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Training and Development A vital HR tool

The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training

It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. Its not what you want in life, but its knowing how to reach it Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there Its not how high you want to rise, but its knowing how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it

Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.


Importance of Training and Development

Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Development of Human Resources Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Development of skills of employees Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. Productivity Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. Team spirit Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. Organization Culture Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. Organization Climate Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. Quality Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. Healthy work environment Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. Health and Safety Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. Morale Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. Image Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

Profitability Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

Training as consultancy
Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives. Estimation of Training Outsourcing: It has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education. The training consultancies offer various benefits such as:

Training Courses that Consultancies Offer: Business Training Courses o Management Development Conflict Management Managing Diversity Project Management Stress Management Time Management Senior Management Workshops o Sales Negotiation Skills Sales Technique o Customer Care Customer Care Training Managing Customers o Human Resource HR Administration Induction Training Recruitment & Selection Successful Appraising o Personal Development Courses Workshops on: Assertive Skills Building Confidence Coping with Change Interview Techniques Maximize Potential o One to One Coaching Focused entirely on personal objectives Move forward at individual pace Material used in tailor made to specific development Need A strict code of confidentiality

Importance of Training Consultancies

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It helps in enhancing companys image It helps in strengthening the team spirit It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load It helps in improving the work relations It helps in developing focused and inspired staff It leads to greater chances of success

Consultants can provide help on following areas:

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Management Development Team Building Leadership Health & Safety Training Interpersonal Skills Sales Training

Example: T.V. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India.

Models of Training
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). THE TRAINING SYSTEM A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organizations requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies. The three model of training are: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model

System Model
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

Instructional System Development Model

Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYSIS This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANNING This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.

3. DEVELOPMENT This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. EVALUATION The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.

Transitional Model
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. Vision focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.

The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented.

Methods of Training
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:


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Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:


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Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.

Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes. Management development method is further divided into two parts: ON THE JOB TRAINING The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the job development are:


OFF THE JOB TRAINING There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:


Training Needs Identification (TNI) or Training Need Analysis(TNA):

TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS There are three types of training need analysis: organizational need analysis, job need analysis, and person need analysis.

Organizational Needs Analysis According to many training experts, attaining the objectives of the business should be the ultimate concern of any training and development effort. Therefore, conducting an organizational needs analysis should be the first step in effective needs assessment. It begins with an examination of the short and long-term objectives of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these objectives. It can include a human resource analysis, analysis of efficiency indexes, and an assessment of the organizational climate. The organizational needs analysis should translate the organization's objectives into an accurate estimate of the demand for human resources. Efficiency indexes including cost of labor, quantity of output (productivity), quality of output, waste, and equipment use and repairs can provide useful information. The organization can determine standards for these indexes and then analyze them to evaluate the general effectiveness of training programs. Organizational analysis also can address the organization's performance in the "softer" domains that constitute the corporate culture. For example, it may reveal a misalignment between the current value system in the organization and the values espoused by top management. Many companies today espouse values such as focusing on customers, following ethical business practices, and supporting diversity, yet behavior within these companies may fail to reflect those values. In such cases, training for everyone in the company, regardless of their specific job, may be needed. Job Needs Analysis The specific content of present or anticipated jobs is examined through job analysis. For existing jobs, information on the tasks to be performed (contained in job descriptions), the skills necessary to perform those tasks (drawn from job qualifications), and the minimum acceptable standards (obtained from performance appraisals) are gathered. This information can then be used to ensure that training programs are job specific and useful. The process of collecting information for use in developing training programs is often referred to as job needs analysis. In this situation, the analysis method used should include questions specifically designed to assess the competencies needed to perform the job.

Person Needs Analysis After information about the job has been collected, the analysis shifts to the person. A person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person's current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable. Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. The broader approach compares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance. The narrower approach compares an evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiency level required for each skill. The first method is based on the actual, current job performance of an employee; therefore, it can be used to determine training needs for the current job. The second method, on the other hand, can be used to identify development needs for future jobs. Whether the focus is on performance of the job as a whole or on particular aspects of the job, several approaches can be used to identify the training needs of individuals: Output Measures. Performance data (e.g., productivity, accidents, customer complaints), as well as performance appraisal ratings, can provide evidence of performance deficiencies. Person needs analysis can also consist of work sample and job knowledge tests that measure performance capability and knowledge. Self-Assessed Training Needs. The self-assessment of training needs is growing in popularity. Here top managers require the employee and his or her supervisor to identify what the business needs are for the department and the business, as well as the skill needs and deficiencies of the individual. Self-assessment is premised on the assumption that employees, more than anyone else, are aware of their weaknesses and performance deficiencies. Therefore, they're in the best position to identify their own training needs. Attitude Surveys. Attitude surveys completed by a supervisor's subordinates or by customers or by both also can provide information on training needs. For example, when one supervisor receives low scores regarding her or his fairness in treating subordinates, compared with other supervisors in the organization, the supervisor may need training in that area. Similarly, if the customers of a particular unit seem to be particularly dissatisfied compared with other customers, training may be needed in that unit. Thus, customer surveys can serve a dual role: providing information to management about service and pinpointing employee deficiencies.

A TNA is a systematic method for determining what needs to be done to bring performance in a particular job or set of jobs to the expected level (at the minimum). There are cases wherein TNA determines that employees lack the necessary KSA and there are also cases where TNA discovers that employees have the necessary KSA to do the job but roadblocks are hindering effective performance and need to be removed. There are several indicators when one should conduct a TNA: 1. Performance standards are not met 2. Accidents 3. Excessive scrap 4. Frequent need for equipment repairs 5. High turnover 6. Struggling on the job 7. New employees 8. Low rating or evaluation report 9. People use different methods in doing the job 10. Bottlenecks 11. Deadlines are not met 12. Excessive fatigue, fumbling, discouragement, and even stress These are just few to cite as an example. Like the indicators, there are also several methods of determining training needs which are: 1. Observations 2. Management requests 3. Job analysis 4. Questionnaires 5. Interviews 6. Group conferences 7. Tests or examinations 8. Personnel records 9. Business and production reports 10.Long range organizational planning In conducting the TNA, it is always necessary to look at the three levels which are the organizational level, job level, and the person level. This is important because not all performance related issues can be resolved by training or through training alone.

Here is a method to conduct TNA: Employee Details: _______________________________ Dept details: _______________________________ Are you aware of your duties and responsibilities? Yes / No State your duties: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ What level of interaction does your job require while dealing with customers? a) Minimal b) Moderate c) Extensive With respect to your job, state the following: Knowledge requirements (what you must know) _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Practical skill requirements (what you must be able to do) _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Behavioural skills requirement: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Training Needs Based on the above requirements, what training and development do you need to perform your job competently? Technical training: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ This training will help me in the following ways: _______________________________ _______________________________

_______________________________ Soft-skills training: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ This training will help me in the following ways: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ What training and development do you need to mould you for the roles that interest you? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Future career goals: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ What training and development do you need to achieve these goals? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Details of previous training What training have you undergone during the previous (2 years, 1 year)? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ How have these helped you in your current job? _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ State any other training undergone and/or skills acquired outside the organization: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________

