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OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Call No. 5/3 # % 3 Accession No^, 33
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CHICAGO THE BAKER & TAYLOR COMPANY. NEW YORKJ THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. LIMITED. THE MARUZENKABUSHIKIKAISHA. KYOTO. SENDAIJ THE COMMERCIAL PRESS.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS . LONDON. OSAKA. FUKUOKA. SHANGHAI . TOKYO.
ADRIAN ALBERT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO ILLINOIS .INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES By A.
PUBLISHED JANUARY 1941. ILLINOIS.1941 BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. SECOND IMPRESSION APRIL 1942.A. COMPOSED AND PRINTED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS. CHICAGO. COPYRIGHT . U. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.S.
I wish to express my deep appreciation of the fine critical assistance of Dr.and fourthyear sible for undergraduate and beginning graduate students. However. This assurance has been conits successful use as a text. I am fully aware of the serious gap in mode of thought between the intuitive treatment of algebraic theory of the First Course and the rigorous abstract treatment of the Modern Higher Algebra. and they all seemed to find the material easy to understand. My Modern Higher Algebra was intended. psychology. economics. This book is a text for such a course. to grasp the contents. E. and statistics. and its rather widespread use has assured me of the propriety of both its contents and its abstract mode of presentation. A. chemistry. ALBERT 1940 v . Another such at The tempt has resulted in a supposedly less abstract treatise on modern algebra which is about to appear as these pages are being written. Dickson's First Course in the Theory of Equations. I have used the text in manuscript form in a class composed of third. firmed by publication recently of more abstract presentations of the theory of equations gives evidence of attempts to diminish this gap.PREFACE During recent years there has been an ever increasing interest in modern algebra not only of students in mathematics but also of those in physics. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO September 9. of course. Sam Perils during the course of publication of this book. it would actually be pos a student with adequate mathematical maturity. I have the feeling that neither of these compromises is desirable and that it would be far better to make the transition from the intuitive to the abstract by the addition of a new mathematics course in algebra to the undergraduate curriculum in a curriculum which contains at most two courses in algebra and these only partly algebraic in content. to serve primarily the first of these groups. its only prerequisite maa knowledge of that part of the theory of equations given as a chapter of the ordinary text in college algebra as well as a reasonably complete knowledge of the theory of determinants. However. as well as the pedagogical difficulty which is a consequence. whose only training in algebra is a course in college algebra. the sole prerequisite being the subject matter of L. Thus. In terial is fact. I trust that it will find such use elsewhere and that it will serve also to satisfy the great interest in the theory of matrices which has been shown me repeatedly by students of the social sciences. A.
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9. 12. . . 14. 15. Skew matrices and skew bilinear forms Symmetric matrices and quadratic forms Nonmodular fields 52 53 56 58 59 62 13. Products by diagonal and scalar matrices Elementary transformation matrices . 5. II. : 66 66 2. 4. Congruence of square matrices 10. The division algorithm divisibility 4 5 3. Polynomials in x 2. The determinant of a product 6. 11. 6. Summary of results Addition of matrices Real quadratic forms .TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. LINEAR SPACES 1. 7. Rational equivalence of rectangular matrices III. 3. Multiplication of matrices 2. RECTANGULAR MATRICES AND ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS 1. Polynomial Polynomials in several variables Rational functions 6 8 9 13 A greatest common divisor Forms Linear forms Equivalence of forms process 8. 5. 7. . The matrix of a system of linear equations 2. IV. EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 1. PAQB 1 1 POLYNOMIALS 1. . 15 17 . 5. Nonsingular matrices Equivalence of rectangular matrices forms 8. 6. 4. 22 24 26 29 32 36 36 38 39 42 44 45 47 48 51 Determinants Special matrices 7. Linear spaces over a Linear subspaces field 66 vii . Bilinear 9. 19 19 21 Submatrices Transposition Elementary transformations * 4. The associative law  3.
Elementary divisors Matric polynomials 4. 9. Characteristic matrices with prescribed invariant factors 7. . 6. Additional topics VI. 9. 4. . Systems of linear equations Linear mappings and linear transformations Orthogonal linear transformations Orthogonal spaces 67 69 73 75 77 79 82 86 87 89 89 94 97 100 103 105 107 109 109 Ill 112 113 114 116 117 119 121 124 127 130 V. WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS Matrices with polynomial elements 2. 6. 8. 7. Groups Additive groups Rings Abstract fields Integral domains Ideals and residue class rings 2. 4. Gauss numbers An integral domain with nonprincipal ideals INDEX 133 . 3. 5. POLYNOMIALS 1. Linear independence The row and column spaces The concept of equivalence Linear spaces of finite order Addition of linear subspaces of a matrix 7. Similarity of square matrices 6. 3.viii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAQBJ CHAPTBR 3. 11. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. 5. 10. 8. The The ring of ordinary integer^ ideals of the ring of integers 10. The characteristic matrix and function . Integers of 11. 5. Quadratic extensions of a field quadratic fields 12.
CHAPTER I POLYNOMIALS 1. A positive integral power is then best regarded as the result of a finite repetition of the operation of multiplication. we shall assume then either the properties that if a and 6 are constants such that ab = By this 1 . we shall merely make the unprecise assumption that our constants have the usual properties postulated in elementary algebra. confusion will arise from this usage for it will always be clear from the where context that. Polynomials in x. We shall speak of the familiar operations of addition. Our definition of a polynomial includes the use of the familiar stant. + g(x) = g(x) for every polynomial g(x). Later on in our algebraic study we shall be much more explicit about the meaning of this term. however. If is a second such expression and it is possible to carry out the operations indicated in the given formal expressions for/(z) and g(x) so as to obtain two identical expressions. the polynomial f(x) is not the zero polynomial. However. For the present. We shall designate by zero and shall call this polynomial the ze^o polynomial.) and g(x) are equal polynomials and write the polynomial which is the constant f(x) = g(x). This concept is frequently indicated by saying that f(x) and g(x) are identically equal and by writing f(x) = g(x). we shall usually say merely that /(a. in a discussion of polynomials f(x) = will mean that f(x) is the zero polynomial. In particular. A polynomial f(x) plication of a finite g(x) in x is any expression obtained number of integral operations as the result of the apto x and constants. in the consideration of a conditional equation f(x) = No we seek a constant solution c such that /(c) = 0. We shall thus begin our exposition with a discussion of these concepts. term conterm we shall mean any complex number or function independent of x. and multiplication as the integral operations. then we shall regard f(x) and g(x) as being the same polynomial. We observe that the zero polynomial has the properties g(x) = . There are certain simple algebraic concepts with which the reader is probably well acquainted but not perhaps in the terminology and form desirable for the study of algebraic theories. subtraction. Thus.
In other words. and are stating that for any c we have x. in particular. the indicated integral operations in any given expression of a polynomial f(x) be carried out. Thus. so that f(x) is the zero polynomial. If a 7* we call n the degree* of f(x). a n we say that the constant polynomial f(x) has degree zero.. we may express f(x) as a sum of a finite number of terms of the form ax k Here k constant called the coefficient of x k . Then it is nomial and we replace x wherever tain a corresponding expression in Suppose now evident that /(c) = g(c). two polynomials are equal if and only if their polynomial with 60 . + a n \x + an . and we may then write (1) coefficient is the sum of all their f(x) = a xn + aixn ~ + l . but ex the zero polynomial. any polynomial of degree no may be written as an expression of the form (1) any integer n ^ no. q(x). we have f(x) = a. . r(x) l)(c 2 1. The constants a unless f(x) is are called the coefficients of /(x) and may be ao zero. or /(#) called a constant polynomial in x. then. a = 6* for then/(x) and g(x) are equal if and only if m n.). If. The integer n of any expression (1) of f(x) is called the virtual degree of the expression (1). nomial in x and that f(x) = g(x) in the sense defined above. we ob 1. is The is most important since. if /&(x). a nonnegative integer and a is a The terms with the same exponent fc is may be combined into a single term whose coefficients. .+. 3 = 2z. T(X) are poly= h(c)q(c) nomials in x such that }(x) = h(x)q(x) r(x) then f(c) r(c) + + for any c. We may thus speak of any such n as a virtual de . = 6 zm + fciz".2 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES if a or 6 is zero.. c8  c) + . if g(x) pression (1) of f(x) with do 5^ polynomial and we write g(x) in the corresponding form a second (2) g(x) 5^ 0. we shall assign to it the degree minus infinity. . Thus. But if a n = 0. that is. This will * ^ Clearly of virtual degree gree of /(a. either any = a n is a constant and will be f(x) has a positive integral degree. = x2 g(x) 2 2c + 3c= (cIf 2z 2 + 3z. we may always take ^ 0. we may say that the expression (1) of a i = 0. and 1 1 a"" such that aar If f(x) is a is a nonzero constant then a has a constant inverse assign to a particular formal expression of a polyit occurs in f(x) by a constant c. h(x) = re For example. . . the label we c which is the constant we designate by that g(x) is any different formal expression of a poly/(c). is unique. expressions (1) are identical. 2c.+& 1 = n.
Make and real coefficients. 2. whose almost trivial verification we leave to the reader. choice of oral exercises will be indicated by the language employed. then. The coefficient ao in (1) will be called the virtual leading coefficient of this expression of f(x) and will be called the leading coefficient oif(x) if and only if it is not zero. 7 to prove that if k and only if x is a factor of /(x). What can one say about the degree of/ of/ of/* for/ k a positive integer? . State a result about the degree and leading coefficient of any polynomial s(x) 5. 4. 2. s(x) as in a corresponding statement about g(x)s(x) where g(x) has odd degree Ex. Hint: Verify first that other * The early exercises in our sets should normally be taken up orally. State the relation between the term of least degree in f(x)g(x) and those of least degree in /(x) 7. g(x) are monic. Use Ex.+/? for t > 1. The of f (x) + g(x) is at most the larger of the two degrees and g(x). We shall call/(x) a monic polynomial if ao = 1. = f(x) a polynomial. The author's . Then = h(x). / = /(x) a polynomial in x with real coefficients. 1. LEMMA sum the The degree of a product of two polynomials f (x) and g(x) is the and g(x). if /(x) and g(x) have posi tive leading coefficients? 2 3 3. 4. What can one say about the degree of f(x) + g(x) . and only 3. that both /and g are zero. The leading coefficient of f(x) g(x) is the leading coefficients of f (x) and g(x). Let / and g be polynomials in x such that the following equations are satisfied Show. is a positive integer then x is a factor of [/(x)]* if (identically). and g(x). 9. so is f(x) LEMMA stant if A product of two nonzero polynomials is nonzero and is a conif both factors are constants. if State why it is true that x is not a factor of f(x) or g(x) then x is not a fac tor of f(x)g(x).POLYNOMIALS 3 be done so as to imply that certain simple theorems on polynomials shall hold without exception. if f (x) and product of of the degrees of f(x) g(x). EXERCISES* 1. State the condition that the degree of /(x) + g(x) be less than the degree of either /(x) or g(x). LEMMA 4. and thus. 6. LEMMA g(x) Let f(x) be nonzero and such that f(x)g(x) degree of f (x) = f(x)h(x). We then have the elementary results referred to above. = /i +. 8.
(6). . there exist unique polynomials q(x) and r(x) such that r(x) has virtual degree (3) m 1. and = 0. Express each equation in the form a(x) apply Ex. For let /(a. and = q(x)g(x) + r(x) . 4 a) b) c) / 2 / 2 / 2 = xg* + h* + g + (x + 2)fc 2  xg* = xh* 2 = g. Then Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials of respective degrees n and m. coefficients and not all zero. then x divides/ ^ a contradiction. then a virtual degree of s(x) if = r Q (x) m 1. This q(x) r Q (x). If Ck is the virtual leading coefficient of m+ m. Use Ex. ^ Find solutions of the equations of Ex. 3. r(x) = The Remainder Theorem Algorithm to write /Or) of Algebra states that we use the Division = q(x)(x  c) +r(x) .)g(x) of b^ (a x m and leading virtual degree m and hence (3) for q(x) of degree n 1. g. to show that if/. 11 for polynomials/. h with complex 2.) and g(x) be defined respectively (3) by (1) and (2) with 6 ^ 0.4 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = b(x) wise bothf and g are not zero. If also f(x) = q Q (x)g(x) +r Q (x) for r (z) of virtual r(x) is 1. But then/i and g\ are also solutions grees. coefficient degree m 1 a^ ^ 1 0. 8 to give another proof of (a). b^ CkX g(x) is Thus a virtual degree of f(x) . The division algorithm. 9. either n < m and we have with q(x} = 0. n > m. In parts (c) and (d) complete the squares. degree m+k> a polynomial h(x) of virtual k l k 1.a# = 2 *)0 4 = 2 if 10. and (5) of Ex. 12.zy = c) d) / 2 / 4 + 2xfY + (* + 2zfa . q(x) is either zero or has degree f (x) n m. But Lemma t(x) states that t(x) t(x)g(x) is the sum of m and q Q (x) 7* the degree of t(x). The result of the application of the process ordinarily called long division to polynomials is a theorem which we shall call the Division Algorithm for polynomials and shall state as Theorem g(x) 7* 0. 1. Then. r(x) = f(x). Hint: Show that / and g are nonzero polynomial solutions of these equations of least possible de= xfi as well as g = xgi. then they are all zero: satisfying 11. . a) 6) and / / 2 + xg* = . a virtual degree of h(x) n'^n l 1. and a finite repetition b^ a Q x g(x) is n n~ l of this process yields a polynomial r(x) = f(x) + . "* Use Ex. if = the degree of s(x) is = impossible. g(z) = ?o(z). and h are polynomials in x with real coefficients the following equations (identically). ora j* 0.
g(x) T only if the polynomial r(x) of (3) is the zero polynomial. It for this application that we made the remark. Polynomial divisibility. g(x) is a factor o/f(x). Then there exists a poly 3. . and we shall say in this case that f(x) has g(x) as a factor. (x c) q(x) then c is a root of multiplicity What then is a necessary and sufficient condition that /(x) have multiple roots? 2. 6 . Use the Division Algorithm be a root of a polynomial /(x) of degree n and ordinary integral coeffito show that any polynomial h(c) with rational coefficients may . Show by formal m differentiation that if c is a root of multiplicity m of f(x) = 1 of the derivative /'(x) of /(x).POLYNOMIALS so that g(x) 5 then r the = x = /(c). Then f(x) = q(x)h(x)f(x). be expressed in the form 6 &ic 6 ni. Applying Lemmas 3 and 2. and the subsequent definitions and theorems on the roots and corresponding factorizations of polynomials* with real or complex coefficients. Thus f(x) andg(x)are associated if and only if each is a nonzero constant multiple of the other. Hint: Write h(x) = q(x)f(x) + + + b nic n~ for rational + r(x) and replace x by l c. Let /(x) = x3 + 3x 2 + 4 in Ex. * If f(x) is a polynomial in x and c is a constant such that /(c) = then we shall call c a root not only of the equation /(x) = but also of the polynomial /(x). so that/(x) q(x)h(x) = 1. We shall call two nonzero polynomials/(x) and g(x) associated polynomials if = q(x)g(x)> g(x) = f(x) divides g(x) and g(x) divides /(#). numbers 3. . Thus. =0 where g(x) that used to replace this is the monic polynomial . Observe thus that the familiar process of dividing out the leading coefficient in a conditional equation f(x) = is equation by the equation g(x) associated with/(x). to the reader. EXERCISES 1. The Division Algorithm and Remainder Theorem imply the Factor Theorem a result obtained and used frequently in the study of polynomial equations. m Let c cients. q(x) and h(x) are nonzero constants. 2. We shall leave the statements of that theorem. Let f(x) and g(x) f (x) ^ by the statement that g(x) divides we mean that divides /(x) if and nomial q(x) such that/(x) = q(x)g(x). . obvious proof of this result is the use of the remark in = r c) paragraph of Section 1 to obtain /(c) = q(c)(c r. Compute the corresponding &< for each of the polynomials 6 a) c 6) c 4 + 10c + 25c + 4c + 6c + 4c + 4 2 3 2 c) c 6 2 2c 4 +c 3 2 1 d) (2c + 3)(c + 3c) be polynomials. The is fifth has degree one and r = r(x) is necessarily a constant. /(c) c + as desired. It is clear that every nonzero polynomial is associated with a monic polynomial. we have h(x)f(x).
. We a the coefficient + . that. If two terms of / have the same set of we may combine them by adding their coefficients and thus write /as the unique sum. of polynomials shall obtain a property which may best be described in terms of the concept of rational function. Some of our results on polynomials extended easily to polynomials in several variables. . Show that m(f) is a polynomial in x of virtual degree m if and only if m is a virtual degree of /(x). m[m(f)} = /. Let/ = f(x) 2.. . We we In our discussion of the g. Let g be a factor of/. the virtual degrees of kq exponents k\. EXERCISES be a polynomial in x and define m(f) = x mf(l/x) for every positive integer m. Polynomials in several variables. We define a polynomial/ = f(x\. Prove that $ a factor of m(f) for every m which is at least the degree of /.0.6 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES We Two associated monic polynomials are equal.*)= k .. . . x q to be any expression obtained x q and as the result of a finite number of integral operations on #1. . . . . . constants. . g. x q ) as the sum of a (4) x$ . number of terms of the form azji .. (5) / = f(xi. that m(f) xm / 0. . finite As in Section 1 we may express f(xi. . Define/ = = if Show 4. . 1. It will thus be desirable to arrange our exposition so as to precede the study of greatest common divisors by a discussion of the elements of the theory of polynomials and rational functions of several variables.c. ater when we discuss the existence of a unique greatest common divisor (abbreviated. see from this that if g(x) divides f(x) every polynomial associated with g(x) divides f(x) and that one possible way to distinguish a member of the set of all associates shall use this property of g(x) is to assume the associate to be monic.d. . x q ) in xi. if /is 3. Show that m(0) = 0. the sum with unique coefficients. . . + . . 1. and we shall do so. 4.d. jX q of such a term to be k\ ticular expression of / as a sum of terms of the form (4) to be the largest of call . its . . if / 7* 0. that is. "n j for every = and/ = n(f) m> n and is any nonzero polynomial of degree n. x is not a factor of/. . of the term (4) and define the virtual degree in k q the virtual degree of a parXi. k xq . terms (4). .) of polynomials in x. . in x may be . .c. .
. if / is given by (5) and we replace x> in (5) by + x is replaced by y k ^~ *Xj> power product x k x q ) identixq and thus that the polynomial/(i/xi. then some a kl . some of the most important simple properties of polynomials in x hold also for polynomials in several x and we shall proceed to their infinity to the zero polynomial v . . . . . +k for a kl ^ 0. . . . k ki . . cally in y Xi. . xq if all terms of nomial or a form in Xi. . . .POLYNOMIALS coefficients a^ k q are constants and n/ is the degree of x q ) considered as a polynomial in Xj alone. . As before we and have the property that nonzero constant polynomials have degree zero. . g be given by . . kq . If / is a nonzero poly Here the . g. If. . . . q and the . kq T* 0. . . = we . . Thus we shall call /(xi. . and a virtual (2) coefficient of fg is a &o. . . nomial. . . . . . We now use this result to obtain the second of the properties we desire. observe that a polynomial / in x\. x 2 is not zero. h be polynomials in Xi. Also / is the zero polynomial if and only if all its coefficients are zero. . } . . . with 6 not zero. . need to consider an important special x q ) a homogeneous poly(5) have the same degree . . we apply the proof above to obtain ao&o ^ x q is not proved that the product fg of two nonzero polynomials in #1. . Then g h. by Theorem 2. . = To fh. . yx q ) = y f(xij x q ) is a form of degree k x q if and only if /(xi. zero. Xq and f be nonzero. We . derivation. . XQ We have Theorem fg the immediate consequence 3. x q is clearly a form of degree m + n and. Then. t . . However. similarly. . . . thus completed the proof of The product of any two nonzero polynomials in Xi. . x q \ and a not zero. . . xq may its coefficients be regarded as a a a n all . = + + . . is and hence have not zero. We have 2. see that each . . polynomial (1) of degree n = n^in x = x q with . Let f. continue our discussion . It is a generalization of Lemma 1. . . . . Theorem is not zero. then a and 6 are nonzero polyleading + nomials in Xi and ao6 ^ by Lemma 2. . . yx^ we . . . If we x qi prove similarly that the product of two nonzero polynomials in x\ . . . . . degree of * fl / is defined to be the assign the maximum sum degree minus fci + . then a virtual degree in x q oifg is ra n. Then we have proved that the product fg of two nonzero polynomials / and g in x\. If q = 2. . Note now that a polynomial may have several different terms of the same degree and that consequently the usual definition of leading term and coefficient do not apply. . polynomials in x\. . . . . in xi. is nonzero if and only if / and g are nonzero. . shall type of polynomial. . xq The product of two forms / and g of respective degrees n and m in the same Xi. . .
. seen by the reader in his earliest algebraic study to imply that every rational x\> . . and we may use Theorem 2 to obtain . Ao T* 0. . .. . . . . .8 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES all the terms of the same degree in a nonzero polybe grouped together into a form of this degree and then may express (5) uniquely as the sum first Observe nomial (5) that we may (6) / = /(*!. If also (7) g = g(xi. .*. The coefficients of x q ) and 6(xi. . x q) = g + . . . Let us obx q with complex serve then that the set of all rational functions in xi. function of . Thus if we call/o the leading form of/. . . This may be seen to be due to the definitions a/6 + c/d Here b and d are necessarily not = (ad + 6c)/6d. then clearly = h + . . . (a/6) (c/d) = (ac)/(6d). xq may be expressed as a quotient for polynomials a(xi. x q ) are then called coefficients of/.) =/o+. . is where /o is a nonzero form of the same degree n as the polynomial/ and /< a form of degree n i. Let f and g be polynomials in xi. . above is evidently fundamental for the study of polynomials in several variables a study which we shall discuss only briefly in these uct of the leading The result pages. + h m+n i By Theorem 2 /o(7o. A rational function of xi. The postulates of elementary algebra were on xi f . . x q ) and 6(xi. zero. . xq is now defined to be any function obtained as the result of a finite number of rational operations x q and constants. . Rational functions. . . .. + gm 0. . closed with respect to rational operations. we clearly have Theorem 4. .+/n. . . . . tion of division The integral operations together with the operaby a nonzero quantity form a set of what are called the rational operations. x q ) 7* 0. coefficients has a property which we describe by saying that the set is . forms of f and g. . . Then the degree of f g is the sum of the degrees of f and g and the leading form of f g is the prodwhere the hi are forms of degree m+n and Ao = . . . . By this we mean that every rational function of the elements in this set is in the set. . . Xq. .. a(xi. ... for forms g> of degree (8) m fg i and such that g Q ^ . 5.
f (x) is a unique polynomial. .(*)/(*). Moreover. according to our definition. of polynomials f\(x). polynomials and are equal.c. h(x) divides d.d. d(x) and d (x) are associated monic its because of We define the g. we put (11) *. . . If dj(x) is the g. of /i(x).<x) and d . . of any number of polynomials in x not all zero to the case of two nonzero polynomials. fg = if and only = 0. . that the set of rational functions satisfies the propin Section 1 for our constants. We shall repeat this material here importance for algebraic theories.POLYNOMIALS bd if 9 7* 0. Then there exist polynomials a(x) and b(x) such that result (10) is The d(x) = a(x)f(x) + b(x)g(x) a monic common divisor o/f(x) and g(x). . .fs+i(x)./. . 6.c. that is. erties we assumed or g / = Observe. the g. /. d(x) is a common divisor of the /i(x) of largest possible degree and is clearly the unique monic com mon divisor of this degree.d. d(x) is then the unique 0/f(x) and g(x). Moreover. then d(x) is associated with g(x). d (x) divides /. and hence both then d (x) is . . . . of d. A greatest common divisor process. dj(x) and //+i(x).(x). then d(x) and d Q (x) divide each other. Thus the g. d Q (x) divides /i(x). For consistency of notation g(x) g.c. h l (x) = g(x). .+i(x) divides /i(x). t of d(x) is at least that of g(x). . .c. .1 exists such that //~ 1 = 1. . .(x) and //+i(aO. . . of /i(x). . then. then g(x) divides d(x). and is such that if g(x) divides every fj(x) then g(x) divides d(x).c. .d.c. The existence of a g. and the divisor of /i(x).(x) not all zero to be any monic polynomial d(x) which divides all the fi(x). If do(x) is a second such polynomial. We shall now study this latter problem and state the result we shall prove as Theorem 5. For every common divisor h(x) of /i(x). .(x) d (z).d.d. If g(x) divides all the/i(x).d. there is no loss of generality if we assume that both f(x) and g(x) are nonzero and that the degree of is not greater than the degree of /(x). .d. /. . . For if /(x) = 0.//+i(x).c.d. . while if / j then /.c. . of /i(x)./. . . Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials not both zero. Hence. of two polynomials and the method of its computation are essential in the study of what are called Sturm's functions and so are well known to the reader who has studied the Theory of Equations. (x) is the g./.d. .a(x) = Iand6(x) = b^ 1 is a solution of ( 10) if g(x) is given by (2) Hence. the g. above evidently reduces the problems of the existence and construction of a g. and hence the degree .+i(x) .(x).c.
1. Thus our division process yields a sequence of equations of the form (14) hi<t(x) = qii(x)hii(x) + hi(x) . . Equation (12) implies that h z (x) = = qi(x). 0. Ai. .d. If we may At_i(x). where the degree of hz(x) is less than that of h^(x). where the degree of h z (x) is less than the degree of may apply Theorem 1 to obtain (13) hi(x) hi(x).c. who utilized it in = ch r (x). A r_i(z) = qr (x)h r (x) > 1.$(x). unless (15) WX) ^  g r_i(oO/l r_i(z) + hr(x) and (16) for r *.b(x) = cb r (x). Clearly also h\(x) = = a*(x)f(x} a\(x)j(x) + b^(x)g(x) with a^(x} + bi(x)g(x) with ai(x) and that Ai(x) = = 1. We enables us to prove the existence of d(x) but gives us a finite process by . Equation [qri(x)qr (x) (16) implies that (15) + l]h r (x). r The polynomial is a divisor of /(#) and gf(x) and is associated with a monic common Then d(x) has the form (10) for a(x) = car (x). of integers. his geometric formulation of the analogous result on the g. We have already shown that d(x) is unique. we = fc(x)M*) + W*) . assume that h r (x) divides divides hi. is = We the degree of hi(x) then Hi > n > while n< > conclude that our sequence must terminate with . If. observe that it not only It is therefore usually called Euclid's process.2 ()/(x) (14) + 6<i(a?)g(x) Ai_i(x) = + common 6i_i(o:)gr(a:) then implies = fe r (z) Thus we obtain divisor d(x) /i r (o. If ht(x) ^ 0.10 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 1 By Theorem (12) h (x) = q^h^x) + h (x) 2 .(*) . An evident proof hi(x) by then (14) implies that h r (x) induction shows that h r (x) divides both ho(x) b*(x) bi(x) = f(x) and = g(x). now. The process used above was first discovered by Euclid. Thus h r (x) hi(x) and be replaced by h r^(x) = divides both h r ~i(x) and h ri(x).2 () = ai.) = ar (x)f(x) + b (x)g(x). where hi(x) if n< 0. .
Then f(x) divides h(x). g(x). (10) to obtain polynomials a(x) and b(x) such that (17) we use a(x)f(x) + g(x)b(x) = 1 . be rational numbers. thus have the We COROLLARY.1. define b Q (x) c(x)f(x) and see that [b(x) c(x)f(x)]g(x) m . 1 and If now ai(s) has virtual degree m bi(x) virtual degree n + We 1. Let If the the coefficients of f (x) and g(x) numbers. we apply Theorem 1 to obtain the + + + 6 (x)g(x) = By Lemma 1 ao(x)/(rc) + 1 has degree at most m + n the degree of 6 (z) is at most n . 1. are rational only common divisors of f(x) and g(x) and are constants. = a Q (x)f(x) Then a (x) has degree at most 1. may write g(x)h(x) = f(x)q(x) and use = [a(x)h(x) + b(x)q(x)]f(x) = h(x) b(x)g(x)]h(x) For we (17) to obtain [a(x)f(x) + as desired. of degree at unique polynomials a (x) of degree at most 1 such that a (x)f(x) most n b (x)g(x) = m 1. But this implies the result we state as Theorem 6. b(x).POLYNOMIALS 11 means of which d(x) may be computed. Notice finally that d(x) is computed by a repetition of the Division Algorithm on /(#). and h(x) be nonzero polynomials such that f(x) prime to g(x) and divides g(x)h(x). When/(x) and g(x) are relatively prime. Let Then there exist f (x) of degree n and g(x) of degree m be relatively prime.d. The polynomials a(x). We now obtain Theorem 7. b(x) = b (x)  c(x)f(x) for a polynomial c(x). g(x) and polynomials secured from f(x) and g(x) as remainders in the application of the Division Algorithm. For. a(x)f(x) b(x}g(x) = b(x) = 1. saying that f(x) is prime to g(x) and hence also We that g(x) is prime to/(x). It is interesting to observe that the polynomials a(x) and b(x) in (17) are not unique and that it is possible to define a certain unique pair and then determine all others in terms of this pair. first equation of (18) with a$(x) the remainder on division of a(x) by g(x). and hence the greatest common divisor d(x) of Theorem 5 all have coefficients which are rational functions with rational number coefficients of the coefficients of f (x) and g(x). Then the coefficients of their g. a*(x)f(x) + b*(x)g(x) = 1 as desired. if a(x) is any solution of (17). 1 and b (x) + Every pair of polynomials a(x) and b(x) satisfying (17) has the form (18) a(x) = a (x) + c(x)g(x) . then d(x) = 1 and we shall call f(x) indicate this at times by shall also g(x) relatively prime polynomials.c. Let f(x). To do this we first prove the LEMMA is 5.
. 's of a set of rationally irreducible /(z) of Ex. we have/(x) = fi(x)d(x). But then is gr(x) m a(x)6 (x)gf(x) divides a(x) ^ = flf(x)[o(x)6 of degree at most m 1. we have a +  = 1.) and g(x) are relatively prime. We state it as m. A polynomial /(x) is called rationally irreducible if f(x) has rational coefficients is and What are the 6.c. g(x) g\(x) has degree less than let (19) hold. But the definition above of a$(x) as the remainder on = = = division of a(x) by and g(x) There is also a result shows that then (18) holds. State the results corresponding to those above for polynomials of virtual degree two. .c.d. r(x) + so must be 5.'s 3. . State their posfor each such possible g. prime to g(x) the . 1 Theorem 8. possible g. Conversely. Hence. g(x) have rational is coefficients. This proves a (x) 6i(x). . not the product of two nonconstant polynomials with rational coefficients.c. . of f(x) and g(x) a nonconstant polynomial d(x). (x)/(x) (a.d. /<(*) 2.c. 4. Prove that the g. is and only if if f (x) and g(x) are not For the g. . 6. and the conditions on the/(x) polynomials of the first degree. Let f(x) T and g(x) 7* have respective degrees n and Then polynomials a(x) j 1 such that at most n (19) exist if of degree at most m and b(x) ^ of degree a(x)f(x) + b(x)g(x) = relatively prime. 1? Let f(x) = be rationally irreducible. Thus. and the corollary to a set of polynomials /i(x). 1 which impossible. Show if that/(x) either divides g(x) or is prime to g(x). . zero. of f(x) and g(x) is the monic polynomial of least possible = degree of the form (10). If /(x) &o(z)gr(z) = 0i(z)d(x). a(x) = a (x)a(x)/(x) + ao(x)6(x)].c. /(x) and a (x)/(x).sothatai(x)/(x) 6o(#) unique./t(x) be all sible g. a$(x)j(x) +b Q (x)g(x)j then /(x) clearly divides By Lemma by degree n &o(z) 1 is divisible 5 the polynomial 60(2) bi(x) of virtual of degree n and must be zero. . f(x) degree of g(x) is less than that of f(x). EXERCISES Extend Theorems 5.ai(x) a (x).d.d. 0i(x)/(x) + [/i(2)ff()l = where m and /i(x) of degree has degree less than n.12 a\(x)f(x) [60(2) INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES + bi(x)g(x) = bi(x)]g(x). which is somewhat analogous to Theorem 7 for the case where /(x) g(x) are not relatively prime.d. Let/i(x). Hint: Show that if d(x) is this polynomial then f(x) has the form (10) as well as degree less than that of d(x) and q(x)d(x) r(s).
Show that every rational function of c with rational coefficients uniquely expressible in the form a 11.c. .d.d. 3. Use Ex./< ./* then the g. quintic polynomial in the respective cases n x\.c.3 x + 2x + 3* + 6 x 4 4 8   +4 2 e) 2 x4 z8 x4  2x 3 6x 2 2  2x 2 llx  2x  /) 3 x8 x2 x8 +6 . if g(x) is a polynomial in x with rational coefficients and g(c) ^ there then exists a polynomial h(x) of degree less than that of /(x) and with rational coefficients such that g(c)h(c) 10. .d. ..8x . . 1 of Section 2 together with the results above to show that a rational ly irreducible polynomial has 8. show that the g. . 5.3s .1 + 2x .. xq is called a qary poly As above. 4 of /i. be polynomials in x of virtual degree n and/i ^ 0.d.. of each of the following sets of polynomials as well as of possible pairs of polynomials in each case: a) /i /2 6) /i /. In particular. ft of Section 3 to is 3.c. of n(/i).c. show that if d(x) is the g. Let /i. root of /(x) is Let/(x) be a rationally irreducible quadratic polynomial and c be a complex = 0. . 5 to be unary. . + be with a and b rational numbers. . for an integer fc> 0. and quinary. quartic. ternary. quaternary.. = Let /(x) be a rationally irreducible polynomial and c be a complex root of 0. 2. .6 +x2 + 2x + x + 2 4 8 2 6x  3 2 3 2 8 2 3 2 4 /(x) 0. .x . of /i. In a similar fashion a polynomial in nomial. .6 ..3x + x .4x + + = = / / = = /i = / / = jfi x6 x 8 2 3 x4 x8 x2 z4 2 3 + 2x . . 2 = = = = = = = = = = 2x 5  x8 8 2 2x 2 2  6x + x x 2x 3x + 8x . 3.. = 1. 7. quadratic. . The terminology just described is used much more frequently in connecis tion with theorems on forms than in the study of arbitrary polynomials. all Find the g. Forms. . Thus. . no multiple roots. already familiar with the terms linear. in nary quadratic There are certain special forms which are quadratic in a set of variables xm 3/1.3x + 2 . . 2. binary. t/n and which have special importance because they Xi. we shall find that our principal interest forms. c) /i /2 /3 d) /i / /3 9. .5x + x + 3x + 3 +x x. .POLYNOMIALS 7. . 13 Use Ex. k n(f t ) has the form x d. we specialize the terminology in the cases q = 1. The reader and cubic. A polynomial is of degree n is frequently spoken of as an nic polynomial. . . 4. 4. = 1. . Show that. .5x + 6 + 4x + x .
. .y = i (a*y = a/<. . . . and / a. yi.. final A m . f. and see that / may be regarded as a . such forms bilinear forms. We may write an = a^ as well as \ c/ for i ^ a. x n ). Later forms. .14 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . .i (i. z n respectively. n. . . bilinear form in x\. . . form in yi. . .. we shall obtain a theory of equivalence of quadratic forms and shall use the result just derived to obtain a parallel theory of symmetric bilinear type of form of considerable interest is the skew bilinear form. x\. . But / = S2/ IiXiaayj if = . . with (22) and conclude that a quadratic form may be rej/i. aij = a . A quadratic form / is evidently a sum of terms of the type the type ctjx&j for i 7* j. We shall call yi . . y n in a symmetric z and yi. . . . . .i j and have djXiXj = a^XiXj + a^x^x^ so that (23) /= t. y by a*. is symmetric if and only if and hence / is symmetric if and m= n. yn.Zi. . They may be expressed as forms . . and we call a bilinear form / skew if / = f(x\. . . n (20) f= we may thus write so that (21) / . xm and yi.. . = a.. . n) . Thus skew bilinear forms are forms of the type (24) f . .l t1 linear . . j = 1. . . .. xm A bilinear form / is called symmetric if it is unaltered by the interchange of correspondingly labeled members of its two sets of variables. n) . This state ment / = only (22) clearly has meaning only if m = ZyidijXj. . . . We garded as the result of replacing the variables .   . . . yn) = /(yi. . . . y n whose coeffi cients are linear forms in x\. . . . . are linear in both xi. compare this . a  . = n. j = = 1. y n separately. . Here again xn.
. It is important for the reader to observe thus that while (22) may be associated with both quadratic and symmetric bilinear forms we must 2. If g is g = fti. ftiXi + . Linear forms. . We ai. . . ft. . a polynomial in xi. of /(x) and g(x) is a linear combination (10) of f(x) and g(x) with . (28) = . a n The concept of linear combination has already been used without the name in several instances. . / + g = (a x + 61)0:1 + . . .d. n 1. = #) we . x n ) is the zero polynomial. . It is also evident that replace the y/ . that is (26) a is . Thus any polynomial in # is a linear combination of a finite number of nonnegative integral powers of x with x q is a linear combination constant coefficients.c. . . . . n) . x n with coefficients (27) a linear combination of xi. Use the language above to describe the following forms: a) ft) c) + Zxy* + xl + 2xiyi + x yi + x^ z3 3 2/i d) x\ e) 2 + 2xfli x#i Xiy 2 2 2. with constant coefficients (29) . xi. Hence / j a . . . . number of power products x$ xj with constant coefficients. . The form (27) with a\ = a^ a second form. see that . . of a finite the g. . b ny we . . . . . . = + + anx n . . = (i = 1. Xjj . . by corresponding then the new quadratic form/(zi. . . polynomials in x as coefficients. . . + . . x n . . n) . sum of terms an(xiyj if .POLYNOMIALS where (25) It follows that 15 an an = an * (t. Express the following quadratic forms as sums of the kind given by (23) a) 2x\ ft) : xf  x\ 8. ORAL EXERCISES 1. + b n )xn . . . . i = . . . for i j j. A linear form aixi is expressible as a . 1. . + (a. j = 1. . + an = 0. . sum (27) / shall call . . = an = b nx n is the zero form. associate (25) only with skew bilinear forms.
n). a< = bi (i = 1. Then the (36) linear combination au + bv = (aai + bbi. . The properties just set down are only trivial consequences of the usual properties of polynomials and. If a any constant. . . . + = (a*)x n that is ./= g if (oi)si g + ( . . . (32) rows and columns. . if we so desire. = by (61. The reader is already familiar with these properties which he has used in the computation of determinants by operations on its Let. aa n + bbn ) has been uniquely defined for all constants a and b and all sequences u and v. They may be formulated abstractly. . . and (35) define the sum of u and v u + v = (ai + 61. . 6 n) . we (33) au call = ua = (aai. as the coeffiwill and in this formulation in Chapter IV be very important for all algebraic theory. . however. a) is of n constants a define called the elements of the sequence u. . It is clearly the unique sequence z with the . We now consider a second sequence. . u be a sequence u = (ai. . an + bn) . . . . (ca n )x n . . as such. + + . and only if / = / + g) 0. . The sequence all of whose elements are zero will be called the zero sequence and designated by 0. may seem to be relatively unimportant. then. . Then / = . we have cf = (cai)xi + . aa n ) and (34) au the scalar product of v u by a. We (31) define / to be the form such that / ( /) = and see that /=!. .16 Also (30) if INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES c is any constant. . . . . as properties of sequences of constants (which cients of linear forms) may be thought of.
and thus if we replace t/i. . . . . . . in x\  t . we f(xi. = . 9. . . easily . . . If q = r and the determinant (40). . .. x q we obtain the original form We now into g(y\. . . Then we shall say that / is equivalent to g if . .POLYNOMIALS 17 z = u i or every sequence u. Evidently if a is the zero property that u for every u. . nology is justified by the fact that the equation f(xi. . . x g ) is a form of degree n in Equivalence of forms. nonsingular. . y q in g(y\. . . . . . . . + a ir y r (i = 1. . consider two forms / the same degree n. u is the unique sequence that u + + (37) u = 1 w = (ai. yr Then we shall say that / is carried into g (or that g is obtained from /) by . . bn a n} .. Thus. . In this case y 9 as linear forms in #1. . quence u +x= v is the se + We v (38) u = (61 ai. Evidently. . . is . #i. . . x q and we replace every x> in/ by a corresponding linear form . . we obtain a form g = g(y\. a n ) .. The statements above / is equivalent to g then g is also equivalent to /. . . . . This termix q ) = g(yi. x q ) and g = g(x^ .x q ). . is not zero. . + . g) . imply that if x q ) of / is carried y q ) by a nonsingular linear mapping. . (39) Xi = . . . . . . and we see that the unique solution of the equation v evidently call this sequence ( w). then. x q and obtain a linear mapping which we may call the inverse of (39). the linear mapping (39). yq) y q} is an identity. anyi .. constant au = We define the negative u of a sequence u to be the sequence v such v = 0. . . . . . . . it is . . . . by the corresponding linear forms f(xi. The reader should observe now that the definitions and properties derived for linear combinations of sequences are precisely those which hold for the sequences of coefficients of corresponding linear combinations of linear forms and that the usual laws of algebra for addition and multiplication hold for addition of sequences and multiplication of sequences by constants. . . If / = f(xi. . y r ) of the same degree n in t/i. . we shall say that (39) seen that we may solve (39) for yi.
q is called the identical mapping. . lent forms g Apply the linear mappings of Ex. Apply a nonsingular linear mapping to carry each of the following forms to an cx 2) 2 . 3 to the following forms / to obtain equivaand their inverses to g to obtain /. f2xi x* ' \3xj 4. shall usually We shall not study the equivalence of forms of arbitrary degree but only of the special kinds of forms described in Section 7. pleting the square on the term in x\ and put Xi + + + + a) 2x1 b) c) + 3xi x? + 14^10:2 + 9x1 3x1 + 18xix + 24x1 4xiX 2 2  d) 2xf e)  XiX 2 3x1 + 2xiX 2  xi 3. 6) / = 4x?  4x!X2 + 3x1 . . and even of those forms only under restricted types of linear mappings. Find the inverses of the following linear mappings: . The linear mapping (39) of EXERCISES the form x< = y* for i = 1. 1..18 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES say simply that / and g are equivalent. What is its effect on any form/? 2. . x 2 = y*.2x 2 = = 2/i 2/ 2 b} M f Xi 2xi + ^2^2/1 +x = 2 2/2 4. by coma^yl Hint: Write / = ai(xi expression of the type a\y\ cx 2 = y\.. We have now obtained the background needed for a clear understanding of matrix theory and shall proceed to its development. .
. y n with constant coefficients . of coefficients arranged as they occur in (1) has the ai2 form a22 and is speak of the coefficients . . We study. It is not only true that the concept of a matrix arises as above in the study of systems of linear equations. In a later . an. on the matrix of a system. a in ) 19 . . The matrix of a system of linear equations. y n ) according to the usual definitions and hence satisfy the properties usually assumed in algebra for rational operations. but many matrix properties are ob tainable by observing the effect. (3) The line Ui = (an. . called the coefficient matrix of the system (1).CHAPTER II RECTANGULAR MATRICES AND ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS 1. chapter we shall make a completely explicit statement about the nature of these quantities. . . . The concept of a rectangular matrix may be thought of as arising first in connection with the study of the solution of a system km of m linear equations in n unknowns y\. . shall henceforth and fc in (1) as scalar s and shall derive our theoa/ We rems with the understanding that they are constants (with respect to the variables y\. . Let us now recall some terminology with which the reader is undoubtedly familiar. The array an i . of certain natu ral manipulations on the equations themselves with which the reader is shall devote this beginning chapter on matrices to that very familiar.
and this usage will be of some importance in the clarity of our exposition. and they may be regarded The notation a^ which we adopt for the element of A in its ith row and jth column will be used consistently.in (1) form a vertical line (4) which we call We may now the rows of as one the jth column of A. 024. too. speak of A as a matrix of are 1 m rows and n columns. a^ in the following matrices 4050^ 1 2 3 c) 3147 01 6 1. Read off the elements an. the systems of equations (1) with constants &. . displayed equations we shall usually not use the notation (2) for a matrix but shall write instead (5) A = (i = 1. Read Read off off the second row and the third column in each of the matrices of Ex. . briefly. This. . Then m by 1 matrices.20 1JNTKUJLJUUT1UJN TU ALUEJBKA1U THEUK1ES of coefficients in the ith equation of (1) occurs in (2) as its ith horizontal line. and we shall speak of A simply as an matrix. as an rarowed and ncolumned matrix A by n or. is a concept and terminology which we square n then A very frequently. all zero and matrices of coefficients as in Ex. . . Thus. as an matrices and its columns are m by n matrix. ] j = 1. 3 2 1 4 6 l 6 8/ 1. Similarly. 2. ai2. ORAL EXERCISES 1. it is natural to call u* the ith row of the matrix A.. the coefficients of the unknowns y. n) If m= wrowed shall use is a square matrix. We shall speak of the scalars ay as the elements of A. 3. To avoid bulky by one matrices.
. A*. 21 Submatrices. Then AI and A 2 have the same number of rows. A 2 As. We A it all have the same assume that for any fixed i the matrices A n.. to time to regard a matrix as being made It will be desirable from time of certain of its submatrices. that is. It is then clear how each row of A is a 1 by t matrix whose elements are rows of AH. matrix (A. Note our usage in (2). Clearly. .. and every row of A consists partially of a row of AI and of a corresponding row of A 2 or of a row of A 3 and a corresponding row of A 4 . The corresponding coefficient matrix has s rows and t columns. . AH in adjacent positions and for columns. . A 3 and A 4 have the same number of rows..s. . the columns of A of (7) are connected with the columns of AI. where now the symbols At.t. then. (5). .. always mean that two matrices are equal if and only if they are identical. . and A4 2. shall We EXERCISES 1. A 2 A. (7) of the symbol of equality for matrices. . .j=l.*). themselves represent rectangular matrices. reader led to study subsystems of s in < We call such a matrix an s by of t submatrix s the elements in the remaining m A is B of A. Introduce a notation of an arbitrary sixrowed square matrix A and partition A into a threerowed square matrix whose elements are tworowed square matrices. We have thus accomplished what we shall call the similarly partitioning (6) of A by what amounts to drawing lines mentally parallel to the rows and columns of A and between them and designating the arrays of elements in the smallest rectangles so formed by A</. Our principal use of (6) will be the use of the case where we shall regard A as a two by two . and for fixed k the matrices AU. . State how . columns form an the complementary m up (6) s by n t submatrix C and we C submatrix of B. have the same size and equal corresponding elements. In solving the system is (1) by the usual methods the equations in certain t < n of the unknowns. A 2. (6). . number of rows.* have the same number of columns. . . B Thus we write (t A = (A) = l.. . .RECTANGULAR MATRICES 2. rows and n shall call If s t <m and t < n. . A 4 are themselves rectangular matrices. and its elements lie in certain s of the rows and t of the columns of A. A whose elements AI. the complementary submatrix of <7.. An.
7. a two by two matrix. Thus. if they exist. Let the induced process transposition and define it as follows for matA be an by n matrix. m and define the matrix (8) . Partition the matrices of Ex. the complementary submatrices.in the ith by interchanging row and jfth column of A occurs in A 7 as the element in its jth row and ith shall call the transpose of its . two by three and A 4 and state their sizes. Read off A 2. The reader will recall that many of the prop erties of determinants were only proved as properties of the rows of a determinant. the element a*. a one Partition the matrices of Ex. 3 occur in some partitioning of A as a matrix of submatrices? 5. Transposition. rices Partition the following matrices so that they become threerowed square matwhose elements are tworowed square matrices and state the results in the (6). Which of the submatrices in Ex. and then the corresponding column properties were merely stated as results obtained by the process of interchanging rows and columns. matrix. a notation for which is given by (5). 3. 5 into tworowed square matrices whose elements are threerowed square matrices. 5 into the form (7) such that A\ is a by six matrix. w) . A 3 . notation a) 6. Write out all submatrices of the matrix 2 1 1 3 4 5\ 01236 7 021 3 2 1 2 1 and..22 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A into a tworowed square matrix Also partition whose elements are threerowed square matrices. The theory of determinants arose in connection with the solution of the system (1). which we A A. We call rices. It is an n by m matrix obtained from rows and columns. 4. 3.
Notice now that A' is obtained from A by using the diagonal of A as an axis for a rigid rotation of A so that each row of A becomes a column of A'. EXERCISES for A'. We shall call the a.. . . the diagonal of A.} . What then is the form (7) of A ? Obtain the A is the matrix whose elements are the negaA'. Find the form (2) of A if A = A' and . we put (A W' l \ where the matrix A\ is again a #rowed square matrix. Let if also A be a threerowed square matrix. It is a diagonal of the square matrix Ai and is its principal diagonal. m) . where analogous result if A = 1. . If A is our m by n rigid matrix and m < n we put q = m and write (11) The operation A = (A. Give also (7). a 22 or. 2.. 1 of Section 1. The line of elements a aq of A and hence of A\ is called the principal diagonal of A an. . simply. On the other hand. We shall pass have now given some simple concepts in the theory of matrices and on to a study of certain fundamental operations.. form (13) (6) then A 1 is the t by s matrix of matrices given by A' = (G/0 (On = A'rfj** 1. . We should also observe that if A has been partitioned so that it has the . A..<= 1.*.). q = n and have (12) if n < m.the diagonal elements of A. t = 1. . A = A'.. .) (j  1.. In Ex.. ).RECTANGULAR MATRICES column.. any matrix of Ex. A.. Note then that in accordance with our conventions been written as (9) (8) 23 could have A' = ((a. 1 assume that A = A'. n. of transposition may be regarded as the result of a certain motion of the matrix which we shall now describe. where A\ is a growed square matrix. . . . Let A have the form Give the corresponding notation A' if A is tives of those of 3.. . . We also observe the evident theorem which we state simply as (10) (AJ = A. . .
multiplication by a scalar) of such sequences were defined in Section 1.8. Theorem 8. Then B is said to be obtained from A by an elementary row (column) transformation of type 2.9. 'Let i and r be distinct integers. Jt 8 . Lemma 9.. 1 2 32 3/ 3 2/ 2/1. Lemma 4. equation (10) in Chapter IV. B = (&*/).e. equation (4. & 2 .8. Theorem 4. The resulting operations on the rows of the of the system and corresponding operations on the columns of matrix of elimination. The system is (1) may be solved by the yield systems said to be equivalent to (1). we shall mean that theorem of the chapter in which the reference is made. Do this system (1) with matrix A' and com Elementary transformations. However. if the prefix is omitted. Solve the system (1) with matrix / 1 2 4 1\ 4= V for in terms of fo.* The The first change of left members of (1) are linear forms. Let i 5^ r and B be the matrix obtained from A by interchanging its ith and rth rows (columns). and the operations of addition and scalar multiplication (i.24 4. for example. Theorem 8. by Section 4. The addition of a scalar multiple of one equation of (1) to another results in the addition of a corresponding multiple of a corresponding linear form to another and hence to a corresponding result on the rows of A. = A is zero. 2/2. A A and will turn out to be very useful of our transformations is the result on the rows of A of the intertwo equations of the defining system.7. The rows (columns) of an m by n matrix are sequences of n (of m) elements.10) we shall mean Section 7. and B be me matrix obtained by the addition to the ith row (column) of A of the multiple by c of its Tth row (column). Thus. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Prove that the determinant of every threerowed square matrix A with the property that A! 5. and the reader equations Which are permitted in this method familiar with the operations on method and which A are called elementary transformations on tools in the theory of matrices. * . Our final type of transformation is induced by the multiplication of an We shall use a corresponding notation henceforth when we make references anywhere in our text to results in previous chapters. as. 4. c be a scalar. We define this and the corresponding column transformation in the DEFINITION 1. Then B is said to be obtained from A by an elementary row (column) transformation of type 1. 2/s Write the results as also for the == x & A' and thus com pute the matrix pare the results. Thus we make the following DEFINITION 2. for example.
But then A is rationally equivalent to B if and only if B is rationally equivalent to A. observe some simple consequences of our definition. In fact. we if is rationally equivalent to B and B is rationally equivalent to to C. the 1 is inverse of any transformation of type 2 defined for c is that defined for c. the matrix obtained is the same as that which we obtain by applying first the column transformation and then the row transformation. Thus. We a to be a polynomial with a polynomial inverse and hence to be a constant not zero. First. Let the scalar a possess an inverse or 1 and the matrix B be obtained as the result of the multiplication of the ith row (column) of A by a. if we apply any elementary row transformaand then any column transformation to the result. Finally. A and Rbembyn matrices and let B be obtainable from A many arbitrary elementary transforma by the successive application of finitely Then we shall say that A is rationally equivalent to B and indicate this by writing A ^ B. of type 3 defined by a is that defined for a" of type 1 is itself. in x and use elementary transformations with polynomial scalars a. In view of this fact we shall phrase the definition in our present environment so as to be usable in this other shall then evidently require situation and hence state it as DEFINITION 3. * The reader should tion to A . A to C. Observe next that every equivalent to c itself. We now see that. For convenience in our discussion the we first make DEFINITION.RECTANGULAR MATRICES 25 equation of the system (1) by a nonzero scalar a. Then m by n matrix is rationally For the elementary transformations of type 2 with = 1 A A is rationally = and of type 3 with a are identical transformations leaving all matrices unaltered. . The restriction a 7* is made so that A will be obtainable from B by the like transformation for or 1 Later we shall discuss matrices whose elements are polynomials . it is of basic importance to study first what occurs if we make no restriction whatever on the elementary transformations allowed. we see that if an elementary transformation carries A to B there an inverse transformation of the same type carrying B to A. Then B is said to be obtained from A by an elementary row (column*) transformation of type 8. verify the fact that. Let tions. restricted by the The fundamental theorems particular results desired. the combination of the elementary transformations which carry A A B with those which carry B to C will carry equivalent to C. in the theory of matrices are connected with the study of the matrices obtained from a given matrix A by the application of a finite sequence of elementary transformations. to A.
. m A columns of A A and the zero matrices bordering of such transformations induced will replace induces a corresponding transformation on A\ and leaves A* it above unaltered. Let r < m.. and similarly we may permute its columns. and \ A and B _ m by n matrices of the form A. have now shown that in order to prove that and are rationally both rationally equivalent to the and equivalent it suffices to prove Thus we may and terminology A to B in the definition above by A and B We A B A B same matrix C. matrices A 2 and B 2 Then tionally equivalent For it is clear that any elementary transformation on the first r rows and s . Let B be the square matrix (14) The corresponding symbol . As a tool in such proofs we then prove be the following LEMMA 1.26 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES shall replace the is rationally equivalent are rationally equivalent. Before continuing further with the study of rational equivalence we shall introduce the familiar properties of determinants in the language of matrix theory and shall also define some important special types of matrices. r by n s rafor T by 8 rationally equivalent matrices AI and BI and and B are rationally equivalent. For any permutation results from some properly chosen sequence of interchanges. /B.. Clearly the sequence by the transformations carrying A\ Bl < to B\ by the matrix A  \0 A*)' by ele M r We similarly follow this sequence of elementary transformations mentary transformations on the last which carry A 2 to B 2 and obtain B. Determinants. (15) bi D . s < n. We shall then discuss another result used for the types of proofs mentioned above. 5.. It is m rows and n s columns of A important also to observe that we may arbitrarily permute the rows of A by a sequence of elementary row transformations of type 2.
Let B be the matrix obtained . . called a trowed determinant or determinant of order It is defined as the sum (16) of the t! terms of the form (l)*^*. Dickshall assume this result as well as all the consequent properties of determinants derived there.. E. . . ... the complementary submatrix of any trowed square submatrix B is an (n t) rowed square matrix whose determinant and that of B are minors of A called complementary minors of A. Let B be the matrix obtained mentary transformation of'type The reader will recall that to obtain from a square matrix A by an ele3 defined for a scalar a.. In particular. If A is minors.  LEMMA 5. is t 1)* is unique interchanges. of 1... may now be stated as Abe a square matrix. but their square submatrices have determinants called the (read a square matrix of n > t rows. 2.. Lemma 3 may be used in a simple fashion . . it . . . by an by an ele mentary transformation of type 1 Then B A. We now pass to a statement of some of the most important results on determinants./ of a matrix A defines a onerowed square submatrix of A whose determinant is the element itself. That the sign ( son's First Course in the Theory of Equations. The next three properties of determinants are those frequently used in the computation of determinants. Let B be the matrix obtained from a square matrix = ele mentary transformation of type 2. Then B =a A. The result on the interchange of rows and columns of determinants menLet ' tioned in Section 3 LEMMA (18) 2. . it ranges over all permutations may be carried into 1. . The determinant D will be spoken of here as the determinant of the matrix by i we B and we shall indicate this by writing (17) DD fi equals determinant 5).RECTANGULAR MATRICES is 27 t. LEMMA 4. Then A' = A.2. t and the permutation 1*1. from a square matrix A A. LEMMA 3. and proved in L. where the sequence of subscripts ii. and we shall state them now in the language we have just introduced.. . every element a.^. . Thus we have seen that the elements of a matrix may be regarded either as its onerowed square submatrices or as its onerowed minors. Then  B = A   . Nonsquare matrices A do not have determinants.
Another result of this type is LEMMA zero. . . Combining umns we have (21) this result with the corresponding property about col a ik ckq *~1 = k=l (i c 8k a k j = T* q.28 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES LEMMA 6. There many other properties of determinants. The and Let result (20) is of fundamental importance in our theory of matrices be applied presently together with the following parallel result. Thus. // a square matrix has a zero row or column. . . Then (19) C are. also well known to the reader. 8 = 1. of course. and of these we shall use only very few. i. = A + B. is the C be nrowed square matrices such that the ith row (column) of C sum of the ith other rows (columns) of B and C row (column) of and that of B while all are the same as the corresponding rows (col A umns) of A. q. its determinant is Finally. B. that is. j. j. its determi nant is zero. 7. = 1. . s ^ j. the determinant of A is obtainable as the sum of the products of the elements a/ in any row (column) of A by their cofactors c/i. Then B has two equal rows and by Lemma 6 will B B =0. the properly signed and labeled minors ( l) <4 " J 'd t/. of course. Of particular importance is that result which might be used to define determinants by an induction on order and which does yield the actual process ordinarily used in the expansion of a determinant. . n) . . We expand B as above according to the elements of its ith row and obtain as its vanishing determinant the sum of the products of all elements in the qih row of A by the cofactors of the elements in the ith row   of A. be an nrowed square matrix A = (o</) and define AH to be the complementary minor of aj. If a square matrix has two equal rows or columns. we have 8. . Then the result we refer to states that if we i+) define c/* = ( l) 'da then We let A (20)  A =  aikCki = c ik a ki (i. LEMMA Let A. n) . be the matrix obtained from a square matrix A by replacing the tth row of A by its qth row. Those we shall use are. .
. These relations its will have important We call the matrix (22) the adjoint of A and see that if A= (an) is an nrowed square matrix adjoint is the nrowed square matrix with the cofactor of the element which appears in the jth row and ith column of A as the element in its own tth row and jth column. a square matrix having the property that either all its elements to the right or all to the left of its diagonal are zero. Compute the adjoint of each of the matrices 2. .  A = \ an. EXERCISES 1. n) ./) is triangular if it is true that either a./) is called a diagonal matrix matrix A if it is a square matrix. that is. Theorem . The result above clearly true if n = 1 so that A = (an). 1 1 4 1 3 1 234 1 234 1 1 Special matrices. It is clear that A is triangular and only if > i or A is 7 triangular. j = 1. We first assume it induction by 1 and complete our true for square matrices of order n expanding \A according to the elements of its first row or \ column A in the respective cases above. (i. The most general of these is the triangular cial matrix. = (a. we have The determinant of a triangular matrix is is the product ana22 . and. a nn of its diagonal elements. moreover. . Clearly. .RECTANGULAR MATRICES The equations square matrix (22) (20) 29 A and (21) exhibit certain relations between the arbitrary and the matrix we define as adj A = later consequences. . There are certain square matrices which have speforms but which occur so frequently in the theory of matrices that they have been given special names. Expand the determinants below and verify the following instances of Lem ma 8: 321 a) 1 3 1 2 3 01 1 1 003 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 01 1 3 1 234 6. . Thus a square matrix A = = (a. if A = then adj A = 0.. 1. = if for all j that an for all j < i.
30 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = its and a/ that If all determinant Clearly. Let be a square matrix partitioned as in (6) A and suppose that s = t} the An are all square matrices. . Evidently Theorem 1 is the case where the A. and every A. If there be some question as to the order of I or if we are discussing \ several identity matrices of different orders. We shall discuss the implications of this notation later. we call the for all i ^ j. is matrix a scalar matrix and have \A = ajl4 The scalar matrix for which an = 1 is called the nrowed identity matrix and will usually be designated by 7. Then and the reader should verify the terminants implies that A A  A =  Ai A 4 . the diagonal elements of a diagonal matrix are equal. . we shall indicate the order by a subscript and thus shall write either 7 n or I as is convenient for the n rowed identity matrix. sidered in (24) the case where t = 2. The reader will find that this usage will cause neither difficulty nor confusion./ = . The property above and that of Theorem 1 are special instances of a more general situation. a diagonal matrix A is triangular so the product of its diagonal elements. We let A be a square matrix and partition it as in = t and the submatrices An all square matrices. In connection with the discussion just completed we shall define a notation which is quite useful. It is natural to call any m by n matrix all of whose elements are zeros a zero matrix. then A = An A. We shall frequently feel it desirable to of the forms consider square matrices of either Al A A. Then the La(6) with s place expansion clearly implies that if all the A/ are zero matrices for either all i > j or all i <j. where a = an is the common value of the diagonal elements of the matrix. Any (23) scalar matrix may be indicated by of. In any discussion of matrices we shall use the notation to represent not only the number zero but any zero matrix. fact that the Laplace expansion of de where A! is a square matrix. (24) implies that 4 is necessarily square. are onerowed square matrices and the result con.
LEMMA matrix 9.}. Moreover.. and we shall indicate this Then A is by writing (25) A = diag{Ai. In closing we note the following result which we referred to at the close of Section 4. 31 composed of zero matrices and matrices Ai = An which are what we may call its diagonal blocks.. As above.. Clearly. by Lemma 1. either AI = and we have (26) for / = /i. d r \ = to A.RECTANGULAR MATRICES for i 7* j. . . the determinant . of A is the product of the determinants of its submatrices Ai. Every nonzero m by n matrix A is rationally equivalent to a /I (26) 0\ \o or 1 where I is an identity matrix.A. For by elementary transformations of type 7* we may carry any element a pq of A into the element 6u of a matrix B which is rationally equivalent 1 elementary transformation of type 3 defined for a = frji we = 1. A is rationally equivalent to a matrix (29) . or our proof shows that AI is rationally equivalent to a matrix is Now Ai an m 1 by n A and A ( But t then. and then use elementary column transformations of type 2 with dir to replace D by the matrix row. At. . By an ? r c > = 1. We then apply replace B by a rationally equivalent matrix C with c\\ row transformations of type 2 with c = c r \ to replace C by elementary for the rationally equivalent matrix D = (d< ) such that du = 1. and I\ is the identity matrix of one are rationally equivalent. 1 matrix..
. Show that if carried into the identity matrix the determinant of a square matrix A is not zero then A can be by elementary row* transformations alone.32 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES many such steps we obtain (26). * e. / a) 2 32\ 27 3 1 1 \5 / J . Some element must not be zero. 1 2\ o i iy Apply elementary row transformations only arid carry each of the following matrices into a matrix of the form (26) 10^ 2250 2152 10 00 ly 3. 1\ 5/ d) /O 2\ 1 c) Vl 2 4 VO 5 3J 4. is ^ of A The largest order of any nonvanishing minor of a rectangular matrix A is called the rank of A.. Apply elementary column transformations only and carry each of the following matrices into a matrix of the form (26). The result of (20) states that every (t + l)rowed minor of A is a sum of nuRational equivalence of rectangular matrices. Hint: The property \A\ in the first column carry 7. A = (11). Not every matrix may be take carried into the form (26) by row transformations only. and by row transformations we may a matrix with ones on the diagonal and zeros below and then into /. 3 2 4 1 x /! 6) \ .g. is After finitely We shall show later that the number of rows in the matrix I of (26) uniquely determined by A. A into preserved by elementary transformations. Carry the following matrices into rationally equivalent matrices of the (26) / form 3 5 1 10 2 4\ 6) /I 1 2\ a) I \l 1  211 O/ (2 \1 3 2 5] 3/ 2023 0000 i (1 2. EXERCISES 1.
If A has rank r we put t = r + 1 and see of A that B = C =0. that if an elementary row transformation be applied to the transpose A' of A to obtain Ai and the corresponding column transformation be applied to A to obtain Ao.4 we have B = B If. We observe. A and A have the same rank. the . finally. The problem of computing the rank of a matrix definition A would seem from our and lemmas to involve as a minimum requirement the computation of at least one rrowed minor of A and all (r + l)rowed minors. and the computations themselves generally quite complicated. then by Lemma 8 Bo = B + c C where C is a Crowed square matrix all but one of whose rows coincide with those of B. and this remaining row is obtained by ever.  1 I \  1 I    . Howproblem may be tremendously simplified by the application of elementary transformations. then AJ = A\. Let all (r r. But then B nonzero rrowed minor C. finally.RECTANGULAR MATRICES merical multiples of its Crowed minors. replacing the elements of B in the ith row of A by the correspondingly columned elements in its 0th row. But then it is easy to see that C is a minor of A as well as of AO. however. By Lemmas 3 and 5 every Crowed minor of A is the product by a nonzero scalar of a uniquely corresponding Crowed minor of A.        1    1   \ \ l  . Then r is the rank of A. Then the rank of A most We may also LEMMA minors of state this result as A have a nonzero rrowed minor A vanish. the correspondingly placed submatrix B of A is equal to B if no row of B is a part of the ith row of A. a row erf B is in the ith row of A and a row of B is in the 0th row of B. a row of B is in the ith row of A but no row is in the 0th row of A. Let then A result from the application of an elementary row transformation of either type 1 or type 3 to A. + l)rowed minors of A vanish. We are thus led to study the effect of such transformations on the rank of a matrix. If. If Ao results when we add to the ith row of A the product by c 7^ of its 0th row and B is a Crowed square submatrix of A. The number of determinants to be computed would then normally be rather large. We thus clearly have if 33 all the latter are zero so are LEMMA is at 10. Bo = Of or every (r + 1) rowed minor B in A. Let and let all (r + l)rowed Note that we are assigning zero as the rank of the zero matrix and that the rank of any nonzero matrix is at least 1. By the above  \ . 11. and A has a Ao. and the former. and it follows that A and Ao have the same rank. then by Lemma 2. and our proof shows the Also there exists an rrowed minor B 5* = B or B = B + c C in existence of a corresponding minor B =0 implies that C = cr \B\ ^ 0.
H is an Tcolumned matrix. But then Theorem 2 implies. we is For A by a sequence of elementary first may obtain (30) by row and column applying all the row transformations and then all the column transformations. let the rank r of two by n matrices m A and B be the same 9 to carry A into a rationally equivalent matrix (26). A and A have the same rank. any two rationally equivalent matrices have the same rank. and both G and H have rank equivalent to (30) transformations. Every urowed nonsingular matrix is rationally equivalent to nrowed identity matrix. where G is an Trowed matrix. by Lemma 2 A and A! have the same minors and hence the same rank. we obtain the result of the application of the row transformations alone to A.34 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES proof A' and AI have the same rank. We shall prove Theorem 4. r. But column transformations applied to (30) clearly carry this matrix into . A matrix is called nonsingular if it is a square matrix and its determinant not zero. Every m by n matrix of rank r > may be carried into a matrix of the forms (31) . have also the consequent COROLLARY. Every by n matrix of rank We an m by n matrix is (SO). Hence. In closing let us observe a result of the application to a matrix of either the row transformations only or column transformations only. as in Ex. By the above proof A and this matrix have the same rank. respectively. Conversely. so that A\ and A( = AQ have the same rank. Theorem 3. I = I r and use Lemma . Thus. Theorem they have the Two m by n matrices are rationally equivalent if and only if m r is rationally equivalent to same rank. It is clear that the rank of the matrix in (26) is the number of rows in the matrix /. and to A. (H 0). If we then apply the inverses of the column transformations in reverse order to (30). Clearly. A < is rationally equivalent to (o' Similarly. We have thus proved what we regard as the principal result of this chapter. by a sequence of elementary row or column transformations only. I) (30) B is rationally equivalent to 2. 4 of Section 6.
A = /2 1 3\ ' _ /I n 6)A = (l \2 /I c) 2 i\ /2 3 1 221. Hint: If necessary carry A and B into the form (30) and then apply the inverses of those transformations which carry B into (30) to carry (30) into B.RECTANGULAR MATRICES 35 a matrix of the form given by the first matrix of (31). /I a) 1 ( 1 5 5 3\ 2 /2 6) 1 (  1 4 14 32 11 \1 I/ 3 4 16 \1 /' c) 4 12 2. Compute the rank r of the following matrices by using elementary transformabut r tions to carry each into a matrix with all rows (or columns) of zeros and an obvious rrowed nonzero minor. it is evident that the rank of this matrix is that of (?. The result for column transformations is obtained similarly. . 4 2 4 6 I/ 1\ J5=(60 \1 A = ( 2 2 1 . Moreover. B=ll VO /I 1 \3 3/ 0. EXERCISES 1. G has rank r. Carry the first of each of the following pairs of matrices into the second by elementary transformations.
1. . . . y n by a q (2) yi = ^b ik z k (j = 1. . . by n matrix . .. . We 36 . related by a system of linear equations . . A = (a^) the matrix of the mapping carrying the mapy\. carrying the y. . ra. . we have defined*C so that the element dk in its ith row and fcth column is obtained A by the matrix B. . xm and t/i. Suppose now that 21. . Moreover. . with n by q matrix stitute (2) in (1) B = (bj k ). m) . Then. . . to the z k . . . . . second linear mapping zq are variables related to . with m by q matrix C = (CM). . .9 to define a linear Xi to the We call the m . and easily verified by substitution that (4) c ik  _ (i = 1. Multiplication of matrices. The and linear (2). . if we sub we obtain a third linear mapping (3) Xi = 2*c ik z k it is (i = 1. . . . . n) . . k = 1. mapping (3) is usually called the product of the mappings (1) and we shall also write C = AB and call the matrix C the product of the matrix have now defined the product AB of an m by n matrix A and an n by q matrix B to be a certain m by q matrix C. . this system was said in Section y. .CHAPTER III EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 1. y n are variables (1) Xi = atMi (i = 1. ping (1). . If xi. . . m) . q) .
+ o>i n b n k of the products of the elements ay in the ith row (5) of Ay by the corresponding elements ?>. (7) if A is an m by n matrix. If A and B are nrowed square matrices. and m^n. . we shall say that A and B are commutative if AB = BA. Thus we have stated what we shall speak of as the row by column rule for multiplying matrices. A is an m by n matrix. B is an n by q matrix. . . Im A a zero matrix the product then we have . let us observe the following Theorem 1. = AI n = A where 7 r represents the rrowed identity matrix defined for every r as in Section 2. Finally. (AB)' is a q by in mawhich we state is the product of the q by n matrix B' and the n by m .6. AB is also. for example. A is m by n. and thus in this case the product of (1) by (2) is immediately (2) hence (7) is trivially true. This latter fact is clearly so if.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS as the 37 sum dk = an&i* + + . Here trix. But when both are defined. We have not defined and shall not define the product AB of two matrices in which the number of columns in A is not the same as the number of rows in B.* in the fcth column 61* 62* (6) of B. Note the examples of noncommutative square . matrices in the exercises below. . In symbols we state this result as (8) (AB)' = B'A' . Then. they are generally not equal and may not even be matrices of the same size. . w. the fact that AB is defined need not imply that BA is defined. The transpose of a product of two matrices is the product of their transposes in reverse order. Observe also that I m is the matrix of the linear transformation Xi = yi for i = 1. evidently. Observe that if either A or B is Moreover. . B is n by m.
3. In particular. n by q matrix B. It is important to know that matrix multiplica tion has the property (9) (AB}C = A(BC) for every is mby n matrix A. Verify by explicit computation that EijEjk = Eik and that if j ?* g then EijE ok = 0. 2. This result known as the associative law for matrix multiplication and it may be shown as a consequence that no matter how we group the factors in forming a product A\ At the result is the same. /4 a) 3 2 1 /I 2 3^ 1 3 3 4^ \2 1 I/ \~1 2  2 3illi o "I/" t * A ^t f\ i . . . Compute (3) and hence the product C = AB for the following linear changes variables (mappings) and afterward compute C by the row by column rule.38 matrix INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A f . Compute also BA in the cases where the product 2\ 1 defined. the powers A of any square matrix are unique. q by s matrix C. 2/2 92/3 = *i 2z 2 s3 Compute the latter following matrix products is AB. I I Vl == ~~~ "2*1 ^"2 i~ "^"8 Ixi = 2y l +  32/2 2/s ISai [2/1= 1 2/a + 26z 2 +  13* 8 Us = 2. The associative law. We shall assume these two consequences of 6 . of EXERCISES 1.   9 n* ^ j/9 o io 1  ith Let the symbol EH represent the threerowed square matrix with unity in the row and jth column and zeros elsewhere. We leave the direct application of the row by column rule to prove this result as an exercise for the reader.v ci. .
Then that BA is defined. n. . Then it clear that the element in the ith row and Ith column of G = (AB)C is (10) gn while that in the same position in H = A(BC) is (ii) hu y = i Each of these expressions is a sum of nq terms which are respectively of the form (dijbjk^Cki and a^bjkCki). 3. gu EXERCISES Compute the products /2 o) (AB)C and A(BC) in the following cases. . 1 1 2 3\ A = 3 12. . n) . since we have already assumed that the elements of our matrices satisfy the associative law a(bc) = (ab)c. then ' B by &<. . . . . where in all To prove (9) we write A . Let A = (a/) be an m by n matrix and of B be a diagonal matrix. I = 1. . . s. = (a. . . . . = (ft/*). . BA = (btftf) (i = 1. B cases is i = 1. m\j = 1. Hence./). . hu for all i and Z. Products by diagonal and scalar matrices. q. . . and (9) is proved. k = 1. j = 1. m. .! c) A(l 2 1 3). (12) ith diagonal element is rarowed so our definition of product implies that if and designate the B . . . . C = (c k i). . G = H.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS (9) 39 without further proof and refer the reader to treatises on the founda tions of mathematics for general discussions of such questions. . I/ B = \0 ~3\ / / 2 1 1 ^a. . But those terms in the respective sums with the same sets of subscripts are equal.
. Now. then (14) implies that a. while all other columns of BEj are zero. n) . let m = n. prove the converse of Theorem 2 a result which is the inspiration of the name scalar matrix. = l. n) . Thus the product of a matrix A by a diagonal matrix B on the left is obtained as the result of multiplying the rows of A in turn by the corresponding diagonal elements of B. Every nrowed scalar matrix is commutative with all nrowed square matrices. . First.< is in the for j j* i. Thus if i ^ j. . (i. For (15) let B = (ba) (i. If D ith column. j = 1. the the diagonal matrix with unity in . we have 6/ = is the matrix with 1 in its first row and jth column and zeros elsewhere. if i 7* j and & 5^ This gives the result we shall state as We &/. = bn we have the very Theorem 2. Then Let the diagonal elements of an nrowed diagonal matrix B be the only nrowed square matrices commutative with B are the We may now nrowed diagonal matrices. Equations (12) and (13) imply that the jth row of EjB is the same as that of B and the jth column of BEj is the same as that of 5. the elements in the ith column of EjB must be zero. Since 6. . the product of A by a diagonal matrix on the right is the result of multiplying the columns of A in turn by the corre sponding diagonal elements of B. . . A be a square matrix. j = 1.. and 5 is a diagonal matrix. As an immediate consequence simple of the case bi . = 0.. . ra. next see that. then AB = (aijbj) (i = 1. . . Theorem 4.j. The only nrowed square matrices which are commutative with every nrowed square matrix are the scalar matrices. Theorem all distinct.n) A. .40 while (13) if INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES B is nrowed. be and suppose that B is commutative with every nrowed square matrix We shall select A in various ways to obtain our theorem. 3. . . . Then from (12) and (13) we see that (14) AB = BA if and only if (&<  bj)av = = . ... we let E its 3 jth row and column and zeros elsewhere and put BEj = EjB.
0\ 6) A = \0 1 07 . we have defined (17) as the instances (16) of our matrix product (4).in this same place. . and we shall call such a product the scalar product of a by A. Find all threerowed square matrices /I o) B such that BA = AB\i 0\ 4 = 1 b) A . Hence. 1. = bn = 6 for j = 2. However.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 41 product BDj has bu in its first row and jth column and is equal to the matrix DjB which has 6/. fry. then (16) is (a! m )A = A(al n) by n matrix whose element in the ith row and jth column is the product by a of the corresponding element of A. . . 2. B = 1 o 1 Ov /O ** 000 2/ (2 73 d) 02 01 002 or 0\ 0\ _ ~ / 1 01 1 o o \0 A \0 2 17 . . Compute the products rule if EXERCISES AB and BA by the 0\ use of (12) and (13) as well as the row by column 71 a) A = \0 71 2 37 . . and B is the scalar matrix 6/ n Let us now observe that if A is any m by n matrix and a is any scalar. This is then a type of an product (17) m aA = Aa like that defined in Chapter I for sequences. n.
. We shall show that the matrix which is the result of the application of any elementary row (column) transformation to an m by n matrix A is a corresponding product EA (the product AN) where E is a uniquely determined square matrix. 4 has the property B = al and that the A = 7. . Apply an elementary row (column) transformation to A (to B) resulting in what we shall designate by Ao(by B ).'1 (i = 1. We might of course give a formula for each E and verify the statement. and then the same elementary transformation to C resulting in Co (in C ). and 3 are their conjugates. m. of type 1 on AB by applying it to A. Elementary transformation matrices.in the right members of (4) Thus we obtain the result of an elementary row transformation get c. A has the property B of Ex.! . but it is simpler to describe E and to obtain our results by a device which is a consequence of the following Theorem 5. Prove that BA wAB if 5. . 3. Let A be an m by n matrix. . . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Prove by direct multiplication that BA = AB if i 2 = 1 and 4.42 3. 3 3 Compute BAB if Ha where c ic d\ c)' Hi n /O 1\ o)' c and d are any ordinary complex numbers. C<> = AB<> . . Let w be a primitive cube root of unity.*. if we replace a^ by a. Then (0) (0) (18) Co = AB . . 4. q) . . Obtain similar results for the matrices of Ex.. Our definitions also imply that for elementary row transformations of type 3 the result stated as (18) follows For proof we see that we from (19) . k = 1. B be an n by q matrix so that C = AB is an m by q matrix. Show that the matrix matrix 6.. .
and if Ri(a) is nrowed. and Ri(a) elementary transformation matrices of types 1. We shall call EH. then ARi(a) is the result of an elementary column transformation of type 3 on A. n. Ri(a) by multiply ing the ith row of / by a ? 0./(c). P. result and we have proved the first equation in (18). First of all. of if we now assume that EH is nrowed. The corresponding column C (0) = AB (Q) has an obvious parallel proof or may be thought of as obtained by the process of transposition.(c). P(c)P w (c) = P(c)P(c) = / . and 3. to be the matrix obtained by interchanging the ith and jth rows of by adding c times the jth row of I to its Oh row. P.(c) is nrowed..(c) . . Similarly. We shall now interpret the results of Section 2. respectively. cc 9k = . q) . in which 7 is the matrix called E above. so that.< = EH . 2. . E En = i3 / . k = . then APa(c) is the result of an elementary column transformation of type 2 on A. Finally. Then we see that to apply any elementary row transformation to A we simply multiply A on the left by either EH. P*. the product AE^ is the result an elementary column transformation of type 1 on A. R^a^R^a) = E i (a)^ i (a~ 1 ) = / . . Observe that (21) Eh = E.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS Finally. . Thus the elementary column transformations give rise to exactly the same set of elementary transformation matrices as were obtained from the row transformations. It is surely unnecessary to being We now write A = IA where / is the rarowed identity matrix and apply Theorem 5 to obtain A = /<>A. (22) (PH(C)]' = P. or R<(a). Here we define EH I.7 in terms of elementary transformation matrices.(c) supply further details. (23) [Ri(a)Y = Rt(a) . we may interpret Theorem 2.2 as the following . = c ik + 1. . + ca j)b = t 3k I \yi ^a^b/^  / + c I \yi (i ^^A* / 1. 43 we n see that for type 2 they follow / from / n \ n \ 1 (20) yi 2} (a*. . and if P.
and the rank of result C is the rank of relation on the C and is at most r. . P. . Qt such that . and it is interesting to note that it is possible to derive the theorem as a . 2 of Sectfoi^fcfrand carry the matrices cise into the form (2. Then r rows of the wrowed matrix C are all zero. By Theorem 5. Let A and B be .Qi matrix. of a product. The determinant of a product of two square matrices product of the determinants of the factors. . . . . ^ 0) 2 l 2. by Theorem 2. 6. transformation matrices PI.30) by matrix multiplication. Q t) and only if A and B have the same rank.4.)A(Qi . A Qt. mentary transformations carrying A into an r rows are all zero.3 is the case of Lemma l where = PI P. Find the elementary transformation jjrtatjafes corresponding to the elementary of that exer row transformations used in Ex. we the bottom m obtain a rationally equivalent matrix Co = A Q B. tom there exists a sequence of eleby n matrix A Q whose bot m if m we apply these transforma tions to C = AB.44 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES LEMMA 1.4. as desired. . EXERCISES 1. 6. In the theory of determinants it is the symbol for the product of two determinants may be comshown that puted as the row by column product of the symbols for its factors. . In our The determinant present terminology this result may be stated as Theorem 7. . is the nrowed identity . and consequently B . . if the rank of A is r. . The rank of a product of two matrices does not exceed the rank of either factor. The corresponding between the ranks of C and B is obtained similarly. Express the following as products of elementary transformation matrices. tion matrices. v Theorem 2. B = if (?! . (24) is the AB = A B. by n matrices. Every nonsingular matrix is a product of elementary transforma We shall close the results with an important consequence of Theorem 2. Thus we obtain LEMMA 2. The usual proof in determinant theory of the result is quite complicated. m . Then there exist elementary P 8 Qi. Theorem For. that is.
. B is = 7 is the nrowed an nrowed square matrix which we shall l 1 designate (25) by A* and thus write 1 AA~ = A.  \  \ A = PL. then \E\ = nrowed square matrix and <7 = EG. The converse may be shown to follow from (21). P. by A . We thus let A and B be nrowed square matrices and see that Theorem 6 states that if A = then AB = 0. 1. and Lemma 2. P and then \B\ We apply this reto A B to obtain J8 \AB\ = Pi..EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 45 simple consequence of our theorems which were obtained independently and which we should have wished to derive even had Theorem 7 been as sumed. then EiO\ = \E t sult first to A to obtain \A\ = Pi .20) and (2. Pi .21) in terms of matrix product. (22). let A be nonsingular so that. =  \A\ as desired.P. . A ^ 0. then Lemmas 2.3. . An nrowed square matrix if there exists a matrix B such that AB = BA A is said to have an identity matrix.= / = 1. and hence G = \E\ G. or 3. . E t are . Hence. . if E is an nrowed elementary transformation matrix of 1. we have Theorem singular. . A square ?>8j^m^A has an inverse if and only ^ if A is non we apply Theorem 7 to obtain \A JA. . (23). \Ei\ G. From our definiwe see that. I l multiplication by the scalar \A\~ and we observe that (27) is the inis terpretation of (2. give such a derivation. = 6. Moreover. We shall. tions where the Pi are elementary transformation matrices.. Clearly. matrices.5 imply = \G\. Thus.P. inverse Nonsingular matrices. G.22). M_i . by Lemma 2. I . where adj our symbol for the adjoint matrix defined in (2. \ !   \ uniquely determined as the matrix (26) A* This formula follows from the matrix equation (27) A(adj A) = (adj A) A = A . 2. therefore. 2.A = 8.aG . but we shall prove instead the result that if A 5^ then A" 1 is For if  1 (25) holds. if G is an type 1. or a. ...4. \ any elementary transformation . respectively. . respectively. . Ei. and 2. that (?    It follows clearly that. if .
46
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
We now prove A~~
then
B
is
unique by showing that if either AB = / or BA = / 1 necessarily the matrix A" of (26). This is clear since in either
l
case \A\
^
0,
A~
l
of (26) exists,
if
A" = A^I = A~ (AB) = (A~ A)B =
1
l 1
IB =
B, and similarly
BA =
and
/.
We note also that, if A
(28)
B are nonsingular,
=
B+A*
1
.
(AB)*
l
For (AB)(B lA~ l ) lar we have
(29)
= A(BB~ )A~ = A A" =
l
/.
Finally,
if
A
is
nonsingu
(AO'^A')/'
1
.
For
=
if
I
= (AA )' = (AyA',
1
A
n =
linear
q
mapping
(1)
is
with
m=
(A )' is the inverse of A'. n has an inverse mapping
is, if

1
(2)
with
is
the product (3)
the identical mapping, that
C = AB

the
identity matrix. But this is then possible if and only if A 5^ 0, that is, shall (1) is what we called a nonsingular linear mapping in Section 1.9.
We
use this concept later in studying the equivalence of forms.
EXERCISES
1.
Show
1.
that
if
A
By
is
has rank
Hint:
an nrowed square matrix of rank n 1 ?* = 0, PAQ(Q~ 1 adj A) (27) we have A(adj A)
0,
then adj
for
A
=
Then the
first
n
1
rows of Q"1
adj
A
\
must be
zero, adj
A
has rank


1.
if
2. Use the result above and (28) to prove that 2 and A ^ 0. and adj (adj A) = A if n

adj (adj
n~2 A A) = A
n > 2
3. 4.
Use Ex.
1
and
(27) to
show that
adj
A
= lA]^
1
.
Compute
the inverses of the following matrices
by the use
of (26).
EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS
5.
47
Let
A
be the matrix of
1
by
(28)
(d) above and B be the matrix of (e). Compute C and verify that (AE)C = I by direct multiplication.
=
7. Equivalence of rectangular matrices. Our considerations thus far have been devised as relatively simple steps toward a goal which we may now
attain.
We
first
DEFINITION.
exist
make the Two m by n
matrices
A and B
are called equivalent if there
nonsingular matrices
P and Q
such that
(30)
PAQ = B
.
Observe that
P
and Q are necessarily square matrices
of
m and n rows,
respectively. By Lemma 2 both P and Q are products of elementary transformation matrices and therefore A and B are equivalent if and only if A and B are rationally equivalent. The reader should notice that the definition of
rational equivalence
form of the above and, while the previous definition is more useful for proofs, that above is the one which has always been given in previous expositions of matrix theory. We may now apply Lemma 1 and have the principal result of the present chapter.
is
to be regarded here as simply another
definition of equivalence given
Theorem
the
9.
Two
m
by n matrices are equivalent
if
and only
if they
have
same rank.
emphasize in closing that, if A and B are equivalent, the proof of 2.2 shows that the elements of P and Q in (30) may be taken to be rational functions, with rational coefficients, of the elements of A and B.
We
Theorem
EXERCISES
1.
Compute matrices
such that
P and Q for each of the matrices A of Ex. 1 of Section 2.6 PAQ has the form (2.30). Hint: If A is m by n, we may obtain P by apillustrative
plying those elementary row transformations used in that exercise to I m and similarly for Q.
(The details of an instance of this method are given in the example at the end of Section 8.)
2.
Show
is
rank 2
that the product AB of any threerowed square matrices A and B of not zero. Hint: There exist matrices P and Q such that A = PAQ has the
form
(2.30) for r
the same rank as
3.
= 2. Then, if AB = 0, we have A*B* = where B Q B and may be shown to have two rows with elements
of
QrlB has
all zero.
Compute the ranks
A, B,
AB
for the following matrices. Hint:
into a simpler matrix
A Q = PA by row transformations
alone,
Carry A B into B Q = BQ by
48
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
of AoB<>
column transformations alone, and thus compute the rank
stead of that of
= P(AE)Q
in
AB.
a)
A=
2
3
4
,
B
B
1213
583 (352
8. Bilinear
4^
11 02
5/
forms. As
we indicated at the close of Chapter I, the problem
two forms of the same
of determining the conditions for the equivalence of
is
restricted type customarily modified by the imposition of corresponding restrictions on the linear mappings which are allowed. We now precede
the introduction of those restrictions which are
linear forms
discussion.
made
for the case of bi
by the presentation of certain notations which will
simplify our
The onerowed matrices
(31)
x'
=
(xi,
.
.
.
,
x m)
,
y'
=
(yi,
.
.
.
,
y n)
let
have onecolumned matrices x and y as their respective transposes. A be the m by n matrix of the system of equations (1) and see that system may be expressed as either of the matrix equations
(32)
We
this
x
= Ay
,
x'
=
y'A'
.
have called (1) a nonsingular linear mapping singular. But then the solution of (1) for yi,
. .
We
if
.
m=
n and
A
is
non
,
y n as linear forms in
xi,
.
.
.
,
xn
is
the solution
(33)
y
= A
1
x
,
y'
=
z'(A')
1
= x'(A~y
of (32) for y in terms of x (or y' in terms of x'). and variables Xi and y, and shall by n matrices
We
shall again consider
m
A
now
introduce the no
tation
(34)
.
x
=
P'u
m and j ~ 1. Similarly. we write square matrix and u = 1. . for r m. . v' = (v\ t . . . . of/. its (31). We now . carried by these mappings / is B. and are equivalent. . for a nonsingular nrowed square matrix return to the study of bilinear forms. Xi to new variables Uk. . . . then x' = u'P and = (u'P)A(Qv) = u'(PAQ)v . . . two bilinear forms f and g are equivalent if and only if their matrices are equivalent. (35) y = Q Q and 1. Then we shall say that / and g are and ?/i. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE We shall find nonsingular linear mappings (34) and (35) which carry the form into a form of the type (37). . equivalent there exist nonsingular linear mappings (34) and (35) such um and Vi. . . . yn Here x and y are given by . so that the transpose P of P is a nonsingular mrowed 1 = (u\. if . mapping carrying the . is a scalar which may be regarded as a onerowed square matrix and is then the matrix product (36) / = x'Ay . . and we call the m by n matrix A the matrix rankle rank of/. . . for i = . . xm with m by n matrix B. . v n ). It follows also that every bilinear form of rank r is equivalent to so that B = PAQ A the form (37) zit/i + . .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS for a nonsingular linear fc 49 i. n. . . . Also let g = x'By be a bilinear form in #1. These results complete the study of the equivalence of bilinear forms. . . . But if (34) holds. Thus. . The matrix f of / is 23 1 3 1^ W6 W 5 . . By Theorem 9 we see that two bilinear forms are equivalent if and only if they have the same rank. . +xy r r . . v n into which / is that the matrix of the form in ui. Um). A bilinear form / = Zziauj//. .
50 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES rows of A. I i 2/3 = = = vi t>2 + 5^3 ^3 We verify by direct substitution that (6vi  30t.8 + 3i.Jtt2 + Uz = Ui . add 6 times the new first row to the row to the third row. 2 as desired. the second row by /I and obtain 05\ i PA= o \o y o/ o The matrix P is obtained by performing the transformations above on the threerowed identity matrix. row by 1. We continue and carry first PA into PAQ of the form (2. add twice the new first We interchange the first and second new second row.x&i 2 2x22/2 .ftt2 ~ = ^3 Vi 2/2 4W3 . Then 5\ 1 Q = \0 V 17  The corresponding linear mappings f (34) and (35) are given respectively ( by xi I I Z2 Z8 = . EXERCISES find nonsingular linear following bilinear forms into forms of the type (37). multiply J. and obtain which evidently has rank the first 2. We then add the second row to the third row.30) f or r = 2 by adding five times the column and V times the second column of /I PA to its third column. and hence / Pf* \ 1 1 I 4 0\ o I/ . Use the method above to mappings which carry the o) 2x<yi + 3x# . 1.
Q = 4. of the type (37). . Then P = A" 1 AQ = / has the unique solution 3. X2. y2 y* carry the following forms into forms 2. There are some important problems regarding special types of bilinear forms as well as the theory of equivalence of quadratic forms which arise when we restrict the linear mappings we use. (38) B = PAP' shall call . Ex. n so that the matrices A of forms/ = x'Ay are square matrices. 9. Hint: The matrices A of the forms of Ex.X + 2X32/4 + 4X42/1 2xiyi 2 Zi2/a 8 22/i 2 2 2 s 3 2/i 2 zi2/4 2 32/3 X 4t/2 + OJ42/3 + 5X42/4 Use the method above to find a nonsingular linear mapping on Xi. . and (35) are called cogredient mappings if Q = P' Then/ and g (34) are clearly equivalent under cogredient mappings if and only if We let m = Then . Use elementary column transformations to compute the inverses of the fol lowing matrices. P. x8 such that it and the identity mapping on 2/1. 4. x 2 x3 carry the forms of Ex.2x yi 2xiyi . 2/2. a) c) Xii/i  4xi2/ 2 + Zi2/ 8  x 22/i +xy 2 2 d) e) 3 2x42/2  Find a nonsingular linear mapping on 2/1.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS c) 51 d) + 3xi2/ ~ + 5x + 2x y + x y + 3x . 2 into forms of the type (37). 1301 10 23 1 4 1 1\ O I 3 1 Congruence of square matrices. 2/3 such that it and the identical xi. mapping on . to compute the inverses of the matrices of Section 5. Use elementary row transformations as above 6.Xiy + 3xi2/ + . We A and B congruent if there exists a nonsingular matrix P satisfying (38). . 2 are nonsingular so that the corresponding matrices P have the property PA = I.
c 2 i congruent to A and with Ci 2 = For either A = = PAP' t a sequence of cogredient elementary transformations of type 2 where we add c/i times the second row of C to its jth row as well as c.. . PjAPJ . A square matrix A is called A. n. . . .'. and j. hzi = the first row and column of H by h^ and obtain a skew matrix C = (c . i B is skew If and only a>a A skew. . Before passing to this study we observe that are congruent if and only if A imply that A and B Lemma 2 and Section 7 may be carried into B by a sequence of operations each of which consists of an elementary row transformation followed by the corresponding column transformation.. . same rank an even It and only if they and every skew matrix is thus congruent to a matrix /O (39) It 0\ . P 2 (P!APDP 2 and so forth as deP. If B = PAP' is congruent to symmetric if A' = A. and skew if A' = 10. We now apply 1. where the P* are elementary transformation matrices. We may interchange the ith row and first row. r.) con= ^22 = 0. . then an = an for all and consequently every diagonal element of A 10. en = c 22 = 0. Multiply ^12. A then B' if = PA'P'. We use this result in the proof of Theorem the Two nrowed skew Moreover r is matrices are congruent if integer 2t. P. B . P. sired.) OJ . We thus obtain a skew matrix H = (/&. matrix (40) Ac = \ ' E _(0 * \1 1\ ' A..52 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES We shall not study the complicated question as to the conditions that two arbitrary square matrices be congruent but shall restrict our attention to two special cases. An gruent to A and with a. and thus obtain the skew . \0 O/ for every P and our result is trivial. . We shall speak of such operations mentary transformations of on a matrix A as cogredient elethe three types and shall use them in our study of the congruence of matrices. Thus = P = P. if B is is symmetric if and only if A is symmetric.= hiz j^ 0. or some an T* 0.. ... the ^'th and second row and thus also the corresponding columns by cogredient elementary transformations of type 1. Skew matrices and skew bilinear forms. PI.) = 1. Hence is zero. A = (an) is a an = skew matrix.' = P. 2 times the first row of C to its jth row for j = 3.. .
