# DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

Digital Modulation Formats
Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristic of a carrier is varied in accordance with a modulating wave With a sinusoidal carrier, the feature that is used by the modulator to distinguish one signal from another is a step change in amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier The result of this modulation process is
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Phase-shift keying (PSK)

Digital Modulation Formats

Digital Modulation Formats The scheme that attains as many of the following design goals as possible Maximum data rate Minimum probability of symbol error Minimum transmitted power Minimum channel bandwidth Maximum resistance to interfering signals Minimum circuit complexity .

are defined s1 (t ) = s2 (t ) = 2 Eb cos(2πf c t ) Tb 2 Eb 2 Eb cos(2πf c t + π ) = − cos(2πf c t ) Tb Tb 0≤ t ≤ Tb and Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit . used to represent binary symbols 1 and 0. respectively.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK The pair of signal s1(t) and s2(t).

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK The basis function 2 φ1 (t ) = cos(2πf c t ) Tb 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb We may expand the transmitted signal s1(t) and s2(t) in terms of Φ1(t) s1 (t ) = Eb φ1 (t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb s 2 (t ) = − Eb φ1 (t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK The coordinates of the message point equal s11 = ∫ s1 (t )φ1 (t )dt = + Eb 0 Tb s 21 = ∫ s 2 (t )φ1 (t )dt = − Eb 0 Tb .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK The probability of symbol error ⎛ Eb ⎞ 1 ⎟ Pe = erfc⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ 2 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary PSK .

2. symbols 1 and 0 are distinguished from each other by transmitting one of two sinusoidal waves that differ in frequency by a fixed amount ⎧ 2 Eb ⎪ si (t ) = ⎨ Tb cos(2πf i t ) ⎪ 0 ⎩ 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb elsewhere Where i = 1.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK In binary FSK system. symbol 1 is represented by s1(t) and symbol 0 by s2(t) Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit Transmitted frequency fi = nc + i Tb .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK The most useful form for the set of orthonormal basis functions is ⎧ 2 ⎪ φi (t ) = ⎨ Tb cos(2πf i t ) ⎪ 0 ⎩ 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb elsewhere .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK The coefficient sij for i = 1. 2 is defined sij = ∫ si (t )φ j (t )dt 0 Tb =∫ Tb 0 2 Eb 2 cos(2πf i t ) cos(2πf i t )dt Tb Tb ⎧ Eb ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ i= j i≠ j . 2 and j = 1.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK The two message points are defined by the signal vectors ⎡ Eb ⎤ s1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎡ 0 ⎤ s2 = ⎢ Eb ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .

are defined by.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK The observation vector x has two elements. respectively x1 = ∫ x(t ) 1 (t )dt φ Tb 0 x 2 = ∫ x(t ) 2 (t )dt φ Tb 0 . x1 and x2.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK Define a new Gaussian random variable L whose sample value l is equal to the difference between x1 and x2 l = x1 − x2 The mean value of L depends on which binary symbol was transmitted .

is E[L | 1] = E[X 1 | 1] − E[X 2 | 1] = + Eb On the other hands. E[L | 0] = E[X 1 | 0] − E[X 2 | 0] = − Eb .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK The conditional mean of the random variable L. given that symbol 1 was transmitted.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK The variance of the random variable L is independent of which symbol was transmitted Since the random variable X1 and X2 are statistical independent. each with a variance equal to N0/2 Var[L] = Var[X 1 ] + Var[X 2 ] = N0 .

the corresponding value of the conditional probability density function of random variable L equals ⎡ l+ E 1 b f L (L | 0 ) = exp ⎢− 2N0 2πN 0 ⎢ ⎣ ( )⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎦ .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK Suppose that symbol 0 was transmitted.

corresponds to the receiver making a decision in favor of symbol 1. the conditional probability of error.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK Since the condition x1 > x2. given that symbol was transmitted is given by Pe (0) = P(l > 0) ∞ = ∫ f L (l | 0)dl 0 ⎡ l+ E ∞ 1 b exp ⎢− = 2N0 2πN 0 ∫0 ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎤dl ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎦ . L > 0. equivalently. or.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent binary FSK Put l + Eb 2N 0 =z We may rewrite Pe (0) = 1 π ∫ ∞ Eb 2 N 0 exp − z 2 dz ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ( ) ⎛ Eb 1 = erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N 2 0 ⎝ .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques
Coherent binary FSK
Probability of symbol error
⎛ E 1 b Pe = erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N0 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques
Coherent binary FSK

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques
Coherent binary FSK

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Coherent quadrature-modulation techniques The quadrature-carrier multiplexing system produces a modulated wave described as s (t ) = s I (t ) cos(2πf c t ) − s Q (t ) sin (2πf c t ) sI(t) is the in-phase component of the modulated wave sQ(t) is the quadrature component .

5π/4. E is the transmitted signal energy per symbol T is the symbol duration. and the carrier frequency fc equals nc/T for some fixed integer nc . 3. such as π/4. 7π/4 ⎧ 2E π⎤ ⎡ ⎪ cos ⎢2πf c t + (2i − 1) ⎥ s i (t ) = ⎨ T 4⎦ ⎣ ⎪ 0 ⎩ 0≤t ≤T elsewhere i = 1. 2. 3π/4. 4. the phase of the carrier takes on one of four equally space values.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) In QPSK.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) We may rewrite ⎧ 2E π⎤ ⎡ cos ⎢(2i − 1) ⎥ cos(2πf c t ) ⎪ 4⎦ ⎣ ⎪ T ⎪ 2E π⎤ ⎡ si (t ) = ⎨ sin ⎢(2i − 1) ⎥ sin (2πf c t ) − T 4⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ 0≤t ≤T elsewhere .

contained in the expansion of si(t) 2 φ1 (t ) = cos(2πf c t ) T 2 φ 2 (t ) = sin (2πf c t ) T 0≤t ≤T 0≤t ≤T . Φ1(t) and Φ2(t).Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadiphase-shift keying (QPSK) There are only two orhtonormal basis functions.

3.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) There are four message points. and the associated signal vectors are defined by ⎡ π⎞⎤ ⎛ E cos⎜ (2i − 1) ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ 4⎠ ⎥ ⎝ si = ⎢ ⎢− E sin ⎛ (2i − 1) π ⎞⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎣ i = 1.2.4 .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadraphase-shift keying (QPSK) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) .

x(t).2.3.4 w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2 .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) The received signal. is defined by x(t ) = si (t ) + w(t ) 0≤t ≤T i = 1.

x.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) The observation vector. of a coherent QPSK receiver has two elements. x1 and x2 π⎤ ⎡ x1 (t ) = ∫ x(t )φ1 (t )dt = E cos (2i − 1) ⎢ ⎥ + w1 0 4⎦ ⎣ T π x 2 (t ) = ∫ x(t )φ 2 (t )dt = − E sin ⎡(2i − 1) ⎤ + w2 0 ⎢ 4⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T x1 and x2 are sample values of independent Gaussian random variables with mean values equal to E cos[( 2i − 1) π 4] E sin[( 2i − 1) π 4] with common variance equal to N0/2 .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) .

Pc.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) The probability of correct detection . equals the conditional probability of joint event x1> 0 and x2> 0. fiven that signal s4(t) was transmitted .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) Since the random variables X1 and X2 are (with sample value x1 and x2. Pc also equals the product of the conditional probabilities of the events x1> 0 and x2> 0. both given s4(t) was transmitted Pc = ∫ ∞ 0 ⎡ x − E 2 2⎤ ⎡ x − E 2 2⎤ ∞ 1 1 ⎥ dx1 ⋅ ∫ ⎥ dx 2 exp ⎢− 1 exp ⎢− 2 0 N0 N0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ πN 0 πN 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) . respectively) are independent.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) Let x1 − E 2 N0 = x2 − E 2 N0 =z We may rewrite ⎛ 1 Pe = ⎜ ⎝ π ∫ ∞ − Eb ⎞ exp − z dz ⎟ 2 N0 ⎠ ( 2 ) 2 .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) Since 1 π ∫ ∞ − Eb ⎛ E 1 exp − z dz = 1 − erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N 2 N0 2 0 ⎝ ( 2 ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ We have ⎡ 1 ⎛ E ⎜ Pc = ⎢1 − erfc⎜ ⎢ 2 ⎝ 2 EN 0 ⎣ ⎛ E = 1 − erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N 0 ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ 2 ⎛ E ⎞ 1 2 ⎟ + erfc ⎜ ⎜ 2N ⎟ 4 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) The average probability of symbol error for coherent QPSK is Pe = 1 − Pc ⎛ E = erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N 0 ⎝ ⎞ 1 ⎛ E 2 ⎟ − erfc ⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎜ 2N 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) If E/2N0 >> 1. the average probability of symbol error for coherent QPSK as ⎛ E ⎞ ⎟ Pe ≈ erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

This mean that the transmitted signal energy per symbol is twice the signal energy per bit. that is E = 2 Eb We may expressthe average probability of symbol error in terms of the ratio Eb/N0 ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎟ Pe ≈ erfc⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) In QPSK system. there are two bits per symbol.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) .

which is defined for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ T. as follows ⎧ 2 Eb cos[2πf1t + θ (0)] ⎪ ⎪ Tb s (t ) = ⎨ ⎪ 2 Eb cos[2πf t + θ (0)] 2 ⎪ Tb ⎩ for symbol 1 for symbol 0 Eb is the transmitted sinal energy per bit. and Tb is the bit duration .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) Consider a continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) signal.

denoting the value of the phase at time t = 0.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum shift Keying (MSK) The phase θ(0). respectively . depends on the past history of the modulation process The frequencies f1 and f2 are sent in response to binary symbols 1 and 0 appearing at the modulator input.

the modulated wave s(t) itseft is also continuous at all times.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) Signal s(t) may be expressed in the conventional form of an angle-modulated wave 2 Eb s (t ) = cos[2πf c t + θ (t )] Tb where θ(t) is the phase of s(t) when the phase θ(t) is a continuous function of time. including the inter-bit switching time .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) The nominal carrier frequency fc is chosen as the arithmetic mean of the two frequencies f1 and f2 1 f c = ( f1 + f 2 ) 2 The phase θ(t) of a CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds θ (t ) = θ (0) ± πh Tb t 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb .

and the minus sign corresponds to sending symbol 0 The parameter is referred to as the deviation ratio.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying The phase θ(t) of a CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds θ (t ) = θ (0) ± πh Tb t 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb The plus sign corresponds to sending symbol 1. measured with respect to the bit rate 1/Tb h = Tb ( f 1 − f 2 ) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying At the time t = Tb ⎧ πh θ (Tb ) − θ (0) = ⎨ ⎩− πh for symbol 1 for symbol 0 .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) .

