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Q-1. Understanding of OB, Definition of OB, Why a manager should study OB? Fundamentals concept of OB, 5 models of OB.

Understanding of OB:
Organization is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve common goal or a set of goals. Organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual or organizational goals. Behaviour is the pattern of how a person responds to a stimulus. Responses can be influenced by Culture, Emotion, Values, Authority, Coercion, Persuasion & Genetics.

Definition of OB:
OB is the systematic study & careful application of knowledge about how people as individual and as groups act within organization. Organizational Behavior is directly concerned with the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour in organizations. Fred Luthans

Why a manager should study Organizational Behaviour? Or importance of OB.


Organizational Behaviour facilitates the process of explaining, understanding, predicting, maintaining and changing employee behaviour in an organizational setting. Study of Organizational Behaviour becomes important because of broad nature and scope of the subject: Organizational Behavioour is Inter-disciplinary: It integrates knowledge from various relevant disciplines e.g. Psychology, Sociology, Political Science, Anthropology, Economics, Medical Science, Engineering etc. Organizational Behaviour is an Applied Science: It is oriented towards understanding the forces that affect behaviour so that their influences can be predicted, monitored and guided towards better and effective functioning of the organization. Organizational Behaviour uses Scientific Methods: It follwos the scientific methods and uses logical theory in its investigation and answering the research questions. It is empirical, interpretative, critical and creative science. Behavioural Orientation: It is directly connected with the human side of management. More precisely, it looks at all the management functions from behavioural perspective. Contingency Approach: There are few absolutes in Organizational Behaviour. The approach is directed towards developing managerial actions that are most appropriate for a specific situation.

Fundamental concept of OB:


OB start with a set of fundamental concepts revolving around the nature of people and organization. These concepts are The nature of people: a) Individual differences b) Perception

c) A whole person d) Motivated behavior e) Desire for involvement f) Value of the person Nature of organization: a) Social system b) Mutual interest c) Ethics

Models of OB:
I. II. III. IV. V. The Autocratic Model The Custodial Model The Supportive Model The Collegial Model The System Model

The Autocratic Model: Depends on power. In an autocratic environment the managerial orientation is formal official authority and the employee orientation is obedience to boss. Here the performance result is minimum. The Supportive Model: Based on leadership instead of . In a supportive environment the managerial orientation is supportive to the employee and the employee orientation is job performance. Here the performance result is awakened drives.

Q-2. Define personality. What are the determinants of personality? S. Freud & Erikson theory of personal development.
Definition:
The word personality comes from the Latin root persona, meaning "mask." According to this root, personality is the impression we make on others; the mask we present to the world Personality is defined as "a unique set of traits and characteristics, relatively stable over time."

Determinants of Personality :
Several factors influence the shaping of our personality. Major among these are 11. Heredity, 22. Culture, 33. Family Background, 44. Our Experiences through Life, 55. And The People we interact with.

Mans Psychic system:


Is a complex energy system and obeys the scientific law that energy cannot be lost or destroyed, but it can be transferred from one part of a system to another part, and it can be transformed

The Topography of the mind


There are three levels or types of mental (psychic) activity: 1) Conscious: 2) Preconscious: 3) Unconscious:

The Intrapsychic System


The personality structure consists of three subsystems: 4) Id 5) Ego 6) Superego

The Psychosexual Stages of Development


There are five major stages of biological-psychological development through which every person must progress if he is to become psychologically mature. Freud called these levels to become psychologically mature. Freud called these levels of development

Personality Development
Personality develops in response to four major sources of tension. A person is forced to learn methods of reducing tension and this learning constitutes personality development (new modes of thought, feeling, and behavior). 2) 3) 4) 5) Physiological growth processes Frustration Conflict Threat

That ego develops methods for reducing tension and self protection:
6) Identification and displacement are used to resolve conflicts and frustrations. 7) Defense mechanisms are methods that deny or distort reality and that may impede the positive (or mature) development or personality or psychological functioning. B. The early years of infancy and childhood are decisive in laying down the basic character structure and personality of each individual.

Q-3. Define job stress. What are the sources of job stress? Discuss the Approaches to stress management.
Job Stress:
Stress is the general term applied to the pressure people feel in life. Job stress arises when demands exceed abilities, while job-related strains are reactions or outcomes resulting from the experience of stress." (Westman)

Sources of job stress:


i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. Work overload Time pressure Poor quality of supervision Insecure job climate Lack of personal control Inadequate authority to match responsibility Role conflict and ambiguity Differences between company and employee values Change of any type Frustration Technology with inadequate training or support

Approaches to stress management:


Prevent or control: Organization can seek to improve managerial communication skill, empower employees through participation, redesign job to be more fulfilling, or implement organizational development programs. These steps are aimed at reducing and eliminating stressor for employee. Escape from it: Escape stress by requesting job transfer, finding alternative employment, taking early retirement. Learn to adapt to it: For coping with stress these often involve cooperative efforts among employees and management and may include social support, relaxation effort and personal wellness program.