Training needs analysis process is a series of activities conducted to identify problems or other issues in the workplace, and to determine whether training is an appropriate response. The needs analysis is usually the first step taken to cause a change. This is mainly because a needs analysis specifically defines the gap between the current and the desired individual and organizational performances. Who Conducts Needs Analysis & Why? An in-house trainer or a consultant performs a needs analysis to collect and document information concerning any of the following three issues : 1. Performance problems 2. Anticipated introduction of new system, task or technology 3. A desire by the organization to benefit from a perceived opportunity In all three situations, the starting point is a desire to effect a change. Given this, you must know how the people who will experience change perceive it. In the absence of a needs analysis, you may find employees resistant to change and reluctant to training. They may be unable to transfer their newly acquired skills to their jobs because of the organizational constraints. A needs analysis often reveals the need for well-targeted training areas. However, we must keep in mind that training is not always the best way to try to close a particular gap between an organizations goals and its actual performance. Those conducting the needs analysis must get a clear idea of the problem, look at all possible remedies and report on their findings to management before deciding on the best solution. When properly done, a needs analysis is a wise investment for the organization. It saves time, money and effort by working on the right problems. Organizations that fail to support needs analysis make costly mistakes; they use training when another method would have been more effective; they use too much or too little training, or they use training but fail to follow up on it. A well-performed analysis provides the information that can lead to solutions that focus on the areas of greatest need. Process of conducting a training needs analysis is a systematic one based on specific information-gathering techniques. Needs analysis proceeds in stages, with the findings of one stage affecting and helping to shape the next one. There is no easy or short-cut formula for carrying out this process. Each particular situation requires its own mix of observing, probing, analyzing and deducting. In many ways, the needs analysis is like detective work; you follow up on every lead, check every piece of information and examine every alternative before drawing any solid conclusions. Only then you can e sure of having the evidence on which to base a sound strategy for problem solving.

A needs analysis is not a one-time event. Professional organizations administer needs analysis at regular intervals, usually every year or two. Methods of Identifying Training Needs Training needs will differ with the backgrounds of the employees to be trained, and their present status in the organization. Basically, a candidate for training may come from any one of three groups : 1. New hires 2. Veteran employees 3. Trainees currently in the training pipeline ( currently in the training program ) Consideration of the varying needs of these groups provides a frame of reference for discussing and suggesting the methods of identifying training needs : New Hires Addition of new employees creates high and low peaks in placing new persons into the training program. This problem may be solved by a program where progression is made in different sequences. It will eliminate a jam that will occur if all phases of the program must be taken in a definite sequence. The new employees will normally be of somewhat different backgrounds. Being new, they are not familiar with their new employers. As a result, the earliest phases of the training must concentrate on company orientation. During these phases, the organization, organization policies and administrative details should be covered. It is also a suitable time to acquaint the trainees with what will be expected of him, and how he will be evaluated throughout the phase of training. Retaining & Upgrading Veteran Employees The people in this category offer a real challenge to the training department. There- fore, the number and amount of training required by this category should be carefully considered. Often the retraining and upgrading of former employees can be very rewarding for training instructors. At least two schools of thought exist as to how these employees should be rekindled. There are advantages in keeping this group intact and tailoring the program to their needs. On the other hand, this category of employees can also make significant contribution to training if they are co-mingled with the new hires. Pipeline Employee Requirements A good training program will normally have participants in various phases of completion. An awareness of completion dates and how the potential employee will be employed should be the concern of the training staff and also the employees supervisor. A trainee should have a challenge in all phases of his training. All these challenges should not be confined to those phases where the pipeline employee is sitting in a

classroom. Therefore, it is recommended that thorough interim test-work be given to pipeline employees in periods between formal classes. This may take the form of solidifying what he learned in the prior phase and serve as preparation for the coming phases. Techniques for Determining Specific Training Needs There are a number of practical methods you can use to gather data about employees performance. Each works well in given circumstances; therefore, you must determine which be the best for you. None of these methods can stand alone. Always use at least two, if for no other reason to validate your findings. One of those you choose should always be observation. 1. Observation In this approach, an employees performance itself is you source of information. You evaluate a workers performance through first-hand observation and analysis. This is best accomplished by watching the worker and playing the role of non-participating observer. This means that you watch and listen and evaluate what you see and hear, but do not get involved in his work process in any way. To make this activity more productive, use a checklist to remind you of what to look for and take notes. The objective during observations is to identify both the strengths to build on and the deficiencies to overcome. A key advantage of using direct observation in the needs analysis is that you gain first-hand knowledge and understanding of the job being performed and the strengths and weaknesses of the relevant worker. 2. Interviews The use of interviews in conducting the needs analysis is strongly urged. The prime value of interview guides is that they ensure the same types of data from all sources. This allows you to determine whether a piece of information is one persons opinion, or part of a widespread perception. Since the interview guide forces you to ask each worker a number of predetermined questions, you must select those questions that are essential to what you are trying to learn. Interviews allow you to meet employees face to face to discuss their impressions of performance. Because you are in conversation with workers, you can explore their responses in depth. You can ask or clarification of comments and for examples of what they mean. In this way, you obtain a full understanding of their performance deficiencies.