we may express the CPFSK signal s(t) in terms of its in-phase and quadrature components as follows 2 Eb 2 Eb s (t ) = cos[θ (t )]cos(2πf ct ) − sin[θ (t )]sin (2πf c t ) Tb Tb .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) Using a well-known trigonometic identity.

the polarity of cos[θ(t)] depends only on θ(0). depending on the past history of the modulation process.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) With deviation ratio h = ½ θ (t ) = θ (0) ± π 2Tb t 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb The plus sign corresponds to symbol 1 and the minus sign corresponds to symbol 0 A similar result holds for θ(t) in the interval -Tb≤ t ≤ 0 Since the phase θ(0) is 0 or π. regardless of the sequence of 1s or 0s transmitted before or after t = 0 . in the interval Tb≤ t ≤ +Tb .

sI(t) consists of a half-cosine pulse defined as follows s (t ) = 2 Eb cos[θ (t )] Tb ⎛ π ⎞ 2 Eb cos[θ (t )]cos⎜ = ⎟ ⎜ 2T t ⎟ Tb ⎝ b ⎠ ⎛ π ⎞ 2 Eb cos⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2T t ⎟ Tb ⎝ b ⎠ − Tb ≤ t ≤ Tb =± the plus sign corresponds to θ(0) = 0.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) For this time interval -Tb≤ t ≤ +Tb. and minus sign corresponds to θ(0) = π . the in-phase component.

sQ(t). consists of a half-sine pulse.Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) In the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 2Tb. whose polarity depends only on θ(Tb) 2 Eb sQ (t ) = sin[θ (t )] Tb = =± ⎛ π 2 Eb sin[θ (Tb )]sin ⎜ ⎜ 2T Tb ⎝ b ⎛ π ⎞ 2 Eb sin ⎜ ⎜ 2T t ⎟ ⎟ Tb ⎝ b ⎠ ⎞ t⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0 ≤ t ≤ 2Tb the plus sign corresponds to θ(Tb) = π/2 and the minus sign corresponds to θ(Tb) = -π/2 . the quadrature component.

.e. the frequency deviation (i. to be cohenrently orthogonal in the sense that they do not interfere with one another n the process of detection CPFSK signal with a deviation ratio of one-half is referred to as minimum-shift keying (MSK) .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) With h = 1/2 . the difference between the two signaling frequencies f1 and f2) equals half of bit rate This is the minimum frequency spacing that allows the two FSK signals representing symbols 1 and 0.

modulo 2π).Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) One of four possibilities can arise. corresponding to the transmission of symbol 1 The phase θ(0) = π and θ(Tb) = π/2. as described The phase θ(0) = 0 and θ(Tb) = π/2. 3π/2. corresponding to the transmission of symbol 0 . corresponding to the transmission of symbol 0 The phase θ(0) = π and θ(Tb) = .π/2.π/2 (or. corresponding to the transmission of symbol 1 The phase θ(0) = 0 and θ(0) = . equivalently.

the appropriate form for the orthonormal basis functions Φ1(t) and Φ2(t) is as follows ⎛ π ⎞ 2 φ1 (t ) = cos⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2T t ⎟ cos(2πf c t ) Tb ⎝ b ⎠ ⎛ π ⎞ 2 φ2 (t ) = sin⎜ ⎜ 2T t ⎟ sin (2πf ct ) ⎟ Tb ⎝ b ⎠ − Tb ≤ t ≤ Tb 0 ≤ t ≤ 2Tb Both Φ1(t) and Φ2(t) are defined for a period equal to twice the bit duration .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying In MSK signal.

we may express the MSK signal in the form s(t ) = s1φ1 (t ) + s 2φ 2 (t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb The coefficients s1 and s2 are related to the phase states θ(0) and θ(Tb).Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying Correspondingly. respectively .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying The in phase component of s(t) s1 = ∫ s (t )φ1 (t ) dt T −Tb = Eb cos[θ (0)] − Tb ≤ t ≤ Tb The quadrature component of s(t) s2 = ∫ 2Tb 0 s(t )φ 2 (t )dt 0 ≤ t ≤ 2Tb = − Eb sin[θ (Tb )] .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying Both integrals are evaluated for a time interval equal to twice the bit duration. for which the phase state θ(0) and θ(Tb) are defined is common to both integrals . for which Φ1(t) and Φ2(t) are orthogonal Both the lower and upper limits of the product integration used to evaluate th coefficient s1 are shifted by Tb seconds with respect to those used to evaluate the coefficient s2 The time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb.

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) .

and w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2 .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying In a case of an AWGN channel. the received signal is given by x (t ) = s (t ) + w(t ) s(t) is the transmitted MSK signal.

we have to determine the projection of the received signal x(t) onto the reference signal Φ1(t) and Φ2(t) .Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying In order to decide whether symbol 1 or symbol 0 was transmitted in the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb. we have to establish a procedure for the use of x(t) to detect the phase states θ(0) and θ(Tb) For optimum detection of θ(0).