. a) b) c) + 11. The theory of symmetric is considerably more extensive and complicated than that of skew matrices. if / is a skew bilinear form of rank 2t it is equivalent under cogredient non singular linear mappings to (xiyz x^yi) + . and we shall obtain only some of its most elementary results.. . A i is necessarily a skew matrix of n 2 2 rows rows. 0} with each trix of Ek = E. . . . This is true for A = H if some diagonal element of A is not zero. . = 0. . . a. two such forms are equivalent under cogredient nonsingular linear mappings if and only if they have the same rank. We may evidently assume that A = A' =^ 0. rank 2. 80:22/4  Symmetric matrices and quadratic forms. after H of such steps.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS The matrix Ao is 53 congruent to A. If B also is a skew maB is congruent to (41) and to A. and any cogredient elementary transformation on the last n and columns of A induces corresponding transformations on AI. Clearly. the corresponding bilinear form x'Ay is a skew bilinear form. both A and B are con gruent to (39). and we shall prove first that A is congruent to a symmetric matrix H = (hij) with some diagonal element ha ^ 0. . . a finite number we may replace A by a congruent skew matrix (41) G = diag {JEi. Our matrices principal conclusion may be stated as Theorem of the 11. carrying it to a congruent skew matrix H\ and carrying Ao to a congruent skew matrix (E VO It follows that. Every symmetric matrix A is congruent to a diagonal matrix same rank as A. then G and A have rank 2t. If A is a skew matrix. = a< and an = a/. We then obtain H as the result of adding the jth row of A to its ith row and . Hence. Otherwise there is some a</ ^ 0. Moreover. E t. . + EXERCISES Use a method analogous to that of the exercises of Section 8 to find cogredient linear mappings carrying the following skew forms to forms of the type above. 0.
54 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A to its iih column. . It is a matrix equivalent to A and must have the same rank.9 we defined the equivalence of any quadratic form / and any second quadratic form g = y'By. . that is. . However. . . Clearly. r. . We may then use the notations developed above and see that / and g are equivalent if and only if A and B are congruent. . For if our nonsingular linear mapping is represented by the matrix equation x = P'u. . = 2a. and/ = u'(PAP')u. + . Then we add ~~cTiCki times the first row to its ifcth row. . x n with be regarded as a a r j.* +a . . and it is clear that we ultimately obtain a diagonal matrix. .J and g are equivalent if and only if B = PAP'. form in XL. A\ in the proof of symmetric bilinear forms of rank by a symmetric matrix A of rank r. . Thus Theorem 11 states that every quadratic form of rank r is equivalent to (45) ap* + . . . We call the uniquely determined symmetric matrix A the matrix of f and its rank the rank of f. . Now in Section 1.7. . The form matrix diag (45) is of course to be regarded as a {ai. Theorem 11 may also be applied to quadratic forms/ = As we saw in Section 1. it may {ai.. . . . ar . + The f(xi. . oj n ). . and obtain a symmetric matrix We now /On (42) \ \0 Aj 1 rows. . . 0}. . We shall . / is the onerowed square matrix product (44) / = x'Ax = ui for a symmetric matrix A. the jth column of sired. then x' = u'P is a consequence. ha = a. 0. . + a x* r . form in xi. The result above may be applied to obtain a corresponding result on congruent to A. follow with the corresponding column transformation. x r with nonsingular matrix diag .j^ as de permute the rows and corresponding columns of H to obtain a congruent symmetric matrix C with en = ha 7* 0. . bilinear forms / = x'Ay defined Theorem 11 then states that /is equiva lent under cogredient transformations to a (43) aiXitfi form a rx ryr . results of . As is a symmetric matrix with n Theorem 10 we carry out a finite number of such steps.
(g). (6). What is the symmetric matrix a) 3x1 6) c) A of the following quadratic forms? 3 2 + 2xiX 3x x + x\ 2xix 8x3X4 + x\ . 55 a quadratic form / = x'Ax in xi.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS call . 2 e) . (d) of 4. Determine P by writing A = IAI' and by applying cogredient elementary transformations. x n with nonsingular matrix A a nonsingular form. Pf Show linear = xf x\ are not equivalent under that the forms / = xf x\ and g with real coefficients. EXERCISES 1. Ex. 5. matrices Find a nonsingular matrix P with rational elements for each of the following A such that PAP' is a diagonal matrix. and (h) of if Ex. and we have shown that every quadratic form of rank r in n variables may be written as a nonsingular form in r variables whose matrix . 2 and use the cogredient linear mappings obtained from that exercise to obtain equivalent forms with diagonal matrices.3x^2 + 2xiX . 2 for quadratic forms.J 211 1 1 ~5 3. allow any complex Which of the matrices of Ex. is a diagonal matrix. . 3 7 6 1 0023 I 2 2 1 3 1 3 0\ "0023 l 1 6 15 3 '341 4 5 1 1 1 / *> 3 2 1 2 1  5\ 1 . (/). 2 are congruent we num bers as elements of 6. (c). 14/ \l 1 O/ and Write the symmetric bilinear forms whose matrices are those of (a).3xJ x\ + 2 0:1X2 4  4 2. . Hint: Consider the possible signs of values mappings + of / and of g. 3 to (e). Apply the process of Ex. .
The fields be defined in Chapter VI. the set of all real numc 7* a. But it is clearly possible to obtain every rational number by the application to unity of a finite number of rational operations. Thus we shall find it desirable to define the concept above. But the reader will observe that we have not. . given conditions that two symmetric matrices be congruent. field of a. . and the set of all rational functions with rational coefficients of any fixed complex number c. . bers. it has not. . in F. and our reason is that it is not possible to do so without some statement as to the nature of the quantities which we allow as elements of the transformation matrices P. (ab)c = a(bc) . lowing brief DEFINITION.56 12. as yet. = F(x) of all rational complex numbers. just like those of F. While we have mentioned this fact before. a fc. with rational coefficients. the set F is a mathematical system having prop K with respect to rational operations. . for every a. We shall thus introduce an most fundamental concepts of our complex numbers is a set F of at least two distinct complex and a/c are in F for every such that a + &. algebraic concept which is one of the subject the concept of a field. of a field in such a general way as to include systems like the field defined shall do so and shall assume henceforth that what we called con K We stants in Chapter I and scalars thereafter are elements of all a fixed field F. III. 6. then. c of F. . . been necessary to emphasize it. Now it is true that even if one were interested only in the study of matrices whose elements are ordinary complex numbers there would be a stage of this study where one would be forced to consider also matrices whose elements are rational functions of x. Examples of such fields are. A II. until now. ab. Thus all our fields contain the field of all rational called numbers and are what are will modular fields called nonmodular fields. In our discussion of the congruence and the equivalence of two matrices A and B the elements of the transformation matrices P and Q have thus far always been rational functions. We now make the fol set of elements F is said to form a nonmodular field if F contains the set of all rational numbers and is closed with respect to rational operations such that the following properties hold: I. If F is any field of functions in x with coefficients in erties. The fields we have already mentioned contain the complex number unity and are closed with respect to rational operations. of the elements of A and B. + b) + c = a + (b + c) a(b + c) = ab + ac ab = ba a + b = b + a (a . A numbers fe. b. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Nonmodular fields. the set of all complex numbers.
EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS The difference a tion x in (46) 57 6 is always defined in elementary algebra to be a solu F of the equation x +b= in a . and the quotient a/6 to be a solution y (47) F of the equation* .a ~ and a unique solution y = 6" of yb = 1 for 6^0. set of all matrices of the following kind and d range over all rational numbers and i 2 form a quasifield which is not a /a \c = field. We 1 also see that the rational number a 1 is defined so that l)a = also true that ( ( 1) 1=0. yb = a Thus our hypothesis that F is closed with respect to rational operations should be interpreted to mean that any two elements a and b of F determine b and a unique product ab in F such that (46) has a a unique sum a in F and (47) has a solution in F if b j 0. made as . whereas a. of (47) to that of by = a.. ' r " x /a b ^(b a) b 2.) a N /a 2b\ '~ . Let a. F and that there exists a unique solution x = aoix }. In the author's Modern solution Higher Algebra it is shown that the solutions of (46) and (47) are unique. (Use the definition of addition of matrices in (52). Show that if a. 6. and for these systems the properties just mentioned must be additional assumptions. y 1 l . and the existence of a solution of (46) is equivalent to that of b x = a. and a ( thus ( 1 a. the + bi di 3(c ) a Note that in view of III the property II implies that (b c)a = ba ca. + l)a = a = 1 0. aO = 0. 1 + 1 a + + = a) ( 1 6) a + Hence = It is (a) = a. c. EXERCISES 1. = ab for every a and b of a field F. l. Prove that F is a field. + In fact. Then the solutions = ab~ of (46) and (47) are uniquely determined by z = a + ( b). and c range over the set of all rational numbers and F consist of all matrices of the following types. But there are mathematical systems called quasifMs in which the law ab = ba * + + + does not hold. it may be concluded that the rational numbers and 1 have the properties (48) for every a of a + = al = a . 6.
. two skew matrices with elements in F are congruent in F if and only if they have the same rank. and no simple solution of this problem exists for F an arbitrary field. in F and 0} with a* ^ that correspondingly every quadratic form x'Ax is equivalent in F to F if . Summary of results. and every matrix B congruent in F to A is skew. f 1 Then two corresponding quadratic forms x'Ax and x Bx f are equivalent in and only if A and B are congruent in F. two bilinear forms with coefficients in F are equivalent in F if and only if they have the same rank. corre spondingly. the precise nature of F is again unimportant. . When A = A the matrix A is skew. we have shown that every symmetric matrix of rank r and elements in F is congruent in F to a diagonal matrix diag (a a a r 0. . of two bilinear forms. then we call A and B congruent in F if there exists a nonsingular matrix P with elements in F such that PAP = B. Since the rank of a matrix (and of a corresponding bilinear form) is defined without reference to the nature of the field F containing its elements. of finding necessary and sufficient conditions for two quadforms with coefficients in a field F to be equivalent in F is one involving the nature of F in a fundamental way. the particular F chosen to contain the elements of the matrices If is relatively unimportant for the theory. . We leave two forms. . Hence. of F to the reader the explicit formulation of the definitions of equivalence in linear . Let A = A' be a symmetric matrix with elements in F so that any matrix B congruent in F to A also is a symmetric matrix with elements in F. . . Similarly. Moreover. b(x) with coefficients in F. where all the forms considered have elements in F. . and these results may be seen to vary as * we change our assumptions on F. The theory completed thus far on polynomials with constant coefficients and matrices with scalar elements may now be clarified by restating our principal results in terms of the concept of a field. and of two bilinear forms under cogredient mappings.58 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 13. We observe first that if f(x) and g(x) are nonzero polynomials in x with coefficients in a field coefficients in F. . F then they have a greatest common divisor d(x) with and d(x) = a(x)f(x) + b(x)g(x) for polynomials a(x). Then A and B a field are equivalent in F if and only if they have the same rank. we say that the bilinear forms x'Ay and x'By are equivalent in F under cogredient transformations* if A and B are congruent in F. A and B are square matrices with elements in a field F. In fact. we can obtain results only ratic The problem after rather complete specialization of F. Moreover. We next assume that A and B are two m by n matrices with elements in F and say that A and B are equivalent in F if there exist nonsingular matrices P and Q with elements in F such that PAQ = B.
Let F be the field of either Theorem 12 or CoroUary I. . . . we should have the formula But it is also true that if the partitioning of any A and B is carried out so that the products in (51) have meaning and if we define the sum of two matrices appropriately. 0} > F A A . = A' of rank r is congruent to ar . + x? . . numbers if and only if they COROLLARY II. If also . . m and j We now let A = (ay) and B = (6</)? where i = 1. then (51) will still hold. 0}. Two symmetric matrices whose elements are complex numhave bers are congruent in the field of all complex the same rank. If these matrices were onerowed square matrices. 59 conditions are those given in Let F be a field with the property that for every a of F there exists a quantity b such that b 2 = a. . that is to say in F. For every . ^ P  67 1 . We then have the obvious consequences. . so that A and B are m by n matrices. . are congruent in F if and only if they have the same rank. . also congruent in to diag {/ r B' has rank r.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS The simplest Theorem 12. 0. The converse follows B= from Theorem 2.n) . . . Addition of matrices. = . Then if for . COROLLARY I. = diag ^{ai. . = diag {&rS a 7* and a. + &/ . 1. n. Then two quadratic forms with coefficients in F are equivalent in F if and only if they have the same rank. x? + . . . Then two symmetric matrices with ele ments in . .j = 1. . . . = . . . . . Then we define (52) S = A +B = SH (i = an 1. (ay) . over an arbitrary state it. Its There is one other result on symmetric matrices which will be seen to have evident interest when we proof involves the computation of the product of two matrices field which have been partitioned into tworowed square matrices whose elements are rectangular matrices. . Hence every such form of rank r is equivalent in F to (49) 14. 0}.2. . Thus (51) will have major importance as a formula for representing matrix computations. then 5 is 0} and hence to A. = 6? for 6< in F. 0.m. PA F P' = diag [I r .
. and we thus assume that Bi is a matrix of t rows and g columns. if (A+B) + C = A + the (B + C) . that if n rices.*) be an n by q matrix. then A B\ and \A  and A and B are nrowed square mat + \ if A and B are equal. AS has m s termined and necessarily A* has s rows and n rows and t columns. t. B = (&. . (51) has meaning only if B\ has t rows.60 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES that We have thus defined addition for any two matrices of the same shape such A + B is the matrix whose elements are the sums of correspondingly placed elements in A and B. For this equation is clearly a consequence of the corresponding property is. Now (54) let is m by n zero matrix.) (53) A+B = B + A. . Our partitioning is now completely det columns. Then so that AI = (a*/) but now with i = 1. ./) be an mbyn matrix. ./* = a^k + bi. For example. . that (55) of (an + &</)<.Cjk have thug seen that addition of matrices has the properties (53) alassumed for addition of the elements of our matrices and that the ways law (54). Then (A + B)C = AC + BC . The elements If of our matrices are in a field F. an m by n matrix. Observe. . which we call the distributive law for matrix addition and multiplication. We let A = (a. and A\ be an s by t matrix. Clearly if We D is a matrix such that DA is defined. + \B\ = 2A while A + B\ = 2A = Let us now apply our definitions to derive (51). We observe also that A + (~1A) = 0. then A+ = A. + c*/ = an + (a</ + 6. C = (cjk) be any n by q matrix. we have Hence we have the properties also + by = 6/ + a/. however. J5 4 has n t t rows rows .. then similarly (56) we have D(A + B) = DA + DB > 1 . and a^ C = (dj) is (bij + dj). of F. #2 has rows* and n rows and g columns. also holds. . then \A\ + \B\ are usually not equal. s and j = 1. and q g columns. A B 4 8 has m t s has n t columns.
and then have used (57) and addition We shall now apply the process above to prove the following theorem on symmetric matrices mentioned above. (58) Di = . Then P = diag {Pi. s 1. Ho'S). + 1. B. . k = 1. where we define Di. and com . . . Then Ho' F if A and B are congruent in and only if AI and BI are congruent in F. m . I n . In matrix language we have used (58) and computed as the result of partition of matrices of matrices in (59) to give (51). . Let Ai and BI be rrowed nonsingular symmetric matrices with elements in F. . as well as 1. . for i separately. #2 by 2 . . . 2. D = 2 Ei  (fit. . . + Drf* . . ro. and A and B be the corresponding nrowed symmetric matrices <> of rank r. g + .r } is nonsingular. we . . may .) .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS and q g columns. and . (^} . 61 The element in the ith row and fcth column of AB may clearly be expressed as (i = 1. s . g and . B 4) Moreover. B= JE?i. E = 2 (B. 2. For if AI and BI are congruent in F there exists a nonsingular matrix Pi such that PiAiP( = BI. . obtain (51) from (57) by simply using the ranges 1. .. . Theorem 13. q for j separately. . . AB = DJE. q) But this equation is equivalent to the matrix equation given by (57) A = (A D2 ) Z>2. .
Computed + Bif A a) B= 2. A! l PJ PJ The result above thus states that. and solve. 14. Conversely. of a Show that every nrowed square matrix A is expressible uniquely as the sum C with B = B'. But then  B 1 PA 1 1 P( J  5^ 0. We now call the number of positive a the index i of / and prove 15. if / and g are quadratic forms with coefficients in F so that / and g are equivalent only if they have the same rank r. + rices Real quadratic forms. Theorem same index. then / may be written as a nonsingular form / in r variables. if putation by the use of (51) gives PAP' a nonsingular matrix P we may write I PAP = B for 7 Pi p *} \p* p*)' shall where Pi is an rrowed square matrix. We shall close our study of symmetric matand hence of quadratic forms with coefficients in F as well by consider= x'Ax ing the case where F is the field of all real numbers. 3. Let then / = a x xf + have rank r so that we may take / + arxl for real a^ ^ 0. g may be written as a nonsingular form g Q in r variables. symmetric matrix B and a skew matrix C.. Hint: Put A == B (7 = 0'. and we have l p *\ P'* t PA p. numbers quadratic forms with real coefficients are equivalent in if and only if they have both the same rank and the . Two the field of all real . Verify that (A + B)' = A' + B' for any m by n matrices A and B. and finally the original forms / and g are equivalent in F if and only if / and g Q are equivalent in F. compute A'.62 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = B.p(Af( Af' \_(P l A P'J' ~MO P B l J^A^ P( P^ PtA must be nonsingular since \Bi\ = and A l are congruent in F. and Hence ORAL EXERCISES 1.
EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS
*
63
if
For proof we observe, first, that by Section 14 there is no loss of generality we assume that/ = x'Ax where A is a nonsingular diagonal matrix, that = n. Moreover, there is clearly no loss of generality if we take A = is, r d d r for positive d. Then there exist real diag {di, dt+i,
. . .
,
t,
.
.
.
,
\
numbers p
{PT with
(61)
1
>
^
P7
1
}
>
such that p* = diy and if P is the nonsingular matrix diag then PAP is the matrix diag {1, 1, 1, 1}
1
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
t
elements
1
and
(x\
r
t
elements
1.
Thus, /
is
equivalent in
F
to
+
.
.
.
+
*?)

(* +1
+ ...+*).
Now, if 0has
lent in
the same rank and index as/,
let g
hence to /. Conversely,
have rank r
it is equivalent in F to (61) and = n and index s so that g is equiva
F
to
(62)
(*?+...+
*2)
 (J +l +
.
.
.
+3
.
propose to show that s = t. There is clearly no loss of generality if we assume that s ^ t and show that if s > t we arrive at a contradiction.
We
Hence, let s > t. Our hypothesis that the form / defined by (61) and the form g defined by (62) are equivalent in the real field implies that there exist real numbers d^ such that if we substitute the linear forms
(63)
Xi
=
dnyi
+
.
.
.
+d
and
in
yn
(i
=
1,
.
.
.
,
n)
,
in
. .
/
.
= f(x
l9
.
.
.
,
x n), we obtain as a result
(y\
+
=
.
.
.
.
+ yj) =
yn
(yj +1
+
+ yj).
Put
Xi
=
x2
=
.
.
.
=
xt
=
y, +1
.
.
=
in (63)
and consider the
(64)
resulting
t
equations
AMI
t
+
.
.
.
+ cky. =
in s
(t
=
1,
.
.
.
,
*)
.
These are
exist real
linear
homogeneous equations
v\,
t
. . . ,
>
t
unknowns, and there
numbers
v9
not
all
zero
and
satisfying these equations.
The remaining n
certain
/(O,
0,
.
numbers
.
.
Uj for j
equations of (63) then determine the values of x, as = t = 1, n, and we have the result h
+
.
.
.
,
,
0,
w l+1
,
.
.
.
,
tO =
t>f
+
.
.
.
+
0J
>
0.
But
clearly
ft
=
(ttf +1
+
.
+ ul) ^
0,
a contradiction.
We have now shown that two quadratic forms with real coefficients and
if
the same rank are equivalent in the field of all complex numbers but that, their indices are distinct, they are inequivalent in the field of all real
numbers. We shall next study in some detail the important special case t = r of our discussion.
64
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A
symmetric matrix
A
and the corresponding quadratic form /
if
=
x'Ax
are called semidefinite of rank r
A
air
is
congruent in
\
<>
F to
a matrix
;
equivalent to a form a(x\
is,
for a 5^
.
. .
in F.
Thus /
is
semidefinite
if r
if it is
+
+ xj). We call A and/ definite
F is
if
=
n, that
A
is
both semidefinite
and nonsingular.
If
the field of
all real
positive or take a
tive
=
1
numbers, we may take a = 1 and call A and / and call A and / negative. Then A and / are nega
and only
if
A
and
/ are
positive.
Thus we may and
shall re
our attention to positive symmetric matrices and positive quadratic forms without loss of generality. If f(xi, x n ) is any real quadratic form, we have seen that there exists a nonsingular transformation (63) with real d^ such that / = y\
strict
. .
.
,
+
+
if
!/f
(y\+i
we put
Xi
ing system
if
in (63), there exist unique solutions y, = dj of the resultof linear equations, and the dj may readily be seen to be all zero
c
= d
++!/?)
are
.
If
Ci,
.
.
.
,
cn
are
any
real
numbers and
and only if the
all zero.
. .
y
t
t
=
0, yi+i
r.
=
t
l,/(ci,
,
cn )
Now if < r, we have/ < < 0. Conversely, if /(ci,
t
.
for y\
. .
=
...
0,
. .
=
,
cn)
<
then
.
<
.
For otherwise / =
If
y\
+
.
.
.
+
. .
j/J,
/(ci,
.
.
.
,
cn)
dr =
0.
.
.
d,
cn )
,
>
is
= 1 and all other have n, then we put y r+ \ c n not all zero such that /(ci, c n ) = 0. Hence, if /(ci, for all real c* not all zero, the form/ is positive definite. Conversely,
r
=
<
= d\ + = and y/ =
+
.
.
,
.
.
,
iff
+
if
cn) d\ y\ 2/ n /(ci, positive definite, we have / for all dj not all zero and hence for all c not all zero. d%
.
. . .
.
=
+
+
,
.
,
,
+
>
We
have proved
x n ) is positive semidefinite for all real Ci, is positive definite if and only . cn ) > , for all real ci not all zero. if f (ci, As a consequence of this result we shall prove
15.
real quadratic form f(xi,
.
. , . . .
Theorem
. .
A
and only
if f (ci,
.
cn )
^
Theorem
16.
is positive semidefinite, every principal
is positive definite.
Every principal submatrix of a positive semidefinite matrix submatrix of a positive definite matrix
For a principal submatrix B of a symmetric matrix A is defined as any im th rows mrowed symmetric submatrix whose rows are in the tith, of A and whose corresponding columns are in the corresponding columns of A. Put XQ = (x^, z m ) so that g = x Q Bx Q is the quadratic form with B as matrix, and we obtain g from / by putting Xj = in / for j 9^ i*. for all values of the x ik and for all z = a, then g ^ Clearly, if / <>
. . .
,
f
.
.
.
,
,
EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS
hence
65
B
is
and B is Xj above
is positive definite positive semidefinite by Theorem 15. If for x ik not all zero, and hence / = for the then g = singular,
A
all
zero
and
for the x ik not all zero, a contradiction.
The converse of Theorem 16 is also true, and we refer the reader to the author's Modern Higher Algebra for its proof. We shall use the result just
obtained to prove
Theorem
Then AA' For we
is
17. Let
A be an by n matrix of rank r and with real elements. a positive semidefinite real symmetric matrix of rank r.
write
m
may
A p A P (I'
(o
<>\o Q
>
o)
00' QQ
where
P
is
and
is
Then QQ'
that Qi
Q are nonsingular matrices of m and n rows, respectively. a positive definite symmetric matrix, and we partition QQ' so an rrowed principal submatrix of QQ'. By Theorem 16 the ma
trix Qi is positive definite,
is
congruent to the positive semidefinite matrix
C
of rank r and hence has
the property of our theorem.
EXERCISE
What
tion 11?
are the ranks
and
indices of the real
symmetric matrices of Ex.
2,
Sec
The entire set V n will then be called the ndimensional linear space . . (3). . where (5) u = ( Ci. Linear spaces over a field. zero. IV LINEAR SPACES 1. Linear subspaces. Then it is clear that L contains all linear combinations au + (6) u = a in F. (4). = 1 u . Cn) may be thought of as a geometric ndimensional space. and (5) of Vn to the reader. + (v + w) aw . 1 Then u of F.CHAPTER The (d. cn ). . + v) = aw + aw for all a. = Q. + amum . v. every u and v of L. the quantities Ci. and we have w + = . for .8 and call u a point or vector. . w of Fn The vector which we designate all by (4) O. and w^ in L. . . . +v=v+u a(w (3) a(bu) = (o6)w (a + V)u = + bu . c n the coordinates of u. . The (2) properties of a field (u F may u be easily seen to imply that + v) +w= . of (5) is the quantity and the second zero is the shall use the properties just noted somewhat later in an abstract definition of the mathematical concept of linear space. w = first . We assume the laws of combination of such sequences of Section 1. u .is that vector of whose coordinates are u. A subset L of V n is called a linear subspace of V n if bv is in L for every a and b of F. 6 in F and all vectors w. Vn . . of Vn We suppose also that the quantities Ci are in a fixed field F and call c the ith coordinate of u. over F. . of all sequences (1) U = . aiUi + . set . and we leave (2). u+(u) u = u . Note that the zero vector. We the verification of the properties 2.
and may be lows called the zero space and designated by L = {0}. . then ei. . + . .!!*}. Observe. ... am um = biui . this LetL .LINEAR SPACES 67 (6) of We observe that the set of all linear combinations ber of given vectors. . + u mF . when we call L a linear space over F that L is a linear subspace over F of some V n over F. + . . In what . that the definition of linear indeIt is evident that . . F andui. subspace of . Hence the zero vector of {MI. we shall restrict } 3. shall write is L a linear subspace L of Vn according we shall say that u\. . if ui. . But we may actually show a finite number of vectors of Vn has a that every subspace basis in the above sense. + . Linear independence. . For this property clearly implies linear 0. . um is span the space (7) L and so defined. . um are a set of linearly independent vectors (of Vn over F). . Vn = e\F + L spanned by + . . . (6) in at least this one way. . = a 2 = . . . Um are now seen to be linearly independent in . . u m a basis over F of L and indicate (8) L = UiF + . in the form We . . We now make the . . + (am b m )um a< &< {ui. aiUi + . If Ui. of L = . um be linearly inde pendent in F. . u m in } the form (6) is unique. DEFINITION. . . . & as desired. independence as the spe cial case u = u .. Then we shall by writing call Ui. u m are linearly independent in F or that ui. . Llm. . if e. u^. . . if and only if true that a linear combination ami (J^um = = 0. Ui. we if shall say that A set of vectors Ui. fol our attention to the nonzero subspaces L of Vn and. . to this definition. . . there is no other such expres sion of is ai um are linearly independent if it Thus. . . we shall indicate. and only if the they are linearly dependent in F.bi)ui + . shall say that . for the time being. If Oum.. . = . Um . . L = L is expressible . F expression of every u . + Conversely. . ui. . Our definition of a linear space L which is a V n implies that every subspace L contains the zero vector. . m . . eJF. {ui. .. . . . If now any finite num. . am Um are not linearly independent in F. um over . a = } . then = Oui . . if . . e n span Vn The space spanned by the zero vector consists of the zero vector alone .is the vector whose jth coordinate is unity and whose other coordinates are zero. first. . = .. . . in the form (6).. + ui. . + 0. It is clear that. um are linearly independent and + 6mum then = (ai . .
. = = = (3. 5. has a basis consisting of certain r of these vectors. . 3. 3) m 7/3 (1. Hint: Li = . 1. 0. 2. 2) (4. Then either u\ + arur + a Qu = for a* not all zero. 3) . 2. Determine which of the following is sets of three vectors form a basis of the subspace they span. 2) . 1) . Some linear combina. say ui. tion of these two quantities has the form (0. 1. w2 . = Fs.0. 1. 1) 1. . 2. 3) . 4) > /) (1. a contradiction. d) and L contains e 3 = (0. 3. u. Theorem Then L 1. u. ) 2. c*). 1). 2. 0. 3. 3. u* = = = (1. 0) and e\ = (1. . . (2. u^ HZ are linearly dependent we write uz = xu\ + yui and solve for x and y. (0. 3) . 1. . u2 = t*2 (2. 0. say and Ui are linearly independent. 63. 1 < r < m. 4) 3. 8) (0. 1. . 5. 1. 1. u.. .  linear combinations with coefficients in F of these r. . . only if a = Then let ui. 1. . 1. .68 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES and thus that u 5^ 0. then aiUi + a>iUi + = ar = 0. 9) 0) c) (1. Show and is L that the space L = {MI. (2. . 2) = . 1) . Determine whether or not the spaces spanned by the following spanned by the corresponding vi. a) MI 6) * = = = = = = (1. um . 3. 1. 5. m . (1. Let L be spanned by distinct nonzero vectors Ui. easy to show then that L contains e 2 = (0. 3. 2. 6) Ul tii (3. . u 3 contains u* XsUi = (0. ^3} spanned by the following sets of vectors Hint: In every case one of the vectors. Mm are any m distinct nonzero vectors. 23)  . 1) . 0). w2 u. 1. 6) . (1. x 2 ui = (0. . . . 0) = (5. 1. 3. 6 2 c 2 ). . But then + OrUr = 0. u3 = u. 1) (1. 1. . 2) . Ut coincide with those v2 . . . sets of vectors If wi. u. u* 11. is 7s. 3. We state this result as . . . ur be linearly independent vectors of Vn and u ^ be urj u are linearly independent in F or another vector. Hint: It u\ easy to see whether some two of the vectors. L a) ui 6) c) It = (1. u = ( a Oi)ui + + ( a^ an )ur is in [u^ if ui. . . 3) 2. If a . has first coordinate not zero. 1. u3 = (1. 2) mI* (0. To see if ui. u2 = (1. = (1. 6) . = = (2. 1. . 1) . It follows that. . from which a\ = l l u r }. (1. (7. . . we may choose some largest number r of vectors in this set which are linearly independent in F and we will then have the property that all remaining vectors in the set are pendence in case 1 is m= that au = . } . 1. EXERCISES 1. d) u. . u = 3 (0. 1. 1) ui tii (1. 1. . 2.