You also gain these benefits through interviewing : 1. You build credibility with your interviewees by asking intelligent questions and Listening well to their answers 2. You obtain employees personal involvement and commitment to your efforts 3. You establish personal relationships with potential trainees who are important to your success as a needs analyst and trainer 3. Questionnaires A questionnaire is a sort of interview on paper. You create your own questionnaire by writing down all the questions you want employees to answer for you. Then you mail it to them and await their responses. The key advantage of a questionnaire is that you can include every person from whom You want input. Employees can complete the questionnaire when and where they choose. You need not travel and spend time with all respondents. Every employee is asked the identical questions, and consequently data is very easy to compile and analyze. Questionnaires can be useful in obtaining a big picture of what a large number of employees think while allowing everyone to feel that they have had an opportunity to participate in the needs analysis process. 4. Job Descriptions Before establishing a job description, a job analysis must be made. This job analysis involves a thorough study of all responsibilities of the relevant job. It is company wide in scope and should be detailed to such a degree that those conducting the training can use the job analysis as a yardstick for their course content. After the job analysis phase has been completed, the writing of job description and needs analysis is a relatively simple task. When an employees job description has been defined, the trainer can easily tailor his training curriculum to a very close proximity of what will be expected of the employees. 5. The Difficulty Analysis The Job Analysis will focus attention on enumerating the numerous duties that a worker must perform. On the other hand, the Difficulty Analysis establishes which of the duties cause the employee the greatest amount of troubles and how this trouble can be reduced through better training. A good Difficulty Analysis offers many advantages. For example .

It enables a needs analyst to weigh certain aspects of the training in relationship to the expected difficulty that the worker will face in coping with those duties. A well thought out Difficulty Analysis will provide the training program with an abundance of role-playing material and situations. 6. Problem Solving Conference Another time-tested technique for gathering needs analysis material from employees is to conduct periodic problem solving conferences which may take the form of or be part of a plan for a new product, task or technology, or tied in with a training program It is always helpful to utilize an outside consultant to moderate such sessions. This outside sponsorship has a tendency of letting the workers express their feelings about his organization, and the session can then be geared to training needs. The current problems will evolve that represent potential areas for training. 7. Appraisal Reviews During the periodic counseling performance interview, an employee should be questioned regarding the duties and training of a worker. Comments rendered during the appraisal interviews normally are genuine, and can frequently assist in establishing the needs, variations and penetrations that a training program should include. Feed- back at appraisal interview time is valuable since it is timely information. Training needs differ from worker to worker, and appraisal sessions allow the employee and supervisor / manager to uncover the cause of weaknesses in performance. These deficiencies represent areas for training. 8. Drive Pattern Identity The extent of an employees development depends on his motivations. Identifying the forces that cause an employee to behave in a certain way may be useful in determining his individual training needs and how to stimulate his desire to fulfill that need. An analysis of this kind, for example, may determine that the employee has an urgent need for self-confidence. His individual program should be made to stress the importance of attitude, skills etc., and any other assets that would give him this self- confidence. 9. Analysis of Organizational Policy Organization policy will affect the amount of training offered. An explanation of various policies should be covered in the training program. Of particular concern are those policies that involve change, alteration and major revamping of training programs. In organizations undergoing merger activity, product diversification and new penetration, a great deal of sensitivity must be placed on policies today and expected changes in the future.