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying x1 = ∫ x(t )φ1 (t )dt −Tb Tb = s1 + w1 x2 = ∫ 2Tb − Tb ≤ t ≤ Tb 0 x(t )φ 2 t )dt 0 ≤ t ≤ 2Tb = s 2 + w2 .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying The average symbol error for the MSK is given by ⎛ Eb ⎞ 1 ⎛ Eb ⎞ 2 ⎟ − erfc ⎜ ⎟ Pe = erfc⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ 4 ⎜ N ⎟ 0 ⎠ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ Eb ⎞ ⎟ Pe ≈ erfc⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) .

Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) .

one of these two signals is sent over an imperfect channel that shifts the carrier phase by an unknown amount . which have equal energy During the interval 0≤ t ≤ T.Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Consider a binary signaling scheme that involves the use of two orthogonal signal s1(t) and s2(t).

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Let g1(t) and g2(t) denote the phase-shifted versions of s1(t) and s2(t). respectively It is assumed that g1(t) and g2(t) remain orthogonal and of equal energy. regardless of the unknown carrier phase We refer to such a signaling scheme as noncoherent orthogonal modulation .

regardless of the carrier phase .Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The channel also introduces an AWGN w(t) of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2 We may express the received signal x(t) as ⎧ g1 (t ) + w(t ) x(t ) = ⎨ ⎩ g 2 (t ) + w(t ) 0≤t ≤T 0≤t ≤T x(t) is used to discriminate between s1(t) and s2(t) .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The receiver consists of a pair of filters matched to the basis function Φ1(t) and Φ2(t) that are scaled versions of the transmitted signal s1(t) and s2(t). respectively Because the carrier phase is unknown. the matched filter outputs are envelope detected. sampled. . and then compared with each other. the receiver relies on amplitude as the only possible discriminant Accordingly.

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation .

the receiver signal x(t) is correlated against the basis function Φi(t). Φi(t) and φi (t ) are orthogonal to each other . representing the version of Φi(t) that results from shifting the carrier phase by -900 ˆ Naturally. representing a scaled version of the transmitted signal s1(t) or s2(t) with zero carrier phase.Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The quadrature receiver itself has two path In in-phase path. In the quadrature path. signal x(t) is correlated against ˆ another basis function φi (t ).

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation .

noise at the output of each matched filter has two degrees of freedom. xQ2 The first tow account for degrees of freedom associated with the upper path The latter two account for degrees of freedom associated with the lower path . namely.Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The average probability of error for the noncoherent receiver will be calculated by making use of the equivalence depicted previous picture Since the carrier phase is unknown. the noncoherent receiver has a total of four noise parameters that are statistical independent and identically distributed. xQ1. xI2. Accordingly. inphase and quadrature. denoted by xI1.

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Since the receiver has a symmetric structure. the probability of choosing s2(t). is the same as the probability of choosing s1(t). given that s1(t) was transmitted. or vice versa . given that s2(t) was transmitted This means that the average probability of error may be obtained by transmitting s1(t) and calculating the probability of choosing s2(t).

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Suppose that signal s1(t) is transmitted for the interval 0≤ t ≤ T. an error occurs if the receiver noise w(t) is such that the output l2 is greater than the output l1 The receiver makes a decision in favor of s2(t) rather than s1(t) .

Since the filter in the lower path is matched to s2(t). and s2(t) is orthogonal to the transmitted signal s1(t). it follows that the output of this matched filter is due to noise alone.Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation To calculate the probability of error. we must have the probability density function of the random variable L2 (represented by sample value l2). .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Let xI2 and xQ2 denote the in-phase and quadrature components of the matched filter output in the lower path For i = 2 2 l 2 = x I22 + xQ 2 .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The random variables XI2 and XQ2 are both Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance N0/2 ⎛ x I22 ⎞ 1 ⎟ exp⎜ − f X ( xI 2 ) = ⎜ N ⎟ πN 0 0 ⎠ ⎝ I2 2 ⎛ xQ 2 1 exp⎜ − f X Q 2 ( xQ 2 ) = ⎜ N0 πN 0 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Random variable L2 has the following probability density function 2 ⎧ 2l 2 ⎛ l2 ⎞ ⎪ exp⎜ − ⎜ N ⎟ ⎟ f L 2 (l 2 ) = ⎨ N 0 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎪ 0 ⎩ l2 ≥ 0 elsewhere .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The conditional probability that l2 > l1. given the sample value l1. is defined P (l2 > l1 | l1 ) = ∫ f L 2 (l2 ) dl2 l1 ∞ ⎛ l12 P(l 2 > l1 | l1 ) = exp⎜ − ⎜ 0 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques
Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since the filter in the path is matched to s1(t), and it is assumed that s1(t) is transmitted, it follows that l1 is due to signal plus noise Let xi1 and xQ1 denote the components at the output of the matched filter (in the upper path) that are in-phase and quadrature to the received signal
2 l1 = x I21 + xQ1

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques
Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
ˆ Since s1 (t ) is orthogonal to s1(t), it is obvious that xI1 is due to signal plus noise, whareas xQ1 is due to noise alone.
XI1 represented by sample value xI1 is Gaussian distributed with mean E and variance N0/2, where E is the signal energy per symbol XQ1 represented by sample xQ1 is Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance N0/2

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques
Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The probability density functions of these two independent random variable

⎛ x − E 1 exp⎜ − I 1 f X I 1 ( xI 1 ) = ⎜ N0 πN 0 ⎝
2 ⎛ xQ1 ⎞ 1 ⎟ exp⎜ − f X Q ( xQ1 ) = ⎜ N ⎟ 1 πN 0 0 ⎠ ⎝

(

)⎞ ⎟
2

⎟ ⎠

their joint probability density function is simply the product of the probability density functions of two random variable .Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Since the tow random variable XI1 and XQ1 are independent.

we have to average the conditional probability of error over all possible values of l1 Given xI1 and xQ1. an error occurs when the lower path’s output amplitude l2 due to noise alone exceeds l1 due to signal plus noise .Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation To find the average probability of error.

