Role of the endocrine system in coordinating function Endocrine communication is mediated by hormones which are chemical messengers that

a released by one tissue and are transported by circulation to certain cells in other tissues. Endocrine Endocrine Hormones pass into the blood and act on distant target cells are also known as circulating hormones. Autocrine Autocrine hormones stimulate the same cells that release the hormones. Paracrine Paracrine hormones stimulate the cells closely adjacent to the cells that release the hormone. The source of the main groups of hormones Amino acid derived peptide or protein derived and lipid derived. Catecholamine Include adrenalin, noradrenalin and dopamine. Derived from tyrosine. Structurally related to amino acids. Water soluble. Thyroid Hormones T3 throxine and T4 triiodothyronine. Also derived from tyrosine. Both are secreted by thyroid. Lipid soluble. Peptide/protein Protein hormones classified according to size. If less than 200 amino acids referred to small peptide hormones. Larger molecules classified as large peptide or glycoproteins. Growth Hormone is a large peptide hormone. Glycoprotein hormone is FSH. Water soluble Eicosanoids Lipid derived hormone derived from arachidonic acid and include the prostaglandins they are lipid soluble. Steroid hormones Lipid derived based on cholesterol includes cortisol, androgen and oestrogen. The synthesis and secretion of water and lipid soluble hormones Water soluble hormones are synthesised before stimulation and are ready for release. They are synthesised from amino acids by enzymes or by protein synthesis. They are released by exocytosis from the cell. They act fast and disperse quickly. Lipid soluble hormones (steroids and thyroid hormones) bind to the intracellular receptors. Eicosanoids bind to the cell surface. They are synthesised only when they are required. They are released from the cell of origin by diffusion through the plasma membrane. Steroids and thyroid hormones are released slowly and their action lasts longer. Mechanism of action of hormones on target cells Water soluble hormones bind to a specific cells surface receptors and stimulate a second messenger molecules which activate intracellular kinase. This results in a change in cellular activity. The targets cells reaction to the hormone is largely determined by which effector enzyme is activated or inhibited. Lipid soluble hormones- steroids and thyroid hormones bind to the intracellular receptors which are present in the cytoplasm of the cell sometimes the receptor may be in the nucleus. The hormone diffuses into all cells. The hormone /receptor complex migrates to the nucleus and binds to specific site on the DNA regulatory elements called HRE s. Binding activates selected genes to start synthesising mRNA, mRNA is translated into a new protein usually and enzyme. Overall enzyme activity is increased and the cellular structure or activity is altered. Thyroid hormones will also bind to the mitochondria and increase ATP production. Regulation of hormone secretion There are important interactions between the nervous and endocrine system. Some hormones control the release of other hormones. The hypothalmio-pituitary axis is of central importance.

It is inhibited by feedback exerted by Growth Hormone and insulin like growth factors and by hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia and obesity via increased Growth hormone inhibiting hormone or decreased Growth hormone releasing hormone release. It affects virtually every cell in the body. FSH and LH stimulate the secretion of steroid hormones estrogen. Like steroids TH enters target cells binds to intercellular receptors within the cell nucleus and initiates transcription of mRNA for protein synthesis. increases in blood levels of amino acids and low levels of fatty acids. bone. Thyrotropin RH increases the release of thyroid stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary and TSH stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones. The cortex excretes aldosterone and cortisol and androgens. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex which then secretes cortisol.Hypothalamus releases regulatory hormone CRH the CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary. The hypothalamus excretes Gonadotropin releasing hormone which increases the release of follicle stimulating hormone and lutenising hormone from the anterior pituitary. TH is the body s metabolic hormone. The action of Growth Hormone The target organs of GH are liver. It is stimulated by Growth hormone releasing hormone which is trigged by low blood levels of GH as wells as secondary factors such as hypoglycaemia. progesterone and androgen. Cortisol operates systemically and affects may cells types. There is a hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis. . The control of the thyroid gland Negative feedback in the hypothamic-pituitary axis represents a general pattern of endocrine control. mobilises fats. The secretion of Growth hormone by the pituitary gland Secreted by the anterior pituitary it is a protein hormone. Estrogen and progesterone feedback to inhibit Gonadotropin releasing hormone. Control of the secretion of adrenal hormones Adrenaline and noradrenaline are excreted by the medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system. the control of cortisol is conducted by the ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone from the anterior pituitary gland which is released when the hypothalamus releases CRH or corticotropin releasing hormone. spares glucose Action of thyroid hormone It is stored in large quantities extracellularly. muscle. The hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis. It increases the basal metabolic rate and body heat production. The control of the aldosterone is done by Na and K levels and well as angiotensin. Negative feedback regulates the production by cortisol inhibiting CRH production. cartilage and other tissues: anabolic hormone stimulates somatic growth. ACTH is also in control of the release of androgens from the adrenal cortex Control of the gonads. TROPIC hormones control the release of other hormones. Thyroid stimulating hormone is released from the anterior pituitary and the follicle cells secrete stored hormone then they synthesise more hormone to restock.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful