibetan Tradition of Mental Development, (Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan works and Archives), p. 116. 11 Ibid. Generally, it is a well established fact that the profound wisdom lineage of Madhyamika philosophy was propounded by Ācārya Nāgārjuna in the first second century AD on the basis of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras of the second turning whereas Ācārya Asaṅga propounded the Yogācāra Philosophy based on the third turning of the Mind Only philosophy. These two stream constitutes the core Mahāyāna philosophies as contrasted against two Śrāvakayānī philosophies of Vaibhāṣika and Sautrāntika. But the scholars have never attempted in the Indian tradition to trace the Bodhicitta traditions in these two Mahāyāna tenets. Surely, as the Tibetan tradition corroborates, there are two distinct traditions of Bodhicitta generation in these two Mahāyāna systems as equally important as their respective philosophical aspects because philosophy alone doesn't distinguish the tradition from Śrāvakayāna. It is the altruistic motivation or Bodhicitta that counts the most and identifies the system as Mahāyāna. 12 The Tibetan text reads: གཉིས་པ་འཇམ་དཔལ་ནས་བརྒྱུད༎་བླ་མ་བྱམས་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་པ་ལ་ཞུས༎་བྱམས་པ་ཁོ་ན་བསྒོམ་པས་དེ་ལྟར་གགས༎་ (nyi pa jam pel ne gyü. lama jampe nel jor pa la śhü. jampa kho na gom pe de tar ḍag) See: Shönu Gyalchok and Könchog Gyaltsen (comp.), ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་་་ངང་བརྒྱ་རྩ་ thegpa chenpo lojong gyatsa. See: Shönu Gyalchok and Könchog Gyaltsen (comp.), ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་་་ངང་བརྒྱ་རྩ་ thegpa chenpo lojong gyatsa. (Montreal: Institute of Tibetan Classics, 2004), p. 201. 13 There is a mention about Dharmarakṣita in the deb ther ngon po (དེབ་ཐེར་སྔོན་པོ) Gö Lotsawa Śhön nu Pel (འགོས་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་གཞོན་ནུ་དཔལ) writes, “(Dīpaṅkara Śrījñāna) received the teachings of Mahāvibhāṣā from the master Dharmarakṣita for two years. Because Dharmarakṣita was a Śrāvaka, Dīpaṅkara Śrījñāna used to change his residences every seven day.”. Here is the root text: བླ་མ་དྷ་རྨ་རཀྵིཏ་ལ་ཨོ་ཏནྟ་པུ་རིར་ལོ་བཅུ་གཉིས་སུ་བྱེ་བྲག་ཏུ་བདད་པ་ཆེན་མོ་གསན༎་ ཁོང་ཉན་ཐོས་པ་ཡིན་པས་ཞག་བདུན་བདུན་ན་གནས་ཁང་འཕོ་བ་མཛད༎་ (lama Dharmarakṣita la o tanta pu rir cü nyi su je ḍag tu she pa chen mo sen. khong nyen thö pa yin pe śhag dün dün na ne khang pho wa dze.). See: Gö Lotsawa Śhön nu Pel, Deb ther ngon po (དེབ་ཐེར་སྔོན་པོ) (Sarnath: Vajra Vidya Institute, 2003), pp. 298-299.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 4
Due to the decline of Buddhism in Tibet in the aftermath of the severe persecution by Lang darma (གླང་དར་མ), Atīśa was invited to Tibet to restore the Buddhadharma to its pristine purity in 1042 AD. 14 In Tibet, Atīśa composed masterpiece Lamp for the path to Enlightenment (Skt: Bodhipathapradīpa; Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་ལམ་གྱི་སྒྲོན་མ) giving his presentation the abbreviated title, Lam rim (ལམ་རིམ་). He blended the two aforementioned lineages in such a way that both of them became easier to understand and practise, and this work is the role model for all subsequent lam rim texts. Then he composed other works which set forth the instructions of Dharmakīrti. Apart from that Atīśa wrote many Mind Training texts, the most popular being the Bodhisattva Maṇyāvalī (བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་ནོར་བུའི་འཕྲེང་བ), Vimalaratna Lekha Nama (དྲི་མ་མེད་པའི་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་ཕྲིན་ཡིག), Root Lines of Mahāyāna Mind Training (ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་་་ངང་གི་རྩ་བ)15 so on. During the last seventeen years of his life Atīśa stayed in Tibet, where he transmitted these teachings to his closest disciple, Dromtönpa. After the demise of Atīśa, Dromtönpa organized his transmissions into the legacy known as “The Four Divinities and Three Piṭakas (ལྷ་ཆོས་བདུན་ལྡན༎)” 16 - a tradition whereby an individual practitioner could perceive all doctrines of the sūtras and tantras as noncontradictory and could personally apply them all as complementary methods for the accomplishment of enlightenment. Eventually this lineage came to be known as Atīśa‟s Kadampa (བཀའ་གདམས་པ), a tradition founded by Dromtönpa who in turn transmitted these teachings to three Noble Kadampa brothers (བཀའ་ གདམས་སྐུ་མཆེད་གསུམ) – Geshe Potowa Rinchen Sel (པོ་ཏོ་བ་རིན་ཆེན་གསལ), Chengawa Tsulthim Bar (སྤྱན་སྔ་བ་ ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་འབར) and Phuchungwa Śhönnu Gyaltsen (ཕུ་ཆུང་བ་གཞོན་ནུ་རྒྱལ་མཚན) creating their own separate lineages, like scriptural lineage (གཞུང་པ་བ śhung pa wa), the Stages of the path lineage (ལམ་རིམ་པ lam rim pa) and pith instruction lineage (མན་ངག་བ me nga wa). Mind training teachings belong to the second of these three teachings. However, although a separate lineage, Atīśa‟s Lam rim was the common philosophy among all of the three lineages. It is said that in the fourteenth century Tsongkhapa also known as Lozang Dragpa (་་བཟང་གགས་ པ༎) who held all the three Kadampa lineages founded Ganden (དགའ་ལྡན) monastery from which the new tradition, “Gandenpa” takes its name. The Gandenpa was later changed into Gelugpa (དགེ་ ལུགས་པ) tradition. During the time of the Noble Brothers many of these oral teachings were
For Atisa‟s biography, please see: bka’.gdams.glegs.bam.pha.chos. The Full Tibetan title is: ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ་དཔལ་ལྡན་ཨ་ཏི་དའི་རྣམ་ཐར་བཀའ་ (Silling: tsho dön mi rig pe ṭün khang, 1993). Kadam Legbam is available in two volumes, the one which contains the biographies of Atisa and his gurus is pha chö, the full Tibetan title already given. The other volume which contains the biographies of Atisa‟s main disciple ḍom tönpa and other disciples is called bu chö. The full Tibetan title is: འབྲོམ་སྟོན་པ་རྒྱལ་བའི་འབྱུང་གནས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེས་རབས་བཀའ་གདམས་བུ་ཆོས་ལེའུ་ཉི་ ་་་བ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ 15 In studying these root lines, no fundamental difference is found between them and the Seven-Point Mind Training practice authored by Chekawa. So it can be asserted that Chekawa didn‟t actually write all the lines of the SevenPoint Mind Training in the sense of an author composing his own original work. He just reorganized and commented on these root lines orally transmitted by Atīśa into seven systematic categories which came to be called the “Seven-Point Mind Training Practice”. 16 Four Divinities (བཀའ་གདམས་ལྷ་བཞི) are Śākyamuni Buddha (ཤྭཀྱ་ཐུབ་པ), Avalokiteśvara (སྤྱན་རས་གཟྱིགས), Tārā (སྒྲོལ་མ) and Acala (མི་ གཡོ་བ). Three Piṭakas (སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ) are Sūtra (མདོ་སྡེ), Abhidharma (མངོན) and Vinaya (འདུལ་བ) (འདུལ་བ་མདོ་སྡེ་མངོན་གསུམ). ་
གདམས་ཕ་ཆོས་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 5
collected together and compiled into the text Stages of the Doctrine (བསྟན་རིམ). Lojong tshog she ma narrates that when Atīśa was alive, Lam rim was transmitted publicly, but he transmitted the practice of exchange of self with others under the seal of secrecy to Dromtönpa only. Dromtönpa also transmitted this teaching exclusively to Geshe Potowa who in turn transmitted them to Geshe Langri Thangpa (གླང་རི་ཐང་པ་), who composed “Eight Verses of Mind Training (་་ངང་ཚིགས་བརྒྱད་ མ)” 17 and transmitted it to Geshe Sharawa (ད་ར་བ) and through him to Geshe Chekawa (འཆད་ཁ་བ) (1102-1176 CE). Geshe Chekawa revealed the secret teachings of Lojong in public by publicizing for the first time the Seven Point Mind Training (་་ངང་དོན་བདུན་མ). According to Nam kha pel (ནམ་མཁའ་དཔལ), who composed Mind Training like the Rays of Sun (་་ངང་ཉི་མའི་འོད་ཟེར), Chekawa transmitted this teaching to Se chil bu Chökyi Gyaltsen (སེ་སྤྱིལ་བུ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་) who wrote a commentary on Chekawa‟s Seven Point Mind Training Practice. He in turn gave the Lojong teachings to Lhachenpo Lung gi Wangchuk (ལྷ་ཆེན་པོ་ལུང་གི་དབང་ཕྱུག) (1158-1232) and others. Later, many different realized masters composed commentaries and their own lojong texts. One of them was the Kadampa master Ngülchü thogme sangpo (རྒྱལ་སྲས་དངུལ་ཆུ་ཐོག་མེད་བཟང་པོ) (1295-1369) who composed the masterpiece Lojong texts called Thirty Seven Practices of the Buddhas’ Sons (རྒྱལ་སྲས་ལག་ལེན་སོ་བདུན་མ). In this way, eventually the lineage of Lojong descended down to Ram pa Lha ding pa (རམ་པ་ལྷ་དིང་པ) from whom Tsong Khapa (ཙོང་ཁ་པ) received this teaching.18 Tsong Khapa is said to have blended both lineage methods of Mind training in Lam rim chen mo (ལམ་རིམ་ཆེན་མོ). His disciple the first Dalai lama named Gen dundub (དགེ་འདུན་གྲུབ) (1391- 1474) also made commentary on this teaching. It has always been considered to be one of the most important of the lojong texts by Gelugpas (དགེ་ལུགས་པ). Among the four Tibetan Buddhist traditions (ཆོས་ལུགས་བཞི), the Lojong teachings could have equal impact on other Buddhist traditions as well, like the followers of the old Buddhist tradition (རྙིང་མ་པ) Sakya (ས་སྐྱ་པ), Kagyü (བཀའ་རྒྱུད་པ). In Nyingmapa, the famous text that teaches Ngönḍo practice (སྔོན་འགྲོ) is Venerable Peṭül Rinpoche‟s kün sang lame śhelung (རྫ་དཔལ་སྤྲུལ་འཇེགས་མེད་ཆོས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོས་མཛད་པའི་སྙིང་ཐེག་སྔོན་འགྲོའི་ཁྲིད་ཡིག་ཀུན་ བཟང་བླ་མའི་ཞལ་ལུང་) represent a basic text of Lojong teachings that continues to enjoy great popularity. Similarly the Sakya tradition is also enriched with its own lojong teachings called Parting from
The Tibetan text reads:
འདི་ཇོ་བོས་དགེ་བཤེས་སྟོན་པ་མིན་པ་ལ་མ་གནང།་ སྟོན་པས་ཁུ་ལ་སོགས་པ་ལ་འདི་དང་འདི་གནང་ནས༎་ ཁོ་བོ་ལ་འདི་གནང་བ་ཇི་ལྟར་ལགས་ཞུས་པས༎་ ངས་ཁྱོད་མ་ཡིན་པ་ལ་བསྟན་ས་མ་
རྙེད་པ་ཡིན་གསུངས་སྐད༎་དགེ་བཤེས་སྟོན་པས་ཀྱང་པོ་ཏོ་བ་མ་ཡིན་པ་ལ་མ་གནང།་པོ་ཏོ་བས་ཀྱང།་ད་ར་བ་དང།་གླང་རི་ཐང་པ་ལས་གཞན་ལ་གནང་བ་མེད༎ (di jo wö ge she töb pa men pa la ma nang.
kho wo la di nang wa ji tar la: śhü pe. nge khyö ma yin pa la ten sa ma nye pa yin sung ke. ge she tön pe kyang po to wa ma yin pa la ma nang. sha ra wa dang. lang ri thang pa le śhen la nang wa me.) See: Gyalchok and Gyaltsen (comp.), op cit. f.n. 12. p.203.
Brian Beresford (tr.), Mind Training like the Rays of the Sun, (Dharamshala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1992), p. 14. Hortön Nam kha Pel was a direct disciple of Je Tsong Khapa. In the preface of the same book, Jeremy Russel hypothesises that in the Tsong Khapa‟s collected Works Nam kha Pel‟s name is often mentioned as the scribe. That‟s why he concludes that Mind Training Like the Rays of the Sun is something like a transcription of Tsong kha-pa‟s oral explation.
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Four Attachments (ཞེན་པ་བཞི་བྲལ)19 said to have been transmitted by Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī. For the commentary, the Sakya masters inherited the Atīśa‟s teaching of exchange of self with others. Similarly the Kagyü master Gampopa (སྒམ་པོ་པ) was Kadampa master before he met Milarepa (མི་ལ་ རས་པ), one of the founders of the Kagyü tradition. So naturally, he integrated the Kadampa teachings into the Kagyü teachings of Mahāmudrā to form a new tradition called Ḍakpo Kagyü (དྭགས་པོ་བཀའ་བརྒྱུད). The example of this integration is the famous kagyü Lamrim and Lojong text The Jewel Ornament of Liberation (དམ་ཆོས་ཡིད་བཞིན་གྱི་ནོར་བུ་ཐར་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་རྒྱན). The subsequent masters of all the four sects also continued to write commentaries on the Lojong texts. They were Nyingmapa/Kagyüpa Eclectic (རིས་མེད་པ) Jamyang khyentse wang po (་འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་དབང་པོ) (1820-1892) and Jamgön Köntrul Lodrö Thaye (་འཇམ་མགོན་ཀོང་སྤྲུལ་་་གྲོས་མཐའ་ཡས) (1813-1899). In this way, they were integrated into all four Tibetan Buddhist Schools. The Lojong texts were brought together into the anthology A Hundred Texts on Training the Mind (ཐེག་ཆེན་པོ་་་ངང་བརྒྱ་རྩ). Now in the corpus of Tibetan Literature, Lojong forms a separate genre for there are numerous and diverse Lojong texts and commentaries. So rightly it can be said that the Lojong teachings are the mirror of Tibetan Buddhism. Because of them, it is still able to retain the original essence of the teaching of Śākyamuni Buddha himself.
LITERARY SOURCES OF THE LOJONG PRACTICE The Mahāyāna sūtras which stand out as the primary sources of Lojong teachings, those singled out are the Ākāśagarbha Sūtra, Vimalakīrtinirdeśa sūtra, Akṣayamati Paripṛcchā Sūtra, Gaṇḍavyūha sūtra, Mañjuśrībuddhakṣetravyūhālaṅkāra sūtra and so forth. These are just a few Sūtras among many that substantiate the Lojong Practice. After Buddha‟s parinirvāṇa, the Mahāyāna teachings began to flourish only after the 2nd century with the advent of Ācārya Nāgārjuna who not only retrieved the hidden prajñāpāramitā sūtra of the second turning, but also propagated it in a simple terms by propounding the Middle way philosophy. Later in the 4th century, the teachings of third turning reappeared and was propagated by Ācārya Asaṅga and his
The Tibetan verse is : ༌འ ༌ལ༌ ན༌ན༌ ས༌པ༌ ན༏་ཁམས༌ག མ༌ལ༌ ན༌ན༌ ས༌འ ང༌ ན༏་བདག༌ ན༌ལ༌ ན༌ན༌ ང༌ མས༌ ན༏་འ ན༌པ༌ ང༌ན༌ ༌བ༌ ན༏་ (tshe di la śhen na chö pa min. kham sum la śhen na nge jung min. dag dön la śhen na jang sem min. dzin pa jung na ta wa min.) The verse can be translated into English as : If (you) have attachment to this life, (you) are not a dharma practitioner. If (you) have attachment to three realms, (you) have no renunciation. If (you) have attachment to self-interest, (you) have no Bodhicitta. If grasping arises, there is no view. This four lines were received by Sachen Künga Ñyingpo (ས་ཆེན་ཀུན་དགའ་སྙིང་ པོ) from Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī directly. Je Tsong khapa also had a direct revelation of Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī from whom he also received exactly the same teaching which he outlined into three vital points also known as Three Principle Paths (ལམ་གཙོ་རྣམས་གསུམ) viz. 1. Renunciation (ངེས་འབྱུང), 2. Bodhicitta (བྱང་སེམས) and 3. Correct view of emptiness (ཡང་ དག་པའི་ལྟ་བ). Renunciation concerns the first two lines while, Bodhicitta and correct view of emptiness concern the third and the last line of the parting from the four attachment. This constitutes the foundation of the Lamrim teaching.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 7
brother Vasubandhu. They explained it by propounding the Yogācāra, Cittamātra or Vijñānavāda philosophy. So the Mahāyāna teachings reappeared and developed into two systems, Madhyamaka and Yogācāra. So the practice of generating Bodhicitta also developed under these two traditions. The Madhyamaka lineage is also known as the profound lineage (ཟབ་མོ་ལྟ་བའི་སྲོལ). The main scriptural sources for the Bodhicitta or Lojong practice in this lineage are Nāgārjuna‟s Ratnāvalī, Śāntideva‟s Bodhicaryāvatāra, Śikṣāsamuccaya, Candrakīrti‟s Madhyamakāvatāra and so on. The Yogacāra tradition is also known as the vast lineage (རྒྱ་ཆེར་སྤྱོད་པའི་སྲོལ) which takes into account the role of cause and effect or Karma and its result as well while explaining wisdom. The main scriptural sources for Lojong practice in this lineage are Mahāyānasūtrālaṅkāra, Abhisamayālaṅkāra, two of the Five Texts of Bodhisattva Maitreya (བྱམས་ཆོས་སྡེ་ལྔ) 20, Asaṅga‟s Bodhisattvabhūmi and so forth.
THE CHIEF FEATURES OF THE LOJONG PRACTICE Almost all the teachings of the Buddha are directly or indirectly connected with training of the mind. That‟s why in Tibetan, Buddhism is called “the Insider‟s Dharma (ནང་པའི་ཆོས)” as opposed to all other religious systems of the world which are known as “the Outsider‟s Dharma (ཕྱ་རོལ་པའི་ཆོས)” that somehow rely on the external almighty called “God” who according to them is solely responsible for beings‟ suffering and happiness. But this is not the case in Buddhism which teaches that the mind of sentient beings, not the God is responsible for their happiness and sorrow. Because the mind propels both the body and the speech in doing actions which lead to suffering or happiness.21 So without training the mind, no matter whatever happy one may be physically, that is still the worldly happiness which is bound to turn into suffering sooner or later. Here training the mind is to liberate itself from the self-grasping which is the main cause of suffering. As already explained, Lojong is a fundamental Mahāyāna Buddhist practice which
Also called the Five Dharmas of Maitreya. The name was given to the group of treatises written by Ārya Asaṅga after hearing the teachings contained in them directly from Bodhisattva Maitreya. The five treatises are : 1. abhisamayālaṅkāra (མངོན་པར་རྟོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་ ngön par tog pe gyen), 2. mahāyāna sūtrālaṅkāra (ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་མདོ་སྡེའི་རྒྱན་ theg pa chempo ་ do dehi gyen), 3. madhyāntavibhaṅga (དབུས་དང་མཐའ་རྣམ་པར་འབྱེད་པ་ ü dang tha: nam par je pa), 4. dharmadharmatāvibhaṅga (ཆོས་དང་ཆོས་ཉིད་རྣམ་པར་འབྱེད་པ་ chö dang chö nyi nam par je pa), 5. mahāyānottaratantra śāstra (ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་རྒྱུད་བླ་མའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་ theg pa chenpo gyü la me ten cö) 21 The Lord Buddha says, “Mind precedes all phenomena. Mind is their master and mind-made are they. If with a corrupted mind one should either speak or act, suffering follows caused by that, as does the wheel the ox‟s hoof. [1:1]. Mind precedes all phenomena. Mind is their master and mind-made are they. If with a clean mind one should either speak or act, happiness follows caused by that, as one‟s shadow which never departs.[1:2]. The Pāli verses are: manopubbaṅgamā dhammā manoseṭṭhā manomayā. manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karotī vā. tatonaṃ dukkhamanveti cakkaṃ’va vahato padaṃ ||1|| manopubbaṅgamā dhammā manoseṭṭhā manomayā. manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā. tatonaṃ sukhamanveti chāyā’va anapāyinī ||2||. Yamakavaggo: Dhammapada
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 8
replaces the mind of self-grasping (བདག་འཛིན) with a boundless compassion (སྙིང་རྗེ་མཐའ་ཡས) and Bodhicitta. That‟s why, it is the main practice of the Bodhisattvas. The beauty of this practice is that it is more relevant than ever in this world of turmoil. The following chief features are helpful for understanding Lojong in a much better way. Direct assault on self-centredness One of the greatest obstacles to both ordinary happiness and spiritual progress is described to be self-centredness or ego-centric attitude. So the main enemy of Bodhisattvas is self-cherishing attitude (བདག་གཅེས་འཛིན) and it is at this stage that the anger of the wrathful deity Yamāntaka is directed to destroy this demon as can be found in the verse of Wheel of Sharp Weapon by Dharmarakṣita. 22 Brian Beresford notes that while the door to the Mahāyāna is the aspiration to highest enlightenment based on a deep rooted wish to help others in the best possible way, people have just the opposite attitude and are predominantly concerned with their own vested interests.23 Hence Lojong is said to be a direct practice to confront the egotistical attitude which remains engrained in one‟s mind and it transforms it for the concern for others. As already explained, the general logic is that others are many and the self is just one. So importance must be given to „many‟ instead of „one‟ or priority to majority. So it is clear that, Lojong can be viewed as a tool to change one‟s selfish and heedless minds because the self is interchanged with others in the practice. This exchange of self with others is well reflected in Śāntideva‟s in Bodhicaryāvatāra:
All those who are unhappy in the world are so as a result of their desire for their own happiness. All those who are happy in the world are so as a result of their desire for the happiness of others.129. 24
One, who does not exchange his own happiness for the suffering of others, surely does not achieve Buddhahood. How could one find happiness even in the cycle of existence? 131. 25
The verse is : ཁུག་ཅིག་ཁུག་ཅིག་ཁྲོ་བོ་གཤིན་རྗེ་གཤེད༎་ རྒྱོབ་ཅིག་རྒྱོབ་ཅིག་དག་བདག་སྙིང་ལ་བསྣུན༎་ འཕུང་བྱེད་རྟོག་པའི་མགོ་ལ་ཆེམས་སེ་ཆེམས༎་ དག་བདག་གཤེད་མའི་སྙིང་ལ་མཱ་ར་ཡ༎༎་ (khu cig khu cig ṭho wo shinje she. gyob cig gyob cig ḍa dag nying la nün. phung che tog pe go la chem se chem. ḍa dag she me nying la mā ra ya.). Könchog etal. (comp.), op cit. f.n. 12, p. 85 23 Beresford, op cit. f.n. 18, p. xi 24 The verse is : ye kecid duḥkhitā loke sarve te svasukhecchyā | ye kecit sukhitā loke sarve te’nyasukhecchyā ||129||. P. L. Vaidya, Śāntidevaviracitaḥ Bodhicaryāvatāraḥ Prajñākaramativiracitayā Pañjikākhyavyākyāsahitaḥ, (Darbhanga: Mithila Institute, 1960). p. 163 25 The verse is: na nāmasādhyaṃ buddhatvaṃ saṃsāre’pi kutaḥ sukham | svasukhasyānyaduḥkhena parivartamakurvataḥ ||131||. Ibid.
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What this verse indicates that in this world, people harm each other and experience both physical and mental suffering, especially fear of the many terrifying things inside and outside themselves. Every aspect of misery and suffering in this world, according to Śāntideva, actually arises from the view of a real personal identity, or the egotistic view. It is likened to the devil that abides in the depths of people‟s mind that thinks: “I alone am the best. I alone am to be cherished, respected, and honored. I must be in control. Those who do not agree with me are evil; may be they should be destroyed. How nice it would be if they did not exist.” So, according to Śāntideva, most people in the world have this type of attitude. One cannot get rid of suffering unless one has such kind of attitude that boosts up “I”, “me” and “mine”, the egotistic attitude just as one cannot stop being burned unless he stays away from the fire. 26
To free myself from harm And others from their sufferings, Let me give myself away, And cherish others as I love myself Take others–lower, higher, equal–as yourself; Identify yourself as “other.” Then, without another thought Experience envy, pride, and rivalry. 27
In the above two verses, Śāntideva emphasises the attitude of viewing others more important than oneself while crushing self-cherishing attitude. The main feature of Lojong is this teaching which draws on above verses of Śāntideva. Cherishing other sentient beings as our own mothers. In this world of sheer selfishness, this seems to be extremely difficult practice. For that one needs to cultivate equanimity (བཏང་སྙོམས) first towards all sentient beings. It hints at people‟s general propensity to see some people as friends, some as enemies and some as strangers, thus strongly advocating that these are all simply mental fabrications (ཡིད་ཀྱིས་བཅོས་པ) fueled by strong egograsping (བདག་འཛིན་དྲག་པོ). Then the attitude of thinking of all sentient beings as being one‟s own mother (མར་ཤེས) is developed. This awareness of mother sentient beings, is a reminder of viewing
The verse is: ātmānamaparityajya duḥkhaṃ tyaktuṃ na śakyate | yathāgnimaparityajya dāhaṃ tyaktuṃ na śakyate ||135||. Ibid. 27 The verse is: tasmātsvaduḥkhaśāntyarthaṃ paraduḥkhaśamāya ca | dadāmyanyebhya ātmānaṃ parān grihṇāmi cātmavat ||136|| hīnādiṣvātmatāṃ kṛtvā paratvamapi cātmani | bhāvayerṣyāṃ ca mānaṃ ca nirvikalpena cetasā || 140 || Bodhicaryāvatāra, Chapter 8. ||135||. Ibid.
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all sentient beings as one‟s own mothers in his or her past lives. This practice presupposes the understanding and belief of the universal law of Karma and its effect and rebirth. Then their kindness as mothers are recollected (དྲིན་དྲན་ཁྱད་པར་པ). The Buddhist law of karma and rebirth teaches that every sentient being has become one‟s mother in at least one past lifetime, their kind and compassionate upbringing of sentient beings as their mothers cannot be exaggerated. The teaching logically presents the kindness of one‟s present mother as a basis substantiates that fact that all sentient beings have become immensely kind to them and emphasizes the need to be grateful to them. As one understands this, he or she cannot remain ungrateful but take initiatives right away to repay their kindness (དྲིན་གཟོ) because one is instructed to remember how all sentient beings have benefited him or her in one way or another as his or her parents, so it should be their duty as children to repay the kindness shown to them. The crux of the teaching is that enmeshed in five poisons (དུག་ལྔ) 28 , sufferings of the mother sentient beings are intolerable. It is not sufficient to ensure their temporary happiness that soon will turn back into suffering as long as they are in saṃsāra. Attempts should be made to rescue them from their misery once and for all and establish them in a permanent state of happiness. In this way Immaculate love and compassion (ཡིད་འོང་བྱམས་པ) for sentient beings are generated. This immaculate love encourages him or her to think, “I will take on the full responsibility of delivering all sentient beings from the vicious state of samsara, from suffering. I myself, and no other, will discharge this task.” This will result in the generation of the exceptional thought (ལྷག་བསམ). The following Lojong verse by Ngülchu Thogme Zangpo reveals such kind of exceptional thought:
What's the point of personal happiness when every mother so affectionate to me from beginningless time is suffering? Thus, in order to liberate infinite numbers of sentient beings, generating bodhicitta is the practice of a bodhisattva. 29
Langri Thangpa‟s exceptional thought to practice exchange of self with others is well reflected in the 7th verse of his “Eight Verses on Training Mind”:
In brief, may I offer both directly and indirectly all happiness and benefit to all beings, my mothers, and secretly take upon myself all of their harmful actions and suffering. 30
Skt: pañcabiṣa : 1. Passion (rāga; འདོད་ཆགས), 2. Hatred (dveṣa; ཞེ་སྡང), 3. Delusion (moha; གཏི་མུག), 4. Pride (mada; ང་རྒྱལ), 5. Envy (mātsarya; ཕྲག་དོག). 29 The verse is : ཐོག་མེད་དུས་ནས་བདག་ལ་བརྩེ་བ་ཅན༎་ མ་རྣམས་སྡུག་ན་བདེས་ཅི་ཞིག་བྱ༎་ དེ་ཕྱིར་མཐའ་ཡས་སེམས་ཅན་བསྒྲལ་བྱའི་ཕྱིར༎་ བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་རྒྱལ་སྲས་ལག་ལེན་ཡེན༎༎༡༠༎༎་ (thog me dü ne dag la tse wa cen. ma nam dug na rang de ci śhig ja. de chyir tha ye sem ce ḍel je chyir. jangchub sem kye gyel se lag len yin). The 10th verse of the Thirty Seven Practice of Buddha’s Son by Ngülchu Thogme Zangpo.
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So one of the chief features of the Lojong practice is the acceptance of all sentient beings as one‟s mother which is understood to effectively boost up his or her practice of exchange of self with others. This is a strong basis for the tonglen practice. Transforming adversity into the path to Enlightenment Another element of the Lojong teachings is described to be the advice to transform adversity into path of enlightenment. The commentators on the Lojong practice describe that the Lojong practitioners are able to cope with whatever happens with their lives, suffering and happiness, with an equanimous mind like the slogan in Seven Point Mind Training practice says: When the world and its inhabitants are full of negativity, transform adverse conditions into the path of enlightenment31They use suffering as a powerful tool to practice the path. Thus, it goes without saying that Lojong is part and parcel of Mahāyāna Buddhism because the key goal of mind training is the total transformation of one‟s selfish attitudes and every circumstance or event, whether they be positive or negative into condition conducive to the enhancement of a vast mind of Enlightenment or Bodhicitta. Therefore, suffering, criticism and other adverse circumstances and harmful people like enemies are taken as an aid to one‟s spiritual practice in Buddhism. The serious Lojong practitioners even feel indebted to those who inflict excruciating torture on them. This is the practice of the perfection of patience as well. Tibet‟s most favourite yogī Milarepa also underwent unbearable adverse circumstances and privations in his prime youth so much so that those who go through his life-story cannot help shedding tears of sorrow. But instead of becoming distraught, he developed unflinching renunciation from all the samsaric activities and following his Guru Marpa Lotsawa‟s instructions, meditated in the forlorn caves with one pointed zeal and ultimately attained the great bliss of nirvana. He took the suffering as an aid to dharma practice. That‟s why instead of cursing his evil-doers, he thanked them heartily saying:
If I do not have somebody who hates me, with whom shall I practice my patience. Should I die tonight, what is the use of all my properties, all my belongings? Patience is the most powerful practice for the attainment of enlightenment. My aunt (who inflicted on me such an unbearable suffering) is a catalyst for my Dharma practice. It is due to my uncle and
The verse is : མདོར་ན་དངོས་དང་བརྒྱུད་པ་ཡིས༎་ཕན་བདེ་རྣམས་ཀུན་ལ་འབུལ༎་མ་ཡི་གནོད་དང་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ཀུན༎་གསང་བས་བདག་ལ་ལེན་པར་ཤོག༎༎༧༎༎་ (dor na ngö dang du:ngel kün. phen de ma nam kün la bül. ma yi nö dang du:ngel kün. sang we dag la len par shog). The 7th verse of the Eight Verses of Mind Training by Langri Thangpa. 31 The verse is : སྣོད་བཅུད་སྡིག་པས་གང་བའི་ཚེ༎་རྐྱེན་ངན་བྱང་ཆུབ་ལམ་དུ་བསྒྱུར༎༎་(nö cü dig pe gang we tshe. kyen ngen jangchub lam dubgyur). This is the one of the lines in the third point of Seven Points of Mind Training, i.e. „Taking adverse conditions onto the path of enlightenment (རྐྱེན་ངན་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་ལམ་དུ་བསྒྱུར་བ༎)‟.
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aunts that I am now following the Dharma path. I am extremely grateful to them. I, in return for their kindness, constantly pray if they may attain enlightenment. 32
This is an example of the real transformation of suffering into the path to Enlightenment. Tonglen Practice as the essence of Exchange of self with others. The practice of exhange of self with others is generally regarded as a secret teachings, not for everyone, and is viewed as something very difficult. The Lojong texts describe that only after self-centered attitude is overcome, one is able to practice this successfully. About this practice, Śāntideva says:
Whoever wants to save himself and others quickly should practice the holy secret of exhanging self and others.33
Here „holy‟ refers to the most sacred kind of practice, here that of exchanging self with others. According to Śāntideva, the self-cherishing attitude is the target or enemy of this practice. Geshe Lhundub Sopa (དགེ་ཤེས་ལྷུན་གྲུབ་བཟོད་པ) writes that exchanging self with others involves cherishing others in order to help them, concerning oneself with their problems and misery, wanting to relieve their problems, and wishing them joy, happiness, peace and every desirable things; in short having the same goals for others as we have for ourselves.34 As Lama Zopa Rinpoche (བླ་མ་ བཟོད་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ) says, through this practice Bodhisattvas learn to dedicate themselves completely to the welfare and happiness of others, leading them to enlightenment in the long run. 35 Based on the fundamental thought of exhanging self with others, tonglen (གཏོང་ལེན) is practiced. The literary translation of tonglen is „giving and taking‟. It consists in giving all one‟s happiness to, all sentient beings as a whole, irrespective of whether they are friends, enemies or strangers, and taking all their suffering onto oneself. This is dealt with in the seventh slogan of Seven Point Mind Training Practice by Chekawa : Sending and taking should be practiced
The text reads:
ཞེ་སྡང་སྐྱེ་ཡུལ་མེད་པའི་བཟོད་པ་སུ་ལ་བསྒོམ༎་ ང་རང་དོ་ནུབ་ཤི་ན་ཞིང་གིས་མི་ཚད་འདི་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་ཀྱང་ཅི་བྱེད༎་ སངས་རྒྱས་ཐོབ་པའི་ཐབས་ལ་བཟོད་པ་མཆོག་ཏུ་གསུངས་པ་ཡིན༎་ དེ་སྒོམ་པའི་རྟེན་ཨ་་་ཡིན་ ་
ཞིང།་ དམ་པའི་ཆོས་དང་མཇལ་བ་ཡང་ཨ་ཁུ་དང་ཨ་་འི་དྲེན་ཡིན༎་ བཀའ་དྲིན་དུ་ཆེ་བས་དྲིན་ལན་དུ་ཕྱི་མ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐོབ་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ་རྟག་ཏུ་འདེབས༎
See: Tsang ñyön Heruka rü pe gyen cen, nal jyor gyi wangchug chen po jetsün mila re pe nam thar. tharpa dang tham ce khyen pe lam tön śhe ja wa.(Kathmandu: Shree Gautam Buddha Vihara, 2006), pp. 155-156 33 The original verse is: ātmānaṃ cāparaṃścaiva yaḥ śīghraṃ trātumicchati | sa caretpamaṃ guhyaṃ parātmaparivartanam || 120 ||. Vaidya, op cit. f.n. 8, p.162. 34 Sopa, op cit. f.n. 4, pp. 47-48. 35 Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Transforming Problems into Happiness, (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1993), p. 1.
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alternately. These should ride the Breath.36 This is called Tong len (གཏོང་ལེན) practice in Tibetan. The reference to this practice can be found in Ratnāvalī, a text by Nāgārjuna :
May others‟ sins ripen for me, And all my virtues for them37
This is considered to be really the most difficult thought. The Lojong texts advise that to train in this precious thought, first of all a person should begin the Tonglen practice with the members of his or her family. Then gradually, he should extend his horizon to his neighbors. This continues until one is able to embrace all sentient beings in his Tonglen practice. Ven. Sögyal Rinpoche (བསོད་རྒྱལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ) has described Tonglen practice at depth in his book, Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. He has presented the steps for the Tonglen practice, emphasizing the importance of this practice to dying persons in the hospice environment.38 As elucidated by Geshe Kel Shang Gyatso (སྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ), Tonglen is not done physically in the sense that one gives up his or her present form to others and take on their body. Rather, it is a transplantation of self-cherishing attitude and development of the thoughts that cherish others.39 In Tonglen meditation, one concentrates on breathing. While exhaling, he imagines he is giving all his virtues and happiness to others. Similarly, while inhaling, he takes on all their suffering and pains, without any exception. This process is the preliminary practice of Tonglen which Sogyal Rinpoche describes categorically in the same book.40 Essence of Buddhist Practice Further, these teachings are said to contain the essence of Buddhist practice. When one practises the Lojong teachings, he is supposed to be practising all of the Buddhist teachings because they in themselves are said to be the essential Buddhist teachings to lead one to supreme Enlightenment. In Tibetan, the term Buddhism is known as nang pe chö meaning the dharma of
The root verse is : གཏོང་ལེན་གཉེས་པོ་སྤེལ་མར་སྦྱང།་ དེ་གཉིས་རླུང་ལ་བསྐྱོན་པར་བྱ༎་ (tonglen nyi po pe mar jang. de nyi lung la kyön par jya). These two maxims are in the second point of Seven Points of Mind Training, i.e. „Training in the awakening mind, the main practice (དངོས་གཞི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ངང་བ༎)‟. 37 The original verse is: teṣāṃ pāpaṃ ma]yi pacye[n] macchubhaṃ teṣu cākhilam || 484 || Ratnāvalī. Michael Hann (ed.), Nāgārjuna’s Ratnāvalī, (Bonn: Indica et Tibetica Verlag, 1982), p. 160. 38 Sogyal Rinpoche, The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, (London: Rider, 1988), pp. 197-212. Born in Kham in Eastern Tibet, Sogyal Rinpoche was recognized as the incarnation of Lerab Lingpa Tertön Sogyal, a teacher to the thirteenth Dalai Lama, by Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö, one of the most outstanding spiritual masters of the twentieth century. Rinpoche is also the founder and spiritual director of Rigpa, an international network of over 100 Buddhist centres and groups in 23 countries around the world.. 39 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Meaningful to Behold, (Cumbria: Wisdom Publications, 1990), p. 249 40 Sogyal, op cit, f.n. 38. pp. 207-209.
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the insiders. All the rituals, philosophical sophistries and so on are futile if with trained mind one doesn‟t commit evil deeds and practice wholesome deeds of working for the benefit of all sentient beings. So in short, even if Śākyamuni Buddha taught 84000 dharma aggregates (Skt: caturāsīti dharmaskandha; Tib: ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྒོ་བརྒྱད་ཁྲི་བཞི་སྟོང་)41 his Lojong teachings are reflected in these three crucial essential lines only:
Don‟t commit any evil deeds Accomplish all the wholesome deeds Tame your mind. This is the Buddha‟s Teaching.42
So the teaching of Lord Buddha is very simple and straightforward. But it is equally difficult to put them into practice. Today, it is imperative that one should understand and practice the essence of teachings which are no more than what are given above. Very simple, succinct and down-to-earth instruction The Lojong teachings are found to be very simple and down to earth. They are succinct, practical and concentrate on one integral fragment of the path, i.e generation of bodhicitta. They are so pithy, presented in a maxim style and so easy to grasp that people can commit them to memory as slogans immediately and can apply to one‟s day to day life as well. So these teachings are not like many other established teachings of the Tibetan Buddhism, such as systematized approach of the lamrim though Lojong teachings are intended to put Lamrim teachings into practice. It is not like dzogchen or mahāmudrā either. That‟s why the masters of Lojong extol its simplicity, lack of systematic organization, and absence of elaborations, such as peotic embellishment or verbosity. Even a single line of Lojong is found to contain the power to counteract ego-grasping. So unlike other teachings, it doesn‟t have complicated structure. The lines or verses are so beautifully designed that one can easily remember them when they face adverse circumstance in
According to Illuminator Dictionary, the Buddha taught eighty four thousand dharma doors i.e. eighty four thousand specific teachings, each of which is a way the complete understanding of reality. In the sutras it is stated that the Buddha taught eight-four thousand because there are eight-four thousand coarse and subtle afflictions (skt: kleśa; Tib: ཉོན་མོང་) to be overcome i.e., each of the eight-four thousand is an opponent to an affliction. In the tantras, the eighty-four thousand are equated with the eight-four thousand impure winds coursing through the eight-four thousand channels that make up the subtle body, i.e., the afflictions. 42 sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ kulassa upasampadā. sacittapariyodapanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ ||5|| buddhavaggo:Dhammapada. Dhammapada is the crucial text for Buddhist practitioners whether they be Śrāvakayānists or Mahāyānists. As such, we can find Dhammapada in Tibetan version as well which translates this extremely crucial verse as follows: སྡིག་པ་ཅི་ཡང་མི་བྱ་ཞིང།་དགེ་བ་ཕུན་ཚོགས་པར་བྱ༎༎་རང་གི་སེམས་ནི་ཡོངས་སུ་འདུལ༎་འདི་ནི་སངས་རྒྱས་བསྟན་པ་ཡིན༎༎༥༎༎
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 15
their daily life. It is like a formula. So it is described that the concise presentation of this teaching makes it the ideal companion for briefcase or pocketbook, or one‟s daily contemplations. Elimination of eight worldly concerns Another noteworthy feature of Lojong practice is that the Lojong practitioner are said to be able to remain peacefully without hope and fear, even at the time of death, because they have a strong renunciation from eight worldly concerns43 and all they do is just the Dharma practice, nothing other than that. Because it strikes directly at the root of all suffering, ego-grasping, one can, so the Lojong masters describe, remain anywhere without any fear of being assaulted or any hope for eight worldly concerns. The Lojong teachings‟ preliminary and indispensable requirement for the Dharma practitioner is to sincerely and constantly practice Four Mind Changing (་་ལྡོག་རྣམ་པར་ ་ 44 བཞི) which causes him or her to develop a strong renunciation from the worldly activities of saṃsāra and a strong desire to practice the Dharma without wasting a single second. This brings us to mind the one of the eight verses of Training Mind by Langri Thangpa, “May all this remain undefiled by the stains of the eight mundane concerns and may I, recognizing all things as illusion, devoid of clinging, be released from bondage” 45 Those who take up the retreat are taught to practice Lojong teachings by their retreat masters. In order to generate strong renunciation from all of the eight worldly concerns, the Tibetan Buddhist masters usually instruct their disciple to follow the example of Milarepa who was one of the greatest Lojong practitioners himself. In his inconceivably rigorous practice, he frequently strongly warns himself: “I must practice at White Horse Tooth Cliff (བྲག་དཀར་རྟ་སོ་ a cave in the forlorn mountain in Tibet) day and
The eight worldly concerns (Skt: aṣṭalokadharma; Tib: འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད) are the ordinary human reactions to gain (lābha, རྙེད་པ) and loss (alābha, མ་རྙེད་པ), fame (yaśa, སྙན་པ) and infamy (ayaśa, མི་སྙན་པ), praise (prasaṃsā, བསྟོད་པ) and blame (nindā, སྨད་པ), pleasure (sukha, བདེ་བ) and pain (duḥkha, མི་བདེ་བ) 1. gain (lābha, རྙེད་པ), 2. loss, 3. fame (yasa, རྙེད་པ), They are a group of four pairs of opposites which the Buddha said were all worldly approaches that only led to further worldly engagement and which hence were to be eschewed. In each pair there is one thing that beings all try to obtain and its opposite which they all try to avoid. The sentient beings become elated when there is a small benefit (to his ego) and depressed when there is a small harm (to his ego). These is eight worldly concerns. ཕན་གནོད་ཕྲན་ཚེགས་ཙམ་གྱིས་ དགའ་བ་དང་དང་མི་མི་དགའ་བར་འགྱུར་བའི་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་དེ་༎་རྙེད་པ་དང།་མ་རྙེད་པ༎་སྙན་པ༎་དང་མི་སྙན་པ༎་བསྟོད་པ་དང་༎་སྨད་པ༎་བདེ་བ་དང་༎་མི་དང་༎་མི་བདེ་བ་བཅས་བརྒྱད་༎༎ There is a separate sutta about the eight worldly concerns in Pali called Atthalokadhamma Sutta. Narada Mahathera (tr.), Atthalokadhamma Sutta (The Eight Worldly Conditions). This is the online version available at http://www.zhaxizhuoma.net/DHARMA/ Tripitaka/Atthalokadhamma.html 44 The four are called 1) precious human body with freedom and connection difficult to obtain (Skt: kṣaṇasampada saṃbalita durlabha manuṣya śarīra; Tib: དལ་འབྱོར་རྙེད་དཀའ་མི་ལུས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ); 2) impermanence and death (Skt: anitya evaṃ mṛtyu; Tib: འཆི་བ་མི་རྟག་པ); 3) karma, cause and effect (Skt: karma, hetu evaṃ phala; Tib: ལས་རྒྱུ་འབྲས); 4) disadvantages of cyclic existence (Skt: sāṃsārika doṣa; Tib: འཁོར་བའི་ཉེས་དམིགས). 45 The verse is : དེ་དག་ཀུན་ཀྱང་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་ཀྱི༎་ རྟོག་པའི་དྲི་མས་མ་སྦགས་ཤིང།་ ཆོས་ཀུན་སྒྱུ་མར་ཤེས་པའི་་ས༎་ ཞེན་མེད་འཆིང་བ་ལས་གྲོལ་ཤོག༎༎༨༎༎་ (de dag kün kyang chö gye kyi. tog pe ḍi me ma bag shing. chö kün gyu mar she pe lö. śhen me ching wa le ḍöl shog). The 8th verse of the Eight Verses of Mind Training by Langri Thangpa.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 16
night even if it costs my life. If I even think of the eight worldly concerns, I will commit suicide.”46 Such should, the Tibetan Buddhist master says, be the commitment. Measuring Rod of one’s practice One of the another great attractive features of this practice is that those who practice the Lojong teachings are said to be not boastful or proud even if he possesses a great learning and has a great improvement in Dharma practice. This is said to be the measuring rod of whether one is doing practice or just the study. This is reflected in Chekawa‟s seven point commentary, “Since practice is more important than study alone, the sentient beings are instructed to unify the focus of meditation on the bodhicitta rather than just textual information.” As the Seven Point Mind training practice suggests, .....Always maintain only a joyful mind. If this can be done even when distracted, you are trained. 47 Although a person is an expert ritualist, is an erudite scholar of Buddhist philosophy and text, has a great following as a teacher so much so that people bow to him, calls himself a Vajrayanist but if he has selfish motives, due to resentment takes revenge on others by blocking his progress, cast aspersion on and deceive others and commit all sorts of evil deeds in the name of dharma, no matter whatever he claims himself to be, but actually he is not a Buddhist at all because he is still under the sway of ego-grasping. There is no renunciation in his motivation. So just if what has been studied and reflected upon is not put to actual practice, then merely becoming a learned Buddhist scholar and ritualists do not make sense. If so, he or she is not a Buddhist in the strictest sense of word. This is reflected in Chekawa‟s seven point commentary, Since practice is more important than study alone, the sentient beings are instructed to unify the focus of meditation on the bodhicitta rather than just textual information.48 So the instruction of Lojong teachings is to practice Buddhist teaching right now when there is a time unless it is too late in the future when one has a precious human body. The the Lojong teaching teaches that without further distraction, one shuld focus on his or her spiritual practice. For that it is taught:
Even if you are prosperious like the gods,
ང་རང་བྲག་དཀར་རྟ་སོར་ཤི་མ་ཤི་དང་ཉིན་མཚན་མེད་པར་སྒྲུབ་པ་བྱེད་དགོས་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་ཀྱི་སྣང་བ་དར་ན་ལྤེབས་ནས་ཤི་སྡོད༎་ (nga ḍag kar ta sor shi ma shi dang ñyin tshen me par ḍub pa je gö chö gye kyi nang wa shar ceb ne shi dö.). Heruka, op cit. f.n. 32. p.141 47 The verse is : ཡིད་བདེ་འབའ་ཞིག་རྒྱུན་དུ་བསྟེན༎་ཡེངས་ཀྱང་ཐུབ་ན་འབྱོངས་པ་ཡིན༎༎་ (yi de ba śhig gyün du ten. yeng kyang thub na jong pa yin). This is the two lines in the fifth point of Seven Points of Mind Training, i.e. „Measurement of having trained the mind (་་ འབྱོངས་པའི་ཚད༎)‟. 48 Allan Wallace, A Passage from Solitude: Training the Mind in a Life Embracing the World (New York: Snow Lion Publications, 1992), p. 137 : ཡིད་བདེ་འབའ་ཞིག་རྒྱུན་དུ་བསྟེན༎་ཡེངས་ཀྱང་ཐུབ་ན་འབྱོངས་པ་ཡིན༎༎་ (yi de ba śhig gyün du ten. yeng kyang thub na jong pa yin). This is the two lines in the fifth point of Seven Points of Mind Training, i.e. „Measurement of having trained the mind (་་འབྱོངས་པའི་ཚད༎)‟. The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 17
Pray do not be conceited. Even if you become as destitute as a hungry ghost, Pray do not be disheartened. 49
Those who can live upto what the above verse instruct are said to be the actual Buddhist practitioner. Apart from that, there is a fabulous attraction of this practice for the people as well who organizes the hospice which teaches the dying patient to accept death easily and fearlessly through the Lojong practice. This is a result and measurement of having practiced Lojong. That‟s why having achieved perfection in this practice, Geshe Chekawa is known to have said:
Because of multiple aspirations, I have defied the tragic tale of suffering And have taken instructions to subdue self-grasping; Now, even if I die, I have no remorse. 50
Support of Wisdom Finally, the Lojong teachings are viewed as something which helps one to see the things as they are. This is what is called ultimate Bodhicitta. It is synonymous with Buddha Nature. It is a common Buddhist assertion that sentient beings‟ mistaken view of the way things exist is the source of their sufferings. Mahāyāna teachings say that everything is empty of its inherent character (Skt: śūnyatā ; Tib: སྟོང་པ་ཉིད) the fault lies in viewing things as being truly existent. The mind training teachings contain the advice to view all phenomena as illusions. Here are some of the examples that show how ultimate Bodhicitta is practiced in the Lojong teaching: 1. Train to view all phenomena as dreamlike. Examine the nature of the unborn awareness. The remedy, too, is freed in its own place. Place your mind on the the basis-of-all, the actual path. In the intervals be a conjurer of illusions. 51 Since the Lojong teachings are underpinned by both
Hann, op cit. f.n. 37, p. 78. Micheal Hann has retrieved and translated fragments of original Sanskrit text of Ratnāvali against Tibetan. But this particular verse is missing in his translation as well. So Tibetan translation is given here : ལྷ་ཡི་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པས་ཀྱང།་ ཁེངས་པ་ཉིད་དུ་མི་བྱ་ལ༎་ ཡི་དྭགས་བཞིན་དུ་དབུལ་བ་ཡིས༎་ རྒྱུད་པས་ཀྱང་ནི་ཞུམ་མི་བྱ༎༎་ (lha yi phün sum tshog pe kyang. kheng pa nyi du mi ja la. yi dag śhin du ul wa yi. gyü pe kyang śhum mi ja.). This verse from Nāgārjuna‟s Ratnāvalī (རིན་ཆེན་ཕྲང་བ་) by Se chilbu chökyi gyeltsen while giving his commentary on the Seven Points of Mind Training. p. 73 50 The verse is : རང་གི་མོས་པ་མང་བའི་རྒྱས༎་ སྡུག་བསྔལ་གཏམ་ངན་ཁྱད་བསད་ནས༎་ བདག་འཛིན་འདུལ་བའི་གདམས་ངག་ཞུས༎་ ད་ནི་ཤི་ཡང་མི་འགྱོད་དོ༎༎་ (rang gi mö pa mang we gyü. du: ngel tam ngen khye se ne. dag dzin dül we dam ngag śhü. da ni shi yang mi gyö do.). The concluding verse of the Seven Point of Mind Training by Geshe Chekawa. 51 ཆོས་རྣམས་རྨི་ལམ་ལྟ་བུ་བསམ༎་ མ་སྐྱེས་རིག་པའི་གཤིས་ལ་དཔྱད༎་ གཉེན་པོ་ཉེད་ཀྱང་རང་སར་གྲོལ༎་ ངོ་བོ་ཀུན་ངཞིའི་ངང་ལ་བཞག༎་ ཐུན་མཚམས་སྒྱུ་མའི་སྐྱེས་བུ་བྱ༎༎་ (chö nam mi lam ta bu sam. ma kye rig pe shi la ce. nyen po nyi kyang rang sar ḍol. ngo wo kün śhi’i gnang la śhag. thün tsham gyu me kye bu ja). The second point of Seven Points of Mind Training, “Training in the awakening mind, the main practice (དངོས་གཞི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་ སེམས་ངང་བ༎༎)”.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 18
wisdom (ultimate Bodhicitta) and compassion (relative Bodhicitta), it can be rightly said to be the essence of all Buddhist practices. CONCLUSION Buddhism teaches that mind is a principal factor that causes happiness or suffering. It is true that science and technology has significantly made people‟s life much more comfortable than before. Now that people have all kinds of gadget that make their lives easy and comfortable. They are becoming more and more materialistic while keeping themselves away from the mental wellbeing. Majority of the world‟s population work for their own material wellbeing only while only a few percentage focuss on the mental welbeing as well. But what they have achieved by being overly materialistic like that, nothing other than mental depression, sorrow, suffering and so forth. This is an indisputable truth. Nowadays, people continue to face inconceivable number of problems which were even unheard of before. The incurable fatal diseases like Cancer, Birdflu, Swineflu, Aids also are among the inevitable ones now. These are all the tangible outcomes of materialism. In the most developed countries, the rate of suicide and violence is increasing day by day. The longer the people specially the young people are keeping distince from these spiritual matters, the more they are subject to depressions that invariably lead them to committing suicide and becoming addicted to alcohol. Just recently, there is a macabre Tsunami, earthquake and explosion of Nuclear power radiation in Japan. This has devastated even the powerful and developed country like Japan. Internecine wars are waged among the religious fanatics. The result is loss of many innocent lives, and never ending animosity. Even if a country tries its best to end the terrorism from the world through weapons by killing people what it thinks are terrorists. But this seems to aggravate the terrorism all the more. Therefore, today people live in constant fear of the threat of nuclear destruction, and wars waged for petty ends, forgetting all the ideals of humanity, because there is hatred everywhere. When one watches TV, reads newspaper or listen to the radio, he or she is daily confronted with tragic news of violence, wars and so on. It is clear that life is not secure. People‟s basic human problems have remained the same for millennia. Hence, it cannot be concluded that scientific advancement and material wellbeing are the sole means to happiness, either psychological or physical. Since suffering, mishaps, mental torture are the inevitable things people in the world are now undergoing no matter however rich they are, whatever developed nations they feel proud to be citizens of, the only solution is to train their minds by channeling them in positive directions. All of human beings‟ problems are rooted in egotistic attachment. All conflicts, exploitation, and wars are due to selfishness. So the message of Lojong is that it must be eradicated by the constant practice of thought transformation or Lojong. In other words, the