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The probability of such an occurrence is 2 ⎛ x I21 + xQ1 ⎞ ⎟ P (error x I 1 . xQ1 ) = exp⎜ − ⎜ N0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ P error x I 1 . xQ1 f X I 1 ( x I 1 ) f X Q1 ( xQ1 ) ⎧ 1 2 1 2 2 ⎫ exp⎨− x I 1 + xQ1 + ( x I 1 − E ) 2 + xQ1 ⎬ = πN 0 ⎩ N0 ⎭ ( ) [ ] .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Non-coherent Orthogonal Modulation Since x +x 2 I1 2 Q1 + ( xI1 − E ) + x 2 2 Q1 ⎛ E⎞ E 2 ⎜ xI1 − ⎟ + 2 xQ1 + = 2⎜ 2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 .

xQ1 f X I 1 ( x I 1 ) f X Q1 ( xQ1 )dx I 1 dxQ1 ) 2 2 ⎡ 2 ⎛ ⎛ 2 xQ1 ⎞ ∞ ⎛ 1 E ⎞ ∞ E⎞ ⎤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ exp⎜ − = ⎜ 2 N ⎟ ∫−∞ exp ⎢− N ⎜ x I 1 − 2 ⎟ ⎥dx I 1 ∫−∞ exp⎜ − N ⎟dxQ1 ⎟ πN 0 ⎢ 0 ⎠ 0 ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ .Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation The average probability of error Pe = ∫ ∞ −∞ −∞ ∫ p(error x ∞ I1 .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Since 2 ⎡ 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎤ E ⎜ xI1 − ⎟ ⎥dx I 1 = exp ⎢− ∫−∞ ⎢ N 0 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ∞ N 0π 2 2 ⎛ 2 xQ1 ⎞ ∫−∞ exp⎜ − N 0 ⎟dxQ1 = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∞ N 0π 2 .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation Accordingly ⎛ E ⎞ 1 Pe = exp⎜ − ⎜ 2N ⎟ ⎟ 2 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Binary FSK In the case of binary FSK ⎧ 2 Eb ⎪ cos(2πf i t ) si (t ) = ⎨ Tb ⎪ 0 ⎩ 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Noncoherent Binary FSK The noncoherent binary FSK described is a special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with T = Tb E = Eb The probability of error ⎛ Eb ⎞ 1 Pe = exp⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ 2N ⎟ 2 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

to send symbol 0 we phase advance the current signal waveform by 1800. and to send symbol 1 we leave the phase of the current signal waveform unchanged .Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) DPSK eliminates the need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver by combining two basic operations at the transmitter Differential encoding of the input binary wave Phase-shift keying In effect.

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) .

and thereafter the differentially encoded sequence {dk} si generated by d k = d k −1bk + d k −1bk Bk is the input binary digit at time KTb Dk-1 is the previous value of the differentially encoded bit . serving as reference.Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) The differential encoding process at the transmitter input starts with an arbitrary first bit.

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) The receiver is equipped with a storage capability. the phase difference between waveforms received in two successive bit intervals will be independent of θ . slow enough for it to be considered essentially constant over two bit intervals). so that it can measure the relative phase difference between the waveforms received during two successive bit intervals Assumed that the unknown phase θ contained in the received wave varies slowly (that is.

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) Let s1(t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal in the case of symbol 1 at the transmitter input ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ s1 (t ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 2 Eb cos(2πf i t ) 2Tb 2 Eb cos(2πf i t ) 2Tb 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb Tb ≤ t ≤ 2Tb .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) Let s2(t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal in the case symbol 0 at the transmitter input ⎧ 2 Eb cos(2πf i t ) ⎪ 2Tb ⎪ s 2 (t ) = ⎨ ⎪ 2 E b cos(2πf t + π ) i ⎪ 2Tb ⎩ 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb Tb ≤ t ≤ 2Tb .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) s1(t) and s2(t) are orthogonal over the twobit interval 0≤ t ≤ 2Tb DPSK is a special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with T = 2Tb E = 2 Eb .

Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK) The probability of symbol error ⎛ Eb ⎞ 1 Pe = exp⎜ − ⎜ N ⎟ ⎟ 2 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

we may send one of M possible signals. Thus we have: M-ary ASK M-ary PSK M-ary FSK The symbol duration T = nTb .M-Ary Modulation Techniques In M-ary signaling scheme. or frequency of a carrier in M discrete steps. s2(t). phase. sM(t). s1(t). during each signaling interval of duration T In almost applications M = 2n These signal are generated by changing amplitude. ….

. θi = 2iπ/M. ….M − 1 E is the signal energy per symbol Carrier frequency fc = nc/T for some fixed integer nc . one of possible signals si (t ) = 2E 2πi ⎞ ⎛ cos⎜ 2πf c t + ⎟ T M ⎠ ⎝ i = 0.. during each signaling interval of duration T. the phase of the carrier takes one of M possible values. M-1 Accordingly.1.. 1. where i = 0.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK In M-ary PSK.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK Each si(t) may be expanded in terms of two basis function φ1 (t ) = 2 cos(2πf c t ) T 0≤t ≤T 0≤t ≤T 2 φ2 (t ) = sin(2πf ct ) T .

The M message points are equally spaced on a circle of radius E .M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK The signal constellation of M-ary PSK is two dimensional. and center at the origin .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK .

….M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK The optimum receiver for coherent M-ary PSK includes a pair of correlators with reference signals in phase quadrature The two correlators outputs. M-1} that particular signal whose phase is closet to the estimate θˆ . denoted as xI and xQ. are fed into a phase discriminator that first computes the phase estimate x ˆ = tan −1 ⎛ Q ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ θ ⎜x ⎟ ⎝ I ⎠ The phase discriminator then selects from the set {si(t). i = 0.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK .

.1.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK In the presence of noise.M − 1 i = 0.M − 1 Where wI and wQ are samples of two independent Gaussian random variables WI and WQ whose is mean zero and common variance equals N0/2 . the decision-making process in the phase discriminator is based on the noisy input ⎛ 2πi ⎞ x I = E cos⎜ ⎟ + wI ⎝M ⎠ ⎛ 2πi ⎞ xQ = − E sin ⎜ ⎟ + wQ ⎝M ⎠ i = 0.1......

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK The message points exhibit circular symmetr Both random variables WI and WQ have a symmetric probability density function The average probability of symbol error Pe is independent of the particular signal si(t) is transmitted .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK We may simplify the calculation of Pe by setting θi = 0. respectively The decision region pertaining to this message point is bounded by the threshold θˆ = − π M below the Φ1(t)-axis and the threshold θˆ = + π M above the Φ1(t)-axis . which corresponds to the message point whose coordinates along the Φ1(t).and Φ2(t)-axes are E and 0.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK The probability of correct reception is Pc = ∫ π M −π M ˆ ˆ f Θ (θ )dθ ˆ f Θ (θ ) is the probability density function of the random variable whose sample value equals the ˆ phase discriminator output Θ produced in θ response to a received signal that consists of the signal s0(t) plus AWGN ⎛ WQ ˆ = tan −1 ⎜ θ ⎜ E +W I ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques
M-ary PSK
The probability density function f Θ (θˆ) has a known value. Especially, for − π ≤ θˆ ≤ π we may write
⎡ ⎤ E ˆ = 1 exp⎛ − E ⎞ + ˆ exp⎛ − E sin 2 θ ⎞ ⎢1 − 1 erfc⎛ E cos θ ⎞⎥ ˆ⎟ ˆ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ fΘ θ cos θ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ πN 0 2π 0 ⎠ 0 ⎝ ⎠⎣ 2 ⎝ 0 ⎠⎦ ⎝

()

M-Ary Modulation Techniques
M-ary PSK
ˆ A decision error is made if the angle θ falls outside − π M ≤ θˆ ≤ + π M

Pe = 1 − Pc
=∫
π M
−π M

ˆ ˆ f Θ (θ ) dθ

M-Ary Modulation Techniques
M-ary PSK
For large M and high values of E/N0, we may derive an approximate formula for Pe For high values of E/N0 and for θˆ < π 2 , we may use the approximation
⎛ E ˆ ⎞ ≈ N 0 1 exp⎛ − E cos 2 θ ⎞ ˆ⎟ ⎜ cos θ ⎟ erfc⎜ − ⎜ N ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ ˆ πE cos θ 0 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK We get ˆ f Θ (θ ) ≈ E ˆ exp⎛ − E sin 2 θ ⎞ ˆ⎟ ⎜ cos θ ⎜ N ⎟ πN 0 0 ⎝ ⎠ π M θˆ < π 2 E ˆ exp⎛ − E sin 2 θ ⎞dθ ˆ⎟ ˆ Pe ≈ 1 − ∫M cosθ ⎜ N 0 ⎜ ⎟ πN 0 −π ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ E ⎛ π ⎞⎞ ⎟ = erfc⎜ ⎜ N sin ⎜ M ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎠ 0 ⎝ .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary PSK .

This constraint manifests itself in a circular constellation for the message points However. if this constrained is removed. we get a new modulation scheme called M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) . in-phase and quadrature components of the modulated signal are interrelated in such a way that the envelope is constrained to remain constant. and the in-phase and quadrature components are thereby permitted to be independent.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM In an M-ary PSK system.

.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The signal constellation for M-ary QAM consists of a square lattice of message points.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The corresponding signal constellations the in-phase and quadarature components of the amplitude phase modulated wave are shown .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The general form of M-ary QAM is defined by the transmitted signal si (t ) = 2 E0 2 E0 ai cos((2πf c t ) + bi sin ((2πf c t ) T T 0≤t ≤T E0 is the energy of the signal with the lowest amplitude ai and bi are a pair of independent integers chosen in accordance with the location of the pertinent message point .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The signal si(t) can be expanded in terms of a pair of basis functions φ1 (t ) = 2 cos(2πf c t ) T 0≤t ≤T 0≤t ≤T 2 φ 2 (t ) = sin(2πf c t ) T .

L − 1) (− L + 3.− L + 1) (− L + 3. bi } = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ M M M ⎥ ⎢ (− L + 1. bi) is an element of the L-by-L matrix ( L = M ) ⎡ (− L + 1. L − 3) ⎥ ⎥ {ai . where (ai.− L + 1) L ( L − 1. L − 1) ⎤ ⎢ (− L + 1. L − 3) (− L + 3. L − 3) L ( L − 1.− L + 1)⎦ ⎣ .M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The coordinates of the ith message point are ai E and bi E . L − 1) L ( L − 1.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques
M-ary QAM
For example, for the 16-QAM whose signal constellation is
⎡ (− 3,3) ⎢ (− 3,1) {a i , bi } = ⎢ ⎢(− 3,−1) ⎢ ⎣(− 3,−3)

(− 1,3) (− 1,1) (− 1,−1) (− 1,−3)

(1,3) (1,1) (1,−1) (1,−3)

(3,3) ⎤ (3,1) ⎥ ⎥ (3,−1)⎥ (3,−3)⎥ ⎦

M-Ary Modulation Techniques
M-ary QAM

M-Ary Modulation Techniques
M-ary QAM
Since the in-phase and quadrature components of M-ary QAM are independent, the probability of correct detection for such a scheme may be written as
Pc = 1 − P

(

' 2 e

)

Where Pe' is the probability of symbol error for either component

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The signal constellation for the in-phase or quadrature component has a geometry similar to that for discrete pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) with a corresponding number of amplitude levels We may write ⎛ E0 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎟ P = ⎜1 − ⎟erfc⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ ⎝ L⎠ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ' e .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The probability of symbol error for M-ary QAM is given Pe = 1 − Pc = 1− 1− P ≈ 2 Pe' ' where it is assumed that Pe << 1 ( ' 2 e ) .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The probability of symbol error for M-ary QAM may be written ⎛ E0 ⎞ 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Pe ≈ 2⎜1 − ⎟erfc⎜ ⎜ N ⎟ M ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

we have ⎡ 2 E0 L 2 2⎤ E av = 2⎢ ∑ (2i − 1) ⎥ ⎣ L i =1 ⎦ .M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The transmitted energy in M-ary QAM is variable in that its instantaneous value depends on the particular symbol transmitted It is logical to express Pe in terms of the average value of the transmitted energy rather than E0 Assuming that the L amplitude levels of the inphase or quadrature component are equally likely.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM The limits of the summation take account of the symmetric nature of the pertinent amplitude levels around zero We get 2 L2 − 1 E 0 E av = 3 2(M − 1)E 0 = 3 ( ) .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM Accordingly. we may rewrite probability of symbol error in terms of Eav ⎛ 3Eav 1 ⎞ ⎛ Pe ≈ 2⎜1 − erfc⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2( M − 1) N M ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary QAM .

2. M The carrier frequency fc = nc/2T for some fixed integer nc The transmitted signals are of equal duration T and have equal energy E . the transmitted signals are defined by si (t ) = 2E ⎡π ⎤ cos ⎢ (nc + i )t ⎥ T ⎣T ⎦ 0≤t ≤T i = 1.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary FSK In an M-ary FSK scheme. ….

the signals are orthogonal ∫ T 0 si (t )s j (t )dt = 0 .M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary FSK Since the individual signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T Hz.

the receiver makes decisions based on the largest matched filter output . the optimum receiver consists of a bank of M correlators or matched filters At the sampling time t = KT.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary FSK For coherent M-ary FSK.

the bound becomes an equality . this bound becomes increasingly tight as E/N0 is increased For M = 2.M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary FSK An upper bound for the probability of symbol error ⎛ E 1 Pe ≤ ( M − 1)erfc⎜ ⎜ 2N 2 0 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ For fixed M.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques M-ary FSK The probability of symbol error for noncoherent of M-ary FSK is given ⎛ (−1) k +1 ⎛ M − 1⎞ kE ⎞ ⎜ Pe = ∑ ⎜ k ⎟ exp⎜ − (k + 1)N ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ k +1 ⎝ k =1 ⎠ 0 ⎠ ⎝ M −1 The upper bound on the probability of symbol error for noncoherent detection of M-ary FSK ⎛ E ⎞ M −1 exp⎜ − Pe ≤ ⎜ 2N ⎟ ⎟ 2 0 ⎠ ⎝ .

depending on the way in which the in-phase component sI(t) and the quadrature component sQ(t) are defined .M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra The description of a band-pass signal s(t) contains the definitions of ASK. PSK. and FSK signals.

] is real part of the expression contained inside the bracket .M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power Spectra We may express s(t) in the form s(t ) = s I (t ) cos(2πf c t ) − sQ (t ) sin(2πf c t ) = Re[~ (t ) exp( j 2πf c t )] s Where Re[.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power Spectra We also have ~ (t ) = s (t ) + js (t ) s I Q exp( j 2πf c t ) = cos(2πf c t ) + j sin (2πf c t ) The signal s (t ) is called the complex envelope of the band-pass signal s(t) ~ (t ) The component sI(t) and sQ(t) and therefore s are all low-pass signal ~ .

of the original band-pass signal s(t) is a frequency-shifted version of SB(f).M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power Spectra Let SB(f) denote the baseband power spectral density of complex envelope We refer to SB(f) as the baseband power s spectral density ~ (t ) The power spectral density. except for a scaling factor 1 S S ( f ) = [S B ( f − f c ) + S B ( f + f c )] 4 . SS(f).

