Modern History upto 1857

1757 - Battle of Plassey: The British defeat Siraj-ud-daulah 1760 - Battle of Wandiwash: The British defeat the French

1761 - Third battle of Panipat

1764 - Battle of Buxar: The British defeat Mir Kasim

1765 - The British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa

1767 -1769 - First Mysore War

1772 - Warren Hastings appointed as Governor of Bengal

1773 - The Regulating Act passed by the British Parliament

1775 -1782 - The First Anglo-Maratha war

1780-1784 - Second Mysore War : The British defeat Hyder Ali

1784 - Pitt's India Act

1790-1792 - Third Mysore War between the British and Tipu

1793 - Permanent Settlement of Bengal

1799 - Fourth Mysore War: The British defeat Tipu

1802- Treaty of Bassein 1803-1805 - The Second Anglo-Maratha war

1814-1816 - The Anglo-Gurkha war

1817-1818 - The Pindari war

1824-1826 - The First Burmese war

1829 - Prohibition of Sati

1831 - Mysore administration taken over by East India Company

1833 - Renewal of Company's Charter

1833 - Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Empire

1838 - Tripartite treaty between Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the British

1839-1842 - First Afghan war

1843 - Gwalior war

1845-1846 - First Anglo-Sikh war

1848 - Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General

1848-1849 - Second Anglo-Sikh war

1852 - Second Anglo-Burmese war

1853 - Railway & Telegraph line introduced

1857 - First War of Indian Independence: The Sepoy Mutiny

1857 - Zanshichi Rani Laxmibai - Freedom struggle in 1857

1858 - British Crown takes over the Indian Government

1877 - The Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India

1878 - Vernacular Press Act

1881 - Factory Act

1885 - First meeting of the Indian National Congress

1897 - Plague in Bombay; Famine Commission

1899 - Lord Curzon becomes Governor-General and Viceroy

1905 - The First Partition of Bengal

Formation of Muslim League 1911 .Rowlatt Act evokes protests.The Imperial capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi 1913 . Simon Commission Appointed 1928 .Indian Navy Act. 1920 .Educational Resolution of the Government of India 1915 . Non-co-operation Movement 1921 . Census of India 1922 .Partition of Bengal modified to create the Presidency of Bengal 1912 .1906 . Trade Union split .Reforms Enquiry committee Report 1927 .Moplah (Muslim) rebellion in Malabar.Civil Disobedience Movement. Foundation of Women's University at Poona 1919 .Simon Commission comes to India: Boycott by all parties 1929 . Chauri-Chaura violence 1925 . Jalianwalla Bagh massacre.Defence of India Act 1916 .Home Rule League.The Khilafat Movement started.Lord Irwin promises Dominion Status for India.

Civil Disobedience Movement called off.Gandhi-Jinnah Talks break down on Pakistan issue 1946 .History of Indian Flag 3 June 1947 . First Round Table Conference 1931 . Poona Pact 1934 . Constituent Assembly's first meeting 1904 . Quit India Movement. Indian National Army 1944 . Bihar Earthquake 1937 .Lord Mountbatten's plan for partition of India 15 Aug 1947 .Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy 1939 .1930 .Political deadlock in India as Congress ministries resign 1942 .Partition of India and Independence Siraj Ud Daulah captures Calcutta .Cripps Mission.1947 .Interim Government formed. Irwin-Gandhi Pact 1932 .Third Round Table Conference.Second Round Table Conference.Salt Satyagraha.

However Clive's military ambitions were on the ascendancy. On 23rd June. On 20th June 1756. Many believe that the incident has been greatly exaggerated to suit the purpose of the Company. died. presented the Company an opportunity for political interference. He tempted Siraj's uncle Mir Jafar to ally with him in exchange for the Nawab's position. The decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of regional provinces like Bengal. These events led to the rise of Calcutta and the decline of Murshidabad. the Company turned kingmakers in Bengal and Mir Jafar was installed as the new Nawab. In 1756. The treaty of Alinagar was signed between the Nawab and the Company. his death led to a power struggle between his widow Ghasiti Begum and grandson Siraj Ud Daulah who became the Nawab of Bengal. His troops captured the French settlement of Chandernagore. The Company Fights back The company sent in relief troops from Fort St. From being traders. Betrayed by his own men Siraj was defeated in the Battle of Plassey. Construction of a new Fort William was started and was completed in 16 years in 1773. This made him one of the richest Britons in the world. George of the Madras headquarters.000 pounds per year. The company also secure rights over a large area south of Calcutta.India's History : Medieval India : Siraj-ud-daulah captures Calcutta . the Company troops marched against Siraj. who were imprisoned in a tiny room. . Clive got his pound of flesh from the Nawab in terms of 234.1756 The Battle of Plassey As the East India Company grew in size so did its lust for power. which is said to have lasted only a few hours. Nawab Alivardi Khan of Bengal became practically independent. 1757. 1757. He was soon assassinated in his capital Murshidabad. This is often portrayed as the Black Hole of Calcutta. Siraj attacked and took over Fort William. The troops led by Robert Clive and Admiral Watson retook Calcutta on 2nd January. In 1740.000 pounds and was awarded an annual salary of 30. The company's support for Ghasiti Begum earned it the wrath of Siraj. Many of the English prisoners. The Company also started fortifying the Fort William without the Nawab's permission.

. Madras and Pondicherry were the chief trading centres for the English whereas the French centre was on the Coromandel Coast. The relations between both the companies were uncertain. the French and English fought a series of battles for supremacy in the Carnatic region. The appointment of the new Nawab worsened the problems of the Carnatic region. This battle gave the British trading company a far superior position in India compared to the other Europeans. Then during the second Carnatic War. But by October the War of Austrian Succession had been concluded and under the treaty Madras was restored to English. a large army was sent under Rear Admiral Boscawen. Later the Marathas killed the governor. the British East India Company defeated the French forces at the battle of Wandiwash ending almost a century of conflict over supremacy in India. opened negotiations with the English and the treaty was concluded. In the third Carnatic war. which are actually occupied by them during the treaty. From 1744.The Battle of Wandiwash India's History : Modern India : Battle of Wandiwash: The British defeat the French . where Duplex. This brought the two companies in India technically in the state of war.1760 French defeated in Battle of Wandiwash English and French had their companies in India. The governor was so engrossed with Marathas and Northern India that he hardly had any time for the Carnatic. England and France took opposite sides in the War of the Austrian Succession. So in June 1748 to avenge the capture of Madras. The English and the French have decided not to the quarrels of the native princes and took possession of the territories. Buttill this time the English and French did not take active interest in Indian politics. The Carnatic region was totally disturbed politically. French both by sea and land had besieged Madras. In 1740. governor of Pondicherry.

Third Battle of Panipat

India's History : Modern India : Third battle of Panipat: Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats the Marathas; Accession of Madhava Rao Peshwa ; Rise of Hyder ali : 1761 TITLE Prelude to Panipat

The Mughal Empire of north-western India had been in decline for some time after Ahmad Shah's first attacks against them in 1749, eventually culminating in his sacking of Delhi in 1757. He left them in nominial control however, which proved to be a fateful mistake when his son, Timur Shah, proved to be utterly incapible of maintaining control of the Afgan troops. Soon the local Sikh population rose in revolt and asked for the protection of the Marathas, who were soon in Lahore. Timur ran for the hills of Afganistan.

Ahmad Shah could not allow this to go unchecked, and in 1759 rose an army from thePashtun tribes with help from the Baloch, and invaded India once again. By the end of the year they had reached Lahore, but Marathas continued to pour into the conflict and by 1760 had formed a huge single army of over 100,000 to block him.

Setting up defensive works in the excellent ground near Panipat, they blocked Ahmad's access back to Afganistan. They then moved in almost 150 pieces of modern long-range rifled artillery from France. With a range of several kilometres, these guns were some of the best in the world and a powerful force that had previously made the Marathas invincible on the battlefield.


The Afgan forces arrived in late 1760 to find the Marathas in well-prepared works. Realizing a direct attack was hopeless, they set up for a siege. The resulting face-off lasted two months. During this time Ahmad continued to receive supplies from locals, but the Marathas own supply line was cut off.

Realizing the situation was not in their favour, the Marathas under Sadashiv Bhau decided to break the siege. His plan was to pulverise the enemy formations with cannon fire and not to employ his cavalry until the Muslims were throughly softened up. With the Afgans now broken, he would move camp in a defensive formation towards Delhi, where they were assured supplies.

The line would be formed up some 12km across, with the artillery in front, protected by infantry, pikemen, musketeers and bowmen. The cavalry was instructed to wait behind the artillery, ready to be thrown in when control of battlefield had been established.

Behind this line was another ring of 30,000 young Maratha soldiers who were not battle tested, and then the roughly 30,000 civilians entrained. Many were middle class men, women and children on their piligrimage to the Hindu holy places and shrines, a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to see Aryavarta (Aryan Land). The civilians were supremely confident in the Maratha army, regarding it as one of the best in the world, and definitely one of the most powerful in Asia. Behind the civilians was yet another protective infantry line, of young inexperienced soldiers.

Battle opens

Before dawn on January 14, 1761 the Maratha forces emerged from the trenches, pushing the artillery into position on their pre-arranged lines, some 2km from the Afgans. Seeing that the battle was on, Ahmad positioned his 60 smoothbore cannon and opened fire. However, because of the short range of the weapons, the Maratha lines remained untouched. Ahmad then launched a cavalry attack to break their lines.

The first defensive salvo of the Marathas went over the Afgan's heads and inflicted very little damage, but the Afgan attack was nevertheless broken by Maratha bowmen and pikemen, along with some musketeers stationed close to the artillery positions. The second and subsequent salvos were fired at point blank range, and the resulting carnage sent the Afgans reeling back to their lines. The European-style plan had worked just as envisioned.

The Marathas then started moving their formation forward, led by the artillery. The Afgans responded with repeated cavalry attacks, all of which failed. About 17,000 Afgan cavalry and infantrymen lost their lives in this opening stage of the battle. Gaping holes were opened in their ranks, and in some places the Afgans and their Indian Muslim allies began to run away.

The Marathas cavalry charge

At this stage it looked as though Bhausaheb would clinch victory for the Marathas once again. However, some of the Maratha lieutenants, jealous of the exploits of their artillery chiefs, decided to

exploit the gaps in the enemy lines despite strict instructions not to charge or engage Afgan cavalry. They Maratha horsemen raced through their own artillery lines and charged towards the demoralised Afgans, intending to cut the faltering army in two.

The over-enthausiasm of the charge saw many of the Maratha horses exhausted long before they had traveled the two kilometres to the Afgan lines, some simple collasped. Making matters worse was the suffocating odour of the rotting corpses of men and animals from the fighting of the previous months.

In response, the Afgan officers stiffened their troops resistance. Abdali called up his reserves and cavalry of musketeers, who fired an extensive salvo at the Maratha cavalry, who were unable to withstand the rifled muskets of the Afgans.

With their own men in the firing line, the Maratha artillery could not respond, and about 7,000 Maratha cavalry and infantry perished before the hand to hand fighting began at around 2PM. By 4PM the tired Maratha infantry began to succumb to the onslaught of attacks from fresh Afgan reserves protected by their armoured leather jackets.

Attack from within

The Maratha Muslim logistics infantrymen (Rohillas), who had not been trusted to fight in the front line because their loyalty was suspect or, rather, who were suspected of being loyal to the Koran or fellow Muslims and not to their country now responded to the calls of the Afgan army for jihad and revolted. This caused brought confusion and great consternation to loyalMaratha soldiers, who thought that the enemy has attacked from behind.

Sadashivrao Bhau, seeing his forward lines dwindling and civilians behind, felt he had no choice but to come down from his elephant and take a direct part in the battle on horseback at the head of his troops. He left instructions with his bodyguards that, if the battle were lost, they must kill his wife Parvati bai, as he could not abide the thought of her being dishonoured by Afgans.

Some Maratha soldiers, seeing that their general had disappeared from his elephant, panicked and began to flee. Vishwasrao, the son of Prime Minister Nanasaheb, had already fallen to Afgan sniper fire, shot in the head. Sadashivrao Bhau and his bodyguard fought to the end, the Maratha leader having three horses shot out from under him.

The Afgans are thought to have lost some 30.000 women and children sought shelter with Shuja (allies of Abdali) whose Hindu officers persuaded him to protect them. . Afgan officers who had lost their kin in battle were permitted to carry out masscres the next day. Many others did their best to hide in the streets of Panipat when the North Indian Hindus of the town refused to give them refuge.000 Maratha civilians and soldiers alike were slain this way on 15th January 1761. Abdali's soldiers arrested about 10. About 6. many committed suicide because of constant rapes perpetrated on them. and another 10. with some of their artillery units fighting until sundown. camels and elephants in bamboo cages. A conservative estimate places Maratha losses at 35.000 on the Panipat battlefield itself. The Afgan cavalry and pikemen ran wild through the streets of Panipat. killing any Maratha soldiers or civilians who offered and resistance.000 young children and men brought them to their camps. About 10. and eventually returned to Pune. transported on carts. Many of the fleeing Maratha women jumped into the Panipat well rather than risk rape and dishonour. They arranged victory mounds of severed heads outside their camps.000.000 or more in surrounding areas.Rout The Afgans pursued the fleeing Maratha army and the civilians. Choosing not to launch a night attack. All of the prisoners were exchanged or sold as sex slaves to Afganistan or North India. The women were raped. also in Panipat and the surrounding area. while the Maratha front lines ramined largely intact. Parvati bai escaped the armageddon with her bodyguards. made good their escape that night.000 women and another 10.

000 men to avenge their loss and rescue the prisoners. They never regained any unity. and were soon under increasing pressure from the British. The empire officially ended in 1857 when its last emperor was accused of being involved in the Sepoy Mutiny and exiled. .000 horses and about 22. who reamained in control until 1849. he eventually adbandoned the district to the Sihks. were left largely untouched by the battle. With his own troops arguing over a lack of pay. He left Delhi two months after the battle. the original reason Ahmad invaded. but was unable to win any decisive battle. the Mughals once again changed sides and welcomed the Afgans to Delhi. They soon re-took Lahore. 1500 camels.000 women and children. 50. However the news soon rose that Marathas in the south had organised another 100. When Ahmad returned in March 1764 he was forced to break off his siege after only two weeks due to rebellion in Afganistan. and soon broke into infighting within their empire. The Marathas expansion was stopped in the battle. heading for Afganistan with his loot of 500 elephants. The Mughals remained in nominal control over small areas of India. but were never a force again. Meanwhile the Sihks. He returned again in 1767.Following the battle To save their kingdom. Their claims to empire were officially ended in 1818.