4. Define team, task team & group. What are stages in team development?
What is a Team?
A team is a group of people formed to achieve a goal. Teams can be temporary, or indefinite. With individuals sharing responsibility, the group as a whole can take advantage of all of the collective talent, knowledge, and experience of each team member.

Task team definition.


Task team (aka action group) is a group of people joined temporarily or permanently to accomplish some task or to be engaged into some project (collective action)

Stages In Team Development:


i. ii. iii. iv. v. Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

Q-5. Define conflict. What are the sources of conflict? Discuss conflict resolution approaches.
Conflict:
Conflict is defined as an incompatibility of goals or values between two or more parties in a relationship, combined with attempts to control each other and antagonistic feelings toward each other

Sources of Conflict:
Three main sources of conflict: economic, value, and power. 1. Economic conflict involves competing motives to attain scarce resources. Each party wants to get the most that it can, and the behavior and emotions of each party are directed toward maximizing its gain. Union and management conflict often has as one of its sources the incompatible goals of how to slice up the economic pie. 2. Value conflict involves incompatibility in ways of life, ideologies the preferences, principles and practices that people believe in. International conflict (e.g., the Cold War) often has a strong value component, wherein each side asserts the rightness and superiority of its way of life and its political-economic system. 3. Power conflict occurs when each party wishes to maintain or maximize the amount of

influence that it exerts in the relationship and the social setting. It is impossible for one party to be stronger without the other being weaker, at least in terms of direct influence over each other. Thus, a power struggle ensues which usually ends in a victory and defeat, or in a stand-off with a continuing state of tension. Power conflicts can occur between individuals, between groups or between nations, whenever one or both parties choose to take a power approach to the relationship. Power also enters into all conflict since the parties are attempting to control each other.

Five Approaches to Conflict


o It's important to know your habitual response to conflict so that you can be alert to the possibility of taking a different approach. Just because you have a preferred style of approaching conflict does not mean that you must be a slave to that one approach. According to negotiation experts Lewicki, Saunders and Minton, there are five major approaches to conflict resolution. The approaches are distinguished by their levels of cooperativeness and assertiveness.

Competitive Style
o The competitive style involves assertively maintaining that you are right and attempting to "win" the negotiation in any way possible. The other side's needs are disregarded, and winning is the goal. The competitive style may result in a conflict being resolved in your favor, but it is not recommended for the long-term because you will have made no headway in working productively with your adversary, and may have built up ill-will that can hamper future relations.

Accommodating Style
o The accommodating style is low on assertiveness and high on cooperation. This approach can be taken to a situation in which you do not have a great deal invested in getting your way. Basically, it's not worth it to you to do anything but let the other side have its way.

Avoiding Style
o This approach is low on both assertiveness and cooperativeness. It means walking away from a conflict situation, perhaps because the issues are not sufficiently important to you and you don't feel a need to deal with the other party. If the situation doesn't go away, it means that the avoidance style only bought you time, but did nothing to resolve differences.

Collaborating Style
o The collaborating style is high on assertiveness and cooperativeness. It is useful when parties have significant differences, but it is important to maintain working relations. It is also appropriate when the cooperation of all parties is needed to carry through with the decisions reached as an outcome of the negotiations. It's time consuming, but a good choice for parties who need to work with each other despite their differences.

Compromising Style
o The compromising style is characterized by moderate levels of assertiveness and cooperativeness. It is useful when parties, for whatever reason, are not able to reach an ultimate resolution to their conflict. The compromising style lets parties reach a workable short-term solution and "live to negotiate another day."

Q-7: Define organizational culture. What are the characteristics of organizational culture.
Organizational Culture:
It is the set of shared values and norms that control the organizational members interactions with each other and with suppliers, customers and people outside the organization.

Characteristics of Healthy Organizational Cultures


Organizations should strive for what is considered a healthy organizational culture in order to increase productivity, growth, efficiency and reduce employee turnover and other counterproductive behavior. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture, including: Acceptance and appreciation for diversity Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employees contribution to the company Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service, as well as price Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture) Investment in learning, training, and employee knowledge

Q-8. Distinguish between formal & informal organization. How does formal organization emerge?
Difference between formal and informal organization
Within any company, there are two types of organization Formal Structure and Informal Structure. Both effect the organization and relationships between staffs.

1. The formal Organization refers to the formal relationships of authority and subordinates 2. 3.
withing a company. While the informal organization refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other. The primary focus of the formal organization is the position of the employee/manager holds. While the primary focus of the informal organization is the employee as an individual person. Power is delegated from the top levels of the management down to the organization. In an informal organization power is derived from the membership of the informal groups within the organization.

4. In formal Organization, each position has rules governing what can be done or what cannot
be done. There are rewards and penalties for complying with these rules and performing duties as well. While in an informal organization, the conduct of individuals within organization is governed by norms that is social rules of beh

Q-10. Define Organizational Change. Discuss the types of resistance to change observed among employees. How the task of implementing change is being carried out.