Whatever the method used to identify training needs, at least the following three points must be kept in view: 1. These methods should be used in combination; that is, there should never be reliance on only one method 2. They may be used to identify training needs of each of the various groups of employees 3. They should be applied to individual employees since training needs will vary with the individual employee.


DATE: : PAGE NO. : 01 OF 01 FORMAT NO. :MR/F/11






1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.



INDIVIDUAL Name of Employee : Designation : Date of Joining : Total Experience : Data Appr oved By Date :



CARD NO: YEAR : Format no : Department : Area/ Section : Training Needs Identified (Code):

Sr. No. Date

Title of Training Trainer Time Attendance Effectiveness Endorsed Verified by By (Sign) Remarks OK / Not OK Sign of Trainee

Note: The candidate must get his attendance endorsed by Faculty / Training Incharge If results of training verification are unsatisfactory, candidate should be re-trained.




SELECTION CRITERIA Experience & Certified lead auditor Concerned DH/SH In the organization Experience in the field Experience in the field Lead Assessor & Internal Audit Training Faculty. Experience in the field Experience in the field Experience in the Field Experience in the Field Experience in the Field


ISO-9001.2008 Operational Training.

Communication Time Management, Safety Internal Auditor of Quality system Suggestion Scheme (positive attitude /waste analysis) Computer GMP Good housekeeping Criteria for conformity of the products requirements.s Employee Motivation Managerial Skill PREPARED BY :



DATE : PAGE NO. : 01 OF 01 FORMAT NO. : MR/F/ MONTH Sr. No. DESCRIPTION TRAINING NEEDS Operational Training a)Microbiological training b) On job Training Safety ISO-9001-2008 a)Internal Auditor Course b)Clause wise understanding Communication & Time mgt SOPs pertaining to different Dept. Handling of material Dispensing of material FDA Rules And regulations Personal hygiene andGood Housekeeping Importance of GMP a)Sanitation & hygiene b)Prevention of cross contamination Validation and calibration of Instruments / Equipments Employee Motivation Managerial Skills APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12



Training Needs at various levels:

Sr. No.

DESCRIPTION TRAINING NEEDS Operational Training a) General awareness regarding Microbiological contamination on shop floor. b) On job Training Safety ISO-9001-2008 b)General understanding Communication & Time mgt Basic understanding of SOPs. General understanding Handling of material Dispensing of material Basic requirements of shop floor regarding FDA Rules And regulations Personal hygiene and Good Housekeeping Importance of GMP a)Sanitation & hygiene b)Prevention of cross contamination Contribution of shop floor in Validation and calibration of Instruments / Equipments

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Operators

Technical Officers Sr. No. DESCRIPTION TRAINING NEEDS Operational Training a)General awareness regarding Microbiological contamination on shop floor. b) On job Training Safety ISO-9001-2008 a)Internal Auditor Course b)Clause wise understanding Communication & Time mgt SOPs pertaining to different Dept. Handling of material Dispensing of material FDA Rules And regulations Personal hygiene and Good Housekeeping Importance of GMP a)Sanitation & hygiene b)Prevention of cross contamination Validation and calibration of Instruments / Equipments

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

DESCRIPTION TRAINING NEEDS Operational Training a)Microbiological training b) On job Training Safety ISO-9001-2008 a)Internal Auditor Course b)Clause wise understanding Communication & Time mgt SOPs pertaining to different Dept. Handling of material Dispensing of material FDA Rules And regulations Personal hygiene and Good Housekeeping Importance of GMP a)Sanitation & hygiene b)Prevention of cross contamination Validation and calibration of Instruments / Equipments

Managers Sr.No. DESCRIPTION TRAINING NEEDS ISO-9001-2008 a)Internal Auditor Course b)Clause wise understanding Communication & Time mgt Employee Motivation Managerial Skills

1 2 3 4