He was soon assassinated in his capital Murshidabad. On 23rd June. But they were allowed to get away. The establishment of British paramountcy . Betrayed by his own men Siraj was defeated in the Battle of Plassey. From being traders. However. the forces retreat across the river. However Clive's military ambitions were on the ascendancy. made an attempt to recover Bengal from the hands of British. To Mir Kasim's force of 40. Nawab of Avadh. Robert Clive returned to England in the same year. the Company troops marched against Siraj.The Battle of Buxar India's History : Modern India : Battle of Buxar: The British defeat Mir Kasim . he enlisted the help of Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and Nawab Shuja Ud Daulah of Oudh. He handed over the districts of Chittagong. the Company relied on its strength of sequenced shooting-its musketeers put up volley of gunfire. East India Company forces had to retreat across the river.000 pounds per year.1764 Battle of Buxar The company sent in relief troops from Fort St. George of the Madras headquarters. Construction of a new Fort William was started and was completed in 16 years in 1773. It is said that the origins of Calcutta's most famous public festival . The sheer power of gunfire ensured that attacking cavalry scattered. The treaty of Alinagar was signed between the Nawab and the Company. Raja Naba Kissen Deb. out-matched the British in number. But their troops were defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the company troops led by Major Hector Munro. a financial backer of the Company. Mir Jafar was succeeded by his son-in-law Mir Kasim. Mir Jafar also had trained Afghan cavalry and modern cannon manned by European mercenaries and led a charge on the Company's forces. He tempted Siraj's uncle Mir Jafar to ally with him in exchange for the Nawab's position. In 1764. These events led to the rise of Calcutta and the decline of Murshidabad. Mir Kasim (reign:1760 to 1763). The troops led by Robert Clive and Admiral Watson retook Calcutta on 2nd January. 1757. threw a party in honor of Robert Clive during the occasion of Durga Puja. In 1760. the Company turned kingmakers in Bengal and Mir Jafar was installed as the new Nawab. which is said to have lasted only a few hours. the forces regrouped and through a naval force attacked through the river route. Early on. Clive got his pound of flesh from the Nawab in terms of 234. This coordinated gun shooting became very much a trademark of the British way of war over the next few decades.the Durga Puja can be traced to the victory of the British in Plassey. The company also secures rights over a large area south of Calcutta. 1757. His troops captured the French settlement of Chandernagore. But they were allowed to get away. This made him one of the richest Britons in the world. The armies of Mir Kasim and his allies Emperor Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-daula.000 Robert Clive's army commanded by Major Hector Munro had about 18.000 men.000 pounds and was awarded an annual salaryof 30. Midnapore and Burdwan to the Company.

was a decisive battle fought between British and Indian forces at Buxar. the nawab retaining judicial and police functions.along with the diwani(revenue administration) of Bengal. Bihar and Orissa . All that was left to the nawab was the control of the judicial administration. But this arrangement made the Company the virtual ruler of Bengal since it already possessed decisive military power. Diwani rights Shuja was restored to Awadh. a town on the Ganges River. This had hitherto been enjoyed by the nawab. Robert Clive signed the Treaty of Allahabad with the Nawab of Oudh and Shah Alam II. In return for restoring Shah Alam to Allahabad he received the imperial grant of the diwani or revenue authority in Bengal and Bihar to the Company. Diwani Rights India's History : Modern India : The British get Diwani Rights in Bengal. In Bengal itself he took a decisive step. the nawab (governor) of Bengal. the Company exercising the revenue power. and the revenue was collected by a Company-appointed deputy-nawab. as it were. As a result of this triumph. so that now there was a double government. in 1765. the emperor Shah Alam solaced with Allahabad and a tribute and the frontier drawn at the boundary of Bihar. A hotly contested battle resulted in victory for the British. with a subsidiary force and guarantee of defence. wanted to rid his territory of British control. He formed an alliance with the Nawab of Oudh and Shah Alam II. The treaty effectively legalized the British East India Company's control over the whole of Bengal. so that its control was virtually complete. into the Indian scene by becoming the Mughal revenue agent for Bengal and Bihar. the Mughal emperor. in October 1764. There was as yet no thought of direct administration. Bihar and Orissa was the major significance of The battle of Buxar. led by Major Hector Munro. Conquest of Orissa : 1765 Battle of Buxar Battle of Buxar. Mir Kasim. The combined Indian armies invaded Bengal and clashed with British troops. But he was later persuaded to hand this over to the Company's deputy-nawab. The Company was acclimatized. . one Muhammad Reza Khan.

a lad of 17 years.1767 -1769 The First Battle The second half of the eighteenth century was a period of great confusion in Indian history which witnessed the rise of a colonial power. His short but stormy rule was eventful for his several engagements with his neighbours. The result was the beginnings of state control of the Company and the thirteen-year governorship of Warren Hastings. Tipu participated in all those four Mysore wars. . In the First Mysore war Tipu. who had been in independent command of a body of troops in the First Mysore war. Thus. The only state which offered stiff resistance to their expansion was Mysore. In fact Tipu s rule starts in the midst of a war against the English and ends in the midst of war against them. which fought not one but four wars. This was the real beginning of British administration in India. whose shortsighted policy prompted them to join the colonials against Mysore. the Marathas and the Nizam. He caused great consternation to the Governor of Madras. suddenly surprised the English when he appeared at the gates of Madras in September 1767. on the other an appeal was made to the State for a loan. in two of which he inflicted serious blows on the English. The Indian deputies who had collected the revenue on behalf of the Company were deposed and their places taken by a Board of Revenue in Calcutta and English collectors in the districts. Hastings's first important work was that of an organizer.Inspite of all this the East India Company was again in the verge of bankruptcy which stirred them to a fresh effort at reform. and to almost all Councilors who very narrowly escaped being taken in the country-house in the Company's garden. In the two and a half years before the Regulating Act came into force he put in order the whole Bengal administration. as well. First Mysore War India's History : Modern India : First Mysore War: The British conclude a humiliating peace pact with Hyder Ali . On the one hand Warren Hastings was appointed with a mandate for reform. it was a providential escape of the entire Madras government. which were about to be captured by Tipu. Muhammed Ali. Happily for them a small vessel that by accident was opposite the garden furnished them with the means of escaping. to the Nawab of Carnatic.

Hastings and Vansittart favoured conciliation. oppression and unauthorised wars. where he proved to be an excellent scholar. On his release Hastings joined the British refugees from Calcutta. Warren Hastings appointed as Governor of Bengal : 1772 Warren Hastings Hastings. In January 1765 Hastings followed him. Shortly afterwards. who took him to London and in 1743 sent him to school at Westminster. and bringing about a series of reforms and waging wars against the challengers to his expansionist plan and conquering new lands. a major centre for procuring silk. Warren (1732-1818) Governor (1772-1774) and Governor General (1774-1785) of the fort william in Bengal. He laid the foundation of British power in India. He married one of them. widow of an officer who had been killed at Calcutta. On leaving school he obtained a junior appointment in the east india company's Bengal service. mir qasim. Hastings's first appointment was at kasimbazar. Warren Hastings abandoned the policy of hesitation of his predecessors about the question of establishing political dominance in India. however.Warren Hastings India's History : Modern India : Death of Madhava Rao Peshwa. in whose favour the British had intervened at Palashi. His family was in reduced circumstances so he was brought up by an uncle. Vansittart resigned his governorship and returned to Britain. But his contributions did not refrain parliament from impeaching him under manifold charges including corruption. He was recalled in 1785 and tried in parliament. erupted into armed conflict and Mir Qasim was driven out of Bengal. Neither the first Mrs Hastings nor the two children that she bore her husband were to live long. Mary. but ultimately acquitted. From 1758 Hastings served as the company's Resident at murshidabad with the new nawab. Hastings allied with the governor in disputes that split the council about the extent to which the nawab should be permitted to regulate the private trade of British merchants. Warren Hastings was born at Churchill in Oxfordshire on 6 December 1732. He arrived at Calcutta in September 1750. henry vansittart. rounding up the British at Kasimbazar in the process. Tensions with the nawab. . In 1760 a coup engineered by the British brought down Mir Jafar and replaced him with another nawab. Hastings went down to Calcutta and succeeded to the council that managed the company's affairs under a new governor. mir jafar. He was at Kasimbazar in 1756 when Nawab sirajuddaula was provoked to attack and storm Calcutta.

He believed that sovereignty. Hastings shared the view. In 1772 Hastings decided that the best way of finding out what Bengal could afford to pay was to invite competition for the right to collect revenue for a period of five years. that Bengal was a naturally rich province with a highly productive agriculture and skilled manufacturers that had suffered from misgovernment under its later Indian rulers and during the British take-over. was vested in the 'British nation' and that there must be no equivocation about that. usually with the zamindars. He dismissed formal acknowledgements of Mughal authority over Bengal as harmful fictions. Criminal . The new regime's task was to enable recovery to take place. He had orders to assert the company's direct authority over a government that had been largely delegated to Indian officials. In the years after 1772 Hastings developed a distinctive point of view on how this should be done. He believed that Bengal must be governed in ways to which its people were presumed to be accustomed. the company acquired responsibility for administering civil justice.In Britain Hastings sought to influence future Indian policy and to secure his return with a prestigious position. As diwan of Bengal after 1765. This so -called 'farming' system was adjudged even by Hastings to have been a failure. and prejudices'. Indian methods of government and Indian law must be preserved. looking for a new governor of Bengal. Appointment as a Governer Hastings saw himself in 1772 as governor of what he regarded as a province now fully part of the British empire. Revenue was the central issue of early British government in India. chose Hastings. cases of property and inheritance being closely involved with the payment of revenue. The British were uncertain as to how much they could extract from the province without inflicting damage on it. He had no qualms about making further incursions into areas of government allocated to the nawabs. His management of the company's commercial concerns was particularly commended. The British should aim 'to rule this people with ease and moderation according to their own ideas. He complied with alacrity. manners. Madras. For the rest of Hastings's administration the company negotiated revenue assessments year by year. Where the existing zamindars or hereditary revenue managers. higher bids would be accepted. In 1768 he was appointed second in the council of the settlement at Fort St George. universal among contemporary Europeans. Hastings spent two successful years at Madras. did not make adequate offers. a concept that he frequently invoked. In 1771 the directors of the East India Company. It had been afflicted in 1770 by a very severe famine. He returned to Calcutta on 17 February 1772.

sentenced to death and executed on 5 August 1775. The law administered by the courts was to be the law already in force in Bengal. They quickly professed to find corruption behind every policy of the old government and to believe that Hastings was allowing the resources of Bengal to be plundered and wasted. but he had to conduct complex diplomacy with Indian states and on occasions with other European powers. were sent out to join the council directly from Britain. What can be established is that the prosecution against Nanda Kumar was promoted by his Indian enemies with the encouragement of Hastings's friends. who evidently calculated that he stood to gain ample rewards were the new councillors to displace Hastings. the nawab-wazir of Oudh in whose territory British troops were maintained. Hastings set about obtaining translations that would make this law accessible to those Europeans who had to administer it. He was found guilty. but three men. Hastings had no ambition to make new conquests. was also to be established in Calcutta. was a particularly formidable opponent of the governor general. charges of forgery were brought against Nanda Kumar in the new Supreme Court. who enforced the Islamic criminal law. Before anything could be proved. Francis. Acting together. . to the way events were to unfold. The new councillors began by denouncing the war against the Rohillas. both civil and criminal. John Clavering. Hastings was chosen as the first governor general. beginning with a war against the Rohillas in 1774 fought to strengthen the company's major ally in northern India. however. The leading accuser was maharaja nanda kumar. In 1773 the national government in Britain intervened to impose reforms on the East India Company. His ideal of peaceful influence over allies bore little relation. He created new hierarchies of courts. A Supreme Court. they constituted a majority. Authority in Bengal was to be concentrated in a governor general and a new Supreme Council of five. under British supervision. but it is likely that Hastings had received some irregular payments. His accusations of bribe-taking were probably much exaggerated. The company was to be repeatedly drawn into war.justice was the concern of the nawab. Critics of Hastings from his own time onwards have drawn the not unreasonable inference that he promoted the prosecution and may have influenced the verdict. Hastings believed that the British must intervene to restore a decayed system of indigenous justice. By the 1770s it was impossible for the British in Bengal or in their other settlements at Madras and Bombay to isolate themselves from the new order of states that was replacing the Mughal empire. staffed by royal judges. but he was strongly in favour of seeking influence by alliances. Hastings's revenue policy was also condemned and Indians were encouraged to bring accusations of personal corruption against him. an intellectual of a calibre to match Hastings. George Monson and philip francis. As governor of Bengal. The three new councillors from Britain began an unremitting opposition to Hastings immediately after their arrival in Calcutta on 19 October 1774. Hastings had not only to direct the internal administration of a huge province.

The needs of the war were the cause of some very contentious dealings by Hastings with the company's dependants and allies in northern India. Throughout his governorship. Monson and Clavering. War was the main source of the difficulties that he faced in his last years. Chait Singh. the raja of Benares. Hastings appeared to have acted with a ruthless high-handedness. Nevertheless. In January 1781 the first French expeditionary force arrived in India to support Mysore. Hastings remained in office until 1785. The raja's retainers resisted and forced Hastings to flee from the city. thus enabling the Mysore forces to be pushed back and the French to be contained. On the pretext that he was evading legitimate demands. died. the Begums of Oudh. Francis finally left India. After fighting a duel against Hastings on 17 August 1780. From Benares Hastings went on to try to raise extra funds from the company's ally the nawab of Oudh by forcing him to resume alienation of land revenue and to confiscate a large hoard of treasure in the possession of his mother and grandmother. in which he was slightly wounded. .Hastings recovered control over the government as two of his opponents. Although British authority was quickly restored. the scale of the wars did Hastings great damage with opinion in Britain. His interests laid the foundations for the creation of the Bengal Asiatick Society (now asiatic society) of 1784. With some justification. supplies and troops on a very large scale from Bengal to Madras. Hastings saw himself as the saviour of the British empire in India. Hastings was a generous patron of the arts and of learning. From 1778 the British were fighting the Marathas. In 1780 the formidable armies of Mysore invaded the Carnatic territory which was under the protection of the British. He took a particular pride in the translation of the Bhagavat Gita made by charles wilkins. the episode left a strong impression that Hastings had acted tyrannically as well as subjecting himself to needless risks. Hastings took credit for the diplomacy that broke up the formidable Indian coalition opposing him and for sending money. was required to pay an increased subsidy to the company. Again. He was accused of being a warmonger with a lust for conquest that had landed the company in ruinously expensive wars. Hastings proposed to exact a large fine from him on a personal visit in 1781. leaving Francis alone to carry on the opposition against Hastings. for which he wrote a memorable preface.