2).1) (0. 4. 1. . 10. 13. . 1. tn=(7. (2. 1. 6. 1. . Thus every m by n matrix defines a linear subspace of V nj every subspace of V n spanned by m vectors defines a corresponding m by n matrix. . = = = = (1. . 4). 4. = (6. 9) d) i(l. 1). v.2. .2.2). = 3. + fcth row and jth colcombination of the rows + . 11. (2. 4.LINEAR SPACES Lu 69 a? 2 . . 1) i(l. Let us consider a set of (9) m vectors. = 1. 1) t> 2 . m=(3. The row and column spaces of a matrix* We shall obtain the principal theorems on the elementary properties of linear spaces by connecting this theory with certain properties of matrices which we have already derived. .0. 1. . 1) t*=(l. 4.3).1). = . rn) . 1. u. . in 2) . #2X3 ^ 0.1.0. 0. 1. 1. 2. u2 (1. x3 ou of the equations . what we shall call the The jth coordinate (10) is pkiQit of the vector Wk = PklUl + PA . a in ) (i = 1. Hence Wi row of A whose coefficients form the kth row of P. . 1. 3) (3. 11.2. 2. .1. 8. 3. /) Wl = (1. in=(l. 2. ] row space of A. u. 2. . + pkmOmh the that is. 1) c) in = (1. = (2. the element in the is that linear umn of of PA. 6. 0.1). n= (2. a) = ^3^1 + #4^2 such that the determinant x\x u. 1. = (3. . 6. (2. It follows that the row space of PA is contained in that of A. 9) *= . 0. . 3) U! (1. ti. 0. 6) (4. 2. + #2^2. Then we may regard w as being the tth row of the correspondum as being m by n matrix A = (a</) and the space L = [u\ y . If P is nonsingu . 4. there must exist solutions xi. 0.4). Ui = (aa. If P = (pki) is any q by m matrix.2). 1. 6) in =(1.3. 8) *= (1. 0) 4. . of ing V n over F. We have now shown that every row of PA is in the row space of A. Vl 1.0). 6) = (7. . = {tfi. the product PA is a q by n matrix. 2. t>2 02} . . . 2. e) 2. .
. v r Our definition of G For we may designate the rows of G by v\. . . now. implies that there is no loss of generality if we permute its rows in any de Theorem . . Let P be an mrowed nonsingular matrix. + + = for bi in F not all zero. of G and A coincide. and by Lemma 2 there is . k = 1. Assume. zero rows. Then PG is rrowed and of rank r. AQ = (H 0) . they are a basis of the row space of A.70 lar. .x) clearly 61. . . . . Define B = (bki) and obtain Wk as the fcth row of the r + 1 by n matrix BG. 7. + l)st row of D(BG) is the zero vector. . if b\v\ may assume for convenience that 61 9* 0. b rv r sired fashion. Let Abeanmbyn matrix of rank r. In the proof of Theorem 3. r + 1. so + bkrvr for k = 1. By Lemma 1 we have LEMMA The row spaces 2. Then there exist nonsingular matrices P and Q of m and n rows. of G span the row space of PA. Thus. we The determinant of the rrowed square matrix (12) P = (%) . Then the row spates PA and A coincide. . But this is impossible since biv\ + is the first row of PG. Any r + 1 vectors of the row space of A are linearly dependent in F. . = (fc. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES then the result just derived implies that the row space of A = P~ l (PA) is contained in the row space of PA and therefore that these two linear spaces are the same.) . . We use (11) and note that the rows of G differ from those of PA only in Then the rows 3. respectively. they span the row space of G and of A. and hence P is nonsingular. . exists a nonsingular (r r + 1. . . G is an r by n matrix. . P = 2 (0.6 the rank of BG is at most r. By Theorem 3.4.6 the elementary transformation theorem as the useful we used the matrix product equivalent of Theorem 2. P. We shall use this result in the proof of The r rows of G form a basis of the row space of A. . where G and H have rank r. such that (11) PA = (\ . . . and we shall now state this LEMMA 2. H is an m by r matrix. . . such that the + l)rowed matrix D = (d for g. that Wk = bkiVi + = v\F + that Wk are any r + 1 vectors of the row space L + vr F of A. . + b rv r Hence the rows of G are linearly independent in F. . . . &. . But then (r g k) . Thus we have LEMMA of 1.
For Vn = + . . We now apply Theorem 1 to obtain Theorem 3. . row of DG = 0. After a permutation of the rows of A. It follows that s is the rank of G. Every linear subspace L over F of V n over F has a basis. and k = r + 1. u are linearly dependent in F for every M of L. . . . . It follows that there . We may now obtain the principal result on linear subspaces of F. . of the nonsinguwr+i are linearly dependent in F. u }. . .F. not zero. Thus any linear subspace L over F of n contains at most n linearly independent vectors. The matrix G of Lemma 2 may be taken to be a submatrix of A. . order of L over F. The integer r of Theorem 1 is in fact the rank of the by n matrix whose ith row is Ui. dr iUi . But if also L = ViF + + v. then Theorem 2 implies that s < r and similarly that r < s. pendent. necessary. 2 to obtain a nonsingular rrowed matrix s < r. m. + urF. This completes our proof. . = row . e n F. . . r . iWi 71 + . . . matrix P given by (B is Dif nonsingular. exists a . and that w. . we may assume that ui. + drr u r u r are linearly indecontrary to our hypothesis that w 1. . . . L = UiF + By the proof of Theorem 1 the vector u is in \Ui. . if u r are a basis of the row space of A. the rank of A be s. . u\. . . Then u k = b k \ui + + b kr u r for b ki in F. . . Any two bases of L have the same number r < n of vectorsj and we shall call r the . For let A be an m by n matrix whose ith row is Ui and let r be the integer m of Theorem 1. + + Vn V maximum number r < n of linearly independent vectors HI. and by Theorem 2 any n 1 vectors of eiF are linearly dependent in F. . and it is clear that (14) G = Ur then PA = is we apply Lemma that the rth given by (11). 0. . r+iWr+i r lar matrix D and cannot all the dr +i tk form a be zero. the rth row of D is . Theorem 4.LINEAR SPACES dr+i. + . ur in L. The . . . r . the vectors 101. r = s is unique. . + d +i. r D= (d gk ) such . If s < . . . . This proves Theorem 2.
their transposes. u^.\ A. v\. the row of is its row rank. of the corresponding matrices A are equal to the order of the subspace Li.72 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES are uniquely determined In closing this section we note that the rows of the transpose A* of A by the columns of A and are. the basis to consist actually of rows of the corresponding matrix. 1 and 2 of Section 3 by the use of elementary transformations to compute the rank of the matrices whose rows are the given vectors. indeed. Show thus that LI = [HI. By Theorem 3 the rank A and A have the same rank and we have proved The row and column ranks of a matrix are equal to its rank. . It is call the order of the row and column spaces and column ranks of A. Section Form the fourrowed matrices whose rows are the 3. EXERCISES 1. vectors v2 ] if u\. Show that then there exists a nonsingular matrix P such PA Give also a simple form of Ai. v 2 if of Ex. i^} = L2 = {vi. 3. Hint: Mi VO A. Find a basis of the row space of each of the following matrices. respectively. Thus we shall call the row space of A' the column space of A. and only the ranks is. 3. 2. Also A f Theorem 5. Solve Ex. 12 24 10 20 1 2301 2 1 1 1 231 47 21 11 1 231 0412 2122 3 3 1001 011 c) 2301 1 5100 1234 be a rectangular matrix of the form 121 35102 11 366 47036 4 1 7 15 16 4. that the rank of the matrices formed from the first two rows of each A. for P. Let A Mi Ui where A\ that is nonsingular. a linear subspace of Vm We of A.) that the rows of A* are in the row space Show .
Let G and (?' be two systems and define a singlevalued function to G'. How/ is a function on G to G or that / is a correspondence on G to G'. Then we call (15) a onetoone correspondence on G to G'. that. and we may thus call (15) a onetoone correspondand G' and indicate this by writing f g+ if ><?'. 73 Let the matrix of Ex. in general. distinct. We define this concept in terms of that of function. the matrix ^5 = 0. It is clear that (15) then (15) is r Suppose now that f defines a second onetoone correspondence (16) M= is 0'<7. Note. also that. This concept may be seen to be sufficiently general as to permit its extension in many directions. the functions (15) Thus we may let G be the field of all real . In discussing the properties of mathematiand linear spaces over cal systems such as fields F it becomes desirable quite frequently to identify in some fashion those systems behaving exactly the same with respect to the given set of definitive properties under conshall call such systems equivalent and shall now proceed to sideration. In elementary algebra and analysis the sys tems G and G' are usually taken to be the field of all real or all complex numbers and (15) is then given by a formula y = /Or). 4 be either symmetric or skew. however.LINEAR SPACES 5. which now on G ence between (17) G to G. The concept of equivalence. / on G In elementary mathematics it is customary to call G the range of the independent variable and G f ever. a correspondence such that every element g of G is the corresponding element f(g) of one and only one g of G. But the basic idea there is that given above of a correspondence (15) on G to (?'. Show that the choice of P then implies that Show 6. G and G' are the and (16) are. if the order of A\ is the rank of A. it is f more convenient in general situations to say that the range of the dependent variable. Then / is given by (15) g>g'=f(g) (read g corresponds to g'} such that every element g of G determines a unique corresponding element g' of (?'. same system.
if G' is equivalent to G". (gh)' = g'h' for every g and h of F. then G is equivalent to G". that of equivalence. then we shall say that lent over F. proceed to use the concept just given in constructing the fundamental definition of this section. (au) = au for every u and v of and a of F. The reader should observe that under our definition every mathematical system G is equivalent to itself and that if G is equivalent to a system G'. A. closed with respect to certain operations. Then we shall call V a general linear space over F.) We then call G and G' equivalent if there exists a onetoone correspondence between them which is preserved under the operations of their definition. EXERCISES 1. Let us then pass to the second case which we require for our further discussion of . have thus introduced two instances of V V and V what is o are equiva We a very im portant concept in all algebra. we might have g + h in G for every g and h in G and also g' + h' in G' for every g' and h' in G'. . Verify the statement that the field of all rational functions with rational coeffifield of all cients of the complex number V2 is equivalent to the matrices 'CD for rational * a and 6 under the correspondence A < > a + We of u' for the arbitrary vector of use the notation Vo instead of to avoid confusion in the consequent usage as well as for the transpose of u. We now see that we have defined two fields F and F' to be equivalent if there exists a onetoone correspondence (15) between them such that (g + h)' = g' + h'. Let F be a fixed field and V and au are unique elements of consist of a set of elements such that u +v V for every u and If v of is V and a of F. for example. V V . Finally. These systems consist of sets of elements #.74 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES numbers and (15) be the function x 2x. so that (16) is the function x \x. . and there is a onetoone correspondence u < that (u 7 a second* such space UQ between V and V such + 0)0 =u <> + ^o . (Thus. if G and G' are distinct it is not particularly important whether we use (15) or (16) to define our correspondence. Of course. G' of the same kind such as two fields or two linear spaces over a fixed field F. Let us consider two mathematical systems (?. We linear spaces. then G' is equivalent to G.
of V and a. define au it a of F. Verify the statement that the mathematical system consisting of all tworowed square matrices with elements in F and defined with respect to addition and multiplication is equivalent to the set of all matrices fa n ai 2 an a* 021 a a. Then . + Cn t>n . b in F. v of V and be shown very easily that. . = ua and u v to be in V for every u. . then V is equivalent over F to V n However. 6. every quantity of V is uniquely expressible in the form (18) Citfi + . . Thus we justify the use of the proving that term linear subspace L of order r over F by L is indeed what we have called a linear space of order r over F . then the properties (2). . and (5) hold may and every u of V is uniquely expressible in the form (18) for d in F. our definition implies that every two linear spaces of the F V F V same order n over F are equivalent over F. + . and (5) hold for every u. if (2). We shall restrict all further study of to be a linear spaces to linear spaces of order n over F.LINEAR SPACES 2. Clearly. Moreover. . F forms Verify the statement that the set of a field equivalent to F. w. + Cn V n + (ft. if V is a linear space of order n over F. Every linear subspace L of order r over F of Vn is equivalent F to V r. (4). Our definition also implies that. (4). Linear spaces of finite order. proof of Theorem over 6. field of 75 is Verify the statement that the field of complex numbers matrices equivalent to the b\ (a \b for real 3. . O22 under the correspondence indicated by the notation. . (3). . Then we define is equivalent over to linear space of order n over a given field F if n over F. we prefer instead to define V by its equivalence to Vn This preference then requires the (somewhat trivial) Conversely. v. Cn) . where the equivalence between (19) CiVi V and V n is < > given by . a) a and 6. all scalar matrices with elements in a field 4. (3).
. n.76 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Vn r . Theorem 3 should now be interpreted for arbitrary and we have a result which we state as Theorem 7. The set of all nrowed diagonal matrices. v m form a basis of L over F if and only if Vi. . All polynomials in independent variables x (in x and y together). + CrU r for d in F.<v) r V and V and it is trivial to verify L and V We have now seen that every linear space L of order n over F may be regarded as a linear subspace of a space M of order m over F for any m > n. . and y and degree at most two 2 c) t* + t and y = J 8 + and degree at most two numbers. The set of all m by n matrices with elements in F. Then the number of the vk which are linearly independent in F is the rank of the matrix A. . + u F is uniquely expressible in the form U = CiUi (20) + . finite Verify the statement that the following sets of matrices are linear spaces of order over F and find a basis for each. a onetoone correspondence between it that defines an equivalence of r. in x and y. . . . m EXERCISES 1. L = M if and only if m = n. It follows that (21) is w>(ci. = n and A is nonsingular. .in Vi F for which = anUi + . a) All polynomials in 6) Find bases for the following linear spaces of polynomials with x of degree at most three. . . F the field of all . with d) All polynomials in e) F the field of all rational All polynomials in a primitive cube root of unity with rational numbers. linear spaces of order . . The set of all mbyn matrices whose elements not in the The set of all nrowed scalar matrices. . Moreover.. . _ ^2. . Thus u in L uniquely determines the d in F and conversely. All polynomials in x = coefficients in F.. Moreover. Let L = UiF + + unF and Vi.. . . +a in un . a) b) c) d) 2. contained in the space of For proof we merely observe that every vector L = uiF + . . and the coefficient matrix A= (aij) is defined.. vm be in L so that there exist quantities a. first row are zero.
L = wiF + + w F. . we may ask . . Show that. . and Lo has order m + If LI and Lo are linear subspaces of L and if L contains LI. B.LINEAR SPACES the field of all rational 1) with /) All polynomials in w = u(i and i* = v? = 2. w F. . For only if it is clear that aiVi . in both LI and L 2 is that LI and (23) L 2 are complementary subspaces Lo of their . 5. Li and (22) If the L 2 and will be designated generally by Lo= only vector which is {Li. . . . 1. . 1 (0 \0 2 01. 1. . are a basis. AB. w q ) are linear subspaces over F of a space L of order n over F. A. are not all zero and therefore that the vectors and Wj spanning L if not form a basis of L . A 2 . . . the subspace Lo = {wi. if /O 0\ A = then 7. A. . A* form a basis of the set of 4. q q if . necessarily t> <? do form a basis of Lo. then the v> and w. Show if that 7. . 2}. {wi. B AB A J5 2 form . + vmF. i. q . v . . are linearly dependent in F and do = 0. vm } and L 2 = Addition of linear subspaces. of the orders of LI 2 and L 2 and in fact . . I/ 2 2 A. Show that 7. . 7. q and L 2 Thus v ^ t\ implies that the a* and 6. the zero vector. . . . we shall say sum and write  L! + L. a basis of the set of all threerowed square matrices. . . . = viF + vm F + WiF + + . w. . + and +bw = + OmVm + Jwi + a\v\ + = (bi)wi + + (bq)w is in both LI + am vm q . . Hint: Prove that 1. If LI = (vi. A 2 . w q ] of L will be called the sum of vm w\. threerowed diagonal matrices. . AB form a basis of the set of all tworowed square mat rices 5.Li} . . . . In this case the order of L LI is the sum . Conversely. . Let A = diag {1. all 3. we shall show that. . then Lo = v^ = + + . . 77 numbers + F m g) The polynomials of (/) but with F the field of all real numbers. . . if .
2) * 3) 2. 2. Ex. Use the method above to find a basis of the corresponding V n consisting of a basis of m Li and of a complementary space 2. . 1. let us give.(l. instead. %= i* (2. a proof using matrix L = uiF + + i. and there exists a nonsingular matrix Q such that the columns of GQ (ft are a permutation of those of ft) . GQ = where ft is nonsingular. theory. 2. . 1. 0.0). Let the following vectors U{ span Li. 1) . .1).4. 1. . . it is clear that the rows of are certain of the vectors e which we defined in Section 2.2. However.1. 2. 0. . L 2} to Li and f to La. 1. . Then there exists a linear subspace L2 of L such that LI and L2 are complementary subspaces of L. 4. . .1. 1. vm of LI.% in . u n in rem 1. . Let LI be the row space of each of the by n matrices of Section 4. 1.(!. fin (4. . 3. 1) 1) . .2. 6.1. H EXERCISES 1. (?. . 1) 4. Let LI of order over F be a linear subspace of L of order n m over F. Find a complement in { Li. . . *s = (0. 0. Moreover. But then A = is nonsingular. 1. 2. 2) .0). vectors We put L = Vn vi. (4. *= \ %= . u3 . L 2. (5. u. the rows of A span V n and the rows of H span the space L 2 which we have been seeking. 2) . 1) (2. (1. The result above may be proved by the method we used to prove Theovm u\.(!. 3. c) . 3. let G be the mbyn matrix whose rows are the basal .. where we apply this method to the set un F. . Then G has rank m.* = = /. . whether a linear subspace L 2 of L exists such that L = LI + L 2 The existence of such a space is clearly a corollary of Theorem 8. 2. 3. 2. 0. 1. . (4. v span Li.0) 3.= (1. 1) (1. 3) (3. Then the matrix ft is nonsingular.0). (2. = = (1. . 1. . .0.78 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . 1) (!. and A = AoQ"" 1 is obtained by permuting the columns of A$.
r + . where (29) ui. F is a linear space (24) L = n over F./) of coefficients of (26). . m) . . dn ) = bklCi + . . . + b krfr (k = r + 1. . d n in F such that/i(di. . . m) . . . consistent. fr are linearly independent in F. . (25) fi = fi(xi. . +a in xn = c (i = 1. . . We may assume without loss of generality that the equations (26) have been labeled so that /i. Then. . . (27) /* = 6*1/1 + . If the system (26) . . xiF + . . . . + x nF of order The left members . and (k uk = is bkiUi + . . and . . . di. Then (28) A = (i = 1. . . there exist quantities Ci. . . . . . . . . 1. of if linear equations in r is the rank of the m n unknowns. . . xn) = d + . . . dn) = = Then . we see by Theorem 7 that F and the remaining m certain r of the forms / are linearly independent in r forms are linear combinations of these r. . . + (fc  r + 1. u r are linearly independent in F. . The set of all linear forms in x\. 79 Systems with coefficients in of linear equations. . . . . . .LINEAR SPACES 8. w) . + a in x n of a system (26) a t iXi + . . m) . m) for b k j in F. . . m by n matrix are such forms and are in L. . + b kr Ur = . A = (a. (27) implies that (30) Ck fk(di. . .
.80 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A* of the system (26) to be the Define the augmented matrix matrix u* m by n (31) A* u (OH. . + . the has a nonzero (r l)rowed minor./ where the (m (ftjfcici + . But. . if any c* 5^ 0. (b k iU* + These replace the submatrix A of A * by . . c (i = 1. if A* does have the same rank as A. . Moreover. matrix A* of rank r. . . (S)A* by o UT and replace (34) (G \0 Cl \ 1 C. clearly. we have already shown that. +b kr u* r (k = r + 1. + + We now see that the system (26) is consistent if and only if A* has the same rank r as A. . . r)rowed and onecolumned matrix C 2 has c/bo = c* bkrCr) as its elements. . . if A * has the same rank r as A t . m. so that the rank of A* is most But A* has A as a submatrix. . . ur u* are clearly linearly independent. . . be linearly independent. . (33) m. m) . Conversely. and we choose wi. . A* . ain . . m) . and (32) see that (29) and (30) imply that 6*11* ul = at + r. . . then u* We then have (29) and may apply elementary row transformations of type 1 to A* which add b kr u*) to ul for k r + 1. has to rank r. . then m r of the equations (26) may be regarded as . This is impossible if A* is . . . .
diag {H. = xQ' = ( yi .   . if we choose the notation of the x so that G = (Gi. Then G= (I F 0)Q for a nonsingular nrowed matrix Q. 62) with Gi an rrowed nonsingular matrix.. . . . (35) (7 r 0)Q 2 = (H 0). Then singular and is nrowed and nonso is H H is nonsingular. . 2/n arbitrary. then (38) Q r where FI and X\ have columns. Thus we have Q = The system (37) may now 0)t/' be written as y (I T = t/. . . . Before solving (35) we prove be LEMMA 4. (36) Let G an r by n matrix of rank r. Obis . . . yn). . . It thus remains to show that any system of r equations in xi. = (X G(+Xt G' 1 i so that . We may write x = (xi. (36) for Q2 = Q 2 Qi. r. . For Lemma 2 states that G = (H 0)Qi. . .. . r) and 2/ r +i. But then y = xQ' a nonsingular linear transformation and the t/ are x n Evidently. . . . the solution of (35) is then given by z = y(Q')~ l for yi = Ci(i = 1. From xQ' this we obtain Q' = (! ^J. . . where Qi is an r by r matrix of rank r. . serve that. .LINEAR SPACES 81 linear combinations of the remaining r equations and are satisfied by the solutions of these equations. solution yi = c for i = 1. . x n ) and see that such a system may be regarded as a matrix equation (35) Gx' = t/ . . 7 n _ r }. (37) has the linearly independent linear forms in Xi. v = (ci. x n with matrix of rank r has solutions. . cr ) ..
A and A. Let us interchange the roles of m and n. and hence u\F L= + . . u is a vector of Vm over F v is a vector of V n over F. be linear spaces of respective orders and n over Let L and consider a correspondence on L to M. where (41) A is an m by n matrix and u = (pi. . . ym) . . (3.' in this equaThen we see that a linear mapping may be expressed as a matrix Linear mappings and linear transformations. . . . . . X. and (40) may be regarded as a correspondence u > uA defined by A whereby every u of Vm determines a unique vector uA of F n We now proceed to formulate . m) . + M M . x r as linear functions of Xr+i. Clearly. refer the reader to the First Course in 9. . . xn . . + ain vn (i = 1. as well. a and 6 of F. .1) of x' = tion. . u and U Q of L. . The system of equations a linear mapping was expressed in (3.(Y . . . to u upper S) wherein every vector u of Suppose also that L determines a unique (au + 6tto) 5 = au8 + bu for every of the space linear.32) as a matrix equation y'A'. . .( But then we have solved the for xi. Then we shall call S a linear mapping L on the space and describe (42) as the property that S is M Suppose now that so that we are given not only the spaces Then a (43) linear = viF + um F and L and but fixed bases mapping S uniquely determines u$ in M. . . v n F. Designate the correspondence more M m F and by the symbol S: (read in (42) 5. . . equation (40) v = uA. this concept abstractly.82 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES (35) is given and our solution of (39) by l X l . For exercises on linear equations we Theory of Equations. + uf = anVi + . . v = (xi. so that S is the function u*us u goes us M . . . . xw) .
. if A is an m by n matrix and we define uf by (43) for the given elements an of A. This is true since every u of L is uniquely expressible in the form (44) u = in yiUi + . for 2/< F and (42) implies that (45) us It follows that to every linear and M mapping S of L on M and 0wen bases of L We there corresponds a unique by n matrix A and conversely. by (47) 4 0) = ii yi . then the property that S is linear uniquely determines the mapping S.LINEAR SPACES for 7 83 an in F. Thus S determines also an m by n matrix A = (a ). . = u s in = we assume temporarily that L = Vm and (40) and (41).1) on the space Vn . Define new bases of L and M . conversely. may A. + ymum . But. . shall call A the matrix of S with respect to the given bases of L and M. Thus every linear mapping which is a change of be regarded as a linear mapping of the space Vm Let us next observe the effect on the matrix defined by a linear mapping of a change of bases of the linear spaces. respectively.us = uA for the given matrix variable as in (3. w We now observe that where  1 But v then. we see that S is the linear mapping if M Vn and put (46) u .
.Hence the matrix B S with respect to our new bases is given by i = (bki) of the linear mapping (50) B = PAQr P 1 . . . . the only possible meaning of the Ui and v. We have defined thereby a onetoone correspondence between the set of all nrowed square matrices with elements in F and the set of all linear transformations on L of order n over F. Then we define the matrix A of a linear transformation $ on L with respect to a fixed basis ui. we have (49) where b k = Spkidarji. as we saw in (3.33). . Then P = (pki) and Q = (qu) are we may also write the second set of equations of (47) in the form (48) v. . 1 ) singular linear transformation defines a onetoone correspondence of L and itself. m and I = 1. . nonsingular and. .. .84 for k SB 1. . u n of L of order n over F and of a second basis v n of L. . . Since we may then solve for u Clearly. . apply the linearity of S to (47) and obtain wW Substituting (43) and (48). we should and do call S a nonsingular linear transformation if A is = u8A~ we see that a nonnonsingular. Let us restrict our attention to the case where v = u^ v\. . . respectively. . we see that changes of basis in L and replace A by an equivalent matrix. . . . . n. . If L = F n such a Since M M M . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . u n of L to be the matrix A determined by (43) with Ui = Vi. Since we are now considering only a single space. Thus any two equivalent m by n matrices define the same mapping of L on If L and are the same space we shall henceforth call a linear mapping S of L on L a linear transformation of L. .in (43) can be that of a fixed basis u\. correspondence is given by u us = uA . and Q" 1 are arbitrary nonsingular matrices of m and n rows. = 11 where JB = (r/j) = Q" We 1 .
Define of all vectors (points) tions. PAP~ We shall call two matrices A and B similar if (51) holds and shall obtain necessary for a nonsingular matrix and be similar in our next chapter. 1. S. Apply both S and to the vectors of Ex. Hence a change of basis* of L with matrix P replaces the matrix A of a linear trans B = PAPnow clear that in order to 1 . 4). 0. 1. x$) Find the equation of the curves C s into which each S carries each C. x%. . I 1 F4 defined for the following mat 3. /S for the matrices of Ex. tions that P and sufficient condi A B EXERCISES 1. . L defines a linear transformation of of basis as being induced we put Thus we may regard a change L when by a nonsingu lar linear transformation. Show A /4 a) 3 5\ A = V 3 5 20 6) A = 2 117 3. rices S" 1 that the linear transformations (46) of V* defined for the following matare nonsingular and find their inverse transformations. 2 u = d) 3x1 6)  2x1 + 2zi + 40:1X2 10xix 8 4x? + Hxl = 6x^2 (47) of  18x2X3 + 1 * Observe that a change of bases uf wj 0> . (0. rices Let S be the linear mapping (46) of 73 on A. We use (47) but note that ut formation by (51) It is = v+ and i4 = *40) so that we have P = Q. Find the vectors of 7 4 into which (2. (1. 0).LINEAR SPACES 85 We now observe the effect on 0) A of a change of basis of L. 0) of F3 are mapped by 3 3 2 1 1\ a) A = I 261 1 5\ 21 b) A = I /2 1 3 4 2 0\ 2 4) \l I/ \ 3/ 0\ c) A = /2 \1 2 1 32 1 I/ d) A = /2 I 010 1 1 01 I/ \l 2. and let C be one or the other of the curves whose coordinates satisfy the following equa(x\. formation on pass to study those properties of a linear transnot depend on the basis of L over F we need only study those properties of square matrices A which are unchanged when we L which do l .
(ft. We call matrices A clearly. Let I be the identity matrix. that (/ A be a skew matrix such that / + A is nonsinguis + A)""^/ A) orthogonal. from which f(u) = 2. But then PP = 1 7. EXERCISES 1. Let then Vn be the ndimenc n ) over a field F. lar. cn) of the quadratic (52) form /fe. those We is an orthogonal matrix. /(w) = 2c?. Write B = AA' . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Orthogonal linear transformations. then BB' and (PAP')(PA'P') A . 3.+4. = us (us )' = uAAV. * . . B is also orthogonal...^^ + . f(u) = uu'. so that if S is a linear transformation with orthogonal matrix and we replace A by PAP"" 1 = B. Then take c p c q = 1. The final topic of our study of linear spaces will be a brief introduction to those linear transformations permitted in what is called Euclidean geometry.c/. B = / is the identity matrix. us = uA for an nrowed define S matrix A. define . . P'P = /.. Put c p = 1. We may by square Then.. f(u s s ) pfl satisfying (53) AA' = I is orthogonal matrices and have shown that S orthogonal if and only if its matrix A uniquely only in terms of a fixed Euclidean geometry the only changes of basis allowed are those obtained by an orthogonal linear transformation.PAA'P' = I . . that is. P' = P 1 . We . have seen that S determines basis of Fn Now in ..) = 2Ci6i. Show that every orthogonal tworowed matrix / A has the form a =1 V (b . . What Show are the possible values of the determinant of an orthogonal matrix? 2. for which the matrix P of (51) is orthogonal.86 10.. the norm of u (square of the length of u) to be the value f(u) = /(ci. all = /(w) only if other c/ = 0. f(us ) = 2 + 26 b pq = for a p 5^ g. c/ = for j ^ p and and see that/(w ) have f(u) = /(w5 ) only if 6 = 1 for every i. S on V n which are said We propose to study those linear transformations to be length preserving and define this concept as the property that f(u) 8 f(u ) for every u of n Such transformations S will be called orthogonal. sional linear space of vectors u = (ci. . = V .
1 t an are 1. We shall call two vectors u and v of V n orthog= 0. Find a real orthogonal matrix P for each of the following symmetric matrices 1 A such that PAP' is a diagonal matrix. + .022 AA' 4. We now Theorem 9. Then. 6 = 2 Z(s + J 2 2 )*/ .LINEAR SPACES where a 87 = 2 s(s + t* * 2 J 2 )~ 1/2 . Now an. while. For. + Then 0(L) in is a linear subspace of if Vn which we shall call the space orthogonal in Vn to L. if A is is. tr 8 wA .' =u f = 0. i = XQ y . TVien the order G= (I m row space of H For proof we space of the m by n matrix G of ran/c m so 0)Q for a nonsingular nrowed matrix Q. The equations h are x = is z cos h for rotation of axes in a real Euclidean plane through an angle sin h. Hint: The result s is trivial if a 2 + #12= 1 so + 6 = (s + 2 that 2 = J 2 range over all quantities in F A is a diagonal matrix. y z sin ft t/ 3/0 cos h. we ^i + ^2 is in 0(L). Hint: put du = Compute l PAP = D = j\ (d*. fawj 0(L) and a and 6 are in F. . 7. we have 11. )(s + )" = The values 021 = form above. Show that the corresponding = + orthogonal and that every real orthogonal tworowed matrix matrix of a rotation or its product by the matrix matrix is either the Evo of a reflection x 5. Wi and have 0(01^ prove + bw 2 )' = atwj + w 2 are = 0. = yQ . in a geometric sense. first note that the elements of GH' are the products t^toj . conversely. . 1N i \ a) OJ 6) M /3 4> \ (4 3J C> x A (l \ l) /3 (2 Orthogonal spaces.) and 0. of 0(L) is n In fact we shall prove Theorem 10. Then O(L) is the = (0 InmXQ')" 1 o/ rank n m. Thus orthogonal transformations on V n preserve orthogonality of vectors of V n If L = viF v m F is a linear subspace of F. and of the t such that 0?i s* + 2 7* 0. 0(L) and only if uv' = . = + a are derived from 6. clearly. we define the set to be the set of all vectors w in Vn such that tw' = for every v of L. Let L be the row that subspace of order m of Vn . wW = uAA't. Let L be a linear m. onal (that us = wA if . perpendicular) if uv' any orthogonal matrix and we define a linear transformation S of Vn by us = uA.
