Shell Special Intensive Training Programme

Interests in reservoir rocks is centred around three key Issues ♦ How much hydrocarbon is contained within the rock and how much can be exploited. ♦ How effectively can the hydrocarbon be removed ♦ What is the production potential of the reservoir and individual wells? That is, what Production rate is possible and what will be the potential production profile? Answers to these questions require a thorough definition and understanding of the reservoir flow properties.



The key reservoir rock flow properties are 1. Porosity 2. Permeability 3. Fluid Saturation A typical rock is made of cemented grains buried in a sea of matrix as shown in Fig. 2.1

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matrix cementation. grain shape.Formed during the stage of diagenesis and is principally depended on the depositional environment. It is dictated by grain size. Mathematically. this can be Pore Volume. Effective Porositv . 3.1 Porosity Porosity can be defined as the total void space as a measure of the total bulk volume of a permeable rock.Formed during initial deposition 2. which is not occupied. sorting. Secondary Porosity .Vg)/Vb = 1 – Vg/Vb There are different types of porosity 1.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme Grain Pore Grain-to-Grain Cementation 2. defined as: φ = VP/Vb Alternatively. etc.This is a measure of the interconnected pore spaces in a reservoir rock as a function of its bulk volume. Page 2 of 11 ©Univation . Vp = Bulk Volume(Vb) .1. it can be defined as the space or pores in a reservoir rock.Grain Volume(Vg) φ =(Vb . Primary Porosity .

the effective porosity is the most important. There are ko = Effective permeability to oil kw= Effective permeability to water Page 3 of 11 ©Univation . It is a measure of the ease of flow of a fluid through a porous medium. Absolute Porosity . As mentioned in Section 1. A measuring device is the Porosimeter 2. Effective Permeability Permeability of a rock to a particular fluid in the presence of a combination of fluids. milliDarcy. Types of permeability 1.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme 4. hydrocarbon production requires that the fluid must migrate through the pore spaces in the reservoir rock before getting to the wellbore.2 Permeability This is defined as a measure of the ability of the permeable rock to transmit fluid.This is a measure of the total pore spaces in a rock as a function of its bulk volume Units are infractions or percentage. It is defined from the basic Darcy equation here given as q= kA µ * ∆P l q = Production rate k = Permeability A = Cross section area ∆ P/L= Pressure gradient (Pressure drop per unit length.) µ = Fluid Viscosity Units of permeability are Darcy. Therefore from practical point of view. m2 Measuring device is the permeameter.1.

k. Sg = Vg/VP So + S w + S g = 1 Vp = Pore volume Page 4 of 11 ©Univation . Absolute Permeability This is a measure of the case of the flow of a single fluid through the porous medium with the fluid being the only reservoir fluid.1. Fluid saturation defines the extent or the percent volume of the reservoir pores occupied by a particular fluid. Water Saturation. Sw = Vw/Vp Vw = Fluid Volume Oil saturation.3 Fluid Saturation Usually. Oil Relative permeability can be defined as kro = ko/k Unit is dimensionless. Important mainly for experimental purposes where air or distilled water can be used. The relative permeability is largely dependent on fluid saturation and phase wettability. 2. So = Vo/Vp Gas saturation. more than one fluid is present in a reservoir. Relative Permeability. This is the ratio of effective permeability to a particular fluid as a measure of the absolute rock permeability.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme kg = Effective permeability to gas 2. Therefore Fluid Saturation can be defined as the volume of a particular fluid as a measure of the total pore volume. 3.

1 Formation Volume Factor Formation Volume Factor(B) Is the volume of fluid at reservoir conditions as a measure of the volume at standard conditions of temperature and pressure Formation Volume Factor. (ii) Macroscopic Scale .3 RESERVOIR PRODUCTION MECHANISM There are two angles to the production of fluids from a reservoir formation (i) Microscopic Scale : The first relates to the phenomena that govern the interaction between the reservoir rock and the entrained fluid and it assists in providing a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the characteristics for fluid flow through the reservoir. 2. Bo= RB/STB Water Formation Volume Factor. Bg = MCF/MMSCF 2.2 OTHER PROPERTIES 2.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme 2. Bw = RB/STB Gas Formation Volume Factor.1 Microscopic Phenomena The distribution and relative ease of mobility of oil compared to gas or water or vice/versa within the reservoir is influenced not only by the physical properties of each of the phases but also by forces exerted at interface between these phases and between each phase and the rock surface. This relates to the method by which the reservoir provides the energy for fluid production. B = VR/VS =qR/qS VR = Volume at reservoir conditions VS = Volume at standard conditions(Stock tank conditions) Unit = Reservoir bbls/Stock tank bbis Oil Formation Volume Factor. These are: ♦ Surface Tension ♦ Wettability Page 5 of 11 ©Univation .2. These forces are characterised largely by three microscopic properties of each of the fluid phases.3.

This wettability will impact on the relative permeability to each type of fluid. water and oil. If a fine capillary is placed within a liquid which wets the inside walls. oil may try and minimise its contact area per unit volume with the rock and it can be defined as the nonwetting phase. the non-wetting phase will be relatively more mobile with smaller contact angle and then easier to produce. The liquid will be pulled up the tube by Page 6 of 11 ©Univation . this surface or interfacial tension will significantly affect the way in which water displaces oil or vice versa. Thus. In situations where one phase is dispersed within another. then the liquid will appear to creep up the walls of the capillary.1 and 5.g. Wettability Interfacial tension also occurs at the interface between the reservoir rock and the entrained fluid in the pores.2) . A fluid which is the wetting phase Will adhere to the surface and hence difficult to displace through the reservoir rock. the phase may assume the characteristic of a droplet dispersion. Water nay have a larger contact area with the rock face and would be regarded as the wetting phase. The contact angle between two fluids at a solid surface can be used to measure the wettability(Figs 5. Since sedimentary rocks are assumed to have aquatic origins.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme ♦ Capillary Forces Surface Tension In a mixture of two Immiscible fluids. it is reasonable to assume that in the majority of cases the rock will be water wet and thus have higher permeability to oil. Capillary Effects Interfacial tension can cause fluid to rise within a capillary. there exists a physical interface or film between the phases. For multiple phase situations e. This interface is caused by unequal attractive forces exerted on the molecules of each phase. Alternatively. The difference between the surface energies of systems could lead to a fluid either maximising or minimising its contact area with the formation surface especially when another fluid is present. such as oil in water.

Fig: 2.2 Page 7 of 11 ©Univation .Shell Special Intensive Training Programme surface tension until a balance is created between the hydrostatic fluid head in the capillary above the datum and the force due to surface tension at the meniscus on top of the liquid The relative importance of capillary pressure and surface tension is that they will define the distribution of two immiscible fluids in a reservoir rock. The fluid flow through the porous media ia a capillary phenomenon and is controlled by the capillary pressure defined by the following equation: Pc = 2σCos θ = gh ∆p r Pc = Capillar pressure σ = Surface tension θ = Contact angle r = Pore radius h = Height above the free liquid surface ∆ p = Difference in density of the two fluids.

At primary deposition of the sediments. The reservoir pressure is naturally used to produce from the reservoir into the well. to the surface and finally into the separation unit-7 Natural flow. 5. The response of the reservoir to depletion is dynamic and the fluid remaining in reservoir will change both in term of volume. The effect of capillary rise between the phases may result in a transition zone existing where the oil saturation changes from 0% to a constant and finite level. Degree of transition zone occurrence is a function of porosity and permeability of the rock as well as pore size distribution. The basic concept regarding the production of fluid from the reservoir is that for fluid to be produced as a result of its high pressure. existing at high pressure with the rock also in a state of compaction. Expansion of the reservoir rock matrix. 2. Thus there is always an irreducible water level known as irreducible water saturation and is generally inversely proportional to reservoir formation grain size.6). water is invariably the wetting phase and as oil migrates it will attempt to displace the water which is difficult. Page 8 of 11 ©Univation .3.2 MACROSCOPIC CONCEPTS These refer to the reservoir drive mechanisms.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme In a reservoir where oil and water exist. (Fig. Once this is attained. a sharp interface may not actually exist especially where immediately above the interface the pores are filled with a constant oil saturation and below filled with water. Reservoir Drive Mechanisms A reservoir rock will produce naturally as a consequence of the fluid it contains. In the migration of a non-wetting phase into the pore. The manner in which the reservoir responds to the depiction process is governed by the Drive Mechanism. it becomes easier to saturate the pores until the irreducible water level is reached. composition -and other properties. a threshold injection pressure is required before the nonwetting phase can enter the pores. then the reservoir system will deplete and must therefore compensate for the loss of the produced fluid by one or more of the following mechanisms: 1. Thus a 100% water sweep is impossible.

Gas Cap Expansion Drive Page 9 of 11 ©Univation . Expansion of reservoir hydrocarbon 4. Combination Drive Mechanism Solution Gas Drive Mechanism If a reservoir contains oil initially above the bubble point then. There are a number of drive mechanisms and a reservoir can be under the influence of one or more of these drive mechanisms simultaneously. The mechanism by which the reservoir produces fluid and compensates for the production is termed the Reservoir Drive Mechanism. Water Drive Mechanism 4. Compaction Drive Mechanism 6. The production will be accompanied by a reduction in the reservoir pressure. Gravity Drive Mechanism 5. Solution Gas Drive Mechanism 2. Expansion of connate water 3.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme 2. Gas-cap expansion Drive Mechanism 3. removal of oil will be compensated for by the expansion of the remaining oil. The key mechanisms are 1. Gas will come out of solution and any subsequent production will lead to an expansion of both the oil and gas within the reservoir. And it refers to the method by which the reservoir provides the energy for fluid production. which will eventually drop below the bubble point. as oil is produced. Expansion of the underlying aquifer Overall. as production continues. the system may not be able to maintain its own pressure and the overall pressure in the reservoir will decline.

Allowing reservoir pressure to drop substantially will maximise the size of the gas cap accompanied by maximum expansion capability. Water Drive Reservoir Mechanism In a reservoir with water drive mechanism. 'With the solution gas drive mechanism. This depends on large aquifer volume. the gas released from solution will migrate upwards to form a gas cap on top of the oil. good vertical/horizontal permeability. active gas cap and negligible aquifer activity. Compaction Drive Mechanism The oil within the reservoir pore space is compressed by the weight of overlying sediments and the pressure of the fluids they contain. the production of fluids occurs primarily with gas expansion as it moves towards the wellbore. Gravity Drive Mechanism In gravity drive (OWC). If fluid is Page 10 of 11 ©Univation . low oil viscosity. The net effect of water influx into the reservoir may be to prevent reservoir pressure dropping. however the reservoir pressure declines more slowly due to the capacity for expansion within the gas cap.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme With reservoir pressure equal to or at some later stage less than the bubble point pressure for the oil. Production is therefore through the expansion of the gas cap. Effectiveness requires maximum structural dip. the hydrostatic pressure due to the oil column and pressure of the gas cap provides the drive downdip to a producing well. The performance of the gas cap drive reservoir in terms of oil production rate and gas-oil-ratio (GOR) is similar. Expansion of aquifer into the depleted oil zone will lead to a steady elevation in the oil-water. The loss of the gas from solution will lead to the oil having a much higher viscosity and hence lower mobility. However this will reduce oil mobility. the production of fluids is balanced by either aquifer expansion or flow of water into the reservoir which helps to maintain reservoir energy.

This will cause a compensating compression of the fluid in the reservoir pore system and potential increase in reservoir pressure. the volume of produced fluid can be compensated for by the overlying sediments compacting lower sediments. In such situations.Shell Special Intensive Training Programme withdrawn from the reservoir. the response of the reservoir to production is less predictable. Combination Drive In the majority of reservoirs the production of fluids is not controlled by only one but a combination of several drive mechanisms. Page 11 of 11 ©Univation .

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