In February 1785. Any assessment of him on terms that go beyond those of the Impeachment must recognise Hastings's exceptional qualities of mind. was thrown out by the Commons. the argument that he had no significant case to answer. On 10 May 1787 Hastings was formally impeached. The first charge. He held Hastings to be responsible for all this. Burke had undoubtedly fallen under the influence of Philip Francis after his return to Britain in 1780. when the prosecution closed their case. The stark legal alternatives of 'guilty' or 'not guilty' are an inappropriate basis for any assessment of a career as complex as Hastings's. empire came increasingly to be seen as part of Britain's greatness rather than as a cause of shame. He believed that the East India Company was laying India waste by rapacious policies within its own provinces. in every case a large majority voted 'not guilty'. Hastings resigned his office. when the Lords gave judgement. The trial began in 1788 and lasted until he was acquitted in 1795. was passed. Hastings was vulnerable to accusations of high-handedness in Benares and Oudh and he had accumulated a fortune by methods that the new official morality of the late eighteenth century did not sanction. Huge crowds attended the early sessions of the trial that was regarded as a great public spectacle. but he had formed his own views about India and he was driven by a passionate concern for justice. He had not unreasonableexpectations of acclaim and honours on his return. He also showed an appreciation of Indian culture and a regard for individual Indian people most unusual in any British official in high office at any time. He landed in England on 13 June 1785. was not prepared to let him go. But by 30 May 1791. Edmund Burke. after an absence of over sixteen years. Unfortunately for Hastings. few could doubt that the tide was running in Hastings's favour. on Hastings's dealings with the raja of Benares. as were others introduced in the 1787 session of Parliament. whose revulsion against what he saw as gross misgovernment in British India had focused on Hastings. In 1795. Hastings's claims to have been the saviour of empire were therefore viewed sympathetically. he brought a creative intelligence of a very high order to Indian government. by the exploitation of its allies and by its wars. In 1786 Burke produced charges for an impeachment to be voted by the House of Commons and then to be heard by the House of Lords. beyond some minor blemishes committed in a good cause and was the victim of Francis's envy and Burke's malice is not sustainable. It is impossible to endorse Burke's extravagantly vituperative abuse of him. Strictly within the terms argued out in the impeachment. On the other hand. future British administration in India would be more closely bound by rules and more distant from Indians. Few would now believe that he deserved impeachment let alone being found guilty. in failing health. . but the second. which related to the Rohilla war. Partly in reaction to him. but he was in fact to meet attacks that culminated with his being put on trial. In a new climate of opinion with a more assertive British nationalism in reaction to the French Revolution.

Baji Rao and Chimaji.After his acquittal in 1795.1773 India's History : Modern India : The Regulating Act passed by the British Parliament .000 annually to the government to maintain the monopoly but had been unable to meet its commitments because of the loss of tea sales to America since 1768. The Company paid 400. Marathas lead by Mahadaji Shinde. he was treated with much respect and received some public recognition. His life was that of a country gentleman. destroyed both Abdalli and Peshwas. The 1761 Panipat battle. Hastings lived for another 23 years. The Regulating Act . Nanasaheb died grief-striken in the same year. Public employment never came again. but at least in the last years of his life. Raghunathrao's attempts to be the Peshwa were foiled by the ministers. he joined the British. The Company was important to Britain because it was a monopoly trading company in India and in the east and many influential people were shareholders. After Madhav Rao Peshwa's death in 1772. And his uncle Raghunath Rao acted as his care taker. He died on 22 August 1818 in his 85th year. Sadashivrao and Raghunathrao continued the able rule of Peshwa for the next 25 years.Baji Rao's son.1773 Regulating Act By 1773 the East India Company was in dire financial straits. who was living on the East India Company Pension. Madhavrao Peshwa defeated Haider Ali of Mysore and Nizam of Hyderabad. Hurt. The East India Company owed money to both the Bank of England and the government. headed the North India campaign. Though Marathas won the war. Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb) succeeded as the Peshwa. Death of Madhava Rao Peshwa 1737 saw the death of the Peshwa brothers. engaged in local affairs and farming the ancestral family estate that he had been able to recover. they had to face a hard blow when they lost Sadashivrao and Nanasaheb Peshwa's eldest son. The state came under the rule of ministers headed by Nana Phadnavis and Mahadaji Shinde. The three brothers Nanasaheb. His second son Thorale Madhav Rao assumed the title. In 1769. They defeated the Jats and took hold of Agra and Mathura. They reinstated the Mughal Emperor on the throne. between Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdalli. it had 15 million lbs of tea rotting in British warehouses and more en route from India. . About 85% of all the tea in America was smuggled Dutch tea.

present. to the Chief Justice 8000 sterling and the Judges 6000 sterling a year. reward or pecuniary advantages from zamindars and other people. The issues of their . That it is unlawful for collectors and other district officials to receive any gift. Major charges brought against Hastings in his impeachment trial were those on corruption. reward. The East India Company was a very powerful lobby group in parliament in spite of the financial problems of the Company. That the Governor General. General John Clavering. to the Councillors 10. failed to stop corruption and it was practised rampantly by all from the Governor General at the top to the lowest district officials. and that the Court's jurisdiction shall extend to all British subjects residing in Bengal and their native servants.000 sterling. That His Majesty shall establish a supreme court of judicature consisting of a Chief Justice and three other judges at Fort William. however. The East India Company had taken over large areas of India for trading purposes but also had an army to protect its interests. The Act set up a system whereby it supervised (regulated) the work of the East India Company but did not take power for itself.Lord North decided to overhaul the management of the East India Company with the Regulating Act . Councillors and Judges are prohibited from receiving any gifts. zamindars and other people. The Act. and a Council consisting of four councillors with the democratic provision that the decision of the majority in the Council shall be binding on the Governor General. This was the first step along the road to government control of India. Corruption divided the Council into two mutually hostile factions. George Monson. Richard Barwell and Philip Francis shall be four first Councillors. That the company shall pay out of its revenue salaries to the designated persons in the following rate: to the Governor General 25000 sterling. India was of national importance and shareholders in the Company opposed the Act. Company men were not trained to govern so North's government began moves towards government control. The Act said that: That. The provisions of the Act clearly indicate that it was directed mainly to the malpractice and corruption of the company officials. there shall be a Governor General. for the government of the presidency of fort William in Bengal. present and any pecuniary advantages from the Indians. presents. pecuniary advantages from the Indian princes. That Warren Hastings shall be the first Governor General and that Lt.the Hastings group and Francis group. That no person in the civil and military establishments can receive any gift.

Consequently. Tipu took over as ruler of Mysore after the death of his father around 1782. . Pollilur and Sholingarh. The Treaty of Salbai (1782) obtained for Bombay 20 years' peace with the Marathas and the cession of Salsette and Elephanta. though repulsed at Chidambaram. which in turn resulted in the treaty of Salbai. Anglo-Maratha War India's History : Modern India : The First Anglo-Maratha war . and the nizam. the British fleet captured Negapatam. Hastings sent an expedition across the peninsula from Calcutta to Surat (1778.The British wins over Hyder Ali Hyder Ali used to work as a general in the army of the King of Mysore before overthrowing him and establishing his own kingdom. who. Soon the Maratha Empire was in a position to regain its lost glory and it had found a genius in Madhaji Schindia. he is famous for his epic battles with the British. Haidar Ali. Pitt's India act. Raghoba. lord Cornwallis. when his death took place suddenly at Chittur in December 1782. Warren Hastings sent from Bengal Sir Eyre Coote. He had sent his son Tippoo to the west coast. Soon hostilities broke out between the Company and the Marathas. which had command of the sea. arrived 1779) and broke the coalition between the Marathas. Second Mysore War India's History : Modern India : Second Mysore War : The British defeat Hyder Ali . and Vellore was provisioned. while Tippoo was forced to raise the siege of Wandiwash. defeated Hyder thrice successively in the battles of Porto Novo. The company had already showed its might by defeating the combined forces of Mughal Shah Alam and Bengal's Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah at the Battle of Plassey.fighting were corruption charges against each other. 1784 had to be enacted to fight corruption and to do that an incorruptible person.1780-1784 Second Mysore War . was appointed with specific references to bring order in the corruption ridden polity established by the company. the result of the Bombay government's alliance with the would-be Maratha peshwa. On the arrival of Lord Macartney as governor of Madras.1782 The First Anglo-Maratha War First Anglo-Maratha War. He is best known for his invasions of the Malabar coast region between 1766 until his death and the historic defeat of the British in the first Mysore war in 1767-69.1775 . to seek the assistance of the French fleet. and forced Hyder Ali to confess that he could never ruin a power. But his death in 1794 dashed all hopes of Maratha revivalism. The first Anglo-Maratha war took place between 1775-82 and resulted in a humiliating defeat of the Company's forces. Soon they followed the Mughals into dissolution.

The Governors of Bombay and Madras were also deprived of their independent powers. Lord Cornwallis was appointed as the first GovernorGeneral. in effect. The constitution set up by the Pitt's India Act did not undergo any major changes during the existence of the Company's rule in India. the GovernorGeneral and the Council could make all the laws and regulations for people (Indians and British). It provided for a joint government of the Company (represented by the Directors). One of who was the President and who soon became. . The Council was reduced to three members and the Governor-General was empowered to overrule the majority.The Pitt's Act India's History : Modern India : Pitt's India Act . revenue. The Charter Act of 1813 abolished the trading activities of the Company and henceforth became purely an administrative body under the Crown.1784 The Pitt's Act After the Regulating Act of 1773 to regulate the affairs of the Company in India. and diplomacy. The Board had all the powers and control over all the acts and operations. with few exceptions. Thereafter. thus becoming in effect the capital of Company possessions in India. the second important step taken by the British Parliament was the appointment of a Board of Control under Pitt's India Bill of 1784. Calcutta was given greater powers in matters of war. and the Crown (represented by the Board of Control). military and revenues of the Company. By a supplementary the Bill passed in 1786. A Board of six members was constituted with two members of the British Cabinet and four of the Privy Council. which related to the civil. the minister for the affairs of the East India Company. and he then became the effective ruler of British India under the authority of the Board of Control and the Court of Directors.

Receiving gifts. dismissal and jail. Severe punishment including confiscation of property. the Governor General shall have two votes (one his own and another casting vote). In case the members present in a meeting of the council shall any time be equally divided in opinion.The salient features relating to the governance of the kingdom of Bengal were: There shall be a Board of Control consisting of maximum six parliamentarians headed by a senior cabinet member to direct. superintend and control the affairs of the company's territorial possessions in the East Indies. The Court of Directors shall establish a Secret Committee to work as a link between the Board and the Court. established administrative and police systems and then left for home in the same year. zamindars and other Indians are strictly prohibited and people found guilty of these offences shall be tried charged with corruption. Parliament directly appointed Lord charles cornwallis to implement the Act. shall be inflicted on any civilian or military officer found guilty of corruption. All civilians and military officers must provide the Court of Directors a full inventory of their property in India and in Britain within two months of their joining their posts. Cornwallis embarked upon the responsibility of reform works reposed on him by parliament. Immediately after his joining as Governor General in 1786. announced a judicial code. . rewards. He introduced permanent settlement. In 1793 he completed his mission. The government must establish permanent judicial and administrative systems for the governance of the new kingdom. The Governor General's council shall consist of three members one of whom shall be the commander-in-chief of the King's army in India. presents in kind or cash from the rajas. The government must stop further experiments in the revenue administration and proceed to make a permanent settlement with zamindars at moderate rate of revenue demand.

Far from joining him to remove the English from India.1790-1792 The Two Rivals-Marathas & The Nizam The Treaty of Mangalore carried the seeds of strife with the Marathas. Tipu had emerged with enhanced prestige whom even the mighty English could not humble. Lord Cornwallis who had surrendered to the Americans at Saratoga in the new world assumed the command. The war came to an end in April 1787 by the Treaty of Gajendragadh by which he ceded Badami to the Marathas hoping to win their support against the English or at least to prevent them from joining the English. As he was military imbecile he allied himself either with the Marathas or the English to distress the Mysore rulers. . Tipu was made to make peace by surrendering half of his kingdom. 1792. This was a serious blow to Tipu. The Nizam was also not friendly towards Mysore ever since he had come to power in 1761. Tipu was disappointed in his expectations. He regarded himself as the overlord of the entire south. and paying three crores has indemnity. apart from sending two of his sons as hostages to Madras. The Defeat The allies struggled hard for nearly two years from 1790 to 1792. and with great difficulty he was successful in a surprise night attack to enter into the island of Srirangapatna on 6th Feb. There was always a pro-British party at Hyderabad which dissuaded the Nizam from begin cordial to Tipu. In the war that followed Tipu had the upper hand despite the alliance of his two neighbors. because they were disappointed in their expectation of acting as the mediators and of recovering their losses in the North of Mysore. This excited the jealousy of both the Martha's and the Nizam who fought a war with him for two years from 1785 to 1787. and expected Haidar and Tipu to be his tributaries. both of them. the Marathas and the Nizam joined the English in a powerful confederacy against Tipu in the Third Mysore war.The Third Mysore War India's History : Modern India : Third Mysore War between the British and Tipu .

These may be classified as: placing revenue paying on a definite footing and making revenue collection sure and certain. ensuring a minimum revenue. Besides being turned into proprietors of land. government succeeded in achieving these short-term goals. The government now knew how much was to be its annual inflow from land and the zamindars also knew for certain . Objectives and effects of Permanent Settlement The conclusion of the permanent settlement with zamindars had some immediate objectives in view. and finally. the zamindars were endowed with the privilege of holding their proprietary right at a rate which was to continue unchanged for ever. The revenue-paying agency was put on a definite footing in the person of zamindar. Under the contract the government was barred from enhancing its revenue demand on the zamindars. Though not entirely but largely. Under the contract.1793 Permanant Settlement Permanent Settlement Concluded by the Cornwallis administration in 1793. relieving officials of revenue matter and engaging them to other spheres of administration. Permanent Settlement was a grand contract between the east india company government and the Bengal landholders (zamindars and independent talukdars of all denominations). the landholders or zamindars were admitted into the colonial state system as the absolute proprietors of landed property.Permanant Settlement of Bengal India's History : Modern India : Permanent Settlement of Bengal . forging an alliance between the zamindar class and the colonial rulers.

. the headquarters of the East India Company. He was himself bold. Alexander Dow wrote his history.their contractual obligation to government. and a person of undaunted adventurous spirit. These forty years of Tipu both as a prince and a ruler witnessed continuous warfare. Death of Tipu. as well. now for the first time was retreating in the face of an Indian army. The only state that offered stiff resistance to their expansion was Mysore. An English army much superior to one which under a Lawrence.1799 Tipu Sultan The second half of the eighteenth century was a period of great confusion in Indian history. Tipu remained fully involved in warfare from his youth until his fall in the fourth Mysore war. Mysore had become the terror of Leadenhall Street . or a Clive. Tipu Sultan : Fourth Battle of Mysore India's History : Modern India : Fourth Mysore War: The British defeat Tipu. Having learnt the western technique of warfare. in two of which he inflicted serious blows on the English. Grant wrote to Shelburne. We were alarmed. Tipu's history . Tipu s infliction of serious blows on the English in the first and second Mysore wars damaged their reputation as an invincible power. nay some of the powers of Europe tremble at the bare recital of its victories. From 1760 when Haidar Ali allied himself with the French against the English to 1799 when Wellesly destroyed Tipu. Under his leadership Mysore army proved a school of military science to Indian princes. Formerly. which fought not one but four wars. Tipu was not slow in making use of it. whose shortsighted policy prompted them to join the colonials against Mysore. the Marathas and the Nizam. neither the government nor the revenue payers knew exactly where did they stand as regards revenue collection and payment. This was a reference to colonel Bailey s capture and general Munro s flight in the second Mysore war. In fact Tipu s rule starts in the midst of a war against the English and ends in the midst of war against them. which witnessed the rise of a colonial power. The dread of an European army no longer wrought any magic on him. Partition of Mysore . as if his horses had wings to fly over our walls. five and twenty ago made Hindoostan. His short but stormy rule was eventful for his several engagements with his neighbours. dashing. Tipu participated in all those four Mysore wars.