< . 1. = = = (1. v f . . Hence 0(L) is contained in L and 0(L) = L. 3) . we may prove Theorem 11. .88 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Vi of the rows (I m 0)[(0 . 0. Find a basis of the space 0(L) in the corresponding a) Vn . d = 0. 2. This proves that q = n ra. 2. n. D has at most n n m. . since if F is the field of all complex numbers and + = (1. is g since Q is nonsingular. 0) d) (1. 0. and. in = (0.2. of the homogeneous linear system Gx = 1 0. i 2 L = = 1. u. = 1. 7 EXERCISE Let L be the space over the field of all real numbers spanned by the following vectors u*. and it is natural to ask whether or not they are complementary in V n that is. 2. 1. . i). 1. 0) ui in 1. then vv = 1 + i2 = 0.0). . (0. The sum of the orders of L and 0(L) is . and D must have rank Di = 0. u3 . and we must have g > n . 0. clearly.17 the matrix GG' has rank m and is nonsingular. (1. For by Theorem 9 it suffices to prove that the only vector w in L and 0(L) is the zero vector. then GH' = 0. f f . only if d = 0. 1) (2. q Note that the row space of H is the set of all solutions x xn) (xi. . But GH = f /nm)]. 2. 1) 6) Ul c) = (1. w = vF. 1) ^ fl. 4. 1. 1) (1. 0) . whether V n = L 0(L). the row space of H is 0(L). 1) . 2. 2. dm ) has elements in F and G is an m by n matrix of where d = (di. u. We let HO be = the g (I m by n matrix whose kth row is y*. Then V n = L + 0(L). However. in (1. . 3. and we have GH' = Q The rank of the n by q matrix 0)Q#Q. 1. 3) u. Let then 0(L) = yiF of + H. Then Gw' = Theorem 3. Hence let w be in both L and 0(L) so that w = dG. Let F be a field whose quantities are real numbers. while also Gw = GG'd By rank m whose row space is L. + y F of order q over F so that 0(L) contains the Evidently H has rank n m. q row space m. of G by the transposes of the rows Wj of H. This is not true in general. . GG'd' = as desired. u3 (3. 1. . But so that m nonzero rows.
we assume that in the elementary transformations of type 2 the quantities c are permitted to be any quantities of F[x\. The field F(x) of all rational functions of x with coefficients in F contains Flx] and it is thus clear that if A and B are equiva m } lent in F[x] they are also equivalent in F(x). Matrices with polynomial elements. that is. We now let A and B be by n matrices with elements in F[x] and call A and B equivalent in F[x] if there exists a sequence of elementary transformations carrying A into B. fr } for monic polynomials = fi(x) such that fi di in x. . /i For the elements of all matrices equivalent in Fix] to A are polynomials and in the set of all such polynomials there is a nonzero polynomial = /i(#) of lowest degree. Then a ^ must be a constant polynomial.CHAPTER V POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS 1. Hence we see that are equivalent in F[x] only if they have the same rank. a may be any nonzero quantity of F. We shall consider m by n matrices with elements in F[x] and define elementary transformations of three types on such matrices as in Section 2. Using elementary transformations of types 3 and 1. But those of type 3 are restricted so that the quantity a in F[x] shall have an inverse in F[x]. we may assume that f\ is monic and is the element in the first row and column of a matrix C = (c ) equivalent in F[x] to A. 89 . . Every nonzero matrix to A of rank r with elements in F[x] is equiva in F[x] 1 (S where GI vides fi+i. By the Division . . Let Fix] F be a field and designate by (1) (read: F bracket x) the set of all polynomials in x with coefficients in F.  X) fi = diag (fi. A and B We may then prove LEMMA lent 1 .4. . As we stated in that section.
90
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
= qifi Algorithm for polynomials we may write CH F[x] and r of degree less than the degree of f\. But if
first
+r
for g<
q>
and
r< in
we add
times the
row
Ti
of
C
to its ith row,
we
I'th
pass to a matrix equivalent in F[x] to
A
with
as the element in its
is
thus implies that r< in F[x] to a matrix
zero.
D
column. Our definition of /i we have now shown A equivalent Moreover, = (da) with dn = for i 7* 1, du = f\. Similarly,
row
arid first
we
see that every
du
is
divisible
by /i and hence
that
A
is
equivalent in
F[x] to a matrix
(3)
Vo
where
A
2
has
w
1
rows and n
1
2.
columns. Then either
A2 =
may
apply the same process to
A
After a finite
number
of such steps
ultimately show that
A
is
equivalent in F[x] to a matrix (2) of
we we our lemma
0,
or
such that
the set of
every / =
all
/<(x) is
all
monic and
is
a polynomial of least degree in
elements of
matrices equivalent in F[x] to
(4)
Write /i+i
= fiSi
+
ti,
where
s<
and
ti
are in F[x] and the degree of
ti is
less
than the degree of /i. Then we add the first row of A i to its second row so that the submatrix in the first two rows and columns of the result is
ft
(5)
(
\fi
We
then add
a*
times the
first
column to the second column
to obtain
a matrix equivalent in F[x] to Ai and with corresponding submatrix
//,
(6)
\f<
definition of /t thus implies that
Our
We
/ divides />i as described. observe now that the elements of every <rowed minor of a matrix
ti
=
0,
A
with elements in F[x] are polynomials in
z, so that these minors are also
POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS
polynomials in
x.
91
By Section 2.7 if B is obtained from A by an elementary then every Crowed minor of B is either a Crowed minor of transformation, A, the product of a 2rowed minor of A by a quantity a of F, or the sum
Crowed minors of A and/ is a polynomial of F[x]. If d in F[x] then divides every Crowed minor of A, it also divides every 2rowed minor of all m by n matrices B equivalent in F[x] to A. But A is also equivalent in F[x] to B and therefore the Crowed minors of equivalent matrices have the same common divisors. We may state this result as LEMMA 2. Let Abe an m by n matrix with elements in F[x] and d t be the greatest common divisor of all irowed minors of A. Then d t is also the greatest common divisor of the irowed minors of every matrix B equivalent in F[x] to A. Every (k + l)rowed minor Mk+i of A may be expanded according to a row and is then a linear combination, with coefficients in F[x], of fcrowed minors of A. Hence dk divides every Mk+i so that dk divides dk+i. We ob
MI + fMz where MI and Afa
are
serve also that in (2) the only nonzero fcrowed minors are the fcrowed
minors diag
divides /,+
\fi
we
<i* and since clearly every / ,/,J for ii<z 2 < v see that the g.c.d. of all fcrowed minors of (2) is /i ... /*.
. .
.
.
.
.

,
We
(7)
thus have d k
=
/i
.
.
.
fk,
whence
A.
t
customary to relabel the polynomials / and thus to write fr = gi, = g r We call g the jth invariant factor of A and see that if we /r_i 02, /i = 1 we have the formula define d
It is
=
>
3
(8)
gf
=
(j
=
1,
i
r)
.
Moreover,
factors
0, is
now
,
divisible
by
0/+i for j
1
=
1,
.
.
.
,
r
if
1.
We
mentary transformations of type
0i,
. . .
to (2)
and
see that
A
apply elehas invariant
r,
then
A
is
equivalent in F[x] to
w
If,
(o
then,
is
2).
*i
*>
visors d k
equivalent in F[z] to 4, it has the same greatest common diand hence the same g, of (8), while, if the converse holds, B is
equivalent in F[x] to (9) and to A.
We have
proved
92
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
Theorem
1.
Two
F[x]
if and only
m by n matrices with elements in F[x] are equivalent in if they have the same invariant factors. Every m by n matrix
. .
.
of rank r with invariant factors gi,
g r is equivalent in F[x] to (9). As in our theory of the equivalence of matrices on a field we may obtain a theory of equivalence in F[x] using matrix products instead of elementary
,
transformations.
We
thus define a matrix
P
=
to be an elementary matrix
if
if
\,
both
P
and P have elements
1
in F[x}. Then,
a
=
\P\ and b
=
\P~
l
the quantities a and 6 are in F[x], ab
quantities of F.
1
1

=

/
1
1,
so that a
and
6 are nonzero
But
if
P has elements in F[x]

so does adj P.
Hence
so will
P = PI" adj P if P is in F. Thus we have proved that a square matrix P with polynomial elements is elementary if and only if its determinant
is
a constant (that
We now
is, in F) and not zero. observe that, in particular, the determinant of any elementary
and B are square matrices with elements in F[x] and are equivalent in F[x], their determinants differ only by a factor in F. Moreover, if \A and \B\ are monic polynomials, then the equivalence of A and B in F[x] implies that \A  \B\ and, in fact,
transformation matrix
is
in F.
Hence,
if
A
\
\
that
when A
is
a nonsingular matrix with
.
0i,
.
.
.
,
gn
as invariant factors
its
determinant
It is
if
the product g\ gn clear now that a square matrix
is
. .
.
P with elements in F[x] is elementary
and thus the
and only
if
P
is
equivalent in F[x] to the identity matrix,
invariant factors of P are all unity. We may now redefine equivalence. We call two m by n matrices A and B with elements in F[x] equivalent in F[x] if there exist elementary matrices P and Q such that PAQ = B. Then we again have the result that A and B are equivalent in F[x] if and only if they have the same invariant factors. For under our first definition P and Q are equiva
and hence may be expressed as products of elementary transformation matrices. But, if PO and Q are elementary transformation matrices, the products P&A, AQo are the matrices resulting from
lent in F[x] to identity matrices
the application of the corresponding elementary transformations to A. Hence, PAQ must have the same invariant factors as A. The converse is
proved similarly, and we have the result desired. In closing let us note a rather simple polynomial property of invariant factors. The invariant factors of a matrix A with elements in F[x] and rank
r are certain
i
.
.
monic polynomials
1.
Qi(x)
such that Qi+i(x) divides gi(x) for
=
.
1,
,
.
.
.
,
r
If
g k (x)
=
1,
then g&x)
=
1
for
larger j
=
k
+
1,
r.
Let us then
call
those gt(x)
^
1
the nontrivial invariant factors
EXERCISES 1.c.c. 3 to carry this preliminary diagonal matrix into the' form (9)? 5. i Thus exists an integer t g i+ i(x) = ... . Let A be an m by n matrix whose elements are in F[x].. g r (x) = .6 with/ = an.d. 1 of elementary trans formations. Q = a>kj> 3.. Describe a process by means of which we may use elementary row transformations involving only the fth and kth rows of A to replace A by a matrix with the g. Reduce the matrices of Ex. Determine the invariant factors of the matrices of by the use of (8). then. of an and a*. 1 to the form (9) by the use Ex.d. process of Section 1. . a) I x3 + 3x 2  3x  1 x3  x2 + 4x  2 /x 2 d) x 2 +x +x 1 x x x2 1 + 2x x2 \x 2 2x 2 + 1\ +x + 2/ 1 2. form \ a) (x \Q 4. 6. may we use the process of Ex. = such that gi(x) has positive degree for = 1. Describe a process for reducing a matrix A with elements in F[x] to an equivaHow.. . Hint: Use the g. Express the following matrices as polynomials in x whose coefficients are matrices with constant elements. /x(xl) b) \ x(x /x 2 c) + x2 x 2 \ x + l) \ + l)j V + 2*  3/ lent diagonal matrix.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS of 93 there A } the remaining g^x) = 1. 1 the trivial invariant factors of A.in its ith row and jth column. Use elementary transformations to carry the following matrices into the (9).
+2 divisors. Since 0+i(x) divides 0(x). Those for which e^ nontrivial elementary divisors of > will be called the A. (r {*' /. .) . are the distinct complex roots of the first invariant factor it is with elements in K[x].Vti l ^i) fr c v Vi cy * / TV ^ e^ e^ 1 i. . x2 Let x + 1 ~x 2 Elementary K be the field of all complex numbers so that ci) ei . to the form x 2. g\(x) = (x . . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Use elementary transformations to reduce the following matrices (9). . e\j = ^ for i = 2. We shall call the rs polynomials the elementary divisors of A. r"i .94 7. rj . where Ci. number of invariant factors of A. . Here . . that every g<(x) divides 0i(x). . . . . c. and thus C\C\\ v^iuy of a matrix A clear n(r\ &%{) r is the r. (x e c. . .
we have r ^ t.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS 95 The invariant factors of A clearly determine its elementary divisors Cj where r is the uniquely as certain rs powers // of linear functions x rank of A. . . . If A has rank r. Then the only nontrivial invariant factor of the matrix tively prime fs f B } is its determinant g = f i A = diag {fi. But then A = diag {^i. . 1. first has prescribed invariant factors and hence prescribed it is desirable to obtain a matrix of a form exhibiting the elementary divisors explicitly. . . . .. . the g. . let us consider a set of q polynomials each a power with positive integral exponent of a monic linear factor with a complex root. But 0.!}.. in pairs./. 02j ^ . Conversely. is equivalent in F[x] to 5. = (z c/) for n^ > 0. . .) / with Let us then order the t exponents n../. c. then. Then g is the only nontrivial invariant factor of A.. complex numbers the corresponding elementary divisors /. where 0. !. Hence {</.} is equiv alent in F[x] to diag {0 f _i.. A whose nontrivial elementary divisors are the given hkj. A The distinct roots in our set hkj may tfyen n *> be labeled Ci. . . . 1}. For each be number of hkj in our set. and 1J./i/2 is the only nontrivial invariant factor of 2 is equivalent in F[x] to diag (fif 2 2. . Then . q = ti t tSj and our set of polynomials may be extended to a set of + + ^ exactly ts HH = #ij 0./2J is unity. / 1. /. A . diag 1}. It is now evident that two by n matrices with elements in K[x] are equivalent in K[x] if and only if they have the same elementary divisors. ._i = diag {/i.. . and our let tj polynomials have the form the .. /* are relatively prime in pairs. to be integers e^ satisfying t and ^ ^ Ctj ^ 0. . The /2 of result is trivial for s 2 = 1._i is prime to / is equivalent to is equivalent in F[x] to diag {g.. . 1. 1}. However. that A. . ._i = /i . . . clearly. Let us prove f s be monic polynomials of F[x] which are rela2._i = diag {0_i. . . . ./} is equivalent ... Assume. ._i} A = diag {/i.} diag {gf. of the elements f\ and l. !. n polynomials by adjoining t tj polynomials (x c. . Define gi(x) as in (10) for i = 1. m The matrix (9) elementary divisors.i. and we adjoin (r t)s new trivial elementary divisors // to obtain the complete set of r invariant factors 0. If s = 2. the Qi(x) are the nontrivial invariant factors of a matrix . . . A t } is equiv . .!}.. In fact. Let f i. Then. .. d\ = A A .. . By Theorem 2 the matrix Ai = diag {/._i.(z) of A. . Theorem . . . . A = diag {/i. . c. . t be the maximum tj. the elementary divisors of uniquely determine its invariant factors. obtain a set of polynomials gi(x) such that g%+i(x) divides g^(x) for i 2 1. is We see now that if gi(x) in F[x] to diag {0 t defined by (10) for distinct . . /. . We shall do this. . .c. and s is the number of distinct roots of the invariant factors of A. and our theorem Cjj is proved.d..
. (x x*. The are a) V) c) What its following polynomials are the nontrivial invariant factors of a matrix. . .7z + 2.2z + x. *'. 3. z x(x (x . /) x. we have proved Theorem 3. (x x 4). . . . x. 2 3 2 2  3z +2 2 (*  l)^. The whose rank a) b) c) following polynomials are the nontrivial elementary divisors of a matrix is six. (x . (x 2  2 2 . (x + 1). alent in F[x] to diag [g^ variant factors of A are 0i. 31 a. (x (* . 2). Then the matrix A = has the fi diag {fi. . (x  3). x 2x* + x* + x. x* z . c r be complex numbers and fi= (x n Ci) i/or in ^ 0. . . form /(x  1) \ /x 3 \ o)( \ x2 x /x a c) 0) . . (*3).1)*. x  1 2. (x (*3). 1}. Let tegers ni Ci. x x* + x. .4z + 5z . (x + 1) 2).  1). (x  2). nontrivial elementary divisors? x6 6 d) e) x* + x + x*. (ft We and hence the nontrivial inexamine the form of A to see that . + 2 I) .1). + 2x* + x\ + z + 2x* + 5 2 8 x* 2 3 2 . e)  1).  (x  5) (x + 1)'. (x x. .2. . g tj . 1.2x + 1). What are its invariant factors? (x (x  1)'. (x x.96 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . . EXERCISES 1. . d) x.I) . **. x'.1). . .5s + 9z . z> (x3). + 1)2. x.f r j as its elementary divisors. (x (x 2)'. I) (x  1). . (x + x' x* 1)S Find elementary transformations which carry the following matrices into the (9).I/ (xl) 6)(0x + l \0 \ x + 2/ 0) (0 \0 x + I/ . . (x 1). .
/.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS 3. . Then the degree of f (x)g(x) is m + n and the leading coefficient of f (x)g(x) is AoB LEMMA m . nomial f(x) ly is If all the A k in (11) are zero matrices. Define Ak = (a^) and obtain an expression of A in the form (12) f(x) = A Qx> + . Evidentf (x) we have LEMMA or g(x). g(x) have deand leading coefficient B such that AoB 5^ 0. R(x) such that r(x) and R(x) have virtual degree (13) and f (x) = q(x)g(x) + r(x) = = Q(x) g(x)Q(x) + R(x) ^ .1. We assume first that s ^ t and let A the respective leading coefficients of /(#) and g(x). in Chapter I we use Lemma 4 in the derivation of the Division Algorithm for matric polynomials which we state as As Theorem degrees s 4. m with henceforth restrict our attention to nrowed square matrices with elements in F[x] and thus to the set of all polynomials in x with coefficients nrowed square matrices having elements in F. Matric polynomials. and we again designate by 0. and if q\(x)g(x) has virtual deq^x) = A^B^x'"' the polynomial fi(x) = f(x) ^ . the poly the zero polynomial. if s < t. The degree of f (x) + g(x) is not greater than the degree of gree 4. Let the elements a*. . while if s t. then q(x) and us While the proof is very much the same as that in Theorem 1. In order to be able to multiply as well as to add our matrices we shall . Q(x) have degree s = 0. t Let f (x) and g(x) be nrowed matric polynomials of respective coefficient of g(x) is nonsingular. we say that/(x) has degree s and leading coefficient Ao if ^o ^ 0. 3. Moreover. r(x). + A. of an m by n matrix A be and let s be a positive integer not less than the degree of any of the Then every a# has s as a virtual degree and we may write Oif (11) for a$ in F. and such that the leading t 1 Then there exist unique polynomials q(x). Then B^ 1 exists. let and J?o be give it in some detail. Let us call these polynomials nit rowed matric polynomials. then q(x) t. 97 in F[x] a. Let f (x) have degree n and leading coefficient Ao. Q(x). for s by n matrices A k Thus f(x) is a polynomial in x of virtual degree m 6y n matrix coefficients Ak and virtual leading coefficient AQ> Moreover.
we have /(#) = q(x)g(x). However. and 0(x) is a ngrfa divisor of /(x). This implies a finite process by means of which we begin with i * t and leading coefficient a polynomial /i(x) of virtual degree s 1 i and then form /i+i(x) = fi(x) q i+ i(x)g(x) of virtual degree s A^ for <7t+i(x) = A^jB^x*""*""'. Then the right and left remainders on and fi/C). division of f (x) by xl C are fn(C) . and these matrices might all be different. CAoC. Then we shall speak correspondingly of q(x) and r(x) as right quotient and remainder. 1 . Define fn(C) (read: f right of C). C be annrowed square matrix with elements in F. Theorem 5. of Q(x) and 12 (x) as left quotient and remainder. The existence and uniqueness of Q(x) and R(x) is proved in exactly the same way except that we begin by forming /(x) whereas its virtual degree is t 1. +CA_ + A. the degree of this polynomial is h jg 0. But leading coefficient is = r(x) r (x) is t then by Lemma 4 the degree of [qo(x) ft. Similarly. Thus we must first define what we shall mean by/(<7). r(x) = /(x) Q if s 1 < The process terminates when we obtain an Thus we have the first equation of (13) with t and t. respectively. the second as the left division of f(x) by g(x). Let us regard the first equation of (13) as the right division of f(x) by g(x). . = x 2A = xA x. We shall do this and obtain a Remainder Theorem which we state as CA 2 Let f(x) be an nrowed square matric polynomial (12).+ 1 . = q$(x)g(x} + q(x) 0. Also C Bo 5^ since B is nonsingular. It is natural now to try to prove a nomials. x2 . . 1. we call (/(x) a left divisor of 0(x) if /(x) = gr(x)Q(x). If r(x) = 0. if C is an nrowed square matrix and/(x) the polynomial /(C) might mean any one of A Q C 2 = A . and its C 0. for ex ample. g(x)]0(x) ^ ^ + a contradiction. and otherwise with q(x) of degree s If also /(x) leading coefficient r (x) for #o(#) A B^ and r(x) the //(x) above. the theorem in Remainder Theorem for matric polyusual form is ambiguous since.98 gree 5 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 1. and (15) f L (C) = CAo +0^1 + . //(x) of virtual degree t q(x)  0. This proves the uniqueness of g(x) and r(z). so that J?(x) = in (13). . and fL (C) (14) (read: f left of C) by f R (C) = A C + A^*.
_ 2 C)D . then h R (D) = D2 ._i and have *(*) = q(x)(xl  C) = Then. . We write q(x) = 4 with g(x) To make our proof we use Theorem as in the case of polynomials with coefficients in a = xl Cox*~ l + . = fe(C)(CJ  f(x) C) = 0. and only if f(C) = 0.CD E.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS field 99 C and have }(x) = q(x)g(x) + = B has elements in F. . . q M (D)(D  C)  DC = CD. D is any nrowed square matrix with elements in F. We then 1 and r(x) r(x) where q(x) has degree s wish to draw our conclusion from /(C) = qR (C)(C C) + B. The second part implies that of our proved similarly. if /(re) has x C is a root of f(x). The matric polynomial f (x) has xl C as a left divisor if and only if f/. in general* They is are equal if D = /(C) = theorem hR (C) +B = qR (C)(C  if and only and thus f(x) = C. it has xl For Theorem 5 implies that. . if /#(C) = 0. . then in (12) the polynomial r(x) = 0. . if D and C are commu h(x) +B C) +B = B._!x)  (CoC*' + . if (Co* + da' + . and these matrices are equal tative. . but let us examine it more closely. + C_!C) . + C.CD. The C). we have = CoZ> h R (D) while + (Ci  CoC)!) 1 + .g. f(x) = q(x)(xl  C). that is. if have seen that/fi (C) similarly. . . This statement is correct.C_i q*(D)(DI  C) = C D + (CiD 1  CoD'C) + . we q(x)(xl results on the left follow =  Our principal use of the result above is precisely what is usually called C as a factor. if q(x)  x so that h(x) unless = x8  Cx. + C. of the result just proved for matric polynomials which we state as As a consequence we have the Factor Theorem C as a right divisor if Theorem 6. it is nontrivial that /(C) = and follows only from the study above where we showed that if D is any square matrix such that DC = CD.C) implies that h R (D) = qR (D)(D *  C). Conversely. However. then h(x) = q(x)(xl . . .DC * D ..(C) = 0. + (C_i  C. D' . then the trivial part of Theorem 5.
(C) by the use of the division process as well as by substitution /O 1 0\ /O 2 0\ c) /I 2 0\ a)C=(0 \2 4. then we scalar polynomial Thus A k = a k l for the a^ in F. l(c) and if find /ft(C) and/z. Q(x).. We call f(x) monic if a = 1.2 y? x  1 x i 2 5 2^2 T 3 2. and (12) with (16) a matric polynomial shall call/(x) a /(x) is = (a<& + . the nrowed identity matrix. Use /(#) of Ex. all the poly .1 by the nrowed identity matrix.100 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES EXERCISES 1.+ a.2 4 x 3a. the quotients q(x) and Q(x) in (13) are the same scalar polynomials and also r(x) = R(x) is scalar. l) O/ 6)C=(l \0 I/ (7=121 \0 I/ The characteristic matrix and function. Express the following matrices as polynomials /(x) and g(x) with matric coeffi cients and compute q(x). If now g(x) is also a scalar polynomial.)I . R(x) of (13). 2z 4  x* + 2 x + x 8 1 X t O'rS __ iJU ff JU \jJ(/ Q/2 2 _l " (1 + 3 0*2 /v. For obvi where / ously this case of Theorem 4 is now the result of multiplying nomials of Theorem 1. If f(x) is nrowed scalar matrix coefficients A^.. r(x).
or a lefthand factor. g(x) = 0i(x)7 = (xl  A)J5(x) . the de terminant \xl nomial (18) A the characteristic determinant of A. . and the corresponding equation /(x) = A to obtain the characteristic equation of A. The invariant factors of xl . g(A) = 0. then q(x) We now define the minimum function of a square matrix A to be the monic scalar polynomial of made above then implies least degree with A as a root. the scalar poly f(x) = \xl  A\ I the characteristic function of A. . q(x). But then adj (x/ A) =d n _i(x)B(x). where B(x) is an nrowed square matrix with elements in F[x\.A Then xl the elements of adj (xl  /. A) are the cof actors of the elements of (in general. A We shall call the matrix xl  A the characteristic matrix of A.d. 8. Observe also that the g.(A) are equal for every scalar polynomial /(x). of the elements of B(x) is unity so that if B(x) = Q(x)q(x) for a monic scalar polynomial = 1. Hence. and adj (xl By the argument above we have Theorem 7. + a. . Let gi(x) be the first invariant factor of the characteristic ma Then g(x) = gi(x)I is the minimum function of A.A\I = gi(x)di(x)I = (xl . the polynomials //?(A) and/i. Every square matrix is a root of its characteristic equation.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS If 101 any nrowed square matrix. and we shall designate their common value by is A (17) /(A) = aoA + . By the and by (19) \xl uniqueness of quotient in Theorem 4 we have of the elements of adj (xl (20) The g. By Theorem 6 the matrix A is a root of /(x) if and A as either a right. clearly._iA + aj .d. Hence B(x) A were defined in (8). We now apply (3.c.A)B(x)d n _i(x). A) is clearly the polynomial d n i(x) defined f or xl A and d n (x)= \xl A \. A) is a matric polynomial A. The remark just Theorem trix of A. nonscalar).c.27) to xl (19) (xl  A)[adj (xl  A)] = [adj (xl  A)](xl  A) = x/. We now say that either the polynomial /(x) as a root /(A) only if /(x) has xl if = or the equation /(x) = has 0. is a matric polynomial.
. so that \A\ (23) = (l) nan  It follows that. In closing this section we note that (x we  write f(x) = \xl n  A\ / = + aa". . A"* it is = o^ (A^ l + M. gn ] for elementary matrices P(x) and Q(x).A. . l M 2 . . Q(x) = diag {jfi. + a*) /. distinct roots of g\(x) as well as of teristic roots F is a root of But A in any field K conwe have already seen that if F is \ xl  A if . It follows that Theorem jPAe characteristic function of a square matrix A is /&# every root of \xl in fact taining g\(x). We see now that xl A is a monic polynomial of degree n and is not = m = n in (9). A are the field of all complex numbers.. \A \ ^ 2 0. from which g(x) = h(x) as desired. By Theorem 6 we have h(x) = (xl A)Q(x). if \A\ =0. and G = A m + m~ + + and hence l obvious that l . and we have proved product by I o/ tfta product of the invariant factors of the characteristic matrix of A. \ They are called the charac of A.102 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES is For if h(x) the minimum function of A we may write g(x) = and h(x)q(x) + r(x) for scalar polynomials h(x) r(x) such that the degree of r(x) is less than that of h(x). . This result implies that \xl A\ is the product of g\(x) by divisors gi(x) of g\(x}. and since g(x) and h(x) are monic so is q(x). Since A 9* 0. d = gl .. and zero. A 7* and gi(x) = x m + bixm + + m the polynomial gf(a:) = g\(x)I can be the minimum function of A only if ~ b m = 0. The uniqueness in Theorem 4 then (xl A)Q(x)q(x) states that B(x) = Q(x)q(x). then/(0) = A if 7 \ = (l) A /. fc . . + an! /) . Moreover. (22) c \xIA\ \Q(x)\ in F. are the whose product is \xl c/)*w polynomials (x A\. as we have already ob served in an earlier discussion. But&(A) = 0. and d  = Hence cd = 1. and by (20) we have g(x) = = (x/ 4)5(z). we have m > 1. If. . But then.+ 1 . then ~ A~~ does not exist. r  \ (21) P(x) (si  A) .and0(A) = Osothatr(A) = 0. . q(x) = 1. . then. .gn for c = P (a:) 9. . then .r(z) = 0. . A A~ = A. the elementary divisors of xl Then the c. Hence g(x) = h(x)q(x).+ l 1 . 6m _i/ (24) is a nonzero matrix with the property AG = GA = .
respective minimum and A* Prove that g(x) is the least common multiple of g\(x) 5. Compute the characteristic functions of the following matrices. 6. The principal result on the similarity of square matrices is then given by Theorem 10. 3 and functions of A. 6) a) (o 3. Let for A = diag A^} where 4i and if A 2 are square matrices of m in F[x] and n rows f t respectively. then \P\ P(xl But P has elements in F. = diag {fm(Ai). sum of all irowed principal minors of A. Verify this for the 5.A)P~ == xPIP~ . /2 (l 3\ .. Show that f(x) is any polynomial and we define first (x) = f(x)I t any t. 6. It may + ( be shown that the characteristic function f(x) = x n n~* n l)*atX ( l) a n of an nrowed square matrix a\x n~ l + + + A has the property that di is the matrices of Ex. A%\. .= B 1 . A\. 4. . A is in F. Apply Ex. We have defined two nrowed square matrices A and a nonsingular B with elements in a field F to be similar in F if there exists matrix P with elements in F such that PAP. 4 in the case where A\ nonsingular and A = z 0. . P is elementary. is let g(x)I m^ n gi(x)I m and Qi(x)I n be the . 103 When is the minimum function of a matrix linear? of the following matrices? 2. . Two matrices are similar in F if and only if their characteristic matrices have the same invariant factors.B = xl . then. then/m+nCA) k tion that A = diag [Af. Hence xl l l . Similarity of square matrices.B. /O (6 1\ e> /2 (4 3\ l) /o 0\ 6J > 2J {^4i. are the minimum functions . if For PAP. ^ . What. Hint: Prove by induc Let A have the form of Ex. gi(x).POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS EXERCISES 1.= 1 B. 7.fn (A 2 )}.
P (xl ^ A) 7. It follows that PAQ = B.) P*(x)(xl A)] (x/  J5) P (si  A) Q = (x7  (x)C(x) D(x)Q Q (x) Pt(x)(xIA)Q Q (x).PAP" = B 1 as desired. Q(x)~ 1 = D(x) for matrix polynomials C(x) and D(x) such that (28) (J  A)Q(x) (27) . A is \ n and hence that n  is the de gree of the ith nontrivial invariant factor gt(x) the property g (x) t xl A =  implies that 2 . where R= fl(a?) =P +  R(x) (30) = 0.104 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES B are equivalent in F[x] let and xl and have the same invariant factors.I (28)  B) . so that  A]Q(x) Q(x). . = xl B for elementary matrices P(x) (26) and We define P = PL (B) Theorem 5 and have P(x) Q = Qa (B) as in (27) = (xl  B)P*(x) +P  . But the degree in x of the left member of (29) is at most one. Q(x) = Qo()(x7  B) + Q . tti ^ n2 ^ . this is an important restriction on the possible degrees of the invariant factors of the characteristic matrix of an nrowed square matrix. +n = t n . = C(x)(a. if Observe that the degree of xl . Then P(x)[(xl  A)]Q(x) = (xl B)P(x)(xI  P (xl  4) Q (z)(z7  B) +P (xl . (25) xl A and xl P(x)[xl B have the same invariant factors. . . By Lemma 4 the degree in x of the right member of (29) is at least two unless R(x) = 0. . (31) HI +n + . . P7Q = j Q = P. B .A) Q =  xl  We now [P(z)]1 use (25) and the fact that P(x) and Q(x) are elementary to write = C(x). .  Q = xl 1 . ^ n = t . Obviously. P  But then from and P and thus (29) (xl  A) = (s/  J3)[Z)(a. Conversely. .
. . 3 is essential by proving / and B\x that Aix J are equivalent hi F[x]. .. . 1 B 4. and Bz are nrowed A 2 and E\x B2 square matrices such that A\ and B\ are nonsingular. x 62 1 x 61 . . are the nontrivial invariant factors of a matrix xl A and n is g t (x) the degree of 0(z). of constructing an nrowed square matrix whose characteristic matrix has prescribed invariant factors is completely solved by the result we state as A Theorem 9.. where Gi = . 3. . B = diag {xl ni BI. !. . f clude that xl B diag {#.. 1 x 1 .. and we conhas the same invariant factors as xl A Thus the problem .. . If g\(x). . then A\x and Q with are equivalent in F[x] if and only if there exist nonsingular matrices elements in + + F such that in (25). Characteristic . Use the proof of Theorem 10 to show that if AI.. Hint: Take P A = Ar ^.. A^ Bi. BT^ Show that the hypothesis that A\ is nonsingular in Ex. 2. . 3. B is equivalent in xl nt For then xl . 105 What are all possible types of invariant factors of the characteristic matrices of square matrices 2. Let g(x) = xn (32) 010 00 000 1 (bix* 1 + ..POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS EXERCISES 1. having 1. or 4 rows? Give the possible elementary divisors of such matrices. . t ] F[x] to diag {G i.. if B 6..(?}. PA& = Bi and PA Q = B2 2 .!}. B = diag {Bi. l matrices with prescribed invariant factors. g(x) is the only nontrivial invariant factor of xl A.. yet P and Q do not exist.. . B t ] will be similar in F to A if Bi is an nrowed square matrix such that the only nontrivial invariant factor of the characteristic matrix of Bi is g>(x). .. then by Theorem 1 the nrowed square matrix . + bn ) and bn Then g(x)I For x (33) b n _i b n and the is both the characteristic minimum function of A.
since then A = A\ = (61). This proves our theorem. where Bi = xl ni Ai is A = diag {Bi. t t ) ..106 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES & n of (33) is an (n The complementary submatrix of the element 1)1 and its derowed square triangular matrix with diagonal elements all ~ terminant is (I)"1 Thus the cofactor of 6n is (l) n+ 1 (l) n 1 = 1 and hence dn \(x) = 1. desired.. Thus if Ci. \ \xl A ni\ first z"" (bix + . c 1 c A is (x c) n Then the only nontrivial invariant factor of xl A is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements all x c. B }. n are positive inc are complex numbers and ni./* as . .. and dn (x) = (x c) is the only nontrivial . and its charrows. The whose construction of square matrices characteristic matrices simple solution... . its bn = g(x) as desired. . . . For xl n The c) complementary minor of the element in the \xl A\ = (x A is a triangular matrix with diagonal nth row and first column of xl n elements all unity. invariant factor of A.. and \xl 1 rows. . t .. ../. .. .. and by Theorem 3 the nontrivial elementary divisors of xl A are /i. The matrix A = diag {Ai. acteristic matrix xl c n But equivalent in F[x] to diag {/. . dni(x) = 1. . t .. This is true if n = 1. + &ni) is the cofactor of the element .!} such that / = (x then xl A is equivalent in F[x] to diag {/i. x in the first row and column of (33). . . c 1 A with complex number elements have prescribed elementary divisors has a see that the argument preceding Theorem 9 A be the nrowed square matrix c 1 (34) 000 000 . Let c be a complex number. .. so that Let it be true for matrices A n _i of the form (33) and of n 1 n~2 = .. . . t tegers. . A = x bi.!}. and we shall reduces the solution to the proof of Theorem 10. It remains to prove that dn (x) = \xl A\ = g(x). We now expand (33) according to n~ l n~ 2 column and obtain \xl + + 6ni)] (b\x A\ = x[x . we construct matrices Aj of the form (34) for c = c.!.. . . !. . and with rc A ] then has n rows.
where R is the is field of all real numbers. and the characteristic function the ith nontrivial invariant factor of A. i2 = 1) . . 2 with the characteristic function of Bi mentary divisor of A. b in R. however. is where Bi has the form (32). Additional topics. Let us mention some of these topics here. elements of its subfield R unaltered. a = a for every real a. The quantities of the field K of all complex numbers have the form c = a + bi (a. 107 Compute the invariant factors and elementary divisors of the characteristic matrices of the following matrices. 1. Find a matrix respectively. > c defines a and the correspondence c < selfequivalence or automorphism This automorphism of K leaves the of K.9. topics of the theory of their exposition matrices other than those to we have and we leave more advanced texts.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS EXERCISES 1. Bi of the form (34). 6 2 2 5 19\ 1 5 1 2 312 F 1 05 9^ of 2. 3. a fact verified in Section 6. a subfield of K. B t] similar in to each of the matrices of Ex. Bi Solve Ex. that jR. . We then may call it an automorphism over . The complex conc jugate of c = a bi . There are many important discussed. . is. now the ith nontrivial ele 7. . B = diag {Bi.
we f call C and PBP = will A. B equivalent* pairs if there exist nonsingular square matrices P and Q such that simultaneously PAQ = C and PBQ = D. for every A. let us mention the topic of the equivalence and congruence of pairs of matrices. . D be matrices of the same numbers of rows and columns. Analogously. WS The results of this theory are almost exactly the same as those of the theory of congruent matrices. if simultaneously PAP' = References to treatments of the topics mentioned above as well as others be found in the final bibliographical section of Chapter VI. But PP' = P'P = / so that B = PAP~ l is both similar and congruent to A. and nonsingular C. B C. Both of these concepts may also be shown to be special cases of a more general concept. possible to obtain a general theory including both of the theories above as special cases. 3 and 4 of Section 5. B. (J)' =A 7 . B and C. Moreover. we call a matrix P with complex elements such that PP 7 = P 7 ? = /. We shall not state any of the results here. skewHermitian We A if JF = A. Two matrices A and B are said to be conjunctive in K if there exists a nonsingular matrix P with elements in K such that 7 ./. D congruent pairs D for a nonsingular matrix P. C. Then we call the pairs A. and it is. Let A. where P is a unitary matrix. then (JHB)' = now define a matrix to be Hermitian if JF = A. in fact.108 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES a. we define A to be the It is then m by n matrix whose element in its ith row and jth column is a simple matter to verify that Z5 = IS . a unitary matrix. B and C. D are nrowed square y matrices. Then we say that two Hermitian matrices A and B are unitary equivalent if PAP7 #. Two symmetric matrices A and B with elements in a field F are said to be orthogonally equivalent in F if there exists an orthogonal matrix P with elements in F such that PAP' = B. * In this connection see Exs. if A. R= ()* . Finally. If A is any m by n matrix with elements a a in K. Similarly. B.
The objective of our exposition has now been atFor our study of matrices with constant elements led us naturally to introduce the concepts of field. we believe it desirable to precede the serious study of material such as that of the first two chapters of the Modern Higher Algebra by a brief Modern Higher discussion of this subject matter. shall give this discussion here and shall therewith not only leave our readers with an acquaintance with the basic concepts of algebraic theory but with a We may lead into those branches of mathematics called the Theory of Numbers and the Theory of Algebraic Numbers. and equivalence. Groups. The associative law a (be) = (ab)c holds. linear space. II. c of A G is said to form a group with G I. . ever. respect to multiplication if for every a. it will not matter if we indicate the operation as multiplication. The reader is already familiar with the groups (with respect to ordinary multiplication) of all nonzero rational numbers. ax = b ya = b . b. as presented in the usual course on the theory of equations. Thus we shall set DEFINITION. b. If we wish later to consider special sets of elements with specified operations we shall then replace "product" in our definition make the knowledge of how these concepts by the operation . . III. and we are ready now to begin the study of abstract algebra. correspondence.CHAPTER VI FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. all nonzero real numbers. There exist solutions x and y in G of the equations . 109 . and we wish to define the concept that G forms a group with respect to this operation. Our first new concept is that of a set G of elements closed with respect to a single operation. The product ab is in G. These pages were written in order to bridge the gap between the intuitive functiontheoretic study of algebra. without proofs (or exercises). c. and the abstract approach of the author's Algebra. desired. It should be clear that if we do not state the nature either of the elements of G or of the operation. of elements a. Howtained.
subfield of a field. Then H forms a group with respect to the same operation as does G. subgroup of a group. .5. Then the (3) solutions of the equations of Axiom III are the unique elements x = ar l b . Let H be a subgroup of a finite group G. H contains the identity element of G and the inverse element h~ l of every h of H. For finite groups we have the important result which we shall state without proof. This finite and we call G an infinite group. * number is number n. A set H of elements of a group G is called a subgroup of G if the of product any two elements of H is in H. with respect to matrix mulnrowed square matrices with elements in a nonsingular e called its identity element . The number either infinity. The reader may verify that an example of a finite nonabelian group * A The proof is given in Chapter VI of my Modern Higher Algebra. of all field. is An example of a nondbelian (noncommutative) group the group. or it is a a finite group of order n. Then the order of H divides the order of G.. Moreover. Every group G contains a unique element such that for every a of G (1) ae = ea = a . linear subspace over F of a linear space over F) are two concepts of evident funda mental importance which are given in algebraic theory whenever any new mathematical system is defined. called commutative or abelian groups.110 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES all and. The equivalence of two groups is defined as an instance of the general definition of equivalence which we gave in Section 4. The products ab = ba . of elements in a group G is called its order.g. groups G such that for every a and 6 of G we These are have all examples of IV. every element a of (2) G has a = 1 unique inverse a" in G such that aar 1 ar l a = e . nonzero elements of any field. indeed. and we call G LEMMA 1. Such groups are tiplication. simple example of a finite abelian group is the set of all nth roots of unity. The concept of equivalence of two mathematical systems of the same kind as well as the concept of subsystem (e.
or order ra. B. a n = m ) q = eq = e. the elements of any linear space. Thus n = mq. . Its order is called the order of the element a and it can be shown that either a has finite all the powers (5) are distinct and a has distinct infinite order. We therefore have LEMMA (8) 2. f T ' A / 0\ (4) Mo. and [a] consists of the m powers e. In any field and in the set of all nrowed square matThus we have said that the set of all nonzero elements of a field and the set of all nonsingular nrowed square matrices form multiplicative groups. The order m is of an element of a finite group G divides the order of G. a. rices there are two operations. the set of all m by n matrices with elements in a field. . D B /O 1\ o)' (i [AB. or 1 a2 cr2 . . 2. a m = e. . The reader will observe that the axioms for an additive abelian group G are those axioms .FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS is 111 given by the quaternion group of order 8 whose elements are the tworowed matrices with complex elements. . . all form additive groups. But the elements of any field. . a. that is. a'TO 1 1 the identity element of [a]. . Additive groups. (7) a2 .en/ a of G. groups with respect to the operation of addition as defined for each of these mathematical systems. AB. set of all powers a = G e. Tften an = e /or et. . The (5) A. Moreover. and we may apply Lemma 1. the order of the subgroup [a].)' i. of an element a of a group forms a subgroup of G which we shall desig nate by (6) [a] and shall call the cyclic group generated by a. it can be shown that a* = e if where e is m and only since if m divides m (a t. Let e 66 2/ie identity element of a group G o/ order n. Then the order of a is the least integer t such that a* = e.
. However. c. by a. associative law a(bc) distributive laws = (ab)c holds. the element verse with respect to addition of a is is usually called its zero + = a = + a. for every a. abelian. y 6 + (a). but means the sum a a with m sumgroup of order m. . define ( m = is ra) a any (m positive integer a). c) III. (m 1) a. A I. The a(b + = ab + ac. . that is. the elements of [a] are 0. then it may be seen that n a = q a for any integers n and q if and only if n and q are by the . When G b tion.112 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES for addition which we gave in Section 3. m ( a). . a. . positive integer If [a] is m + + a finite equal. y + = a = b . the use of addition to designate the operation with respect to which a group G is defined is usually taken to connote the fact that G is abelian. and we Here m a does not mean . The identity element of an additive group such that a element.12 for a field. . The product ab The is in R. the product of a mands. of R. 2 (2 a). a. . of the equations of our group (10) Axiom III are z is = (a) + 6. Rings. we have x y and designate their common value by Thus we define the operation of subtraction in terms of that of addi In a cyclic additive group (11) 0. 2a. and m is least positive integer such that the sum of m summands all equal to a is zero. where. if [a] the elements are always designated a. that is. The set consisting of all nrowed square matrices with elements in a field ring. . (m a) = . DEFINITION. Additive groups are normally assumed to be abelian. The in a + ( a) = ( a) +a = 0. if [a] is infinite. F is an instance of certain type of mathematical system called a Many other systems which are known to the reader are rings and we the shall make ring is an additive abelian group of at least two distinct elements such that. b. Thus a and is such that designated as the solutions of the additive formula tion (9) a +x= b . (b + c)a = ba + ca hold. 3. clearly. II. a. .
However. Then we shall call R a division ring if R* is a multiplicative group. b are in R. Abstract fields. ya = b have solutions in R* for every a and 6 of R*. and the unity element was always the number 1 in the other rings we have studied.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS We leave 113 to the reader the explicit formulation of the definitions of sab ring and equivalence of rings. c ^ such that ac = 0. If R is any ring. that is. The ring of all integers is a commutative ring. all rices with elements in a field F is a noncommutative ring. let c and d range . A ring may also contain divisors of zero. the ring of all nrowed square matfact. the set of all tworowed square matrices of the form /O (12) r\ \o with r rational o. This occurs clearly if and only if the equations ax = 6. the set of all ordinary integers is a ring. Rings may now be seen to be mathematical systems R whose elements have ya all the ordinary properties of numbers except that possibly the prodab and ba might be different elements of R. The element 1 e then has the properties of the ordinary number and all is usually designated by that symbol. A ring is said to possess a unity element e if e in R has the property = ea = ae = a for every a of R. 4. In nonzero elements of this ring are divisors of zero. The reader should also verify that all nonmodular are rings. may easily be seen to be a ring without a unity element. the equations ax = b of ucts b might not have solutions in R if a ^ 0. However. In particular. zero element of a ring R is its identity element with respect to addition. The set of all is nrowed square matrices not a division ring. They may be found in the first chapter of the Modern Higher Algebra. we shall designate by R* * the set of all nonzero elements of R. elements a 9* 0. The unity element of the set of nrowed square matrices is the nrowed identity matrix. the ring of all nrowed square matrices has already been seen to have such elements as well as the other properties just mentioned. Observe that by making the hypothesis that R contains at least two fields The elements we exclude the mathematical system consisting of zero alone from the systems we have called rings. A ring R is said to be commutative if ab = ba for every a and 6 of R.
It easily be shown that the characteristic of subfields of a field the same as that of in fact. Any field forms a somewhat of F A trivial example of an integral domain. . 2. The group [1] might. then the sum a + is 1 p summands such fields equal to the product (1 all +1+ may F is + + + + 1)0 = 0. group. out divisors of zero is called an integral domain. It is easy to show that p is a a with a follows that if a is in F. and it we have the property that the sum with p summands is zero. prime. . A = ft \a * c is a noncommutative division ring. it generates an additive cyclic subgroup [1]. We generates call all such fields nonmodular fields. . DEFINITION. noting nonsingular since A 9^ implies that dd > 0. . If this cyclic group has may be shown to be equivalent to the set of all ordinary integers. Its elements are then But F the sums (14) 1 = 0.114 over all INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES the set Then (13) complex numbers. . We . however. . +1+ . . Less trivial examples are the set x q ] of all polynomials in F[x] of all polynomials in x. every subfield of F contains the subfield generated by F and. the set F[XI. . Until the present we have restricted the term "field" to mean a field containing the field of all rational numbers. .BjAB of (4) as a basis over that field. 5 and d be the complex conjugate of Q of all tworowed matrices c and d. . It is usually called the ring of real quaternions. . call F modular fields of characteristic p. A field is a ring F such that F* is a multiplicative abelian The 0. the set of all ordinary 1. . x q and coefficients (in both cases) in a field F. the unity eley ment 5. under rational operations.A. the order of this group. We now define fields in general. and [1] then a subfield of F equivalent to the field of all rational numbers. and . where p 1 is . . 1. p  1 . The whole set F is an additive group with identity element and 1 infinite order. element identity element of the multiplicative group F* is then the unity 1 of F. . be a finite group. is closed with respect to rational operations. The ring Q is a linear space of it order 4 over the field of all real numbers and has the matrices I. The reader should verify in particular that every c 7* A ^ = cc is or d j and \A\ + this. commutative ring with a unity element and withIntegral domains. .
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
integers.
115
The
set of all integers
may be extended
to the field of all rational
numbers by adjoining quotients a/6, 6/^0. In a similar fashion we adjoin in J to imbed any integral domain J in a field. quotients a/6 for a and b ^ When we studied polynomials in Chapter I we studied questions about divisibility and greatest common divisor. We may also study such questions about arbitrary integral domains. Let us then formulate such a study. Let J be an integral domain and a and 6 be in J. Then we say that a is
divisible by
b (or that b divides
a
=
a)
if
there exists an element c in
1,
J such that
is
be.
If
u
in
J
divides
its
unity element
in J.
then u
is
called a unit of J.
clearly
Thus u is a
also a unit.
unit of
J if it has an inverse
The
inverse of a unit
Two quantities b and 6
Then
if
are said to be associated
if
if
each divides the other.
u.
b
and
6
are associated
and only
if
6
=
bu for a unit
Moreover,
b divides a so does every associate of b. Every unit of J divides every a of J. Thus we are led to one of the most important problems about an inte
gral domain, that of determining its units. quantity p of an integral domain J is called a prime or irreducible quanis not a unit of J and the only divisors of tity of J if p p in J are units and
A
^
associates of p. of J is an a
^
Every associate of a prime is a prime. which is neither a prime nor a unit of
A composite quantity
J. It is natural
then
to ask whether or not every composite a of
(15)
J may be
written in the form
a
=
pi
.
.
.
pr
also ask
if it is
for a finite
number
a
of primes
. . .
p of
J.
whenever
also
=
We may
#,,
true that
qi
qa for primes
then necessarily
s
=
r
and the
qi
are associates of the p/ in
these properties hold we may call J a unique factorization integral domain. The reader is familiar with the fact that the set of all ordinary integers is such an integral domain. This
order.
fact, as well as the
Xij
. .
some
When
.
,
corresponding property for the set of all polynomials in x n with coefficients in a field F are derived in Chapter II of the
g.c.d. (greatest
author's
Modern Higher Algebra. The problem of determining a
common
divisor) of
two
elements a and b of a unique factorization domain is solvable in terms of the factorization of a and 6. However, we saw that in the case of the set F[x]
the g.c.d.
may be found by a Euclidean process. Let us then formulate the problem regarding g.c.d. 's. We define a g.c.d. of two elements a and b not both zero of J to be a common divisor d of a and b such that every common divisor of a and 6 divides d. Then all g.c.d. s of a and b are associates. We call a and b relatively prime if their only common divisors are units of J,
;
116
that
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
is, they have the unity element of J as a g.c.d. We now see that one of the questions regarding an integral domain J is the question as to whether every a and b of J have a g.c.d. Moreover, we must ask whether there exist
x and y in
J
such that
d
is
=
ax
+
by
d
common divisor and hence a g.c.d. of a and b; and finally whether or not may be found by the use of a Euclidean Division Algorithm.
a
6.
of a ring R is called an Ideals and residue class rings. A subset and a of R. contains g R if h, ag, ga, for every g and h of Then either consists of zero alone and will be called the zero ideal of R, or may be seen to be a subring of R with the property that the products
ideal of
M
M
M
M
M
am,
If
ma of any element m of M and any element a of 1? are in M. H is any set of elements of a ring J?, we may designate by {H\
the set
sums of elements of the form xmy for x and y in #, m show that {H} is an ideal. If H consists of finitely m of jR, we write {H} = {mi, m/}, and if H many elements mi, consists of only one element m of R we write
consisting of all finite in H. It is easy to
.
. .
,
t
.
.
.
,
y
(16)
M=
{m}
most important type of an ideal is called a principal ideal. It consists of all finite sums of elements of the form amb = {m} consists of all for a and 6 in R. When J? is a commutative ring, am for a in R. products
for the corresponding ideal. This
M
The
ring
R
itself is
an
ideal of
R
called the unit ideal. This
term
is
{
de1
}
.
rived from
the fact that in the case
where R has
a unity
quantity R =
Evidently {0} is the zero ideal. be an ideal of R and define Let
M
(17)
o
s
6
(M)
what we
a congruent b modulo M) if a b is in M. We may then define for every a of R. We put into the shall call a residue class g of class every b in R such that a = 6 (M). Clearly a = b (M) if and only if b 33 a (Af). Moreover, if a c in Af, then (a 6 is in and b 6) = a c is in M. It follows that g = 6 (a and b are the same resic) (6 due class) if and only if b is in g.
(read:
M M
+
Let us now define the sum and product of residue
(18)
classes
by
g
+b=
a
+b
,
g
b
= a
b
.
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
may be = 06. aifri
It
verified readily that
It follows that
if
117
a\
=
g, 61
=b
,
then ai
+
b\
=
a
+ b,
our definitions of
sum and product
of residue
classes are unique. Then it is easy to show that if is not R the set of all the residue classes forms a ring with respect to the operations just defined. We call this ring the residue class or difference ring (read: R minus
M
R M M = R the residue classes are the zero and we have not called set a M an integral domain, we the When the residue ring R ideal M a prime ideal of R. We Ma ideal of R R M M has only a a These concepts coincide the case where R
M). When
all
class,
this
ring.
class
is
call
call
divisorless
if
is
field.
in
finite
number of elements since it may be shown that any integral domain with a finite number of elements is a field. This coincidence occurs in most of the
topics of mathematics (in particular the Theory of Algebraic Numbers) where ideals are studied.
7.
The
ring of ordinary integers.
The set
by
it
of all ordinary integers is a ring
is
which we
zation.
shall designate henceforth
E. It
easily seen to be
an
inte
gral domain,
and we
first
shall
prove that
has the property of unique factoriare those ordinary integers u such 1 and 1 are the only units of E.
We
observe
that the units of
v.
E
that uv
=
1
for
an integer
But then
Thus the primes of E are the ordinary positive prime integers 2, 3, 5, etc., and their associates 5, etc. Every integer a is associated with 3, 2,
its
absolute value
a
 \
^0. We
note
now
that
if
b is
any
integer not zero,
the multiples
(19)
0,
6,
6,2&, 26,...
are clearly a set of integers one of which exceeds* any given integer a. Then let (g 1) 6 be the least multiple of 6 which exceeds a so that  g\b\ = r such that < r < \b\. put 1)6 > a, a g\b\ <a,(g
+ +
We
q
= giib > Qj q = g otherwise, and have g\b\ = <?6, a = bq + r. If also < r\ < \b\, then b(q q\) = n r is divisible by 6, a = bqi + n with whereas r n < b This is possible only if r\ = r and q\ = q. We
.
   \
have thus proved the Division Algorithm for E, a result we state as Theorem 1. Let a and b ^ be integers. Then there exist unique 6 a = bq + r. q and r such that
integers
0<r<
1
1
,
We now
*
leave for the reader the application of the Euclidean process,
1.5, to
which we used to prove Theorem
our present case. The process yields
We use the concept of
magnitude of integers throughout our study of the ring E.
. If Oz is a prime. Let p be a prime divisor of gh.c. afh + fy/A = h. For if p does not divide gr. But then a divisor c > 1 of d divides a or b as well as m contrary to hypothesis. Then p divides g or h. of f The result above implies Theorem 3. and we have gi. a 2 = p 2a 3 and a = pip 2 a 3 f r a s < aa After a finite number of > 1 of a. of p and g is either 1 or an associate of p. pr . But by hypothesis = /g. Theorem (21) 6.c. Let f. . .d.. it does . uniquely apart from the order of the positive prime factors pi. q. The latter is impossible. . g. and by Theorem 3 if d is prime to a it divides 6.. primes qi . . and therefore p is prime to g. Otherwise a* is composite and has a prime divisor p% by the proof above. . of ab and m. we write a 2 = pz with p 2 a positive prime and have (21) for r = 2. is sometimes called the Fundain the form Every composite integer a is expressible a = pi. . a = p\Oz for \a^\ < \a\. We may now conclude our proof of what mental Theorem of Arithmetic. For by Theorem 2 we have af + bg gh = 1. is composite. .. has divisors b such that 1 < b < a. . . Theorem and b such (20) is Let f and g be nonzero integers. every divisor of b or of c is a divisor of a.d. the sign is . forj = 1. > . . For let a and b be prime to m and d be the g. = g.p r . as > must terminate.c.d. af + bg is the a and and Then d unique positive g. For if a = 6c. . If also a = qi . If a6 is not prime to m we have d > 1. Then f divides h. g. . . .  > . for positive . g. But if the divisor pi of qi q8 is not equal to gi. . . We A = (ah then have 4.118 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 2. a 2 . l stages the sequence of decreasing positive integers a . Theorem We also have 5. and there exists a least divisor Pi But then pi is a positive prime. or pi ^ g/ Then either we may arrange the q* so that gi s. + bq)f is divisible by /. h be integers such that f divides gh and is prime to g. . Then the set of integers prime to m is closed with respect to multiplication. the g. If a it . pr = uniquely determined by a. Then there exist integers a that d positive divisor of both f g. and p\ = pi. (21). Theorem Let m be an integer.
. we may use Theorem 1 to write h < r < m. = a + mq. ?. .. form If m is a composite integer cd where and Theorem 7 implies Theorem 8. . 1.. The ideals of the ring of integers.. E of all integers and m be mq = M be a nonzero ideal of the M M M M. Then of all integers divisible integers E in {m} is a ring whose zero 1 by m and whose unity element the class is 1. class ring Edefined for {m} m> 1 element is is the class 1 of all are given by (22). a contradiction. . then b 1. that every element of M in /i + r is in . . 02 and c { . For by Theorem 2 there exist integers c and d such that If a (23) If 6 is in a. p.. Our definition of m implies that r = . . . Thus the elements of the residue . . TTie ideals of E are principal ideals {m} is We m a positive integer. . > 1. = & for i = 1. . The residue {m} defined for a prime m d. E {m} has divisors of zero and is not an integral domain. . Then we obtain r = 5. Thus pi = gi. . But mq and h are r where mq set . and therefore and are relatively prime. . But C'd = cd = m = Q. . . the elements of the residue class a are prime to m. have proved 7. Proceeding similarly. . 1. m 1. m> and d are both not the zero class. classes of E modulo {m} are now the 0. If m is a prime. ^ r. For if a is any integer. . Then a r is in {m} . r. and thus Theorem The residue (22) in {m}. . 119 not divide qi and by Theorem 4 must divide q z q 8 By our hypothesis it does not divide # 2 and must divide g 3 qa This finite process leads to . a = we have a = mq + r for r = 0. But a = to classes a in a multiplicative abelian group. . the p = qi for an appropriate ordering* of the q^ 8. whose remainder Theorem m on division by all is an integer prime to m. and we may take p 2 = q*. p r = ?*. classes m I . If h is in M. . . then * We may order the p so that pi ^ p 2 ^ ^ p and similarly assume that ^ ^ 7. d > 1. ac + md = 1 .FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS .. we ultimately obtain r = s. p2 . r <?i . . and the proof just completed may be repeated. then m> c. be 6 + m(d m E c qc) = ac ac + md = + m(qc + d qc) c = 1. Let the least positive integer in Then contains every element qm of the principal ideal {m}.
Hence if (24) and (25) c 3= = c 6.. Let Fermat Theorem. But then a c == d. For (28) holds if a is divisible by p. pbea prime. ac = 6d (mod m) . Thus it is customary in the Theory of Numthat is. For /(m) is clearly the order of the multiplicative group defined in Theo rem 8. Then if a is prime to m we have af s 1 (mod m) . Our result then follows from Lemma 2. Let f (m) be the to m> (27) and prime Theorem and which we state as number of positive integers not greater than m. and a is 1 and by one of the residue classes 1. prime to w. We next have the Theorem (28) 11. p 1. Thus f(p) = p 1 l = ap a is also diTheorem 10 aP~ 1 is divisible by p. a m is We have M M M bers to write (24) (read: a a b (mod m) a congruent 6 modulo m) if a 6 is divisible by m. .. = d (mod m) hold. An ideal of E is a prime ideal if and only ifM. b is divisible by m. a(o^~ 1) visible by p. (26) we have a +cs6+d (mod m) .120 INTRODUCTION TO* ALGEBRAIC THEORIES every a not in field. we will have g + c = 6 + das well as g and if we also have 6 d. We observe now that a = 6 (M) for = {m} means that a b = mq. We next state the numbertheoretic consequence of Theorem 8 and Lemma 2 which is called Euler's Theorem 10. Otherwise a is prime to p.. Thus the rules (26) for combining congruences are equivalent to the in defini tions of addition and multiplication E {m}. = {p} for is a divisorless ideal. and Theorem 8 states that E {w} is a proved Theorem 9.2. Then ap = a (mod p) for every integer a. The * ring E {p} defined by a positive prime p is a field* P whose field This field is equivalent to the subfield generated by its unity quantity of any of characteristic p. a positive prime p..
Clearly. In particular. . fc2 are 2 = for c ci. called a primitive root modulo p. we shall not mention them here. . We then have Theorem integer t (29) 12. . fc) is a root of an equation = x2  T(k)x + N(k) = with (31) T(fc) and N(k) in F. u are linearly dependent in F we for a 2 7* 0. fc is a root of a monic polynomial of degree two. then 1. The theory of linear spaces of Chapter IV implies that Ui may be taken to be any nonzero element of K. ^ + 1 There is a number of other results on congruences which are corollaries of theorems on rings and fields. fc is a root in F. element (30) fc of a quadratic field f(x. ratic. If c 2 with coefficients in F. cubic. quartic. of the monic polynomial (x fc) then Co T^ 0. The quantities of K are then uniquely expressible in the form fc = c\ + c 2 u 2 for ci and c 2 in F. t = rn. Let p be a prime of the form 4n + ! Then there exists an such that t 2 +1a ( (mod p) . We now say that a quantity u in K generates K over F if 1. . The elements p of P* are the distinct roots of the equation I and are not all roots of any equation of lower degree.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS nonzero elements form an abelian group 121 1. Hence we may take Ui to be the unity element 1 of F. we say K is a field of degree n over F. primitive. For if 1. u* if u generates K over F we have  bu +c= . 3. c 2 not all zero and linearly dependent in F. } . If fc is not in F. For p t* 1 = = r i. . and k = c^ 1 is in F.(P + 1)(P . The elements k of a quadratic field have the property that 1. the field K is F. or quintic field over F according as n Let n = 2 so that K has a basis u\ = 1. 4. u= have ai + a zu = o^ a\ is in F. However. Then u generates K over F if and only if u is not in F. 9. rf a complete set of nonzero residue classes modulo {p Such an integer r is P* of order ~~ xp l = . Thus evgry ) . Then if n = 1. Quadratic extensions of a field. Then it may be shown that P* is a cyclic " r p 2 are multiplicative group [r] where r is an integer such that 1. cofc + cjc + c 2 = 0. then Ci cannot be zero. if k is in F. l . u 2 over F. u are a basis of K over F. However. t*  1 as desired. . If a linear space u\F u n F over F. and fc is in F k = fc 1 + Ow 2 if and only if c 2 = 0. ft = r^y* I since r is 4n. or 5. {p}. We call K a quad= 2.1). . r. fc do not form a basis of X over F. Then 1) = = in the field E F is a subfield of a field that K which is + . fc. and we let r be a primitive root modulo + !)(  p.
. b. . (34) if 5 (fcfco) = is. w2 = N(k) Hence . so that (fc + fc ) and of fc 2 K . which is not possible w automorphism. In our present s 2 case u s = (u s ) s = (b u) = b (b u) = u so that S is the identity = u if and only if 2w = 6. if (36) T(fc) = kk s . distinct roots in a field (35) K. Define a correspondence S on K to X by k fci (32) = fci + to  fc s = ki + k us 2 . (fci + fc 2 u)[fci f fc 2 (6 = fcifc 2 6 + fcu(6 u). and that branch of algebra called the Galois Theory is concerned with relative properties of K and G. that us is a root in K of the quadratic z equation x bx + = 0. Then (32) is a onetoone correand itself if and only if u s generates K over F. then fcfc^ = c. If fc = spondence 8 k + fco = (fci + fcs) + k$ + k^u fcs + kiu for fca and ki in F we have kfi s = 5 and we have fci + fcs + (fca + fcOu (fc 2 + fcOw. (33) (fc + fc s ) = ks 2 + kj . In the former case S is defines a selfequivalence of is called an automorphism over If $ > the identity correspondence fc < the elements of leaving fc. and only if (u s ) 2 = c bu s c. if K were any field of degree n over F and F of S and T were automorphisms > over ing K. Hence if is a nonmodular quadratic field over F. In either case unaltered and K F F of K. But the quadratic equation can have only two of the roots is 6. fc But bu 5 fc . In case G has order equal to the degree n of K over F it is called the Galois group of K over F. we would s first k>k and show is a group G with respect to the operation just automorphisms over F of defined. the automorphism group of K over F is the cyclic group [S] of order 2 and is the Galois group of K. define ST as the result fc then k s > (fc s ) r It is easy to k ST of applythat the set of all (fc ) = 8 2 " K * K We u)] see k\ + now that if fc = = fci + + fc 2 u. c nomials in and we propose to find the value of T(K) and N(k) as polyand the coordinates fci and fc 2 in F of k = fci + fc2W.122 for b INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES and c in F. fcifcs + ks (fci&4 while kH = u = + kjc^u + + c) + + (fcifo + k^k^u3 + kJd(u8 But then fc 2 fc 4 (fcifcs fc 2 fc 4 (fcifc 4 fcifcs )*. But b since u is not in F unless K is a modular field in which u + u = 0. Also fcfco = u. the sum us = u or 6 u . for all in F where us is in K.
Similarly. + d) (u d) = 0. is a field. it is actually the field F(u) of all K rational functions in Conversely.) * " (. The function T(k) is called the Moreover. and the polynomial of (38) (30) is /(*. whereas u is F and w For if The in F. Thus every nonmodular quadratic field is the polynomials with coefficients in F in an algebraic root u of an 2 = a where a is and F is nonmodular. fc(w) = ring F[u] of all 2 equation x any polynomial in F[x]. K now u impossible in a field. a. Let us then assume with6/2) out loss of generality that u is a root of (40) so that in (31) we have 6 = 0. N(k) = k\ + ks) k\c + fakj) . given. N(kk Q ) = N(k) T(aifc ai(fc N(k Q ) 2 fc ) for every ai and a 2 of F a fc s = (aifc and fc and fc of K. then JV(Jfc) = fc kk Q (kko) s = kk Q k s k$ = (kk )(k Q k$).FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS we have (37) 123 T(k) = 2fci +kb t . s (hkj! = + asfco) = (ifc + a + + ks + 02(^0 + kfi) as ) desired. a is not the square root of any quantity of F. For a 2 fc + 2 ) ajc + + ^Jc + = . Now if a = not in d in F. Then K is also generated %b of the z2 = a (a in F) . of all polynomials in u with coefficients consist d^O. we may write k(x) = ki(x ) + fci(a) + ki(a)u. N(k) = k\  k\a . fc) = (x  fc)(x  . then if K is u with coefficients in F. and N(k) is called the norm of fc.* N(kk Q ) 2 if fc is in F. s Note that Let us now assume that the field K is nonmodular so that K by the root u = F + uF where u equation (40) if satisfies (31). Since in F. we may show that (39) trace of k. ) The trace function is thus called a linear function and the norm function a multipli cative function. T(ajc + a 2 fc ) = aiT(fc) + a 2 r(fc ) . This is 2 (x )x. . we have u2 = d2 (u . For we may take = a in F are < "(?. the nonmodular field F and the equation x 2 defined. 2 = & 2 /4 = a = (w u2 bu c 6 2 /4. Then (37) has the simplified form given by c = + + (41) T(k) d? for = 2*i . fc 2 quantities of k(x) is + d^O.
It is also shown easily that if K is defined by a and K by a then K and KQ are fields equivalent over F if and only if a = 62a. 10. Integers of quadratic fields. . We shall discuss somewhat briefly the case n = 2. a = The quantities k of K have the form k = k\ + k^u where fci and k% are if the coefficients ordinary rational numbers. Observe in closing that 2 if K= v is such that (43) fc 7^ is in F. where the p< are distinct positive primes and r > I for a > 0. 2 generated by root u of u = a where a is rational and not a rational square. Then J consists of all linear of combinations (45) Ci +cw 2 . unity element of over a nonmodular field fields K We F nonmodular is evident since the have thus constructed all quadratic is K in terms of equations x 2 = a for a in F. if and only if ki = k = ki + k*u and N(k) = k\ . k 2u) for every of take K = F + uF and have fc~ = (fc? kla)' and in fc 1 fc l 1 K. We call k an integer of if and only if of (30) are integers. If ic field is we take 6 = generated by c" 1 in (43) we replace a by d. then. .124 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES identify F with the set of all tworowed scalar matrices with elements F (so as to make K contain F). be a quadratic field over the rational field so that is Let. while if 1 we interpret (44) as the case a negative and r = 0. That K ^ fc is that of F. then a root of K F(v) for every v = bu z2 = b2 a . pr . We shall determine all integers 2ki k\a K y K of K stating our final results as Theorem 13. By the use of (43) we may multiply a by an integer and hence take a inte= c2d where d has no square factor and c and d are ordinary gral. Then every polynomial in u has the form = k = 0. Thus k is an integer of T(k) N(k) and k\ are both ordinary integers. But then we For otherwise 2 7^ 0. The integers containing the ring E of all a quadratic field 'Kform an integral domain J ordinary integers. Thus we may replace the defining quantity a in F by any multiple 62a for b 7^ in F. a 7^ d for any d of F. Hence K is the field F(u). The Theory of Algebraic Numbers is concerned principally with the integral domain consisting of the elements of degree n over the field of all rational called algebraic integers in a field numbers. . But F(u). Hence every quadrata root u of the quadratic equation (44) x2 = a = pi . Write a K K K integers.k\a = 2 a = (fti/if ) 2 contrary to hypothesis.
= 4[mf m>i ra 2 and 6f a(^ 2 l and b\a 2 )] ordinary integers a is divisible by 4 if and only if a = 1 (mod 4). Hence 61 = 2wi f 1. then 4 divides b\a. 2w fc has the form (45) with Ci and c 2 in E. Hence 6 is a power of 2.c. a contradiction. This completes the proof. an ba. #(tiO = i(l ~ a) = m. where 125 3 w = u if a = 2 (mod 4) or a = (mod 4) but (46) w = l+ i/ a = 1 (mod 4). remains to show that J is an integral domain. 3 (mod 4). b\a. and thus 2 divides 6 2 We have a contradiction and have proved that 6 = 1. while otherwise v? = a = 4m + 1 for an inte= J + i = 1.m = 0. (mod A/1 4) since 7 a has no square __ &2 factor. b 2 . But m . integer. and 1. 61. + + +m + if a = 1 (mod . Thus we have proved 1 that J consists of the elements (45) with w = u if a s= 2.w . If k%a factor of 6 p were an odd prime 2 61. Since a has no square factors this is possible only if p divides 62. then 2 divides bi. But this condition holds since ii w = u then ger m. 60 divides 2bi. if 6 2 were even.. Then k\ 1 is the g. then 4 would divide 6f. If 6 = 2 and 61 is even.'or in either case 6 = = mi +mu+w 2 for w in (46). and 6 2 in 1. a contradiction. 4). b 2 in E and 6 2 the positive least 60. We write _ ^1 . The elements of J are in the field K. If b > 4 divides 2bi. However. then we have shown that either fc fc = 61 + b 2u with b. so b\ it would divide 2bi only if it divided and p 2 would divide 6? b\a as well as  = that b 2 divides divides 6 2 contrary to the definition of 6 Similarly. Note that a ^ I. T(w) (47) w = a + Qw. of bJ7 (6? . A/2  7 > 7 fv v __  1 00 00 for bo. 4 divides b? and ba.. ty2 . the product is of the form 2 (45) if w2 is of that form. kh are in J for every But the sum of fc and h of the form (45) is clearly of that fc and h of J. and hence 2 ba). w* = m +w .d. bi.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS for Ci and 02 in E. . Now . 2. 62 = 2?w 2 1 for . But then p would divide b?. common denominator of fci and 2fci is fc 2 . and thus it suffices to show that fc A. w = It + form.
the other or 1. Thus (48) is a necessary and sufficient condition that k be a unit of /. + c2 = 1 with any choice 1 gives of signs. and this is possible for ordinary integers x\ and # 2 and </ > 4 g 1. w s . + CiC 4. N(k) is 1 for h also in J. 1. (51) 1. Now a has no square factors. u. 1 if a = 1 (mod 4). = a > 0. the only possible remaining cases are gr = 1. the units of J are Then 1 = while c 2 = (52) 1. then h = + 2u has norm 9  group. s s 1. s w. However. then (48) becomes N(k) so that 4N(k) = 4c? + 4cic + c\ +c 2 2)  (4m = c\ + l)c = 4. If a s 2. and so is A for every integer L If h* t > 8 and have A'""* = 1. 1. Then one of ci and c2 zero. 2 elm = But this is equivalent to (50) (2ci  ca = determine the units of J completely and simply in case a is 4 for For both (49) and (50) have the form x\ + x\g = 1. then (48) is equivalent to (49) c\ cia= 2 1. If g = 2 we have x\ + 1 1 only ^ #2 = 0. 2^1 for every We may Now is a < let a save only a = 3. and we have shown that if a is negative this group a 3 1 finite 1. 2. 1. w . 2ci 1. 4w2 = 9  8 = = 9 . and hence g ^ 4. 3 (mod 4) so that fc = Ci + c 2 u. Hence fc* r(*) 5 = fc fci. and the units of J are u. But we may regard u as the ordinary positive V2 a = 2. c\ = 1. 1 so that (49) becomes is 1 c\ + ci = 1 . Hence h is h for s 7* t. if (48) holds. But k is in Conversely. u2 = In the remaining case a 4. Then an ordinary integer which divides unity.126 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES units of The N(kh) (48) J are elements k such that kh = N(K)N(h) = 1. 3. = gives c\ for CL Clearly. k has the property kk = 1 or 8 = s = tf = Ar 1 or and N(k ) J when k is in J since T(k ) (*). only if #2 = 0. Hence we have proved that the units of J are 1. = N(k)=l. = 3 we c2 use (50) and have (2ci +c 2 2) + 3cl = or 1 and if c2 ^ we must have c2 = or 1. we may take a unit of J. The If units of J form a is multiplicative group. negative. w.
We observe that the quotient h and the remainder r need not be unique in our present case. Let f and g ^ be in J. s = Si = gh + r. We shall not study the units of quadratic fields further but shall pass on to some 11. ft S2 = fe 2 ft2. a<i Put sg = hi + hju. tf (r) + < s.d. N(g) We shall use the Division Algorithm to prove the existence of a ggc. We have deteru of J and shall now study its divisibility properties. fg~\ = k\ + k^u with rational fci and fc 2 Every rational number t lies in an interval s < t < s + 1 for an ordinary integer s. and those for which x and y are integers are called the Gauss integers. Every ideal of J is a principal ideal. Gauss numbers. r = si + s\ < 2 l = h sg so that fg~ = N(s)N(g) J. we have = 2. results on primes and prime ideals in two special cases. < N(r) < N(g). Hence there exist ordinary integers h\ and h% such that (s + 1) <J<s+l  (54) ai^fcifti. Then N(s) = + s u. Then the Gauss complex numbers are the elements of a quadratic field K of our study with tional x u 1.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS and have h units of 127 > 1 5. The complex numbers of the form x + yi with raand y are called the Gauss complex numbers. gh N(g) as de / = + sired. and the Gauss integers comprise its integral domain J. and For fg. if / = 2 u and g = 1 u. + + 20u + Our proof will be different and simpler than that we gave in the case of polynomials and indicated in the case of integers but has the defect of being merely existential and not constructive. By there exists an m 7* M M .1 is in K. and For the norms of the nonzero elements of in such that N(m) < N(f) for every / of M. For example. mined the units 1. ft "* > 5*~8 > 1. Then/ =lg l = with N(l) = Ar(u) = 1. M are positive integers. We first prove Theorem 15. It may similarly be shown to be infinite for every positive a. Hence the multiplicative group of the J is an infinite group. Then there exist elements h and r in J such that (53) f = gh +r . If then \t s < t < s + \ then (<)< i while ifs + < i. *i<J. Our first result is the Division Algorithm which we state as Theorem 14.
N(k) > 1. m and mh are in for h J and = {m}. . Then if p is a divisor of/ of least positive norm it is a prime divisor of /. then N(d) = p = N(g)N(h) so that For if p is N unit. lid = = 1. We observe that Theorem 17 implies that an ideal M of J is a prime ideal = {d} for a prime d of J. so is d d\ gh with N(g) ^ 1. we have d = g h for N(g ) = N(g). let d be a prime of J. (and. For if d that if d is a prime of J. and follows that r N(m). wA. then / = g h for nonunit g and h. Thus/ = mh. then p = dk for N(d) > 1. p of E is either a prime of J or the product a prime of J. N(h ) = N(h).c. By Theorem 15 we have and divides / = 1 / + 00. N(d) = dds where d is a positive prime of E and is composite in J. The above result then implies Theorem 16. Moreover. TTms d is a g. Theorem We now prove 18. Let f and g 6e nonzero elements of J. and d is M + composite. then / divides h. M 0/+lginM. We see first s = s = d zu. N(g) < N(f). and also if p is a prime of J dividing g h. pr f of primes pi which are determined uniquely by apart from their order and unit multipliers. s s s s N(h) * 1. then p divides g or h. c But = is a dd s can have at most two prime factors = pp Q for positive primes p and p . if / is a composite integer of J. Every prime d of J is either associated with a positive prime of E or arises from the factorization in J of a positive s prime p = dd of E which is composite in J. A positive prime .d. N(p) = p* = N(d)N(k). d is a prime. and g = The above result may now be seen to imply that if / divides gh and is prime to g. of f and g. h is a (h) gh with N(g) > 1. to obtain Theorem (56) 17. Then c = N(d) c positive integer of E and is either a prime or is composite. Then there exist b and in J such that (55) is M M N(r) < . Every composite Gauss integer f is expressible as a product = pi . Conversely. in E. But must be zero. in fact. ALGEBRAIC THEORIES and r in it Theorem 14 we have / = mh + r so is r = f /. But then p = N(d). a divisorless ideal) if and only if Let us then determine the prime quantities d = di d*u of J. and we continue the proof of Theorem 6 M M . c d = bf + eg a common divisor of f and g.128 INTRODUCTION TO. For the set of all elements of the form xf + yg with x and y in J is an = {d} d in has the form (55) ideal of J. .
2 = 8r +1= 1 . we may write x + yu d r for primes d in J. A positive prime p of E is a prime of J if and only if p has the form t 4m + 2s t 3. we would have p A'Xp) have N(g} > 1. u) = b + 1 without dividing one of its factors 6 + u b (b + u)(b Hence p is not a prime of /. Thus the prime factors of c of the form 4n + 3 occur to even powers and are not factors of g. . . . } . If neither nor h were a unit. . . . Then N(di) = p is a prime of E if and only if p 7^ 4n + 3 and otherwise N(di) p?. ifc . then 6 by p. we have t = 2 55 4 (mod 8). . N(d) Therefore d is associated with the prime p of E which is prime in J. Then we have Theorem 20. and t 0. . is J prime in J. and 1 == u. Hence. p even. if g = pi d r). we have p< = N(di) for d< in J. = JV(fc) = z2 + t/2 for = x + i/w in J. . we = p2 have PQ = p. It follows that 2 p = 4n + 3 7* x* + y We now assume that p = gh for g and h in J and 2 = = N(g)N(h). or 5 modulo 8 while 4n + 3 is congruent 3 or 7 modulo 8. To prove have is this result we observe 4s 2 first that if is = + 1. We call a positive integer c a sum of two squares if c = x2 + y 2 for x and y in E. g = tf (di) N(d r ) = #(di 3. . c = N(di) N(d r). We may = . . . 2. = N(fdi d r) and c Note in closing that a positive prime p of the form 4n + 3 divides x* + y2 if and only if p divides both a: and y. Then cisa sum of two squares if and only if no prime factor of g has the form 4n + 3. But p and p are positive and must be equal. If t is even. . t* = + 4s + 1 = 4s(s + !) an odd integer of E we + !. 1. Thus a sum of two squares is congruent to 0. and both of these integers would be divisors of p 2 But 2 2 = 4n + 3 then]V(g) = N(h) = p = x + y which is impossible. . . gr . = di For if c = x 2 + y 2 = (x + yu)(x yu). We know 2 by Theorem 12 that there exists an integer b in E such that b + 1 is divisible u = p(fci + fc 2tO. 129 assume that p is associated with d and po with ds so that PQ PQ is associated with d and with p. . .FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS of E. This completes the proof. Write c = f2g where f and g are positive integers and g has no square factors. For p is a prime of J and divides yu. We use the result above to derive an interesting theorem of the Theory of Numbers. Then (# + yu)(x yu) if and only if p divides either x + yu or x . 4. . If p divides b + u or 6 pfc 2 which is impossible. We now clearly complete our study of the primes of J by proving Theorem 19. Since p and po are both in E. One of s and s + 1 2 (mod 4) (mod 8). But a prime p of J cannot divide the product 2 u. p r for positive primes p< of Snotof the form 4n + Conversely. We note that 2= 1 and that it remains to show that p + 1 = (l + w)(l w)is composite in = 4n + 1 is composite in J.
Then let x y.d. were a principal ideal would exist a common divisor d of 3 and * 1 + 2u. y = p& 2 for integers ki and p(ki follows. d must be a unit Number8 pp. We may show readily also that x and y cannot both be even or be odd and that z must be odd. and therefore 2u as divisors of ring J {3} contains 1 + 2u and 1 We let M be (58) If this ideal The ring contains nonprincipal ideals one of which we shall exhibit. the principal ideal {3} of J defined for the prime 3 is not a prime ideal. there (x. It follows that the odd prime divisors of z have the form 4n + 1. in the set E of all integers. Since these are nonassociated primes. z are ordinary integers such that x = fc 2 of E. z have g.c. k 1 2u are primes of J no two N(k) of which are associated. g\ < I But^l = 1 impossible since g\ The units of J are 1. the ideal of J consisting of all elements of J of the form 3* + y(l + 2u) {d}. and 3 7 We see now that 21 = = (1 no two of them are associated. 2. 21. 1. serve that 6 is bhz. . + 2w)(l 2w). Since 5 = 3 (mod defined by a = u* = the field J of integers of K 4). and the only positive proper divisors of these norms are 3. 2u in J yet does divide their product. and we have factored 21 into prime factors in J in two distinct ways. Moreover. then 6 must divide both k\ and fc 2 For k\ + k^u = b(hi + h^u). Evidently g 2 3. 1 For further results see L. 7.* y = 4n + y 12. It (57) z2 + 2 2/ = z2 . 7. x = pfci. the elements of Oban integer of E which is a divisor in J of k\ + fc 2 w. 1 + 2u. But if g = gi + g*u. We now prove 22. 7. 2. respectively. g\ + 5gl ^ 1. we have N(g) is = g\ + 5gl > 0. E. then. y in J) . 1 * 0. Thus clearly + 2u y 2u are primes of J. = 3. An integral domain with nonprincipal ideals. For 3 does not divide 1 + 2w and 1 J the residue class zero. that if x. fc 2 = the form k\ if fc 2 J have + k^u for k\ and . The norms of the integers of our theorem are 9. unity. 7. For if k is a composite of J we have = gh. We shall close our ex position with a discussion of some properties of the ring 5.130 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES yu k zu). 21. 49. = N(g)N(h) for ordi nary integral proper divisors N(g) and N(h) of N(k). every prime divisor p 3 of z divides both x and y. Dickson's Introduction to the Theory of 4042. y. Theorem The elements 3. k\ = bhi.
wz /& = Zu ft (1 + 2u) = ft 2 w  1 . By the proof above + ^2 = for hi in E. E. This completes our discussion of ideals and of quadratic fields. Note that 1 has a basis 1. u over E in this sense." in Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. it be an integer of E in M so that c c = r. Let us begin with references to standard topics on matrices not covered in our introductory exposition. r where r = Hence divisible 1 3. Thus we may call wi. V . M. For otherwise 3 2 = J and hence M M 1. the elements of We have proved that J J M are the residue M equivalent to E is classes 0. (60) h = ftiWi + w ft 2 We have thus proved that consists of all quantities of the form (60) for hi and ft 2 ordinary integers. (59) wi is = ft 3 . It may be shown that every ideal of J has a basis of two elements over E. Then k = cwi + fc 2w 2 + r = fci + fc 2 M M { } r (M). w 2 a basis of over E. 2u)c for b and c in J. and \d} 7 = + (1 + 2u)7c is = = {!}. M a divisorless ideal of J.h 3fti 2 ft 2 w2 = hQ + h* in E and M. 2. XLIII (1938). See also pages 7476 and Chapter VI of L. 2. 3<j + 0. But 1 2w does not divide a contradiction. 2 such that 3 { = 0. Both of these texts as well as Chapters III. Dickson's Modern Algebraic Theories. IV. 1.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1 131 or 1 216 7. For a discussion clude. of J. If /i in in M . and of the Modern Higher Algebra inof course. H. We now proceed to prove that M + is a divisorless ideal of a prime ideal of J. 1. We have shown that is not a principal ideal and does not contain Since contains 3 but not 1 it cannot contain 2. is 3} and is a field. then = + Aau for ft and m E. all the material of our Chapters IIV. (1 Then 1 = 36 + 2u)[fc(l  2u) + (1 + + 7c]. 1 would be r in M. Let Since c M contains 3g contains 3q = the ordinary integers in M are by The ideal M contains 3 and + 2u and so contains = 0. We shall conclude our text with the following brief bibliographical summary. 1. Wedderburn's Lectures on Matrices. and Chapter VI of J. Every integer of / has the form k = ki + k^u = ki + fc 2w 2 + fo. The theory of orthogonal and unitary equivalence of symmetric matrices is contained with generalizations in Chapter of the Modern Higher Algebra and is further generalized and connected with ' V the theory of equivalence of pairs of matrices in the author's paper entitled 'Symmetric and Alternate Matrices in an Arbitrary Field. 386436. Write = 3c + r for c in E and r = 0.
1940). The units of the ring of integers of a quadratic field are discussed on page 233 of R. C.132 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES without details but with complete references of many other topics on maMacDuffee. II. No. See also the much more extensive treatment in Van der Waerden's Moderne Algebra. We close with a reference to the only recent book in English on algebraic number theory. and the theory of ideals in Chapter XI. 110]). trices see C. . 5 [pp. Fricke's Algebra. H." Vol. Hecke's Theorie der algebrdischen Zahlen. Volume III. Weyl's Algebraic Theory of Numbers (Princeton. The Theory of Matrices ("Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete. The theory of rings as given here is contained in the detailed discussion of Chapters I and II of the Modern Higher Algebra. and its ideals on pages 10610 of H.
23 matrix. 14. 2. 27 equation. 97 polynomials. 110 inverse. 57 Difference ring. 49 skew.INDEX Abelian group.. 21 Complex conjugate. right. 113 Complementary minor. 98 Commutative : group. 19 Augmented Basis. 122 Coordinate. 101 of a field. 48 Degree of: matrix of. 72 Division. 23 Difference. 20 rank. 117 Distributive law. 97 a term. 67 Determinant. 80 Automorphism. Diagonal : matrix. 46 Algebraic integers. 64 Bibliography. 53 symmetric. 31 Cofactor. 2. 113 Divisors of zero. 54 types of. 6 zero polynomial. 52 mappings. 59 Additive group. 28 Cogredient elementary transformations. 75 field of. 115 Complex numbers. 107. 38 matrix. 27 of a product. 77 : Division algorithm for: Gauss numbers. 111 Adjoint matrix. 60 Divisibility. 56 of Gauss. 2 Dependent vectors. 113 Element : submatrix. 127 Composite quantity. 67 Associative law. 1. 29 rank of. left.. 97 blocks. 26 order of. 7. 73 Definite symmetric matrix. 110 Addition of matrices. 107 identity. 27 spaces. 101 Closure. 124 Associated quantities. 66 Correspondence. 37 ring.. 51 : Column elements. 51 quantities. 116 Conjunctive matrices. 115 : of a matrix. 4 Division ring. 44 trowed. 8 Coefficient. 114 Diag {Ai.. 115 Congruent: matrices. 14 Characteristic : a polynomial. 131 Bilinear form. 117 matric polynomials. 108 Constant. 29 of a matrix. 127 integers. 49 rank of. 110 133 . 72 space. 110 matrices.
120 Field. 109 abelian. 9 process. 91 Inverse element. 117 principal. 94 matrix. 13. 3. 117 Elementary transformations. 92 Groups. 110 linear spaces. 46 matrix. 56. 79 Equivalence. 74 Equivalence of: prime. 24. 101 Fundamental Theorem Galois group. 116 bilinear forms. 7. 67 space. 110 cyclic. 43 Equations. 110 zero element of. 110 subgroup of. 114 characteristic of. 127 Gauss numbers. 83 nonsingular. 19. 89. 97 minimum. 49 Identity: forms. 121 generating quantity 121 mapping. 38 Linear mappings. 52 matrices of. 66. 25 cogredient. 110 matrix. 17 product of. 47. 15 independence. 59 Euclid's process. 122 of Arithmetic. 36. 9 of Gauss numbers. 111 order of a. 118 of polynomials. 8 Left division. 73 characteristic. 10 Euler's theorem. 82 cogredient. 110 Homogeneous polynomial. 124 matrices. 71 Linear change of variables. systems of. 7 Ideal. 46 matrix of. 36 . 118 97 Leading form. 116 divisorless. 17 groups. 1 complex numbers. 67 form. 112. 3. 30 Independent vectors. 120 Factor theorem. 110 additive. see also Bilinear forms Function. 73. 74 subspace. 15 dependence. 127 General linear space. 51 inverse of. 110 : degree of. 111 commutative. 74 Greatest common divisor. 17. 117 Integral domains. Invariant factors. 74 element. 56 of. 98 virtual. 113 zero. 92 quadratic forms. 128 of integers. 116 unit. 10 Group. 5. 114 of congruent. 113 order of a subgroup of. 101 Leading coefficient. 120 ordinary. 99 Fermat theorem. 110 combination. Length preserving transformation. 115 Forms. equivalence of. 67 Integers: algebraic. Linear: Gauss integers. 112 Elementary: divisors.134 Element INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES continued unity. 116 zero. 114 Integral operations. 66. 45 Irreducible quantities. 17.
108 conjunctive. 30 invariant factors inverse of a of. 49 characteristic. 45 function divisibility of. 1 of. 108 identity. rows skewHermitian. 20 30 skew. 32 rectangular. 111 a linear space. 43 elements of. 92 of an elementary transformation.d. 36 34. 100 108 form. 29 diagonal of. 108 equivalent. minimum 101 equal. 9 homogeneous. 20 of. 87 elementary. 103 linear transformation. 108 square. 123 of a vector. 37 symmetric. 19 Order of: a group. 7. 5 coefficients of. Matrices: addition see Linear mappings of. 27 Monic polynomial. 19 nic. 52 scalar. 53. 101 congruent pairs of. 91 degree of. 47. 89. monic. 36. 55 in a field. 86 characteristic function of a. 21 Point. 66 products of. 5 mapping. 34 Matrix : adjoint of. 20 Mappings. 51 Minimum function. 6 97 constant. 5 g. 13 : orthogonally equivalent. 71 Orthogonal: matrices. 52. determinant diagonal. 84 matrix. 92 equivalent pairs orthogonal.c. 87 23 of. 84 orthogonal. 108 zero. 29 unitary. 23 identically equal. 71 Linear transformations. 47 Nonsingular rationally equivalent. 3. 25. 86 diagonal elements 23 vectors. 86 columns of. 85. 80 of a bilinear form. 20 equal. 22 triangular. 108 mapping. 84 unitary equivalent.INDEX Linear space. 5 nary qic 3. 6 rank of. 100 13 . Minors. 27 subspaces. 67 order of. 34 partitioning of. Hermitian. 59 commutative. 66. similar. 21 principal diagonal of. 71. 86 of. 29 augmented. 101 of coefficients. 110 a group element. of. 2. 83 of. Multiple roots. transformations. 86 135 of. 59. 7 nonsingular. 108 7idimensional space. 66 Polynomials : associated. 2 factors of. 74 basis of. 30 congruent. 64 transpose of. 101 Norm Norm quadratic form.
55 real. 67 Subfield. 44 quadratic form. 11 irreducible. 64 Reflection. 100 product. 11 roots of. 121 Quartic form. 21 complementary. 114 Quinary form. 98 matrix. 64 index of. 32 product. 2. 110 Submatrix. 37 Quartic field.136 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Rational: equivalence. 11 quantities. 49 Similar matrices. 8 operations. 112 commutative. 59 Quantities: associated. 12 relatively prime. 87 Row. 3 gary. 52 matrix. 13 Quotient. 6. 5 multiple. 5 scalar. 62 negative. 57 right. 4. 85. left. 64 nonsingular. 117 division. 41 Scalars. 1 Positive form. 6 quadratic form. 72 space. 72 right. 62 quaternions. 69. 115 prime. 115 congruent. 13 Quaternions. 64 Sequence: elements zero. 13 rationally irreducible. 54 row space. 46 bilinear form. 115 composite. 21 . 25 functions. 116 Right division. 98 Ring. 115 relatively prime. 57 Quaternary form. 5 Rotation of axes. 98 Residue classes. 54 definite. 113 residue class. left. 6. matrices. 124 Quadratic form. 114 symmetric matrix. 16 Rank a a a a a of: an adjoint matrix. 16. subgroup. 113 difference. Row by Scalar: column rule. 13 Quasifield. 115 Primitive root. 121 integers of. 8 Real: Polynomials continued products of. 30 polynomial. 72 Space. 115 Remainder : Quadratic field. equivalent. see Linear space Spanning a space. 53 Skew matrices. 103 Skew forms. 100 in several variables. 64 Prime to a polynomial. 16 of. 115 98 theorem. 97 zero. 121 Principal diagonal. 19 Selfequivalence. 23 Relatively prime: polynomials. 117 Roots. 107 Semidefinite forms. 62 Quadratic forms. 11 Prime quantity. 69 rank. 87 virtual degree of.
116 matrix. 113 Variables. of. 67 Symmetric bilinear forms. norm zero. 113 Transformations. 115. 118. 127 polynomial. 87 66 97 definiteness of. 84 Transpose. 62 element. 2. 37 of a sum. 77 complementary. 64 Ternary forms. 16 space. 53 congruence of. 77 Subsystems. 67 . 110 Subtraction. 13 Unique factorization. 123 Virtual degree. 6. 1 sequence. 30 Unary form. 38 sum of. Unit 116 Subspaces. change of. 112. 113 137 ideal. 66. 113 ideal. 13 Trace. Zero: divisors of. 54 Symmetric matrices. 52. 97 Virtual leading coefficient. 115 Unity element. 22 of a product. 77 Units. 75. 66 linearly independent.INDEX Subring. 86 59 orthogonal. 3. 112 Vectors.
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