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 19
egocentric mind should be replaced with the mind of altruism, compassion and concern for others which manifest themselves in Bodhicitta. In the ultimate way, the practice of Bodhicitta results in the attainment of suprement Enlightenment, but even in the current world‟s situation, the Lojong teachings are the true harbinger of peace, filling the egotistical mind with love, compassion and responsibility with each other. The world will be the different place to live in if this teaching is practiced in a non-sectarian way. This great and universally applicable other centered teachings were spread by Atīśā Dīpaṅkara Śrījñāna. If people in the world, irrespective of what religious belief they might have, only have a chance to hear this lojong teaching either in the form of book or from the mouth of teachers, they would definitely change slowly and slowly. As His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama always says that even if people are of different religious background, that doesn't matter and that if they can pacify your mind and fill it with compassion and mutual brotherhood, that is the most important thing. So, just becoming Buddhist by birth or Buddhist scholar or ritualists doesn‟t make a person the real Buddhist practitioner. The real Buddhist practitioner is that person who practice the Lojong teachings, no matter whether he is a by-birth-Buddhist or a scholar or not. Buddha‟s teachings are for all sentient beings irrespective of whether they are Hindus, Muslims, Christian and so on. In this way, Lojong practice is also for everybody who really wants to be free from all kinds of ego-bred suffering and who wants a happy and peaceful world. Therefore the study of Lojong is more relavant and important today than ever before. With this in mind, an attempt is made to address this problem through this article as well. May all beings be happyཡ
Pāli & Sanskrit Sources: Hann, Michael (ed.) – Nāgārjuna’s Ratnāvalī. Bonn: Indica et Tibetica Verlag, 1982. Mahāthero, Ven. Weragoda Sarada, Treasury of Truth: Illustrated Dhammapada, (Singapore: Ven. Weragoda Sarada Mahathero, 1993. (Printed by The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan) Vaidya, P. L. (ed.) – Śāntidevaviracitaḥ bodhicaryāvatāraḥ | prajñākaramativiracitayā pañjikākhyavyākhyayā saṃbalitaḥ. Darbhanga: The Mithila Institute, 1960.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 20
Tripathi, Ram Shankar (ed.), prajñāpāra-mitopadeśaśāstre ācārya haribhadraviracitā abhisamayālaṅkāravṛttiḥ sphuṭārthā, (Sarnath: Central Institute of Tibetan Higher Studies, 1921)
Tibetan Sources: ༄༅༎༎་ ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་མན་ངག་གི་བསྟན་བཅོས་མངོན་པར་རྟོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་ཀྱི་འགྲེལ་པ་དོན་གསལ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ (she rab kyi pha röl tu chin pe menga: gi ten cö gnön tog pe gyen kyi ḍel pa ḍön sel śhu so||) ༄༅༎༎་ ཇོ་བོ་རྗེ་དཔལ་ལྡན་ཨ་ཏི་དའི་རྣམ་ཐར་བཀའ་གདམས་ཕ་ཆོས་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ [jo worje pelden a ti she nam thar ka: dam pha chö śhe ja wa śhu so] (Silling: tsho dön mi rig pe ṭün khang, 1993). This is a Father’s section of Kadam legbam. ༄༅༎༎་ འབྲོམ་སྟོན་པ་རྒྱལ་བའི་འབྱུང་གནས་ཀྱི་སྐྱེས་རབས་བཀའ་གདམས་བུ་ཆོས་ལེའུ་ཉི་་་བ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ [jo worje pelden a ti she nam thar ka: dam pha chö śhe ja wa śhu so] (Silling: tsho dön mi rig pe ṭün khang, 1993). This is a Son’s section of Kadam legbam. Gampopa, ༄༅༎༎་ དམ་ཆོས་ཡིད་བཞིན་གྱི་ནོར་བུ་ཐར་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་རྒྱན༎༎ (dam chö yi śhin gyi norbu tharpa rin po chehi gyen), in a དཔེ་ཆ་ Pecha format. The full title is: ༄༅༎༎་དམ་ཆོས་ཡིད་བཞིན་གྱི་ནོར་བུ་ཐར་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེའི་རྒྱན་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་ བཀའ་ཕྱག་ཆུ་བོ་གཉིས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོའི་ལམ་རིམ་གྱི་བདད་པ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ (dam chö yi śhin gyi norbu tharpa rin po ་ chehi gyen śhe ja wa ka: cha chu wo nyi kyi theg pa chempohi lam rim gyi she pa śhug so) ༄༅༎༎་ བཀའ་གདམས་པའི་དགེ་བཤེས་གླང་རི་ཐང་པ་རྡོ་རྗེ་སེང་གེས་མཛད་པའི་་་ངང་ཚིག་བརྒྱད་མ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ (ka dam pe ge she lang ri thang pa dorje sengye dze pe lojong tshig gye ma śhu so). ༄༅༎༎་ བཀའ་གདམས་པའི་དགེ་བཤེས་འཆད་ཁ་བ་ཡེ་ཤེས་རྡོ་རྗེས་མཛད་པའི་ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་་་ངང་དོན་བདུན་མའི་རྩ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ (ka dam pe ge she chekawa yeshe dorjye dze pe theg pa chen po lojong dön dün me tsa wa śhu so). ༄༅༎༎་དངུལ་ཆུ་རྒྱལ་སྲས་ཐོགས་མེད་བཟང་པོས་མཛད་པའི་རྒྱལ་སྲས་ལག་ལེན་སོ་བདུན་མ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ༎༎ (ngül chu gyel se thog me sang pö dze pe gyel se lag len so dün ma śhu so). ༄༅༎༎་ བྱང་སེམས་གཞོན་ནུ་རྒྱལ་མཆོག་དང་མུས་ཆེན་དཀོན་མཆོག་རྒྱལ་མཚན་གྱིས་ཕྱོགས་བསྒྲིགས་མཛད་པའི་ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་་་ངང་བརྒྱ་རྩ་༎༎ (jang sem śhön nu gyel chog dang mü chen kön chog gyel tshen chog ḍig dze pe thegpa chenpo lojong gyatsa. Montreal: Institute of Tibetan Classics, 2004. ༄༅༎༎་ ཙངསྨྱོན་ཧེ་རུ་ཀ་རུས་པའི་རྒྱན་ཅན་གྱིས་མཛད་པའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་གྱི་དབང་ཕྱུག་ཆེན་པོ་རྗེ་བཙུན་མི་ལ་རས་པའི་རྣམ་ཐར༎་ ཐར་པ་དངཐམས་ཅད་མཁྱེན་པའི་ལམ་ སྟོན་ཞེས་བྱ་བ༎༎ (nal jyor gyi wangchug chen po jetsün mila re pe nam thar. tharpa dang tham ce khyen pe lam tön śhe ja wa.) Montreal: Institute of Tibetan Classics, 2004. ༄༅༎༎་ འགོས་ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་གཞོན་ནུ་དཔལ་གྱི་མཛད་པའི་དེབ་ཐེར་སྔོན་པོ༎༎ (Gö Lotsawa Śhön nu Pel gyi dze pe deb ther ngön po.) Montreal: Institute of Tibetan Classics, 2004.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 21
English and Nepali Sources: Beresford, Brian (tr.), Mind Training like the Rays of the Sun. Dharamshala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1992. Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang – Tibetan Tradition of Mental Development. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan works and Archives. Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang – Meaningful to Behold. Cumbria: Wisdom Publications, 1990. Jinpa, Thubten, (tr.) – Mind Training: The Great Collection. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2006 Powers John – Wisdom of Buddha: The Saṃdhinirmocana Mahāyāna Sūtra. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1995 Rinpoche, Lama Zopa – Transforming Problems into Happiness. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1993. Rinpoche, Sogyal – The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. London: Rider, 1988. Sopa, Geshe Lhundup – Peacock in the Poison Grove: Two Buddhist Texts on Training the Mind. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001 Wallace, Allan – A Passage from Solitude: Training the Mind in a Life Embracing the World. New York: Snow Lion Publications, 1992.
Digital and Internet Sources: Mahathera, Narada (tr.), Atthalokadhamma Sutta (The Eight Worldly Conditions). This is the online version available at http://www.zhaxizhuoma.net/DHARMA/Tripitaka/Atthalokadhamma.html Tony Duff, The Illuminator Tibetan-English Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Electronic version 5.12, January 6th, 2006.
The Lojong Practice: An Essence of Mahāyāna Buddhism - 22
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