It was Tipu who obtained the ratification of the treaty of Alliance between the Nizam and Haidar in 1767. He caused great consternation to the governor of Madras. to the Nawab of Carnatic. That was his first experience of war. suddenly surprised the English when he appeared at the gates of Madras in September 1767. whose mutual rivalries and ambition had caused great confusion in Karnataka. the Marathas and the Nizam. who had been placed in independent command of a body of troops in the first Mysore war. He was present in Haidar s negotiations with the Nizam in the first Mysore war when the tact and resourcefulness of the young prince impressed the Nizam and won him over to Haidar s side. It was Tipu s policy to establish a strong central authority which would serve the people better. who had never been confronted with a more formidable foe. he was sent to the northern part of the Mysore to recover the territories which the Marathas had occupied. which necessitated continuous warfare. the Nizam and the feudatories were the principal causes for Tipu s wars. The most serious wars were against the English. Tipu had taken great interest in the Mysore-Maratha war of 1769-72. who was well received by the Nizam. After the death of Peshwa Madhava Rao in 1772. By the time of second Mysore war he had gained great . Apart from this he had his own agenda to assert his own authority over the neighbours. Tipu had gone to the Nizam s camp at the head of 6000 troops and successfully concluded the treaty. it was a providential escape of the entire Madras government. the feudatories and small principalities. Thus the English. when he was hardly 13 years old. who discerned the danger to the freedom of the land by the colonial expansion. in Haidar s attack on Malabar where Tipu displayed great dash and courage. Tipu s training in the art of war started as early as 1763. In all four Mysore wars the Marathas and the Nizam were willing to support the English rather than either Haider or Tipu. the Marathas. This was the first diplomatic assignment of Tipu. Thus. The third cause for the continuous warfare was the need to suppress the far too many units of independent power. a lad of 17 years. which were about to be captured by Tipu. who conferred on him the title of Nasib-ud-daula (fortune of the state) and also Fateh Ali Khan. who were not reconciled to the rise and growth of Mysore as an independent powerful state. In the first Mysore War Tipu. Muhammad Ali. and in the fourth Mysore war the Nizam was an ally of the English. In the third Mysore war all three formed a powerful confederacy against Tipu.Tipu was a far-sighted ruler. This weakness of the neighbours was fully exploited by the English whose shrewd political sense involved them as allies against Mysore. and to almost all the councillors who very narrowly escaped being taken in the country house in the company s garden. Happily for them a small vessel that by accident was opposite the garden furnished them with the means of escaping.

and worked hard from that day. and appealed to the king and parliament to punish the Madras government for the faith and honour of the British nation have been equally violated. Thus Tipu had gained sufficient military experience by the time Haidar died in December 1782. 300 cavalry. The English had lost the flower of their army. One should remember that the total force of a few hundred Europeans was the standard size of the colonial armies that had caused havoc in India prior to Haidar and Tipu. 11 March 1784. 1400 sepoys and10 field pieces. The second Mysore war came to an end by the treaty of Mangalore. It is an important document in the history of India. The march of the commissioners all the way from Madras to Mangalore seeking peace made Munro remark that such indignities were throughout poured upon the British . Tipu inflicted a serious defeat on Colonel Braithwaite at Annagudi near Tanjore on 18 February 1782. In September 1780 he inflicted a crushing defeat on Colonel Baillie near Polilur.experience both of warfare and diplomacy. The treaty redounds great credit to the diplomatic skill of Tipu. Baillie himself was taken prisoner. the hero of Buxar. Tipu seized all the guns and took the entire detachment prisoners. The English would not reconcile to this humiliation. In December 1781 Tipu had successfully seized Chittur from British hands. This army consisted of 100 Europeans. That was the only bright spot in his contest with the English. Oudh Nawab Shuja-ud-daulah. Such public opinion in the country highly gratified Tipu who felt it was his great triumph over the English. would not face Tipu. He ran for his life to Madras throwing all his cannons in the tank of conjeevaram. He had honourably concluded a long-drawn war. The great advantage was psychological. who were made to play the role of humble supplicants for peace. and 3820 were taken prisoners of whom 508 were Europeans. He frustrated the Maratha designs to seize his northern possessions. Sir Hector Munroe. Of the 86 European officers 36 were killed. the only proud event which had humbled a mighty power. This defeat caused so much consternation in Madras that half of its Black Town was deserted. The whole detachment was either cut or taken prisoners. who had defeated three rulers of India (Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. that united efforts seemed necessary to repudiate the treaty at the earliest time. It was the last occasion when an Indian power dictated terms to the English. Warren Hastings called it a humiliating pacification. . Likewise. to subvert Tipu s power. the mode of conclusion was highly satisfactory to him. and the Bengal Nawab Mir Qasim) in a single battle. This was the first and the most serious blow the English had suffered in India.

both of them. This excited the jealousy of both the Marathas and the Nizam who fought a war with him for two years from 1785 to 1787. Tipu was disappointed in his expectations.The treaty of Mangalore carried the seeds of strife with the Marathas. Far from joining him to remove the English from India. and expected Haidar and Tipu to be his tributaries. The Nizam was also not friendly towards Mysore ever since he had come to power in 1761. This was a serious blow to Tipu. He regarded himself as the overlord of the entire south. In the war that followed Tipu had the upper hand despite the alliance of his two neighbours. Lord Cornwallis who had surrendered to the Americans at Saratoga in the new world assumed the command and with great difficulty he was successful in a surprise night attack to enter into the island of Srirangapatana on 6 February 1792. joined the English in a powerful confederacy against Tipu in the third Mysore war. Tipu was made to make peace by surrendering half of his kingdom. Tipu had emerged with enhanced prestige whom even the mighty English could not humble. There was always a pro-British party at Hyderabad which dissuaded the Nizam from being cordial to Tipu. The allies struggled hard for nearly two years from 1790 to 1792. As he was militarily imbecile he allied himself either with the Marathas or the English to distress the Mysore rulers. and paying three crores as indemnity. The war came to an end in April 1787 by the treaty of Gajendragadh by which he ceded Badami to the Marathas hoping to win their support against the English or at least to prevent them from joining the English. the Marathas and the Nizam. because they were disappointed in their expectation of acting as the mediators and of recovering their losses in the north of Mysore. apart from sending two of his sons as hostages to Madras. .

Lord Wellesley When Lord Wellesley arrived as a Governor-General on April 26. The Nizam was also made friendly. But soon the Marathas indulged in internal quarrels. and got his sons back. Zaman Shah was made to beat a hasty retreat to Kabul because of British machinations that brought about a rear action from Iran on Afghanistan. 1795. who was friendly to Tipu. destiny willed otherwise. When Tipu refused to accept them. Nana Phadnavis' influence in Poona was enhanced. became the Peshwa and Nana Phadnavis as his chief minister. Napoleon was defeated at Accre in Syria and forced back to France. paid the indemnity. son of Raghoba. Raymond. he engineered the policy of Subsidiary Alliance. the English began to gain more strength. Keeping Tipu in false hopes. The last hope for the freedom of the land was thus extinguished. Peshwa Madhavrao Narayan committed suicide on October 25. Having finished this task he declared war on Tipu. Wellesley forced the Nizam to disband Raymond and accept a British detachment under subsidiary system. The fourth Mysore war was a short affair. Baji Rao II. sending the largest English army ever assembled in India. He was of the firm conviction that the best way of safeguarding the interest of England was to reduce the whole country into a military dependence on the East India Company. . who had invited Zaman Shah of Afghanistan as well to help him remove the English from India. He died a solider s death for the defence of the cherished values of his land under a spontaneous combustion of hostile forces. fighting against heavy odds he was killed on 4 May 1799. He intensified his contacts with the French. Tired of Nana Phadnavis' dictatorship. Taking advantage of the instable situation among the Marathas. Though there was no conflict between the English and the Marathas. 1796. he suddenly surprised him by unacceptable demands.Very soon Tipu was able to build up his power again. 1798. the Turks and the Afghans. After various plots and counter-plots on December 4.1802 Treaty of Bassein After being victorious over the Nizam at Kharda. the Nizam recovered the territories which were taken by the Marathas after his defeat at Kharda. who was made to recruit a contingent of 14000 troops under a French. Napoleon was also on the way to India to help Tipu. Treaty of Bassein India's History : Modern India : Treaty of Bassein . the English breached the fort and in a bloody encounter. When all these plans were about to mature.

Thus the last chance of keeping the Marathas in order was wiped out. he defeated the combined armies of Sindhias and the Peshwas at Poona and captured the city. the British resident at Poona: "With him departed all the wisdom and moderation of the Maratha government. It also stated that the Peshwa could not enter into any treaty or declare war without consulting the . On April 12. But the Peshwa remained unmoved and the Resident suggested that only immediate destruction will make the Peshwa bow." It was Nana who could forsee the danger of Subsidiary Alliance.The English prospects were brightened after the death of Nana Phadnavis on March 13. 1800 Wellesley advised the Poona Residents to manage the secret treaty with Poona for turning out Sindhia. and for its maintenance the districts yielding twenty six lakh rupees were to be given to the Company. This made Holkar rise in rebellion with a huge army and on October 23. 1802. And in this helpless situation. The Peshwa favoured Sindhia and finally became a puppet in his hand. The treaty provided for an English force of 6. brother of Jaswant Rao Holkar in April 1801. It worsened more when the Peshwa murdered Vithuji Holkar. Nana's death meant the removal of the barrier that had checked to a great extent the disruptive activities of the Maratha chiefs. This has been nicely said in the words of Colonel Palmer. Baji Rao had no hesitation to accept the Subsidiary Alliance and signed with the East India Company the Treaty of Bassein on December 31.000 to be permanently stationed with the Peshwa. Treaty of Bassein signed Matters among the Marathas were becoming worse by the Peshwa's own intrigues. Jaswant Rao Holkar made Amrit Rao's son Vinayak Rao the Peshwa and on the other hand Baji Rao took refuge in Bassein. 1800. Both Daulat Rao Sindhia and Jaswant Rao Holkar entered into a fierce struggle with each other for supremacy at Poona.

Raja of Berar. and Arthur Wellesley led a force.000-allied Mysore and Maratha light horse. ceding territory for the maintenance of a subsidiary force. which reinstalled Baji Rao in Poona. and agreeing to treat with no other power. notably from Perron. Marquess Wellesley's attempts to bring these states into his `subsidiary' system were unsuccessful. and by the Treaty of Bassein formed an alliance with the British. and civil war among the Marathas resulted in the utter defeat of the Peshwa's forces by Holkar at the battle of Poona (25 October 1802). lesser powers were the Gaekwar of Baroda and Ragogee Bhonsla. some 9. Baji Rao II. This directly resulted in the Second Anglo-Maratha war in 1803. and Jaswant Rao Holkar of Indore. Marquess Wellesley determined to support the Peshwa. Collaborating with the latter was the Hyderabad Contingent. However. This treaty of Bassein was an important landmark in the history of British supremacy in India. the Second Maratha War arose initially from internal conflict within the Maratha Confederacy.Company and that the Peshwa's claim upon the Nizam and Gaekwar would be subject to the arbitration of the Company.400 strong. The Peshwa also renounced his claim over Surat. Marquess Wellesley formed two armies. Baji Rao II fled to British protection.1805 The Second Battle AIthough the defeat of Tipu left the Marathas as the chief rivals to Britain. the governor-general moved against the two principal Maratha forces: a combined army of Sindhia and the Raja of Berar in the Deccan. more than 11. the treaty was not acceptable to both the Marathas chieftains .000 strong. . This considerably extended British influence in western India.500 regular infantry.000 strong were some 5. without opposition. 1803 Baji Rao II was restored to Peshwarship under the protection of the East India Company. This led to expansion of the sway and influence of the East India Company over the Indian subcontinent. and the southern under Arthur Wellesley. Sindhia's main army. negotiations with Sindhia having failed. and further north. and in addition to Wellesley's own army. the northern under General Gerard Lake.000 strong. given the French influence in the Maratha forces. By early August. about 50. about 35. On May 13. The Second Anglo Maratha War India's History : Modern India : The Second Anglo-Maratha war: The British defeat the Marathas at Assaye: Treaty of Amritsar : 1803 . The Peshwa.the Shindes nd Bhosales. on 13 May 1803. including 10. commanded by Perron. but the most powerful were Doulut Rao Sindhia of Gwalior. but Wellesley was still concerned over possible French interference. was still the offiicial head of the Marathas.

Wellesley suffered barely 360 casualties in all. he wrote that `These English are a strange people and their General a wonderful man. and accepted its surrender on 12 August.000. The European infantry outpaced the rest as Wellesley ordered a frontal attack. 74th Foot and 78th Foot). This success had a profound effect upon the Maratha chieftain Gokhale. Wellesley was unable immediately to pursue his defeated enemy. including three brigades of regular infantry. Wellesley's army about 10-11. On 15 December 1803 a ferocious British assault captured the fortress of Gawilghur. some believed to be of dubious loyalty. They numbered probably between 30.000. from a strength of about 500 rank and file. and 124 other ranks killed and 270 wounded. of whom perhaps 500 had to guard his bag gage. numbering nearly 650 Europeans and more than 900 Indian troops. looked at the pettah-wall. On 8 August he stormed and took the city. and marched immediately upon the fortification of Ahmednagar. the 74th lost ten officers and one volunteer killed and seven wounded. even when compared to his later triumphant career. and having fought the battle after a 24 mile march. They came here in the morning. laid siege to Ahmednagar fort. however. the European part being only the remains of those who had fought at Assaye. the Raja of Berar sued for peace next day.000 men. and returned to breakfast. plus the 94th Scotch Brigade from Stevenson's force. until the Raja of Berar's army. . he had only three European regiments (l9th Light Dragoons. Wellesley had only some 7. Despite the numbers. one of the Peshwa's supporters whose forces were present with Wellesley.000 men. as Colonel Stevenson's Hyderabad force was not within range of support.The British defeats the Marathas On 6 August 1803 Arthur Wellesley received news of the failure of negotiations. and of the remainder. Wellesley pressed on in due course. could not be used in the main action. Having sustained such casualties. and one which he always held in the highest estimation. the largest under the command of the ex-Hanoverian sergeant. and on 17 December ceded the province of Cuttack to the Company. and other territory to its allies. Wellesley determined to attack. The Mysore and Maratha light horse. abandoning 38 guns and Wellesley's cavalry did severe execution in the pursuit. the Marathas broke.000 and 40.' Wellesley encountered the army of Sindhia and Ragojee Bhonsla at Assaye on 23 September. walked over it. which they had bravely attempted to defend. killed all the garrison. a casualty -rate of about threequarters of those engaged. Pohlmann. The latter numbered between 40.000 and 50. His losses. with large numbers of Sindhia's cavalry made a stand at Argaum on 29 November 1803. the small British and Company force won a considerable victory. who had left 98 guns on the field. Despite sustaining heavy casualties in their frontal attack. were severe. it was Wellesley's first major success.

Slowly they built up a powerful State with considerable military strength and desire to expand. Kashmir. Anglo-French struggles India's History : Modern India : The Anglo-Gurkha war . Anglo-Gurkha War.1814-1816 In 1768. Ranjit Singh's forces fought with Gurkhas in Kangra Valley in the end the Gurkha leader Amar Singh thapa fled leaving the field to the Sikhs. Kotla.Treaty of Amritsar After the Treaty of Amritsar with British which simply stated that the International boundry of line between the Sarkar Khalsa and British India is Satluj. But. Guler. Then Ranjit singh sent a force under the command of Hukma Singh Chimmi to Jammu and himself marched on to Khushab. In few months. He gave up the city and defended the fort stoutly. . Kahlur. there was several small kingdoms. Desa Singh Majithia was appointed governor of Kangra. Thus. Ranjit singh first turned towards North towards Kangra valley which was taken over from Raja Sansar Chand by Gurkhas. Shahpur. Anglo-French struggles . Rawalpindi. The fort of Khushab was held by Jaffar Khan. Mandi.. Ranjit singh entered the fort of Kangra and held a royal Darbar which was attended by the hill chiefs of Chamba. The Gurkhas got in possessions the whole of strong country which skirts the northern frontier of Hindustan. Sialkote which were ruled by Afghani or local chiefs. nurpur. Ranjit singh invited him to vacate the fort and accept a jagir. Ranjit singh was virtually made master of all the territory to the west of Satluj. Multan. Jaffar Khan accepted Ranjit singh's terms and gave up the fort. like Peshawar. Suket and Kulu. On the northern side they were checked by the Chinese Empire and on the southern side the Gurkhas extended their dominion as far as River Tista on the east and Sutlej on the west. the Gurkhas . conquered the Nepal valley. He was given a jagir and allowed to remain in Khushab with his family.a tribe of the Western Himalayas. a Baluch chief.

who were to advance towards Nepal capital. 1815. the Gurkhas signed a treaty of Sagauli. Thus the conflicting interest between the Gurkhas and the English continued sowing the seeds of the war. Treaty of Sagauli . At the times of Lord Minto. The British even tried to bribe the Nepalese Government. However all these defeats were again retrieved when in April 1815. 1816. As per the treaty the Nepalese gave up their claims to places in the lowlands along the southern frontier. Major-General Martindell was defeated at Jaitak. the East India Company occupied the Gorakpur district with which the Gurkhas in Tarai became conterminous with the uncertain and ill-defined northern frontier of the British dominions. GovernorGeneral Lord Hastings declared a war against the Gurkhas. to surrender the fort of Malaon. Again it was very difficult for the British soldiers to go through the mountainous region. General Ochterlony compelled the Gurkha leader Amar Singh Thapa. the Gurkhas conquered Bhutwal lying north.Gurkha-English Conflicts In 1801. . Lord Hastings himself took the charge of the war and decided to attack the Gurkhas at the four points along the entire line of Sutlej to the Kosi. the Gurkhas attacked the three police stations in Bhutwal. the British had to accept defeats. And finally on November 28 1815. The Nepal Government ever since remained true to its alliance with the English. This compelled the Nepal Government to ratify the treaty. Major-Generals Marley and John Wood. But to vanquish the Nepalese was not an easy task for Lord Hastings. Then in October. The Nepal Government hesitated to ratify the treaty and the hostilities began again. General Gillespie lost his life in Kalanga. However the Company again regained Bhutwal. retreated after some unsuccessful attempts. In May 1814. Colonel Nicolls and Gardener captured Almora in Kumaon and on May 15. They also agreed to receive a British Resident at Katmandu. General Ochterlony advanced towards the Nepal capital and defeated the Nepalese at Makwanpur on February 28.1815 In 1814-1815. gave away Garhwal and Kumaon on the west of Nepal to the British and also withdrew from Sikkim.

Indore. Two of the possible foes provided little opposition. whom he had been protecting. The most powerful chieftain.Third Anglo-Maratha Battle: Pindari India's History : Modern India : The Pindari war . she was murdered by the Indore military commanders in 1817 who committed their forces to the peshwa when hostilities began). usually in November. generally organised in loose bands led by chieftains. Troops from all three presidencies were involved. Afghans and Jats. Amir Khan. his favourite mistress became regent. each of two infantry and a cavalry brigade.000 infantry and an estimated artillery train of between 80 and 200 guns. from where they set out. in return for a territorial settlement which became the state of Tonk in Rajputana. Sindhia was pressured into neutrality. the Governor General formed two armies. and the Pindaris themselves did not pose the predicted threat. Of no one race. They congregated in Malwa. so the Governor General (and Commander in-Chief). taking personal command of the Grand Army which assembled at Cawnpore in four divisions. the remaining Pindari forces were attacked and .500 infantry and 20 guns. with the tacit approval of Sindhia and Holkar.1817-1818 Pindari Of uncertain origin. and in the minority of his successor. to which other Pindari bands added a further 15. and by signing the Treaty of Gwalior agreed to take action against the Pindaris. to plunder throughout Hindustan. By 1817 the ravages of these bandits had become intolerable. into British territory and even to the Coromandel coast. had regularly organised regiments. To combat this menace. and the Bhonsla raja of Nagpore. but the renewed hostility of the Maratha powers turned what began as a drive against freebooters into a war against the peshwa. and General Sir Thomas Hislop's Army of the Deccan. the Earl of Moira (later Marquess HASTINGS) determined to crush them. including Marathas. they sometimes served the Maratha states. 10. the term `Pindari' described a type of irregular light horse-cum-bandit which flourished in central India in the late l8th and early l9th centuries. seven divisions strong. estimated at 12. receiving no wage but even paying for the prospect of loot and plunder. 1. tribe or religion. (Jaswant Rao Holkar of Indore had died in 1811.000 light horse. originating with the break-up of the Mogul armies. they included any to whom the prospect of lawlessness appealed.000 cavalry. Amir Khan accepted conditions imposed by the British and disbanded his forces.

in . Like BURR. but turned against the British when news was received of the Peshwa's revolt. Scott's force having sustained 367 casualties. some thousands withdrawing into the city. the Peshwa's army was still in being and. and some auxiliaries. two Madras Artillery 6pdrs and 300 auxiliary horse. Marathas finally crushed More serious was the reaction of the other Marathas.. the Peshwa's entire force being routed for the loss of nineteen dead and 67 wounded. commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel H. DOVETON's 2nd Division of the Army of the Deccan.000 men of the Nagpore army. Despite the defeat at Poona. On 12 December relief arrived in the form of Brigadier-General J. Concerning the exertions of the British officers (even two assistant-surgeons. about 28.000 infantry and fourteen guns.000 strong.300 strong. attacked him. The British force at Nagpore was only about 1. this comprised only about 600 of his own battalion. The residency at Poona was burned. General Lionel SMITH arrived to reinforce BURR on the l3th.dispersed. Chitu. which retired and broke up upon news of the approach of General Lionel Smith. Commanded by Captain STAUNTON of the 21st Bombay Native Infantry. At Nagpore the Bhonsla mustered his forces. even without European support. testimony to the determination with which sepoy units could fight. the commander of the British units at Poona. Karim. and on 5 November 1817 the Peshwa's army moved to attack the position at Kirkee. had led bayonet-charges throughout the day). whose simmering discontent turned into open war in November 1817. about 2. and on 17 November another action was fought at Poona. Smith described their efforts as `almost unparalleled . resisted all efforts of the Peshwa's army.. and a house-to-house fight raged from noon until 9 p. SCOTT. Staunton occupied that part of Corygaum village not held by the enemy. Burr attacked immediately and the Marathas bolted. This remarkable defence. at Seetabuldee on 26 November 18. After several hours' fighting the 21. and another. surrenderirig. against which Burr had five Bombay sepoy battalions and an auxiliary battalion. one of whom was killed. fled to the jungles where he was killed by a tiger. and concentrated on a ridge at Kirkee. one of their principal leaders. BURR. which assaulted Nagpore on 16 December. including some 3. the 1/20th and 1/24th Madras Native Infantry. B. Colonel C. Scott withdrew from the cantonments to a defensible position. which completed the defeat of the Peshwa's army. S. their strength was estimated as up to 18.000 Arabs employed by the Bhonsla.000 cavalry. 8. As Peshwa Baji Rao II assembled his forces.m. in which only Staunton and two other officers remained unscathed. and 800 Europeans (Bombay Europeans and a detachment of 65th Foot).000 strong on New Years Day 1818 fell upon a British detachment at Coiygaum. comprising three troops of 6th Bengal Cavalry. where they capitulated on 24 December after several days of bombardment. withdrew from the cantonments with the Resident. After a fight of some eighteen hours the Nagpore army withdrew. only two of these casualties falling upon BURR's European troops.000-strong Nagpore army was routed. ostensibly for a drive against the Pindaris.

and anchored off the town on May 10. near Cawnpore. Baji Rao II surrendered to Sir John MALCOLM in May 1818. Mahidpore virtually ended the war. killing and wounding six of the guard. On May 28 Sir A. Campbell ordered an attack on some of the nearest posts. 1824. under Commodore Charles Grant and Sir Archibald Campbell. then little more than a large stockaded village. coming at the end of a 28-mile march. which was under British protection. An infant was recognised as raja of Nagpore.1824-1826 Burmese War On September 23. Nana Sahib. Following a chase. Hislop lost 174 killed. Sir Thomas HISLOP engaged the army of Indore at Mahidpore on 23 December 1817.000 infantry and 100 guns. and seemed to inspire the native soldiers with the usual confidence of success'. . and the troops were landed. an island close to the Chittagong side.500-strong 1st and 3rd Divisions of the Army of the Deccan included few Europeans. The Indore forces mustered some 30. was surrendered.such a struggle the presence of a single European was of the utmost consequence. however. The war finally ended the power of the Maratha states. devoid of power or influence. and was sent as a state pensioner to Bithur. Hislop attacked immediately. entered the Rangoon river. 614 wounded and three missing. his heir. one from Mariipur and another from Assam. On May 17 a Burmese force invaded Chittagong and drove a mixed sepoy and police detachment from its position at Ramu. Modern India : The First Burmese War India's History : Modern India : The First Burmese War . Some of these were battered by artillery from the war vessels in the river. which were all carried after a steadily weakening defence. reflected equal credit upon the sepoys as upon their leaders. although Gwalior was still not completely negated as an opponent. After vainly attempting to negotiate to prevent the state becoming hostile. Another attack was made on the June 10 on the stockades at the village of Kemmendine. 1824. 5. Hislop's 5. had resolved to carry the war into the enemys country. under British guardianship. the provisions were carried off or destroyed. Because of the disparity in numbers. his territory was annexed. only the flank companies of the lst Foot and Madras Europeans. 1823 an armed party of Burmese attacked a British guard on Shapura. After a feeble resistance the place. and the invading force took possession of a complete solitude. the Maratha horse fled. as peace was concluded with Indore shortly after. The British rulers in India. and the shot and shells had such effect on the Burmese that they evacuated them. after a very unequal resistance. also entered Cachar. The place was entirely deserted by its inhabitants. but this action. in January 1824. an armament. but the infantry and gunners (trained in European style) made a gallant stand until they were overthrown. but did not follow up its success. Two Burmese armies.000 light horse. would become infamous forty years later. and when the Bhonsla died without direct heirs in 1853. War with Burma was formally declared on the March 5.

Campbell in subduing the Burmese provinces of Tavoy and Mergui.It soon. Taking the command of the land force. which was taken. one proceeding by land. an armistice was concluded for one month. The fugitives retired to a strong position on the river. but proved unsuccessful. and on April 2 entered the entrenchments at Danubyu without resistance. under General Willoughby Cotton. Bandula hastened by forced marches to the defence of his country. and here they were attacked by the British on the 15th. Bandula having been killed by the explosion of a bomb. The English general entered Prome on the 25th. and without adequate provision. The health of the men declined. recalled the veteran legions which were employed in Arakan. and in October the province of Martaban was reduced under the authority of the British. and early in June an attack was commenced on the British line. The enemy in great force made repeated attacks on Kemmendine without success. when intelligence reached him of the failure of the attack upon Danubyu. On September 17. With the exception of an attack by the prince of Tharrawaddy in the end of August.000 men had surrounded the British position at Rangoon and Kemmendine. and driven in complete confusion from the field. The devastation of the country.000 efficient troops.000 soldiers fit for duty. and the court of Ava. at the mouth of the Pegu river. higher up the Irrawaddy river. became apparent that the expedition had been undertaken with very imperfect knowledge of the country. and on December 7. and the other. the enemy allowed the British to remain unmolested during the months of July and August. Campbell. This interval was employed by Sir A. was carried out with unrelenting rigour. 1825 in two divisions. being embarked on the flotilla. about 100 m. An expedition was about this time sent against the old Portuguese fort and factory of Syriam. and the whole coast of Tenasserim. he continued his advance till March 11. and remained there during the rainy season. for the defence of which Sir Archibald Campbell had only 5. which they again entrenched. In the course of the summer General Joseph Morrison had conquered the province of Arakan. under their renowned leader Maha Bandula. on the 27th he effected a junction with General Cottons force. and their ranks were fearfully thinned. destined for the reduction of Danubyu. He instantly commenced a retrograde march. battered to pieces by a powerful artillery. as the country was salubrious and afforded convalescent stations to the sick. Bandula was defeated in a counter attack made by Sir A. On June 8 the British assaulted. in the north the Burmese . however. This was an important conquest. and by the end of November an army of 60. He moved with his force on February 13. which was part of the defensive system of the Burmese. and the invaders were soon reduced to great difficulties. alarmed by the discomfiture of its armies. The monarch of Ava sent large reinforcements to his dispirited and beaten army. The rainy season terminated about the end of October. Sir Archibald Campbell now resolved to advance on Prome. were in general abandoned. and their strongest stockaded works. The enemy were beaten at all points. who were now so numerous in the British army that there were scarcely 3.

The Burmese retired on Malun. and the invading force being now within four days march of Ava. and dispersed them in every direction. and successively drove them from all their positions. On the 26th they sent a flag of truce to the British camp. On January 19. with an escort of fifty men it was also stipulated that British ships should no longer be obliged to unship their rudders and land their guns as formerly in the Burmese ports This treaty was agreed to and signed. Campbell attacked and carried the enemys position at Malun.000 men.000 Europeans and 2. and it was soon apparent that the Burmese had no intention to sign it. an American missionary. together with the provinces of Mergui. which was defended by 3. attacked the different divisions of their army.000 native troops. in which the Burmese were the assailants and were partially successful. and after several actions. but the ratification of the king was still wanting. a series of strongly fortified heights and a formidable stockade. was sent to the British camp with the treaty (known as the treaty . on December 1. The armistice having expired on November 3. Dr Price. where they occupied. Another offer of peace was here made by the Burmese. Sir A. peace was proposed to them on the following conditions: The cession of Arakan. the army of Ava. 1826. amounting to 60. Sir A. Campbell.000 men.were expelled from Assam. but it was found to be insincere. though their advance was finally impeded by the thick forests and jungle. and the fugitive army made at the ancient city of Pagan a final stand in defence of the capital. But the British still triumphed. advanced in three divisions against the British position at Prome. They were attacked and overthrown on February 9. and the British had made some progress in Cachar. along the course of the Irrawaddy. with 10. and negotiations having commenced. accordingly.000 or 12. who with other Europeans had been thrown into prison when the war commenced. but were preparing to renew the contest. Tavoy and Ye the renunciation by the Burmese sovereign of all claims upon Assam and the contiguous petty states the Company to be paid a crore of rupees as an indemnification for the expenses of the war residents from each court to be allowed.

Self-sacrifice. consumed herself in a holy pyre. which means truth. She was so mortified that she invoked a yogic fire and was reduced to ashes. in England. She did this in response to her father's refusal to invite Shiva to the assembly of the Gods. became a "divine example of wifely devotion". Sati who was the wife of Lord Shiva. The war was thus brought to a successful termination. The following applies to the ideal wife: "if her husband is happy. she will be honored. and an instalment of 25 lakhs of rupees. the act of sati played a major role in determining the true nature of a woman. From this tradition stems the custom in which a wife immolates herself on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband as proof of her loyalty. In the original meaning. and if he is dead. A pious and virtuous woman would receive the title of "Sati. she should be sad. and allegiance to her husband." Sati was derived from the ancient Indic language term. rather than its original meaning of "a virtuous woman". The term"sati" is associated with the Hindu goddess Sati. Self-sacrifice is considered the best measure of judging the woman's virtue as well as her loyalty to her husband. Socially. Abolition of Sati India's History : Modern India : Prohibition of Sati . and the British army evacuated the country. In the Hindu mythology. the prisoners of war released. The act of Sati propagated the belief that if a widow gives up her life for her husband. the highest ideal for a woman are virtue. as suttee. "Sati" was defined as a woman who was "true to her ideals".of Yandaboo) ratified. she should also die. This custom in which a woman burns herself either on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband or by herself with a momento after his death is now referred to as sati or. sat. like that of the original Sati. if he is sad. she should be happy. purity.1829 Sati Stigma Within the Indian culture. Such a wife is called a . Sati has come to signify both the act of immolation of a widow and the victim herself.

and thus may harm society with immoral acts. she was separated from the social world of the living and considered to be a "cold sati". Remarriage in India was not favored. If a widow decided not to join her husband. A widow was seen as having irrepressible sexual powers and could be a danger to her society. otherwise she will be doomed for eternity and will live a cruel existence as a widow. The pain that a sati endures on the pyre was less painful of an experience than the torture she must endure physically and emotionally as a widow. was considered justifiable. in which she is unable to adorn herself. By sacrificing herself a widow saves herself from the cruel existence of widowhood and ends the threat she possesses for society. The British government in 1829 prohibited the custom of sati. This concept of meriting heaven through self-sacrifice became embedded within the minds of many as the only assurance for a female to gain salvation. polluted being. done for the widow's "own interest". A widow was not allowed to remarry. . A female's life must be lived in full devotion to her husband. British India declared the practice of sati as illegal and punishable by criminal courts. Such a law revealed much about the British thought and opinion of India and its customs.Patrivrata". Only a woman who is sexually and legally possessed by a husband is respected within the Indian society. She was only allowed to wear rags and was treated by her family and members of society as an impure. She is considered a member of society who has unrestrained sexual vigor. The upbringing of many Indian girls emphasized the concept of Patrivrata as the only way for a woman to merit heaven. The prohibition. and hence lived a bleak and barren life. nor was she able to turn to religious learning. According to Ananda Coomaraswamy: "Women were socially dead after the death of their husbands and were thought to be polluting".

For example. tracking charges to Indian territorial revenues became somewhat easier. However.East India Company takes over the Administration India's History : Modern India : Raja of Mysore deposed and its administration taken over by East India Company : 1831 Mysore The old province of Mysore comprised the areas of Mysore. his acts of courage. Talakad. has dominated most of Mysore history. the regime began a systematic policy of building and improving public works. The interim period saw the rise to power of two of India's most famous personalities-Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. which was founded by Yaduraya in 1399 AD. The Wodeyar dynasty. the regime invested 2.2 million sterling in improving three grand trunk . Whether all these charges represented a transfer of wealth from India as a drain or tribute or whether some or all should be considered payments for services rendered is a difficult question and one that this paper cannot really answer. Governor William Bentick took over Mysore in 1831 and in 1881 restored it back to Chamaraja Wodeyar. After that date. bravery are renowned. Tipu Sultan was the first to build an army on scientific lines and took on the might of the British. The modern phase of Mysore began from 1800 with the ascent to the throne of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III. Company's Charter renewed India's History : Modern India : Renewal of Company's Charter. Company accounts distinguished a class of territorial expenses incurred in Britain that were chargeable to the Indian revenues. After the 1833 Charter Renewal that abolished the Company s commercial operations. the impact of the Home Charges upon Indian budgets between 1815 and 1859 is clear. calculating what were called Home Charges become straightforward anything spent by the Company in Britain was an expense for the Indian treasury. Kodagu and Srirangapatnam. Abolition of company's trading rights : 1833 Renewal of Charter After the separation of the Company s commercial and political financial accounts. Chikkadevara Wodeyar was the man who expanded the Mysore Empire while Kantareeva Narasimha Raja Wodeyar recaptured Mysore from the Dalavayis. Known as the Tiger of Mysore. It was only after passage of the Charter Act of 1833 had closed India Company trading operations that a shift occurred. This brave heart died at Srirangapatna fighting till the last.

Otherwise parsimony ruled. however. principally in the West Indies. Second. cost 1. Third. when it was abolished by legislation). It received the Royal Assent (which means it became law) on 29 August 1833 and came into force on 1 August 1834. those surpluses produced were never adequate to meet the combined administrative. finished in 1854.4 million sterling. The Ganges Canal that tapped into the perennial water flow of the Himalayan river sources. . The Kaveri. These long-term East India Company fiscal data reveal several characteristic features of the Company s fiscal approach: First. Finally. Abolition of Slavery India's History : Modern India : Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Empire . for cultural patronage. On that date slavery was abolished throughout the vast British Empire. existed in a number of British colonies. The Company confined its generosity to paying extremely high salaries to its civil servants and military officers. Fourth. Slavery.1833 Slavery Act The common law of England did not recognize anyone as a slave (although in Scotland. Calcutta to Bombay. military and commercial expenses of the Company. To do so. These characteristics marked the East India Company fiscal system from its inception to its demise in 1859.roads: Peshawar-Delhi-Calcutta. Godavari and Krishna river systems in the south were also completed. for charitable relief. the Company allocated negligible funds for public works. they raised their revenue demands in each territory acquired to levels equal to the highest assessments made by previous Indian regimes. or for any form of education. the escalating cost of the East India Company armies and of incessant warfare formed the greatest single fiscal burden for the new regime. The Slavery Abolition Bill 1833 was passed by the House of Commons and by the House of Lords. decision-makers at home and in India were bent on creating a usable revenue surplus each year suitable for commercial investment (until 1833) and paying dividends to the holders of East India Company stock. the Company resorted to borrowing on interest-bearing bonds in India and at home in steadily rising amounts to meet its obligations. In the 1850 s the state began work for the first time on new irrigation projects. bondage still existed until the late eighteenth century. and Bombay to Agra. which does not have the common law.

The Honourable East India Company. in theory. section 1 of 5 & 6 Vict c 101 was enacted which prohibited certain officers of The Honourable East India Company from being involved in the purchase of slaves. section 64 excluded Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). First. The second purpose was achieved by providing for a period of apprenticeship. Purposes of the Act The purposes of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 were described in the preamble to the Bill as: the abolition of slavery throughout the British colonies . but the section was subsequently repealed. and for compensating the persons hitherto entitled to the services of such slaves . its application to the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope (now the Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa) was delayed for 4 months and its application to the Colony of Mauritius (now the Republic of Mauritius) was delayed for 6 months. It was the provisions of the Indian Penal Code 1860 which effectively abolished slavery in India by making the enslavement of human beings a criminal offence. but it did not actually abolish slavery in India.The Act automatically applied as new possessions (principally in Africa) subsequently became part of the British Empire. There were a number of exceptions. Secondly. St Helena and the territories in the possession of The Honourable East India Company. namely in British India. for promoting the industry of the manumitted slaves . 20 million a huge sum in those days to . administered large parts of India as an agent for the Mogul Emperor in Delhi. The third purpose was achieved by appropriating compensate slave owners. Subsequently.

but from the Russians. historically the western gateway to Afghanistan and northern India. taking the Punjab. it became clear to the British that the major threat totheir interests in India would not come from the fragmented Afghan empire. and surrender all claims to Peshawar. who was ostensibly there. and Kashmir. the Iranians. who had already begun a steady advance southward from the Caucasus. for commercial discussions. When Auckland refused to put the agreement in writing. In addition to this rivalry between Britain and Russia.Tripartite Treaty India's History : Modern India : Tripartite treaty between Shah Shuja. as was the British agent Alexander Burnes. In return. . or the French. there were two specific reasons for British concern over Russia's intentions. In 1837 Iran advanced on Herat with the support and advice of Russian officers. the Kirghiz and Turkmenlands. the Russians feared permanent British occupation in Central Asia as the British encroached northward. The second immediate reason was the presence in Kabul in 1837 of a Russian agent. The British demanded that Dost Mohammad sever all contact with the Iranians and Russians. The British viewed Russia's absorption of the Caucasus. remove Vitkevich from Kabul. Dost Mohammad turned his back on the British and began negotiations with Vitkevich. At the same time. In the early decades of the nineteenth century. which was under the control of his brothers at the time. Vitkevich. and respect Peshawar's independence as well as that of Qandahar. Ranjit Singh and the British : 1838 The Treaty The debacle of the Afghan civil war left a vacuum in the Hindu Kush area that concerned the British. First was the Russian influence at the Iranian court. and the Khanates of Khiva and Bukhara with equal suspicion as a threat to their interests in the Indian subcontinent. who were well aware of the many times in history it had been employed as the invasion route to India. which prompted the Russians to support Iran in its attempt to take Herat. Sindh. the British government intimated that it would ask Ranjit Singh to reconcile with the Afghans. Captain P.

the First Anglo-Afghan War (often called "Auckland's Folly") was an unmitigated disaster. By summer's end. and Dost Mohammad found his support melting away. From the point of the view of the British. Auckland's plan in the spring of1838 was for the Sikhs--with British support--to place Shuja on the Afghan throne. The war demonstrated the ease of overrunning Afghanistan and the difficulty of holding it. ordered an invasion of Afghanistan. It soon became apparent to the British that Sikh participation advancing toward Kabul through the Khyber Pass while Shuja and the British advanced through Qandahar--would not be forthcoming. An army of British and Indian troops set out from the Punjab in December 1838 and by late March 1839 had reached Quetta. where he was arrested. he would accept Sikh rule of the former Afghan provinces already controlled by Ranjit Singh. but it soon became clear that Shuja's rule could only be maintained by the presence of British forces.In 1838 Auckland. and in August 1839 Shuja was enthroned again in Kabul after a hiatus of almost 30 years. now the British alone would impose the pliant Shuja. Kalat-iGhilzai (Qalat). The Afghan ruler took his few loyal followers and fled across the passes to Bamian. however. Some British troops returned to India. the plan had changed. with the object of restoring shah Shuja (also Shoja). who had ruled Afghanistan from 1803 to 1809. Garrisons were established in Jalalabad. In July. and ultimately to Bukhara. the British attacked the fortress of Ghazni. after a two-month delay in Qandahar. In practice. overlooking a plain that leads to India.1842 First Afghan War With the failure of the Burnes mission (1837). which were led by one of his sons. and that Herat would remain independent. Ghazni. The Afghans were amazed at the taking of fortified Ghazni. The First Afghan War. and achieved a decisive victory over the troops of Dost Mohammad. Lord Auckland. the governor general of India. Ranjit Singh. Qandahar. the plan replaced Dost Mohammad with a British figurehead whose autonomy would be as limited as that of other Indian princes. and at the passes to Bamian. and Shuja signed an agreement stating that Shuja would regain control of Kabul and Qandahar with the help of the British and Sikhs. By the end of April the British had taken Qandahar without a battle. 1839-1842 India's History : Modern India : The First Afghan War : 1839 . .

as they struggled through the snowbound passes. in fact a few more survived as prisoners and hostages.Omens of disaster for the British abounded. . the British in Kabul and a number of Afghan chiefs reached an agreement that provided for the safe exodus of the entire British garrison and its dependents from Afghanistan. Dost Mohammad escaped from prison in Bukhara and returned to Afghanistan to lead his followers against the British and their Afghan protege. Ghilzai warriors attacked the British. Muhammad Akbar. and the Ghilzai and allied tribes had not been among the 18 chiefs who had signed the agreement. 1842. was killed at a meeting with the tribal chiefs in December. Barnes was murdered in November 1841. By October 1841 disaffected Afghan tribes were flocking to the support of Dost Mohammad's son. He was deported to India with the greater part of his family. urging good treatment for the deposed Afghan leader. one of the principal architects of the British invasion.000 camp followers began and.500 British and Indian troops with 12. On January 6 the precipitate retreat by some 4. Although a Dr. Brydon is usually cited as the only survivor of the march to Jalalabad (out of more than 15. but the next day he surrendered to the British in Kabul. having tried first to bribe and then to negotiate with the tribal leaders. In a battle at Parwan on November 2. Sir William Macnaghten. Shuja remained in power only a few months and was assassinated in April 1842. there was a major revolt by the Ghilzai. Macnaghten. Unfortunately. the British would not wait for an Afghan escort to be assembled.000 who undertook the retreat). 1840. in Bamian. When the cash payments to tribal chiefs were curtailed in 1841. Shuja did not succeed in garnering the support of the Afghan chiefs on his own. W. and the power of his government did not extend beyond the areas controlled by the force of British arms. and the British could not or would not sustain their subsidies. Opposition to the British-imposed rule of Shuja began as soon as he assumed the throne. and a few days later the commissariat fell into the hands of the Afghans. On January 1. wrote to Auckland two months later. Dost Mohammad had the upper hand.

Opposing them was an army.The destruction of the British garrison prompted brutal retaliation by the British against the Afghans and touched off yet another power struggle among potential rulers of Afghanistan. On 29th December 1843. Gough suffered almost 800 casualties. On the same day. Although the foreign invasion did give the Afghan tribes a temporary sense of unity they had lacked before. about 20 miles away from Gough. In the fall of 1842 British forces from Qandahar and Peshawar entered Kabul long enough to rescue the British prisoners and burn the great bazaar. and one at Jansi under MajorGeneral John Grey. especially regarding the Punjab and Sind.000 strong at Punniar. war was declared. the Mahrathas were routed and 56 guns captured. The Gwalior War India's History : Modern India : The Gwalior War . and the fact that Gwailor possessed significant military forces. Grey's column encountered a second Maratha force some 12. The council refused even to discuss the situation with Lord Ellenborough and. All that remained of the British occupation of Afghanistan was a ruined market and thousands of dead (one estimate puts the total killed at 20. .1843 The Gwalior War Years of turbulence and intrigue in Gwailor culminated in 1843 in the adoption of the child-heir Jayavi Rao Sinhia to the vacant throne. Gough's force of two cavalry and three infantry brigades encountered about 17.000 Marathas in a strong position at Maharajpore. the British naturally wanted certain re-assurances from the Gwailor council of regency. which included European-trained "regulars" and a formidable force of artillery. the accompanying loss of life (one estimate puts the total killed at 25. and again the Marathas were routed and their artillery captured.000) and property was followed by a bitterness and resentment of foreign influence that lasted well into the twentieth century and may have accounted for much of the backlash against the modernization attempts of later Afghan monarchs. With the country's geographical position so strategically significant to British interests.000). in 1843. despite strong resistance. Again the British attacked. The British formed two armies: one at Agra under Sir Hugh Gough. Naturally Gough attacked immediately and.

Everywhere. Up to 1838. Works were in the process of erection around the magazine at Firozpur. and two steamers were being constructed to ply on the River Sutlej. It was near-anarchical conditions that overtook the Lahore court after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June 1839. and a new road link to join Meerut and Ambala was taken in hand. the British troops on the Sikh frontier had amounted to one regiment at Sabathu in the hills and two at Ludhiana with six pieces of artillery. as the outcome of British expansionism.000 during the time of Lord Auckland (1836 42) who increased the number of troops at Ludhiana and created a new military post at Firozpur. First Anglo-Sikh War India's History : Modern India : First Anglo-Sikh war ." he . Plans for the construction of bridges over the rivers Markanda and Ghaggar were prepared. which was actually Past of Sikh kingdom's dominion south of the Sutlej. Ellenborough had been able to collect a force of 11.500 men. resulting in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom. about 70 km from Lahore. fifty-six pontoons were on their way from Bombay for use in Sindh.Under these twin blows. were watching the happenings across the border with more than neighbour's interest The disorder that revealed there promised them a good opportunity for direct intervention. the Gwalior regency capitulated and on 31st December 1843 a treaty was signed that effectively gave control of the country to the British. were under construction. English and Indian infantry reinforcement began arriving at each of the frontier posts of Firozpur and Ludhiana. Lord Ellenborough (1842-44). Ludhiana and Firozpur." Seventy boats of thirty-five tons each. Cavalry and artillery regiments moved up to Ambala and Kasauli. by then firmly installed in Firozpur the Sikh frontier. and the fort at Ludhiana began to he fortified. The total rose to 8.639 men and 48 guns at Ambala. equaling in all about 2.1845-1846 Anglo-Sikh War ANGLO-SIKH WAR 1. the Sikh capital. British preparations for a war with the Sikhs began seriously in 1843 when the new governor-general. discussed with the Home government the possibilities of a military occupation of the Punjab. 1845-46. with the necessary equipments to bridge the Sutlej at any point. Exclusive of the newly constructed cantonments of Kasauli and Shimla." wrote Lord Ellenborough. in November 1845. we are trying to get things in order and especially to strengthen and equip the artillery with which the fight will be. The English.

Thus Total number of British troops around Punjab was 86. and 24 additional pieces of heavy ordnance were on their way to the frontier.573 men and 18 guns to 9.596 men and 12 guns to 10. alerted to the danger of a British offensive. established his headquarters at Ambala. "the army will be equal to any operation. especially by Broad foot s acts of hostility. Lord Ellenborough was replaced by Lord Hardinge (184448)." In March additional British and Indian regiments were quietly moved to Flrozpur. in Ludhiana district. were at this time maintaining.000 infantry. The relevant strength of the advanced armies." Hardinge reported to the Home government.. 600 elephants to draw the battering train of 24-pounder batteries had reached Agra. Lord Cough. and at Meerut from 5. during the seventeen months between Ellen borough's departure and the commencement of hostilities with the Sikhs.000 men and 60 guns.472 men and 24 guns. Another 10." In July 1844.000 troops were to be ready by the end of November. We can collect. Lord Ellenborough.000 cavalry and 100 guns in six weeks. Field batteries of 9 pounders with horses or bullocks to draw them. particularly Hardinge's private correspondence on Punjab affairs with his predecessor.030 men and 12 guns to 7.844 men and 24 guns. a Peninsula veteran. blamed unnecessarily by the Home government for inadequate military preparations for the first Sikh war. the British military force on the frontier was 17. Firozpur's garrison strength under the command of Sir John Littler was raised to 7.000 men and 66 guns to 45. by January 1845. The Sikh ranks. who had taken over the affairs of the Lahore forces into their own hands after the death of Wazir Jawahar Singh. including those at the hill stations of Sabathu and Kasauli. In addition to the concentration of troops on the border. The abrasive and belligerent Major George Broadfoot as the political agent on the Punjab frontier replaced the affable Colonel Richmond. near Raikot. 33.000 camels between Kanpur and the Sutlej were to move up in the summer to Firozpur. which was to be the concentration point for a forward offensive movement.235 men and 12 guns.000. according to George Campbell. The rapid march in November 1845 of the governorgeneral towards the frontier and a report of Sir Charles Napier's speech in the Delhi Gazette saying that the British were going to war with the Sikhs filled Lahore with rumors of invasion. the total British force amounted to 20. The Sikhs were deeply wrought upon by these war preparations. at Ludhiana from 3. at Ambala from 4. 972 men and 32 guns.informed the Duke of Wellington. The Lahore Darbar's vamps or representatives and news writers in the cis-Sutlej region sent alarming reports of these large-scale British military movements across the border. Memoirs of My Indian Career . the commander-in-chief. as governor-general of India. I should be sorry to have it called to the field sooner. increased the garrison strength at Ferozpur from 4. "Wonderful order at Lahore. These figures are based on official British papers. and almost puritanical discipline in the military republic. In October 1844.000 infantry and 60 guns. started their own preparations.500 men and 98 guns. Yet the army pinches or regimental representatives. a British civilian employed in the cis-Sutlej territory. had. and 7." .113 men and 24 guns to 12. was raised from 24. an elaborate supply depot was set up by the British at Basslan.023 men and 116 guns. Hardinge further accelerated the process of strengthening the Sutlej frontier for a war with the Sikhs. Ludhiana and Ambala. 6. In addition. Lord Hardinge.

The armies under Hugh Gough and Lord Hardinge began proceeding towards Firozpur. each 8.However. Lal Singh. There was no unique among them. The Darbar. deserted his army and fled the field when the Sikhs stood firm in their order. instead of falling upon an easy prey. They did in a bold sweeping movement first encircle Firozpur. To forestall their joining those at Firozpur. but subsequently resumed by the ruler of Nabha with the active connivance of the British. This instruction he followed seducing the Sikhs with an ingenious excuse that. It had now assumed the role of the Khalsa. The British government rejected the Darbar's claims and severed diplomatic relations with it. asked for the return of the estimated at over seventeen lakh of the Lahore grandee Suchet Singh had left buried in Firozpur. fighting in a resolute ." in which soldiers were in a state of success mutiny. but withdrew without driving the advantage home and dispersed their armies in a wide semicircle from Harike to Mudki and thence to Ferozeshah. Drift was the policy deliberately adopted by them. The abandonment of Firozpur as a first target was the result of the treachery of the Sikh Prime Minister. the Sikhs came in touch with British army. who was in treasonable communication with Captain Peter Nicholson. who headed the Sikh attack.000 British soldiers) if not superior to the British force. Lal Singh." In this process Sikh army had indeed been transformed. Having crossed the Sutlej with five divisions. On 18 December. military and civil authority in the State. on other hand. it replied that there only defensive measures to counter the signs of the British. from Ludhiana. The declaration charged the State of Lahore with violation of the treaty of friendship of 1809 and justified British preparations as merely precautionary measures for the protection of the Sutlej frontier.000 men. He asked the latter's advice and was told not to attack Firozpur. 16 km southeast of Firozpur. A battle took place at Mudki. and each of them seemed to act as he thought best.000 . an obvious strategy for them would have been to move forward. 32 km from Flrozpur. which arrived under Sir Hugh Gough.000 strong. The British decried this as "the dangerous military democracy of the panchayat system. with the Sarbatt Khalsa or the Sikh as a whole assuming all executive. the restoration of the village of Mauran granted by Maharaja Ranjit Singh to one of his generals Hukam Singh Malvai. then held by Sir John Littler with only 7. It worked through elected regimental committees declaring that Guru Gobind Singh's ideal of the Sikh commonwealth had been revived. the assistant political agent of the British. the emergence of the army Panchayats as a new centre of power greatly perturbed the British authority that termed it as "unholy alliance between the republican army and the Darbar. 86. " When the British agent made a reference the Lahore Darbar about military preparations in the Punjab.12. the Sikh army began to cross the Sutlej on 11 December near Harike Pattan into its own territory on the other side of the river. The British simultaneously declared Sikh possessions on the left bank of the Sutlej forfeit. Hesitation and indecision marred Sikh military operations. Its soldiers had the will and determination to fight or die. it was equally matched (60000 Sikh soldiers vs. The crossing over the Sutlej by Sikhs was made a pretext by the British for opening hostilities and on 13 December Governor-General Lord Hardinge issued a proclamation announcing war on the Sikhs. the Khalsa should exalt their fame by captivity or the death of the Lat Sahib (the governor general) himself A division precipitately moved towards Ludhiana also remained inactive long enough to lose the benefit of the initiative The Khalsa army had crossed the Sutlej borne on a wave of popular enthusiasm. but not its commanders. and free passage of Punjabi armed constabulary a right that had been acknowledged by the British on paper but more often than not in practice. the commander-in-chief.

Lord Hardinge. Sir John McCaskill and Brigadier Boulton. but the assault was stubbornly resisted. Lal Singh and Tej Singh allowed them the much-needed respite in as much as they kept the Sikhs from recrossing the Sutlej. The battle continued with unabated fury till midnight (and came thereafter to be known as "Midnight Mudki"). with directions to proceed to Firozpur. "We were in a critical and perilous state. including Quartermaster-General Sir Robert Sale. which enabled the British to turn defeat into victory. The growing darkness of the frosty winter night reduced them to sore straits. infantry and artillery onslaught.721 wounded. 16 km both from Mudki and Firozpur. Meerut and Delhi. on 21 December at Ferozeshah. A temporary cessation of hostilities followed the battle of Ferozeshah." Counsels of retreat and surrender were raised and despair struck the British camp. Sir Henry Hardinge thought it was all up and gave his sword a present from the Duke of Wellington and which once belonged to Napoleon and his Star of the ISath to his son. made an attack upon the Sikhs who were awaiting them behind strong entrenchments. Ranjodh Singh Majlthia. The Sikhs retired with a loss of 17 guns while the British suffered heavy causalities amounting to 872 killed and wounded. The former suddenly deserted the Khalsa army during the night and the latter the next morning (22 December). from the other side of the river. The leaderless Sikhs fought a grim hand-to-hand battle against the more numerous enemy led by the most experienced commanders in the world.and determined manner. offered to become second-in-command to his commander-inchief. During that "night of horrors. The Sikhs lost about 2. Sikhs' batteries fired with rapidity and precision. crossed the Sutlej in force and was joined by Ajit Singh. The number of causalities among officers was comparatively higller. To induce desertions. 1." the commander-in-chief acknowledged. The British loss was again heavy. of Ladva. The British 16. A Sikh sardar. " Lal Singh and Tej Singh again came to the rescue of the English. The English were not in a position to assume the offensive and waited for heavy guns and reinforcements to arrive from Delhi. The battle of Ferozeshah is regarded as one of the most fiercely contested battles fought by the British in India. The second action was fought three days later. assisted by reinforcements led by General Littler from Firozpur. Lord Hardinge issued a proclamation on the Christmas day inviting all natives of Hindustan to quit the service of the Sikh State on pain of forfeiting their property and to claim protection from the British government. There was confusion in the ranks of the English and their position became increasingly critical. remarking that "if the day were lost. They marched towards Ludhiana and burnt a portion of the . The governor-general and the commander-in-chief. Reinforcements were sent for from Ambala. he must fall. In the words of General Sir ISope Grant.700 men and 69 guns tried to overrun the Sikhs in one massive cavalry.000 men and 73 pieces of artillery. The deserters were also offered liberal rewards and pensions.560 killed and 1. unmindful of his superior position of governor-general.

125 men in the action and all their guns were either captured or abandoned in the river. Lal Singh's ghorcharas did not put in their appearance at Sabhraon. enveloping both contending armies. the Sikhs found themselves encircled between two horseshoes: facing them were the British and behind them was the Sutlej. attacked his rear with great vigor and captured his baggage train and stores (21 January). while many rushed singly forth to meet assured death by contending with a multitude. Their big guns were placed behind high embankments and consequently immobilized for offensive action. The British casualties at Sabhraon were 2. (28January). A heavy mist hung over the battlefield. British cavalry made a feint to check on the exact location of the Sikh guns. Entrenchments at Sabhraon were on the left bank of the Sutlej with a pontoon bridge connecting them with their base camp. Captain J. But Harry Smith retrieved his position a week later by inflicting a defeat on Ranjodh Singh Majithia and Ajlt Singh. They everywhere showed a front to the victors. Then the British charged Sikh entrenchments from three sides. After a preliminary artillery duel. The last battle of the campaign took place on 10 February. The infantry was also posted behind earthworks and could not. vowed to fight unto the last and fall in battle rather than retire in defeat. Sham Singh fell fighting in the foremost ranks along with his dauntless comrades. of Ladva. the British received ample stores of ammunition from Delhi. and stalked slowly and sullenly away. who was sent to relieve Ludhlana. the Sikhs lost 3. Gough and Hardinge now decided to make a frontal attack on Sabhraon and destroy the Darbar army at one blow.403 killed. To check the enemy advance on Lahore.. Ranjodh Singh Majithia harried Smith's column and. keeping a few miles away from the Sutlej. marched eastwards from Firozpur. a Sikh warrior. and no disciple of Guru Gobind Singh asked for quarter. no Sikh offered to submit. describes the last scene of the battle vividly in his A History of the Sikhs: ". symbolizing the unflinching will of the Khalsa. therefore. The cannonade was resumed. His courage inspired the Sikhs to make a determined bid to save the day. Sir Harry Smith (afterwards Governor of Cape Colony).. Early in February. Cunningham. The victors looked with stolid wonderment upon the indomitable courage of the vanquished. Gulab Singh Dogra stopped sending supplies and rations from Lahore. under the command of Tej Singh while the cavalry battalions and the dreaded ghorcharas under Lal Singh were a little higher up the river.although assailed on either side by squadrons of horse and battalions of foot. now in spate.cantonment. Tej Singh fled across the pontoon bridge as soon as the contest started and had it destroyed making reinforcement or return of Sikh soldiers impossible. be deployed to harass the opponents. Lal Singh had already passed on to the English officers the required clues for an effective assault. Sham Singh Attarivala... when Smith tried to make a detour at Baddoval. " . He rallied the ranks depleted by desertions.. In the midst of these treacheries. who was present as an additional aide-de-camp to the governorgeneral. a large portion of the Sikh army was entrenched in a horseshoe curve on the Sutlej near the village of Sabhraon. As the sun broke through the mist. and in two hours British guns put the Darbar artillery out of action. but the odds were against them.D.

000 infantry and 12. pay a war indemnity amounting to a million and a half sterling. Kashmir was sold to Gulab Singh Dogra for 75 lakh rupees. another treaty was signed at Amritsar recognizing him as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. . And thus end the First Anglo-Sikh war. realizing that the Sikhs were far from vanquished. The wily Gulab Singh first obtained assurances from the army Parishes that they would agree to the terms he made and then tendered the submission of the darbar to Lord Hardinge. Although Maharani Jind Kaur continued to act as the regent and Raja Lal Singh as water of the minor Maharaja Duleep Singh. The Lahore Darbar empowered Gulab Singh Dogra. not only individually. he said: "Policy precluded me publicly recording my sentiments on the splendid gallantry of our fallen foe. wrote: " Few escaped. who saw the action. the British commander-in-chief. The governor-general. it may be said. who had earlier come down to Lahore with regiments of hillmen. on 16 March.Lord Hugh Gough. or to record the acts of heroism displayed. The Sikhs met their fate with the resignation.000 cavalry. Colonel Henry Lawrence. British forces crossed the Sutlej and occupied Kasur. hand over all the guns used in the war and relinquish control of both banks of the Sutlej to the British. which distinguishes their race. under whose leadership the two Anglo-Sikh wars were fought." Lord Hardinge. By the terms imposed by the victorious British through the peace treaty of 9 March. The Darbar was unable to pay the full war indemnity and ceded in lieu thereof the hill territories between the Beas and the Indus. and I declare were it not from a deep conviction that my country's good required the sacrifice. Paying tribute to the gallantry of the Sikhs.. effective power had passed into the hands of the British resident. surrendered. by the Sikh sardars and the army. to negotiate a treaty of peace. forbore from immediate occupation of the country. reduce its army to 20. affirming the suspicion that Gulab Singh Dogra indeed was involved in sedition against Khalsa Sarkar. A further condition was added two days later on 11 March: the posting of a British unit in Lahore till the end of the year on payment of expenses. Two days after their victory at Sabhraon. none. A week later. I could have wept to have witnessed the fearful slaughter of so devoted a body of men. the Lahore Darbar was compelled to give up Jalandhar Doab. described Sabhraon as the Waterloo of India. but almost collectively.

It gave a chance for the discontent Indian rulers to express their dissatisfied. the state of Jhansi in 1853 and the state of Nagpur in 1954 was also annexed. The Sepoy mutiny. On 12th January 1848. the territory of Berar and in 1856. Lord Dalhousie was educated at Christ Church and Harrow. the mutiny for peons was dismissed by Lord . Lord Dalhousie was a View Councilor and president for the Board of Trade. He ruled India about eight years from 1848 to 1856 and it was one of the greatest periods for British rule. The Doctrine of Lapse was based on the forfeiture for the right rule in the non-appearance for a natural successor. Lord Dalhousie was the start behind the city derivative its name. In 1853. the state of Sambhalpur in 1849. The annexation policy was a deadly weapon for conquest which increased the East India Com pany rule to the elevation of glory. His original name was James Andrew Broun Ramsay. The annexation policy was known as the Doctrine of Lapse. At the age of 25 elected in the British parliament. Although beginning by the Sepoys for the Indian Army. The state of Punjab was annexed in 1849 after the Second Anglo Sikh war. Oxford. Lord Dalhousie was appointed as Governor General of India. By Doctrine Lapse policy the province of Satara was annexed in 1848. Lord Dalhousie was one of the major personalities. The state of Burma also known as Pegu in 1852 was annexed.1848 Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie was born in 1812 in Scotland Castle. Oudh was also annexed. Because of the Mutiny of 1857 took place.Lord Dalhousie India's History : Modern India : Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General . Additional system of annexation brought victory. His rule to different reform was brought to develop the situations of India.

. Oudh. many revolts preceded reflecting the Indian opposition to the British domination. legalized re-marriage and abolished the disability for a transfer to Christianity to inherit paternal property. Lord Dalhousie was established Anglo Vernacular Schools. The free trade policy was started with announcing free ports. In 1857. Lord Dalhousie was one of the founded Telegraph and Postal systems. He was contributed to the unity and modernization of India. 1820-22. Lord Dalhousie improves such as the vernacular education system was appreciated worthy. He was great achievement for the creation of central. modernized states. Lord Dalhousie retired on 29th February 1856 and died during 1860 at Scotland for misery for 4 years as of physical distress and pain.Dalhousie and the British. By now Indian trade was dominated with the English. Lord Dalhousie changes law. He was developed railway and roads services. Lord Dalhousie was introduced the non-regulation system. The field of educational. Burma was nonregulating states. 1831 and the Sanyasi revolt of 1770. honor. the revolt was followed with many changes to include the shift of Indian administration as of East India Company to the dignity. The non-regulation states were under a Chief Commissioner responsible to the Governor General in council. A hill station Chamba District for Himachal Pradesh has been named behind Lord Dalhousie. The reforms of military Lord Dalhousie included the transfer of the Bengal Artillery as of Calcutta to Meerut. Lord Dalhousie was also known as a successful administrator. many places have been named after Dalhousie to mark his great achievements. Punjab. Lord Dalhousie proved in the administration matters with the demarcation of different sections for the administrative machinery and appointment for Lieutenant Governor of Bengal. In 1857. Rajmahal hills of the Santhals rebelled in 1855. crown and territorial control of the local princes. In India. Include the chuar and Ho rebellion of Midnapur in 1768.

1848-49. By a proclamation issued in July 1847. was appointed. By the clause I added the chief of the State could neither make war or peace. the successor to Ranjit Singh. the British force in Lahore was to be withdrawn at the end of the year. According to the treaty. Frederick Currie." The Council of Regency. or refuse us a thoroughfare through his territories. consisting of the nominees of the Resident and headed by Tej Singh. in fact. perform any act without our permission. which was consequently signed at Bharoval on 16 December 1846. March 1846. had his Agent. This treaty was to remain in operation until the minor Maharaja Duleep Singh attained the age of 16. was kept under close surveillance. to carry forward the British flag up to the natural boundary of India on the northwest. The new government at Lahore became totally unpopular. at the end of Anglo-Sikh war I. was virtually a campaign by the victors of the first Anglo-Sikh war (1945-46) and since then the de facto rulers of the State finally to overcome the resistance of some of the sardars who chafed at the defeat in the earlier war which. "an officer of the Company's artillery became. which resulted in the abrogation of the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab. It marked also the fulfillment of the imperialist ambition of the new governor-general. or. or exchange or sell an acre of territory or admit a European officer. Under another clause the British could maintain as many troops in the Punjab as they thought necessary for the preservation of peace and order. Sir Henry Hardinge. who was described by Lord Dalhousie as the only woman it the Punjab with manly understanding and in whom the British Resident foresaw a rallying point for the well-wishers of the Sikh dynasty. the then governor-general. Lord Dalhousie (184856). Maharani Jind Kaur. In fact the native Prince is in fetters. had been lost owing to the treachery on the part of the commanders at the top and not to any lack of fighting strength of the Sikh army. According to the peace settlement of March 1846. but a severer treaty was imposed on the Sikhs before the expiry of that date. Sir Henry Hardinge wrote to Henry Lawrence: "In all our measures taken during the minority we must bear in mind that by the treaty of Lahore. Henry Lawrence laid down that . On 23 October 1847." The Sikhs resented this gradual liquidation of their authority in the Punjab. in fact. they believed. the Punjab never was intended to be an independent State." In the words of British historian John Clark Marshman. The abolition of tigers in the Jalandhar Doab and changes introduced in the system of land revenue and its collection angered the landed classes.The Second Anglo-Sikh War India's History : Modern India : Second Anglo-Sikh war : (Rise of Sikh Power) British annex Punjab as Sikhs are defeated : 1848-1849 The Second Anglo-Sikh War ANGLO-SIKH WAR II. Henry Lawrence was appointed Resident with "full authority to direct and control all matters in every department of the State. and under our protection and must do our bidding. persuade the Lahore Darbar to request the British for the continuance of the troops in Lahore. the governor-general further enhanced the powers of the Resident. The power to make changes in its personnel vested in the resident.

she could not receive in audience more than five or six sardars in a month and that she remains in purdah like the ladies of the royal families of Nepal. The Resident did his best to fan the flames of rebellion. Some soldiers of the Lahore escort deserted their officers and joined Mul Raj's army. to take charge from Mul Raj The party arrived at Multan on 18 April 1848. but delayed action Lord Dalhousie allowed the Multan rebellion to spread for five months. who. The new regime confronted a rebellion in the Sikh province of Multan. Maharani Jind Kaur. Frederick Currie appointed General Kahn Singh Man in his place and sent him to Multan along with two British officers P. The British Resident at Lahore increased the levy payable by the Multan governor. was reduced to twelve thousand. protested to the British. which it utilized as an excuse for the annexation of the Punjab. The humiliating treatment of the Maharani caused deep resentment among the people of the Punjab Even the Muslim ruler of Afghanistan. which according to the treaty of Bharoval had been fixed at one and a half lakh of rupees. saying that such treatment is objectionable to all creeds. was exiled from the Punjab She was taken to Firozpur and thence to Banaras. Jodhpur and Jaipur. resigned his office. The former was replaced by Frederick Currie and the latter by the Earl of Dalhousie.A. in the British dominions. finding himself unable to comply. so was her cash amounting to a lakh and a half. Her jewellery worth fifty thousand of rupees was forfeited. and the Diwan vacated the Fort and made over the keys to the representatives of the Lahore Darbar But his soldiers rebelled and the British officers were set upon in their camp and killed This was the beginning of the Multan outbreak. In January 1848. who had completed his term in India. then under detention in the Fort of Sheikupura. Her annual allowance." . Vans Agnew and William Anderson. Amir Dost Muhammad. Currie received the news at Lahore on 21 April. Diwan Mul Raj . The interval was utilized by the British further to provoke Sikh opinion. Henry Lawrence took leave of absence and traveled back home with Lord Hardinge.

Tharrawady. 1852. binding on him. Prome was occupied in October and Pegu in November. They sent a petition to Lord Dalhousie. He captured one of the Burmese King's ships.Modern India : The Second Anglo-Burmese War India's History : Modern India : Second Anglo-Burmese war . The British Residents also did not get proper treatment at the court and so finally the Residency had to be withdrawn in 1840. Dalhousie wanted the Burmese king to recognise the conquest of the Lower Burma. The British merchants often complained of ill treatment at the hands of the Governor of Rangoon. The famous Pagoda of Rangoon was stormed on April 14. a large number of British merchants had settled on the southern coast of Burma and Rangoon. situated at Irrawaddy Delta was captured. Lambert adopted a very provocative line of action.1852 The Second Anglo-Burmese War Causes of the Second Anglo-Burmese War After the treaty of Yandaboo 1826 (After first Anglo-Burmese War). Declaration of War At first the King of Burma was inclined to avoid war and so removed the old Governor and appointed the new one. Dalhousie annexed Pegu by issuing a proclamation on December 20. refused to consider the treaty of Yandaboo. . On the refusal of the king to conclude the treaty. With this incident. Dalhousie was determined to maintained British prestige and dignity at all the costs and so deputed Commodore Lambert to Rangoon to negotiate the redress of grievances and demand compensation. But when a deputation of some naval officers was refused admission. the Burmese did not resist and the war was declared. British forces reached Rangoon. the new king of Burma (1837-1845). 1852. On April 1. 1852. A month later Bassein.

place of birth. about this same time (1833). This advantage. was only temporary because Lord Bentinck. or employment under the said Company. and accordingly instruction in English was ordered to be imparted in Indian schools. the Anglo-Indians had an advantage in this direction and very soon many of the community found employment under Government and in commercial firms as clerks. nor any natural born subject of His Majesty resident therein. English being their mother-tongue. Influenced no doubt somewhat by the Anglo-Indians' petition. descent. office.End of the War By the annexation of Pegu the eastern frontier of the British Indian Empire was extended upto the banks of Salween. Introduction of Railways and Telegraph System India's History : Modern India : Railway opened from Bombay to Thane. . In future English was to be the only medium of correspondence in commercial houses. shall. Fortunately for Anglo-Indians. who was Governor-General from 1828 to 1836. In theory all posts were thrown open to people of any race in India. be disabled from holding any place. Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra : 1853 Anglo-Indians In 1833 the Charter of the East India Company was renewed. or any of them. colour. English took the place of Persian as the official language of the Courts and Government offices. determined that `The linguistic disadvantage of Indians should be removed. Very soon the graduates from Indian Universities and educated young men from the Government High Schools were rapidly elbowing Anglo-Indians out of the clerical posts which they had filled efficiently. since higher services could be filled only by recruitment in England. Section 87 of the said Act stated that -`No native of the said territories. but in practice only the subordinate trades were bestowed upon Indians and Anglo-Indians. however. though in subordinate positions. Major Arthur Phayre was appointed Commissioner of the newly acquired British province extending as far as Myede. with the cooperation of Lord Macaulay who drew up his famous Minute on Education in 1835. by reason of his religion.

in fact every higher grade of railway servant. artisans and electricians. . From them were recruited telegraph operators. engineers and mechanics. During the latter half of the 19th century (1850-1900) Anglo-Indians found ample employment on the railways. and perils of pioneers. Simultaneously railway schemes were set on foot in Madras and Bombay. risks. engine-drivers. In 1825 the first railway had run in England.`The Navigation Companies with captains. These departments needed men of adventurous stock who were willing to endure the hardships. guards. In 1851 the Telegraph system was inaugurated. auditors . permanent way-inspectors. second officers. and in the telegraph and custom services. The latter part of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century were once again a period of prosperity and contentment for Anglo-Indians. They supplied the railways with station staffs. The Anglo-Indians had in them the spirit of their forefathers and so the community furnished . In 1845 the East India Railway was projected in India. The Mutiny of 1857 too had proved beyond doubt the absolute loyalty of the Anglo Indians and removed the suspicion which had been responsible for the repressive measures of the latter part of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century. The first train in India ran from Bombay to Thana in 1853.Fortune once again came to the rescue of Anglo-Indians for soon new avenues of employment were opening up for them.

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