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power Spectra of Binary PSK Baseband power spectral density of binary FSK wave equals 2 Eb sin 2 (πTb f ) SB ( f ) = = 2 Eb sin c 2 (Tb f ) (πTb f )2 Power spectra of binary PSK .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra of binary FSK The power spectral densities of SB(f) is given E SB ( f ) = b 2Tb ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ 8 Eb cos 2 (πTb f ) ⎟ +δ⎜ f + ⎟⎥ + ⎢δ ⎜ f − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2Tb ⎠ ⎝ 2Tb ⎟⎦ π 2 4Tb2 f 2 − 1 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ( ) The power spectral density of binary FSK .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power Spectra of QPSK The baseband power spectral density of QPSK signal S B ( f ) = 2 E sin c 2 (Tf ) = 4 E b sin c 2 ( 2Tb f ) The power spectral density of QPSK signal .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra of MSK signal The baseband power spectral density of MSK signal ⎡ Ψg ( f ) ⎤ 32 E b s B ( f ) = 2⎢ ⎥= 2Tb ⎦ π2 ⎣ ⎡ cos(2πT f ) b ⎢ ⎢ 16Tb2 f 2 − 1 ⎣ ( ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 2 The power spectral density of MSK signal .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra of M-ary signal Binary PSK and QPSK are special cases of M-ary PSK signals The symbol duration of M-ary PSK is defined by T = Tb log 2 M Where Tb is the bit duration .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra of M-ary PSK The baseband power spectral density of Mary PSK signal is given by S B ( f ) = 2 E sin c 2 (Tf ) = 2 E b log 2 M sin c 2 (Tb f log 2 M ) .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques .

the M signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T.5 That is. where T is symbol duration .M-Ary Modulation Techniques The spectral analysis of M-ary FSK signals is much more complicated than that of M-ary PSK A case of particular interest occurs when the frequencies assigned to the multilevels make the frequency spacing uniform and the frequency deviation k= 0.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra of M-ary FSK For k = 0..2.. M ... the baseband power spectral density of M-ary FSK signals is defined by ⎡ 1 S B ( f ) = 4 Eb ⎢ ⎢ 2M ⎣ ⎛ sin γ i ⎞ 1 ∑⎜ γ ⎟ + M 2 ⎜ ⎟ i =1 ⎝ i ⎠ M (γ i + γ j )⎛ sin γi ⎞ ⎜ ∑∑ cos ⎜ γi ⎟ ⎟ i1= j =1 ⎝ ⎠ M M 2 ⎛ sin γ j ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ γ ⎟ ⎝ j ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ αi ⎞ ⎛ ⎟π 4⎠ ⎝ α i = 2i − ( M + 1) γ i = ⎜ fTb − 4 i = 1.5.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Power spectra of M-ary FSK .

as Rb ρ= B .M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bandwidth efficiency Bandwidth efficiency is defined as the ratio of data rate to channel bandwidth. we may express the bandwidth efficiency. ρ . it is measured in units of bits per second per hertz Bandwidth efficiency is also referred to as spectral efficiency With the data rate denoted by Rb and the channel bandwidth by B.

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK The channel bandwidth required to pass Mary PSK signals (more precisely. the main spectral lobe of M-ary PSK signals) is given 2 B= T where T is the symbol duration .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK Since T = Tb log 2 M Channel bandwidth 2 Rb B= log 2 M Channel efficiency of M-ary PSK signals is Rb log 2 M ρ= = B 2 .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK Channel bandwidth required to transmit M-ary FSK signals as M B= 2T Channel bandwidth of M-ary FSK signals is Rb M B= 2 log 2 M Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK signals is Rb 2 log 2 M = ρ= B M .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bit versus symbol error probabilities Thus far. the only figure of merit we have used to assess the noise performance of digital modulation schemes has been the average probability of symbol error When the requirement is to transmit binary data. it is often more meaningful to use another figure of merit called the probability of bit error or bit error rate (BER) .

the most probable number of bit errors is one. we find that the probability of mistaking one symbol for either of the two nearest (in-phase) symbols is much greater than any other kind of symbol error Moreover. given a symbol error.M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bit versus symbol error probabilities Case 1: The mapping from binary to M-ary symbols is performed in such a way that the two binary M-tuples corresponding to any pair of adjacent symbols in the M-ary modulation scheme differ in only one bit position (Gray code) When the probability of symbol error Pe is acceptably small. subject to the aforementioned mapping constraint .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bit versus symbol error probabilities Case 1 Since there are log2M bits per symbol. it follows that the bit error rate is related to the probability of symbol error by a formula BER = pe log 2 M M ≥2 .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bit versus symbol error probabilities Case 2: We assume that all symbol errors are equally likely and occur with probability Pe Pe = K M −1 2 −1 where Pe is the average probability of symbol error K = log2M .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bit versus symbol error probabilities Case 2: There are in which k bits out of K may be in error The average number of bit errors per K-bit symbol is given by ⎛K⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ways ⎜k⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Pe 2 K −1 ∑ k ( ) 2 K − 1 = 2 K − 1 KPe k =1 K K k .

M-Ary Modulation Techniques Bit versus symbol error probabilities Case 2 The bit error rate is obtained by dividing the result by K 2 K −1 BER = K Pe 2 −1 ⎛ M ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ BER = ⎜ 2 ⎟ Pe ⎜ M −1⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ .