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ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN ACP AFRICAN STATES -WEST AFRICA

Country Study: The Gambia Final Report Prepared by: Mamadi Baba Ceesay

on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-254-7/e

30 July, 2008

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS IN ACP AFRICAN STATES -WEST AFRICA

Country Study: The Gambia Final Report Prepared by: Mamadi Baba Ceesay

on behalf of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

Project: 4-7-41-254-7/e

30 July, 2008

Disclaimer This report has been commissioned by the CTA to enhance its monitoring of information needs in ACP countries. CTA does not guarantee the accuracy of data included in this report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of CTA. CTA reserves the right to select projects and recommendations that fall within its mandate.

(ACP-EU) Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) Agro Business Park 2 6708 PW Wageningen The Netherlands Website: www.cta.int E-mail: cta@cta.int

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A vast number of people and institutions provided valuable support during the study and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. I wish to however single out just a few. Alpha Sey and Seedy Demba provided Research Assistance, Dr. Omar Touray provided valuable insight on sources of information and Ellen Sambou Sarr provided secretarial support. I wish to express warmest gratitude to the Regional Study Coordinator Yawo Assigbley for the very useful editorial support. I wish to thank CTA for funding the study and for the insight provided by Christine Webster and Ibrahim Khadar on CTA during the briefing meeting for the study. Finally, but not the least, I want to thank the many interviewees for the valuable time in filling the questionnaires.

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LIST OF ACRONYMS
ACD ACP AGOA AASAT CGIAR CILSS CPAG CTA CSD DCD DOP DOSA DOSCIT ECOWAS EPA FAO GAMLISA GAMTEL GDP GHE GIS GRTS GTTI HND ICM ICT ICRISAT IITA ILO ILRI IT ITAG ITC ITOCA IRRI ISP MISTOWA MRC NADA NAOSU NARI NASS NAWEC NAWFA NGO NFPG NICI Agricultural Communication Division African Caribbean and Pacific Africa Growth and Opportunities Act Association for the Advancement of Science and Technology Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in The Sahel Consumer protection Association of The Gambia Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation Central Statistics Department Department of Community Development Department of Planning Department of State for Agriculture Department of State for Communication, Information Technologies Economic Community of West African States Economic Partnership Agreements Food and Agriculture Organization Gambia Library Staff Association Gambia Telecommunication Company Limited Gross Domestic Product Gambia Horticultural Enterprises Geographic Information System Gambia Radio and Television Services Gambia Technical Training Institute Higher National Diploma Information and Communication Management Information and Communication Technologies International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics International Institute for Tropical Agriculture International Labour Organization International Livestock Research Institute Information Technology Information Technology Association of The Gambia International Trypanotolerant Centre International Training and Outreach Centre for Africa International Rice Research Institute Internet Service Provider Market Information System for Traders Association in West Africa Medical Research Council National Agricultural Development Agency National Authority Office Support Unit National Agricultural Research Institutes National Africultural Sample Survey National Water and Electricity Corporation National Women Farmers Association Non Governmental Organization National Farmers Platform, The Gambia National Information and Communication Infrastructure
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PER PURA QAS TANGO UNDP UNECA UTG VSAT WARDA WB WTG WTO

Public Expenditure Review Pubic Utilities Regulatory Agency Question and Answer Service The Organization of Non Governmental Organization United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Africa University of The Gambia Very Small Aperture Terminal West Africa Rice Development Agency Womens Bureau World View, The Gambia World Trade Organization

CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS OF DALASI TO EURO AS AT 18/04/08 Currency Buying Selling Euro 30.50. 31.50

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................................................ii LIST OF ACRONYMS ..................................................................................................................... iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................ vii 1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 1 2. COUNTRY PROFILE .................................................................................................................. 2 2.1 Brief Description of Agriculture and Recent Developments in the Sector.......................... 2 2.1.1 Agriculture...................................................................................................................... 2 2.1.2 Fisheries ........................................................................................................................ 3 2.1.3 Forestry.......................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.4 Pastoralism .................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Brief Description of the Status of the ICT Infrastructure and recent Development in the Sector ................................................................................................................................. 4 3. STATUS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Institutional and Regulatory Policy Framework .................................................................. 6 3.2 Operational Aspects ........................................................................................................... 6 3.2.1 Description of Agricultural information and Services ..................................................... 7 3.2.2 Information Sources....................................................................................................... 9 3.2.3 Information Products and Services Provided .............................................................. 10 3.2.4 Information and Communication Management Capacity............................................. 10 3.3 Interventions Supporting Information and Communication for Agriculture and Rural Development..................................................................................................................... 11 4. INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS (STRENGTHS, MAIN BOTTLENECKS AND SHORTCOMINGS) .................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 Information Needs ............................................................................................................ 14 4.2 Capacity-building Needs (IC Policies & Strategies, Sensitization, Networking, Skills, Training, Media, ICT, Equipment) .................................................................................... 16 4.3 Feedback on CTA Products and Services .......................................................................... 17 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................... 19 5.1 Conclusions......................................................................................................................... 19 5.1.1 Information Needs........................................................................................................ 19 5.1.2 Capacity Building Needs.............................................................................................. 20 5.1.3 Overview of CTA Products and Services..................................................................... 20 5.1.4 Potential Strategic Partners ......................................................................................... 21 5.2 Recommendations .............................................................................................................. 21 5.2.1 Information Needs........................................................................................................ 21 5.2.2 Capacity Building Needs.............................................................................................. 21 5.2.3. CTA Products and Services........................................................................................ 22 5.2.4. Potential Strategic Partner Institutions........................................................................ 22 6. PROPOSED CTA INTERVENTION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN................................... 24 6.1 Proposed Intervention Strategy ........................................................................................ 24 6.2 Action Plan for CTA Intervention Strategy........................................................................ 25 ANNEXES...................................................................................................................................... 27 ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 28 ANNEX 2. COUNTRY PROFILE - (THE GAMBIA) ...................................................................... 35 2.1 General Agriculture Profile ............................................................................................... 35 2.1.1 Size of the Agricultural Population ...................................................................... 36 2.1.2 Farmed Land, Forest and Fishing ....................................................................... 36 2.1.3 Agricultural Systems .................................................................................................... 38 2.1.4 Agriculture in the Economy.......................................................................................... 38 2.1.5 Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products ................................................... 39 2.1.6 Main Export markets .................................................................................................... 41 2.1.7 Trade Agreements that Include Agriculture ................................................................. 43 v

2.1.8 Sector Policy related to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry........................................ 43 2.1.9 Institutional, regulatory and policy framework for information and communication..... 46 2.2 Socioeconomic Profile ...................................................................................................... 47 2.2.1 Demographics.............................................................................................................. 47 2.2.2 Literacy Levels and Languages ................................................................................... 49 2.2.3 Access to Services....................................................................................................... 49 2.2.4 Rural to Urban Drift ...................................................................................................... 51 2.3 Media and Telecommunication......................................................................................... 52 2.3.1 Newspapers, periodicals and broadcast media........................................................... 52 2.3.2 Telecommunication Services....................................................................................... 54 2.2.3 Computers and Internet ............................................................................................... 55 ANNEX 3. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS...................................................................................... 57 3.1 List of Institutions in the Agricultural and Rural Development Sector ................................. 57 3.2. List of Selected Institutions............................................................................................... 69 ANNEX 4. LIST OF PERSONS MET ............................................................................................ 83 ANNEX 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................... 84

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Introduction
The Technical Centre for agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) established in 1983 under the Lom Convention between ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) and European Union Member States, aims to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTAs programmes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. This work is effected through intermediary organizations and partners (public sector, NGOs, farmers organizations and private sector). The study provides an updated country profile on the status of ICT/ICM and agricultural information services which will allow CTA to make informed decisions on the type and mode of intervention as well as select partners.

Objectives of the Study


The main objective of the study is to identify potential strategic partners for CTA to work with to improve the availability and effectiveness of their information and services to beneficiaries in the country. Specifically, the study is aimed at: providing an overview of main agricultural services and actors existing in the country (information supply side) in terms of their strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for collaboration with CTA; identifying agricultural information and ICM capacity building needs of key actors / key strategic partners for CTA products and services; identifying potential strategic partners for CTA activities and services (paying special attention to e.g. print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks); developing some baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in the country to facilitate subsequent monitoring and updating activities.

Methodology
The study commenced following a briefing meeting held in Abidjan to harmonize the study methodology. Subsequently, a desk study was conducted as a first step to collect available data on agriculture and rural development in The Gambia together with information on media and telecommunication. A compilation of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development was prepared. This constituted Annex 2: the country profile and Annex 3. Of the institutions identified, 17 were selected to represent the diversity of interventions present in the agriculture and rural development sector in the Gmabia, namely: policy, farmer organizations, research institutions, institutes of higher education and the media and civil society. As a second step, interview using a questionnaire designed by the CTA
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was conducted with the 17 institutions selected. The results of the interviews were analysed and constitute the findings of the report.

Expected Results
The expected results of the study are as follow: status of infrastructure, information services and ICM capacity of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development described and analyzed; information and capacity building needs in the area of ICM identified for key institutions and potential CTA partners involved in agriculture and rural development; baseline data on the status of ICM and ICT in agriculture and rural development compiled for monitoring purposes and improved outreach.

Conclusions
Information Needs Information gaps exist for all the institutions surveyed due to a lack of adequate awareness of sources, budgetary inadequacies and inaccessible formats. Inadequate staffing and lack of motivation were also mentioned as factors inhibiting optimal utilization of information for efficiency and proficiency on the job. The gaps varied between the institutions with the situation most acute for the governmental agencies (policy, research, academia and the media) than those of the NGOs, private sector and farmer organizations requiring relatively narrower range of information needs for their operations. It was also revealed that libraries and documentation centres do not generally have sufficient or updated reference materials including Internet-linked libraries for personnel. A number of useful lessons have been learnt including that stakeholders particularly farmers are able to utilize ICT to acquire information and enhance skill levels for improved livelihood. This however requires sensitization/awareness creation, training and initial maintenance support. The broadcast media (radio and TV) can be employed as effective channels to provide market, production and technical information in a timely manner. However the cost of sustaining the system can be high and revenue generating mechanisms have to be introduced for sustainability. Reliability and access to accompanying social and amenities such as electricity and telecommunication are also essential for effective utilization of ICT. It is clear from the current survey and numerous other studies that face-to-face contact and verbal communication with farmers and rural communities is the preferred and most effective means of information exchange in rural areas, with print, electronic and other media of lesser but not negligible importance. Effective extension delivery is critical for accelerated agricultural and rural development. In the Gambia extension information dissemination is inhibited by lack of mobility, few messages and inadequate staff numbers. In the extension delivery system there has been a gradual shift to participatory extension approaches with closer interaction among researchers, extensionists, farmers, input suppliers and other stakeholders to develop locally applicable and innovative solutions to farmers problems. Consequently, the Farmer Field School concept is now being introduced by NADA.
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Information formats and communication channels are generally not tailored to the requirements of the clientele. Given the high level of illiteracy and the wide use of radio, the use of radio and TV as sources of information for a large proportion of the population particularly farmers is critical. However, experience in the sub-region indicate that other ICTs such as the mobile phone and the Internet can play a pivotal role particularly in the rapid dissemination of market information. The category of information needs by the institutions surveyed cover broadly: rural development focusing on social development issues, farm problems (land tenure), gender and available agricultural information networks. Library services are being provided by institutions in both the public and private sector generally with limited materials. However, efforts are ongoing through Gambia Library and Information Services Assocations(GAMLISA) aimed at better coordination,enhanced capacity in library management to users through exchange and sharing of materials. Technical Information Technical information needs to centre on post-harvest loss reduction technologies, transportation, integrated pest management, waste management and specific areas including (varieties, input management, soil fertility and water control, animal heath and nutrition, and appropriate mechanization). Economic information Specific economic information needs to centre on market related data (prices, commodity profiles for exporters, volumes and requirements), crop insurance systems, etc. Availability of this information will enhance productivity and facilitate marketing of farmers produce. These information needs can be addressed through enhanced access to the mass media and in formats as well as channels such as the radio, TV, bulletins, flyers but also through Internet, libraries, documentation centres and Internet-linked libraries.

Capacity Building Needs


The staffing and skill levels were reported to be generally low in ICM for the institutions surveyed. Thus upgrading skill levels will increase efficiency, effectiveness and culminate in the realization of the goals of the organizations. Most of the institutions have libraries/documentation centres although most are inadequately manned and are not stocked with updated reference materials, while formats of materials are not adapted to local requirements. The survey revealed that only few have ICM units and even fewer have ICM strategies which could contribute to better articulation of needs and facilitate funding from potential donors for equipment, training and material support. In essence the capacity of most of the institutions is inhibited by inadequate equipment and few staff with limited skills in ICM. In view of the above, increasing ICM skills of personnel, providing equipment support, developing strategies and partnerships with CTA and other collaborators will enhance output and efficiency. Equipment There is a lack of adequate updated equipment and software due to low budgetary allocations especially to the governmental institutions. This has hampered the feability to acquire and maintain computers and peripherals, other equipment and continued access to websites used for obtaining relevant information.
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Overview of CTA Products and Services


Awareness and benefit of CTA products and services has been limited to only a few institutions in The Gambia and confined to the Spore magazine and publications. Given the usefulness and relevance of CTA products and services notably the Rural Radio Resource Packs (RRRP), training, co-publishing, equipment support, Spore and ICT Update, greater awareness needs to be created and access enhanced.

Potential Strategic Partners


In view of the information and capacity building needs of the institutions studied and given the pivotal role of information for agricultural production and productivity, linkage with internal and external agencies is both relevant and critical. In this regard partnership with CTA is essential for most of the institutions surveyed. Key amongst these are ( National Agricultural Research Institute(NARI), Department of Planning (DOP), The Association of Non-Governmental Organizations(TANGO), Association for the Advancement of Science and Technology in The Gambia(AASAT), The University of The Gambia(UTG) and National Farmers Platform, The Gambia(NFPG).

Recommendations
Given the foregoing conclusions and their resolution for effective information access essential to ensure accelerated agriculture and rural development, the following recommendations are proposed:

Information Needs
Undertake concerted efforts at national and regional levels (West Africa) to develop a network of users and producers of agriculture and rural development information through exchange visits, study tours and joint training courses. This will engender greater awareness, sharing and access to each others information but also coordination amongst the stakeholders. Given the limited awareness of CTA products and services in The Gambia and their consequent low utilization, organize an awareness forum at national level to exhibit and popularize them. This will provide an opportunity for most of the institutions in agriculture and rural development to meet their information requirements. Avail institutions involved in the dissemination of information to farmers and rural dwellers the opportunity to improve on appropriate techniques of information formatting and utilization to make them respond to the requirements of stakeholders. In this regard support for availability of timely and appropriate market information to producers and traders, policy makers and researchers on horticulture, cereals, fish and livestock will be essential. Provide support to Gambia Library Services Association (GAMLISA) and libraries/documentation centres to increase their stock of reference materials, websites and linkage to Internet-linked libraries and information sources. Capacity Building Needs Make concerted efforts through CTA support to strengthen the capacity of researchers, extension agents and development workers in government, NGO and private sector services to ensure their orientation towards meeting the information needs of their clientele.
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Undertake capacity building in strategy development to enable institutions develop partnerships and access resources to meet their organizational goals. Enhanced capacity in strategy development will contribute towards resolving constraints linked to inadequate budgetary availability. Support to the provision of equipment (computers, Geographic Information System (GIS)) and updated software to ensure sustainable access to modern ICTs by institutions involved in ICM for agriculture and rural development.

CTA Products and Services


Engender greater awareness of CTA products and services in The Gambia through workshops, seminars; provide capacity building through training; enhance access to library materials, Question and Answer Service (QAS), Spore and ICT Update and equipment support.

Potential Strategic Partner Institutions


Develop strategic partnership with organizations particularly NARI, DOP, TANGO, AASAT, UTG, NFPG. Specific areas requiring CTA partnerships are training, support for publications (library materials), access to websites, QAS and for equipment support. Proposed areas of partnership by institution are presented below: Enhance radio and TV outreach through Gambia Radio and Television Services (GRTS) and local FM radios by the provision of RRRP, training in ICM including developing materials of appropriate format and provision of ICT equipment. Enhance outreach of agricultural and rural development messages through partnership with Agricultural Communication Division(ACD) by training in ICM including the development of appropriate extension messages/materials and equipment support Enhance capacity of DOP through provision of GIS equipment and training support, Website establishment and maintenance, training in Information management (library/documentation management and database establishment and management). Collaboration with NARI in QAS, website establishment and maintenance, training in information management (library/documentation management, database establishment and management) and publications from CTA. Enhanced capacity of Department of Community Development (DCD) through ICM training, literature materials on rural development and ICT equipment support Enhanced capacity of the Womens Bureau in ICM training, publications from CTA(literature materials on agricultural and rural development) and ICT equipment support. Support to the Gambia College through enhanced access to publications from CTA (literature materials on agriculture and rural development), training on information management and ICT equipment support
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Assistance to the University of the Gambia through training in information management (library/documentation management), publications from CTA (literature on agricultural and rural development) and ICT equipment support. Enhance capacity of TANGO through provision of publications from CTA (literature materials on agricultural and rural development), ICT equipment support and Website development and maintenance. Further enhance capacity of WTG through training on information management (ICM management) Spore and ICT Update.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1. The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) aims to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of African, Caribbean & Pacific (ACP) countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTAs programmes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. 2. Since 2003, CTA has been systematically conducting needs assessment studies across the Pacific, Caribbean and Africa regions. These studies should assist CTA improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations) and provide a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. 3. The main objective of the study is to identify potential strategic partners for CTA to work with to improve the availability and effectiveness of their information and services to beneficiaries in the country. 4. The country study covered seventeen institutions (17), ranging from Government, NGOs, a farmers associations and the private sector. Each of the institutions was visited to conduct interviews, using a standardised semi-structured questionnaire, with key personnel involved in ICM in each organisation. The list of personnel interviewed is annexed to the report.

2. COUNTRY PROFILE
5. The Gambia situated on the West Coast of Africa lies between latitudes 13 and 14 degrees north and is surrounded except on the Atlantic Coast line by Senegal. It has a population of 1.4 million and covers an area of 11,000 km2. The topography is flat resulting in the tidal effects of the river being felt as far as 300 km upstream. In the lower reaches of the river large areas are under tidal swamps. Beyond these however, the river banks are steep and require pump uplift for irrigation. 6. The climate is typically sahelian characterized by a distinct prolonged dry season and a relatively shorter wet season. Average annual rainfall is about 1,000mm but ranges from 850 mm - 1,597 mm depending on the agro-ecological zone. Rainfall is the most important determining factor in Gambian agriculture with an observed declining trend over the last 3 decades. 7. The agricultural sector is characterized by subsistence rainfed crop production, traditional livestock rearing, semi-commercial groundnut and horticultural production and a large artisanal fisheries subsector. The major agriculural enterprises are field crops comprising groundnuts, cotton, coarse grains (maize, millet and sorghum), rice and sesame; horticultural crops; livestock mainly poultry, cattle and small ruminants and, fisheries both artisanal and industrial. Strongly interlinked with these are the water resources, wildlife and forest resource sub-sectors. 8. English is the official language and is the medium of instruction in conventional schools from nursery to tertiary levels. The Gambia is a multi-ethnic with a number of vernacular spoken comprising mandinka (40%), fulla (19%), wollof (15%), jola (11%), serrere (3%), aku (2%) and bambara(1%). The Gambias adult literacy rate stands at 48% (58% men and 37% women). Figures on urbanization from the 2003 Housing and Population Census indicate that 51% of the population live in the urban area.

2.1

Brief Description of Agriculture and Recent Developments in the Sector

2.1.1 Agriculture
9. The Gambia is predominantly an agrarian economy with agriculture and natural resources sector, the engine of economic development. It provides livelihoods for about 70% of the population employs 52% of the labour force, contributes 22-29% of GDP and 80% of foreign exchange earnings(Gambia Bureau Statistics,2007). The main cash products are groundnuts, cotton, horticulture, livestock and fisheries, while subsistence crops are composed of cereals such as millet, sorghum, maize and rice. Small-scale manufacturing activity features the processing of peanuts, fish, and hides. There are generally more female than male farmers (cf. Annex 2, Table 1). 10. Crop production is a major agricultural activity with some 250,000 ha annualy cultivated out of a total cultivable land of 558,000 ha. The largest area to a single crop is allocated to groundnuts, which occupies almost 45% of the cultivated area mainly in
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upland fields under rainfed conditions. An average of 120,000 ha. of upland are also annualy allocated to coarse grains comprisig early millet, late millet, maize and sorhum.. The main staple crop, rice occupies an average of about 15,000 ha. of lowland farms under rainfed and improved technologies ( Table 2 Annex 2). 11. Agricultural output is generated by about 74, 000 farm households cultivating 287,000 ha or 51% of total arable land. Only about two-third of households actually sell their farm produce, which is indicative of the subsitence nature of Gambian agriculture. Almost half of the households derive their income from sale crops, mainly groundnuts and 38% from the sale of other crops( PER ). 12. Production systems are characterized by rainfall dependent, low investment smallscale, family-oriented production units. Around 85% of the households cultivate less than 1.5 hectare. Average crop yield are rather low with 1 000 kg/ha for groundnuts and early millet, about 1 3000 kg/ha for maize and 1 100 kg/ha and 1 600 kg/ha for upland and swamp rice respectively. Only a limited area is put mainly under irrigated rice (tidal and pump confined to the Central River Region and horticultural production using underground water resources).

2.1.2 Fisheries
13. The sector contributes 3-4% of GDP, employs 30,000 in the artisanal fishery subsector (fishermen,processors,traders, boat builders) with 200,000 deriving their livelihood from fisheries activities. With a continental shelf of 3,855 square kilometres, and a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone, The Gambia is endowed with rich marine and riverine zone. Fisheries constitute an important natural resource and provider of cheap protein for a significant proportion of the population. It is estimated that the Maximum Sustainable Yield from the Gambias continental shelf and estuarine area is 80,000 MT per year, whilst current catches are put at 30,000-40,000 Mt. The fisheries sub-sector is dominated by artisanal fishing practices. The data on fish catches from 1992 to 2004 by artisanal and industrial fisheries subsectors indicate dwindling catches from the industrial sector whilst those of the artisanal sector show an increasing trend (Annex 2, Table 8). High post-harvest losses, lack of credit, low skill levels and lack of infrastructure for landing constitute key constraints encountered in the sector.

2.1.3 Forestry
14. The sector contributes 1% of GDP and is main source of domestic household energy and 17% of timber needs. The Gambias forest is predominantly of savannah woodland with the density of the cover varying according to location. The moist western part of the country is covered with Guinea savannah vegetation whilst the drier eastern part is dominated by sudano vegetation. The forest area can be classified into high mangrove, gallery forest, closed and open woodland, shrubs and gmelina plantation. Annex 2, Table 3 presents data on the area allocated to the various typologies of vegetation and changes in forest cover respectively. Because of concerted efforts the rapid decline in forest cover has now stabilized, though the current trend in forest cover is one of changing density and composition of the species.

2.1.4 Pastoralism
15. The sector contributes 5-7% of GDP with most rural households keeping one or more livestock. Livestock comprises cattle, small ruminants, and various species of poultry, pigs and equines. They constitute important sources of food, income, manure and farm power. The livestock population comprises 300,000 cattle; 140,000 - 150,000 sheep and 200,000-230,000 goats; 13,000 pigs; and, 700,000 chickens (NASS, 2006). Despite the large number of cattle off-take remains low due to holding of stocks as reserves of wealth by owners. Per capita meat consumption is estimated at 8 kg per annum. Large volumes of meat, eggs and milk are annually imported to meet consumption requirements. Livestock production practices are largely traditional with low input and extensive management systems. This is particularly the case for large ruminants comprising cattle and for small ruminants and village poultry. However a few livestock enterprises managed under semi intensive and intensive livestock production systems are emerging in the urban and peri-urban areas to satisfy the relatively high consumer demand.

2.2

Brief Description of the Status of the ICT Infrastructure and recent Development in the Sector

16. The Gambia has a fairly developed ICT infrastructure with an emerging vibrant telecommunication market comprising fixed telephony, mobile telephony and Internet services. There are some 80,000 fixed lines, over 350,000 mobile subscribers and about 16-18 personal computers per 1000 persons. The fixed line telephony is dominated by GAMTEL with several equipped branches strategically located throughout the country. A number of telecentres operated by private enterprises exists complimenting service provision. The pending Telecommunication Bill is expected to open competition for fixed lines. 17. The mobile telephony is operated by GAMCELL, AFRICELL and COMIUM. Although mobile connection costs are relatively high, increased competition among operators has brought down process particularly for connection and recharging services 18. There are five commercial ISP providers and some non-commercial ISP providers (UNDP, MRC, FAO etc). The ISPs generally possess wireless infrastructure configured for high speed Internet service but have been constrained to consistently offer such service due to limited bandwidth controlled by GAMTEL. The use of ICT equipment is hindered by the lack of reliable support/complimentary services particularly electricity with the situation more acute in the rural areas where equipment can lie idle for long without use. With only few trained ICT personnel retention, has become difficult and most ICT firms have inadequate manpower to cater for existing equipment. The Regulatory framework for ICT is provided by the Public Utilities and Regulatory Authority (PURA). 19. With the assistance of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the government with the goal of transforming the country into a technologically advanced and information rich society, formulated a National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) Policy and Plan for The

Gambia(December,2004). The NICI aims at providing a catalytic atmosphere for harnessing ICT in all sectors. The specific objectives of the NICI include: Liberalizing the ICT sector, increase cooperation and provide more choice for consumers; Promoting the establishment of appropriate ICT information services by investors; and, Encouraging public-private partnership to provide the ICT infrastructure as well as attract both foreign and domestic investment in the sector. 20. A 2005 survey on ICT use and infrastructure indicated that 45.1 % of the government offices had sufficient number of work stations and servers. However, an in depth review of the physical cluster of the equipment revealed that the spread of the ICT equipment is not balanced with some offices having the majority of the equipment in large numbers whilst others are relatively poor. The situation for the rural locations is particularly poor. In general budgetary allocations to ICT by the public sector have been inadequate. The survey revealed that a number of public and private institutions are connected to high speed Internet. A number of key challenges remain including: a lack of reliable support services; availability of a handful of ICT personnel; limited number of internal information exchange through LANs; frequent disconnections while on line and limited band width; and, unreliability and frequent power outages.

3.

STATUS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT


Institutional and Regulatory Policy Framework

3.1

21. The regulation of information in The Gambia is undertaken by the Department of State for Information Communication and Technologies (DOSCIT) which covers the broadcast media (television and radio) and telecommunication. There is however currently very little restriction of communication and exchange of information for agricultural and rural development by the various media (print & electronic). The main media limitation relate to the newspapers which are regulated by the Media Bill. 22. As previously mentioned, the Government has recently formulated a National Information and Communication Policy (NICI) which incorporates all sectors including agriculture. The specific agricultural objectives include: the delivery of strategic information to farmers, government authorities and other players; development of a national strategy that incorporates the use of ICT as a link between agriculture and trade; the use of ICT to expose local products to larger international markets leading to improvements in the quality of traditional and non-traditional products for exports; access to the global electronic markets as an agent of economic development in the agricultural sector providing farmers an opportunity to market their products globally, and get online access to market-oriented information; the use of ICT for research and effective management of natural resources; and the use of ICT to facilitate collaboration, networking and information dissemination/sharing on strategies and good practices in the agriculture at regional and international level between government industry and academia and use ICT to support agricultural research, training and production as well as improving indigenous technology.

23. Current efforts towards widespread communication of agricultural and rural development information include the promotion of private and community radio stations and the liberalisation of the telecommunications sector. The latter has allowed increased competition and is expected to bring down the price of particularly mobile telephone and Internet services. 24. The Government has also introduced a zero tax on ICT equipment to promote their availability and use. Despite this, the cost of computers and peripheral remains high. Amongst those institutions selected for the current study, only DOSCIT mentioned the zero-rated tax as promoting ICT use in the country.

3.2

Operational Aspects

25. Apart from DOSCIT, none of the selected institutions had formulated a comprehensive policy on or strategic plans for ICM. However, none of these institutions

indicated that the lack of an institutional ICM strategy on ICM negatively affected their day-to-day activities or their organisations ability to achieve its stated goals. 26. A number of libraries and documentation centres exist in the various agricultural and rural development institutions where cataloguing, indexing and security of materials is ensured for usage. The amount of materials and capacity in library management vary according to the institution. Generally, materials are in print format with few electronic materials (including offline libraries) mostly in CD-ROM format from organizations such as the FAO (AGORA offering possibility to access 1136 publications and journals), International Training and Outreach Centre for Africa (ITOCA) and Permanent InterState Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS). Due to the limited budgetary allocations, materials are donated and updated journals and books are not available. None of the libraries/documentation centres have linkages with external virtual libraries. There is also limited coordination of information or materials among the libraries/documentation centres to engender exchange. 27. Other constraints inhibiting optimal utilization of library/documentation centres include: a shortage of skilled staff and absence of training institutions offering courses on library management or record keeping; limited access to materials due to inadequate budget and unwillingness of individuals to surrender documents to libraries; a lack of ICT equipment and software to retrieve, store and manage materials; and a lack of adequate security for materials with borrowed materials not returned.

3.2.1 Description of Agricultural information and Services


28. Agricultural information and related services in The Gambia are provided by the Agricultural Communication Division (ACD), Department of Planning (DOP), National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI), the Gambia Radio and Television Services (GRTS), private and community radio stations, CTA and various regional and international institutions. 29. NARI and ITC are the primary bodies responsible for agricultural research in The Gambia, the latter being a regional livestock research organization. In addition, a number of other organisations including specialized departments, NGOs and the University of the Gambia undertake limited research, while NARI collaborates with regional and international research organizations such as West African Rice Development Association (WARDA), International Institute of Tropical agriculture (IITA), International Crop Research institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics(ICRISAT), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) the International Trypanotolerant Centre (ITC) collaborates with Universities (mostly in Europe) and International Livestock Research Institute(ILRI). Most research organizations in The Gambia collaborate more with regional and international research organisations and universities because of their limited (and declining) human and financial resources.

30. Research is presented at the Annual Research Review (ARREV) and published internally but increasingly in international journals and available at libraries/documentation centres of government departments, NGOs and international funding organizations such as FAO and UNDP. A number of institutions have plans to develop databases e.g. the Department of Planning that is also working to establish and operate a web site. 31. Research information is sometimes repackaged in various formats for publication or with the extension services. The main agricultural magazine is the SENELAA (the farmer) by the Agricultural Communication Division (ACD) initially published quarterly but whose frequency of publication has become low due to limited budgetary resources . A number of agricultural development projects have funded the preparation of manuals, leaflets/flyers sometimes in pictorial formats and with illustrations aimed principally at the farming community. Such materials have generally been prepared by the ACD and cover commodities (maize, beans, poultry etc). 32. Regular radio programmes (Radio Gambia, Basse and Community Radios) and the Television (GRTS) disseminate news, technical and market information (no longer available as the project implementing the project has been completed) to a large audience. Agricultural radio programmes have the largest audience estimated at 200,000 with regular listenership. 33. The CTA-supported services available are the Spore magazine and publications. There is no agricultural QAS (QAS) in The Gambia nor are there any answer telephonic or email queries. 34. The primary link between research organisations and farmers in the dissemination of improved packages and messages are the extension agencies. On the ground, the task is undertaken by the front extension agents operating at village level (Village Extension Workers-VEWs) or through District Extension Centres (DECs). Similarly, many commodity organisations, farmers associations (e.g. National Women Farmers Association (NAWFA), NFPG) and NGOs have field staff who advise farmers and communities. 35. Education and training courses are the most widespread and effective means employed to transfer information, knowledge and skills to target audience. Such training support is absolutely critical to ensure the success of agriculture and rural development programmes. Courses range from General Certificate, Higher National Diploma(HND and Undergraduate degrees in agriculture, rural development and related disciplines offered by The Gambia College and the University of The Gambia. The National Agricultural Development Agency (NADA), DCD and many NGOs provide field courses, demonstrations, as well as organize and facilitate horizontal learning exchanges through agricultural shows and visits/tours. 36. The Internet, particularly the Web, is beginning to be used for agricultural information dissemination and exchange. Recently, Market information system for Traders of West Africa/Gambia Horticultural Enterprises (MISTOWA/GHE) has been collecting market information and posting in the web. Farmers groups are being sensitized and trained to use the web to access information which available for other countries in West Africa.

3.2.2 Information Sources


37. The selected institutions utilize various information sources ranging from personal collections, documentation centres/libraries, Internet, national, regional and international research institutions as well as through radio and television. Table 1 provides detailed information source by institution. Table 1 reveals that regional and international organizations, personal collections and Internet constitute the most important sources of information. In this regard CTA emerged as the single most important source notably through the Spore magazine (the only CTA product of which aware). 38. Staff interviewed, reported making use of various information resources available at their institute (in a library, resource centre, database, personal collection, etc). Many indicated that the personal collections, knowledge and experience of their colleagues within the organisation is a highly valued internal source of information, as are colleagues and personal contacts in other organisations, locally and abroad, with whom they interact through email and at meetings, conferences, workshops, training courses, and various other fora.

Table 1: Information Source by Institution


Information Source ITU, WATRA, ICANN, CILSS, NARI, NADA, Internet Radio programmes (Radio Netherlands, Radio Deutchewelle, UN Radio, RFI), ACD, TV programmes, Department of State for Agriculture NARI ICRISAT, WARDA, IITA, ISRA, regional research institutions, newspapers, radio programmes, TV programmes, Internet, agricultural research electronic network, agribusiness consultant DOP CILSS, Internet, producers, market vendors, government information, CTA ACD CTA, DOSA, ICRISAT, farmers, FAO, radio programs, Internet, TV, video presentations, colleagues, booklets Gambia College CTA, NARI/DOSA, beneficiaries, Internet, textbooks DCD Field extension report, monitoring and evaluation , reports TANGO CTA, NARI, radio, personal collection, TV programs, Internet, newspapers WTG ECOWAS, national and regional research institutes, newspapers, personal collection, electronic media/website, beneficiaries, Internet NFPG Radio, Newspapers, NARI, Internet GHE CTA, DOSA, beneficiaries, fairs/trade fairs, colleagues, NARI, Internet Womens International research institutes e.g. ICRISAT, Gender Bureau Development of ECOWAS, International Labour Organization (ILO), AATG Source: Survey Data, January, 2008 39. Although some organizations were aware of the existence and use CTAs print information resources such as Spore and reference materials, none of the organizations interviewed was aware of CTAs online information. Institution DOSCIT GRTS

3.2.3 Information Products and Services Provided


40. A number of information services and products are provided to stakeholders. These comprise verbal/oral communication by extension staff (NADA), DCD, NGOs to targeted audiences; broadcast media (radio and TV) through ACD production, documentaries from national and international institutions, publications from such as newsletters (SENELAA from ACD), annual reports e.g. the National Agricultural Sample Survey (NASS) and other institutions. 41. Broadcast media (TV & radio) are employed to reach the widest audience. With low Internet literacy and very few organizations having websites, only MISTOWA/GHE relies exclusively on email to disseminate market information. The use of mobile phones to send SMS is limited to personal communications. 42. Publications are also effected through 3 publishers (Educational and Social Enterprises, Fulladu and Macmillan) and some 16 printing presses including the Government Printer (Gambia Printing and Publishing Corporation), Papermate and various other houses including those owned by the printing presses.

3.2.4 Information and Communication Management Capacity


43. Very few of the institutions surveyed have separate sections or divisions exclusively for ICM. In view of this situation, the few staff have to perform a multiplicity of skills including research, management and ICM. In the case of IT a small section usually manned by one or two staff who manage the computers and Internet facilities but most have contracts with the ISP service providers to maintain computers (or LAN) and websites. Not all organisations have a specific budget for ICM and/or IT. Most of the organizations do not have a separate budget allocated for ICM or IT; where it exist, it is minimal and utilized for computer/Internet purchase and maintenance. Consequently, most of the institutions surveyed did not have adequate budgetary allocation for additional staff, updated equipment or software and training. Scrutiny of their budgets indicated that DOSCIT had the highest annual allocation of about Euro () 12,500 for office equipment, computer stationery and software (2007 budget allocation). The Womens Bureau had Euro () 2,400 whilst DOP, NARI, The University and Gambia College relied principally on donations from collaborators. 44. In contrast, most of the institutions surveyed have documentation centres/libraries with varying numbers of publications. Whilst the ACDs collection comprises video cassettes, manuals and flyers on crop production and dissertations by staff for diploma and MSc courses the DOP, NARI, Gambia College, The University of the Gambia and TANGO have printed materials with personnel designated for their management. Budgetary allocations for libraries documentations were reported to be minimal and largely inadequate. Apart from salaries for personnel and maintenance of shelves none of the institutions surveyed reported receiving any annual subscription specific to the libraries/documentation centres. This was the case for DOP, NARI, the University and the Gambia College.

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3.3

Interventions Supporting Information and Communication for Agriculture and Rural Development

45. The government as part of the NICI policy aims to bridge the digital divide between the urban and rural areas. There is currently a wide gap in ICT services for users in rural areas as they have less access to fixed telephone lines, computers or Internet. Many interviewees in this survey also noted the limitations of using ICTs to communicate with farmers and communities in rural areas. 46. It could be noted that there have been a number of Government and private sector initiatives to extend ICTs and telecommunication to those beyond the digital divide in rural and urban areas through the establishment of cybercafs and telecentres. These public access points have increased ICT and telecommunication penetration in The Gambia.

47. A number of interventions are being planned for ICT enhancement in The Gambia at both national and sectoral levels. These comprise at the national level, the Silicon Valley dream to make the Gambia an ICT hub through encouraging the establishment of computer assembly plants in support of the NICI policy. The Government also aspires to implement an e-government strategy in which most administrative processes will be through electronic applications. It is also envisaged that once the Telecommunication Bill is passed greater private sector engagement in TV Broadcasting and widening of applications by mobile and other operators in areas such as GPS and market information will be enhanced. 48. In the agriculture and rural sector planned public ICM/ICT interventions include the establishment and management of websites providing information to the public. One such website: agrigambia.gm is being developed by DOSA. The use of GIS to collect agricultural data is also being developed by the Department of Planning of NADA as part of its annual National Agricultural Sample Survey (NASS). Access to virtual libraries (Internet-linked libraries) is being actively pursued by NARI. A related intervention in this regard, is the African Union E-Network funded by the Indian government. The Gambia has been selected as a pilot country in this project in which Internet links will be established between Indian institutes of higher learning and Gambian institutions such as the UTG. This is expected to facilitate access to educational resources online. 49. At the national level, efforts are being made to better coordinate library/documentation management and improve access to reference materials. These efforts are being spearheaded by GAMLISA, whose aim is to foster interchange of materials among libraries/documentation centres. It is also pursuing efforts towards the establishment of training centres providing courses on library management and records keeping. Recently, the private sector including NGOs have also been active in the provision of library/documentation centres at community level in a bid to improve access to updated information.

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4.

INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS (STRENGTHS, MAIN BOTTLENECKS AND SHORTCOMINGS)

50. An analysis of the strengths presented in Table 2 indicate a variety exists among the institutions surveyed ranging from availability of the NICI Policy, availability of library/ documentation centre stocked with some essential agricultural and rural development reference materials, expertise in ICT and availability of basic equipment. Accordingly, DOSCIT has a NICI policy; GRTS has materials produced in video and radio tapes; NARI has reference materials and expertise in library management whilst DOP has materials for an agricultural database.

Table 2: Strengths by Institution in ICM


Institutions DOSCIT Strengths Availability of NICI Policy and Plan for implementation; ICT Department with some expertise in ICM; Availability of basic ICT materials Weaknesses Inadequacy and low capacity of equipment to meet needs of staff Inadequate number of staff in ICT department Inadequate financial resources for equipment and updated software purchase and maintenance Limited expertise in ICM Limited availability of computers with high capacity Limited number of radio/TV packages on agriculture and rural development Inadequate numbers of computers, accessories and updated software Limited reference materials Few staff adequately trained in ICT Inadequate number and low capacity in ICT Inadequate capacity and skills in library management Inadequate budgetary provisions for ICT and GIS Inadequate numbers of staff skilled in ICT Lack adequate capacity in publication Lack adequate numbers of high capacity computers and updated software Inadequate skills in ICT Low level of expertise in library management Inadequate access to reference materials

GRTS

NARI

DOP

Availability of materials on rural development; Expertise in rural radio and television broadcasting; Partnerships with international radio broadcasters such as Deutchewell Radio, UN Radio, RFI Availability of documentation centre with materials with 1,500 publications; Established partnership with relevant institutions such as FAO, CTA; Availability of resource person in Library management Availability of documentation centre with materials on agriculture and rural development; Availability of materials for agriculture/rural development, information for establishing database Available expertise in video, TV and manual production; availability of video tapes and resource materials, Experience in agricultural Newsletter production Availability of library with relevant reference materials on agriculture and rural development

ACD

Gambia College

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Institutions UTG

Strengths Availability of some reference materials in library Availability of some ICT skills Availability of some computers

Weaknesses Low level of expertise in library management Low level of skills in ICT including in website establishment and management Inadequacy of ICT equipment Low budgetary provision for equipment purchase and maintenance Lack of library/documentation centre Limited know-how and skills in ICT Inadequacy of ICM facilities Limited expertise in ICM Inadequate financial provisions for ICT Update and maintenance Limited human resources for meeting ICT/ICM needs of NGOs Inadequate financial resources to purchase equipment and updated software Inadequate human resources( few staff Few staff to cater for need of large number of illiterate farmers Inadequate availability of equipment and information formats not suited for farmers requirements Inadequate number of staff skilled in ICM Limited number of staff to serve needs of large clientele Information format and channel (Internet) not accessible to large number of farmers and traders Few staff to cater for need of large number of illiterate farmers Inadequate availability of equipment and information formats not suited for farmers requirements Inadequate number of staff skilled in ICM Absence of permanent structure and ICT equipment and software Lack of permanent staff to man ICT Absence of permanent structure and ICT equipment and software Lack of permanent staff to man ICT

DCD

Expertise and human resource for promoting rural development

WB TANGO

Expertise in ICT and gender; availability of partnerships for rural development Availability of resource centre with materials on Rural development, ICT equipment available of web browsing

WTG

Availability of library/documentation centre, existence of partnerships with relevant organizations such as FAO

NFPG

Organization with broad membership and support in rural areas; expertise in lobbying and organizing farmers

GHE Expertise in collection and posting of market information(price data) through the Internet; availability of essential equipment for ICT

CPAC

Available expertise in ICM and a committed membership to consumer protection

ASSAT Available expertise in diverse areas of science and technology, some expertise in ICM and a committed membership Available expertise in ICT, availability of high capacity computers amongst membership

ITAG

Source: Survey Data, January, 2008

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51. An analysis of the responses by institutions presented in Table 2 reveals a number of weaknesses revolving around inadequacy and low capacity of equipment to meet needs of staff, inadequate number of staff in ICT, inadequate financial resources for equipment and software purchase and maintenance, inadequate skills in IT land limited availability of reference materials. As highlighted in the Table 2 all the institutions interviewed experience two or more of the weaknesses.
52. A number of constraints were encountered inhibiting the ability of institutions to effectively manage and communicate their information to beneficiaries. These constraints centre on limited personnel, low skill level of staff and lack of (up-to-date) equipment. As indicated earlier, in many organisations, few staff have to undertake multiple tasks and this overburdens them inhibiting optimal information searching or packaging. The outdated nature and Internet connections (few LAN) culminate in slow connectivity and loss of valuable time. 53. The constraints are very similar with government institutions and farmers association most acutely experiencing skills, equipment and personnel limitations. Thus DOSCIT, GRTS, DOP, Gambia College, WB all mention low skills levels and inadequate equipment and financing. The NGO and private sector although better endowed also encounter constraints linked to low level of skills in ICM.

4.1

Information Needs

54. Institutions visited presented a broad range of information needs in the fields of rural development, technical, economic, rural development and training information to enhance effectiveness of interventions and achieve goals and objectives. Table 3 provides details on information needs by the institutions.

Table 3: Information Needs of Institutions Interviewed


Institution Information Need
DOSCIT Social development issues, Gender, Development funding programs/sources, Public/private partnership, Integration and utilization of ICT in agriculture Social development issues, Agricultural development networks

Preferred Format
Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, CDs, DVDs TV and radio programmes, Newsletters, page summaries, video tapes, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs

GRTS

NARI

Farm problems, gender issues, government and international organizations, conferencing and meetings, development and funding programmes, available agricultural/development networks Technical Information post-harvest technology, crop varieties, packaging, patents, integrated pest management, credit and micro-credit, market data, crop insurance, management of Information within the organization, editing reports, participative methodologies

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Institution Information Need


DOP Rural development, technical information, Economic Information, management of information within the organization (information/advice on data collection, storage, analysis and dissemination) Farm problems, gender issues, government/international regulations, development funds, agricultural development networks, post harvest technology, crop varieties Rural development, technical information, economic information and training needs

Preferred Format
Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, page summaries, video and audio tapes, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, page summaries, video and audio tapes, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs Newsletters, fact sheets, full documents, page summaries, CDs, DVDs

ACD

Gambia College

UTG

Rural development, technical and economic information

DCD

Social development, gender issues and development, development and funding programs, participatory methodology, post harvest technologies, packaging, micro finance Social development issues, gender issues, government regulations, development and funding programs, management of information with the organization

TANGO

WTG

Technical advice, rural development information, training needs

NFPG

Commodity/producer price, micro finance for the poor

GHE

Farm problems, government and international regulations, conferences and meetings, trade fair development and funding programs

WB

Gender issues, development and funding programs, social development issues, participative methodology, management of information within the organization

Source: Survey Data, January, 2008 55. Scrutiny of the survey results presented in Table 3 reveal varying information needs among the institutions. Thus while the need is specific and limited to a few areas for some, for others, broader needs have been expressed. Accordingly GRTS, DOSCIT, GHE, NFPG, WTG information needs cover some specific subjects areas in rural
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development and few in technical or economic categories. NARI, DOP, ACD, Gambia College and UTG have broader information needs covering more subject areas such as rural development, technical and economic information. 56. In terms of the format of required presented in Table 3 a large similarity exists amongst the institutions. However for institutions specializing in dissemination such as GRTS, ACD and WTG additional formats such as audio and video are required. In the case of research (NARI and DOP) and for higher education (UTG and Gambia College) access to full documents is essential. It should be noted that updating of equipment and their maintenance are key factors for access to the various information formats. In this regard budgetary support and equipment grants are pivotal for sustained access and utilization for the information formats.

4.2

Capacity-building Needs (IC Policies & Strategies, Sensitization, Networking, Skills, Training, Media, ICT, Equipment)

57. While the limitations of ICTs highlighted above inhibit optimal outreach by the institutions, all of them have continued efforts to reach their audiences and beneficiaries. Nonetheless, a number of improvements are necessary. The improvements needed are presented in Table 4 and centre on ICM training, equipment support and financing. Details of specific training and equipment focused on the following areas: desk top publishing for developing and publishing information packages; design and maintenance of websites and web based information; database establishment and management; participatory extension techniques; library/documentation management; training in developing appropriate messages in local languages and developing of TV programmes and radio packs for illiterate local audiences, training on literacy and numeracy skills enhancement.

Table 4: Improvements Needed by Institutions


Institutions DOSCIT GRTS NARI DOP ACD Gambia College UTG DCD WB TANGO WTG NFPG Improvements Needed ICM training, support for technical and improved salaries and budgeting allowances Provision of equipment, training, access to information on agriculture and rural development Provision of equipment and training in website development, Information management and access to reference materials Training of staff in ICM, provision of equipment, increased access to reference materials Training in ICM, provision of equipment and financial support Capacity building/ training in ICM and provision of equipment Training in ICM, Provision of equipment and financing Training in ICM, provision of capital resources, equipment Provision of training in ICM, provision of equipment, provision of facilities for television Training on ICM, financial support, upgrading resource centre- with literature materials, equipment and trained manpower Updating of equipment Training in ICM, provision of ICM equipment

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Institutions GHE

Improvements Needed Capacity building in ICM, provision of more equipment

Source: Survey Data, January, 2008

4.3 Feedback on CTA Products and Services


58. There is very limited awareness of of CTA products and services, with the notable exception of Spore and provision of reference materials to the NARI and DOP libraries. Table 5 provides details of CTA products and services availability and needs by institutions interviewed. Some of the key products and services needed include RRRP,, training, co-publishing, equipment support, Spore and ICT Update.

Table 5: CTA Product and Service Availability and Required by Institution CTA PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Institution Current/Past Requested Product /Service service
DOSCIT GRTS None None Spore and ICT Update Spore and ICT Update RRRP, training courses on information management Library materials, Training in scientific writing, QAS Agricultural research Spore and ICT Update Co-publishing with CTA Library Materials, Training Courses on Information Management, Co-publishing with CTA, Spore and ICT Update Equipment support(GIS) Training courses on information management, Co-publishing with CTA RRRP Spore and ICT Update Literature materials Training Equipment support Spore and ICT Update Library services Training in information management (library services) Spore and ICT Update Co-publishing with CTA QAS Training in Information Management Spore and ICT Update Library materials Spore and ICT Update

NARI

Library materials; CTA Partner

DOP

CTA Trainings Library materials

ACD

Spore

Gambia College

None

UTG

None

DCD

None

WB

None

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Institution

CTA PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Current/Past Requested Product /Service service


None CTA partner Training Literature materials Websites/virtual libraries Spore and ICT Update Training in information management Spore and ICT Update Equipment support Library materials CTA partner Training in information management Training in information management Equipment support Training in Information Management CTA partner Spore and ICT Update Virtual library Spore and ICT Update

TANGO

WTG

None

NFPG

None

GHE CPAG AASAT

None None None

ITAG

None

Source: Survey Data, January, 2008

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5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


5.1 Conclusions 5.1.1 Information Needs
59. Information gaps exist for all the institutions surveyed due to a lack of adequate awareness of sources, budgetary inadequacies and inaccessible formats. Inadequate staffing and lack of motivation were also mentioned as factors inhibiting optimal utilization of information for efficiency and proficiency on the job. The gaps varied between the institutions with the situation most acute for the governmental agencies (policy, research, academia and the media) than for NGOs, the private sector and farmers organizations requiring relatively narrower range of information needs for their operations. It was also revealed that libraries and documentation centres do not generally have sufficient or updated reference materials including Internet-linked libraries for personnel. 60. A number of useful lessons have been learnt including that stakeholders particularly farmers are able to utilize ICT to acquire information and enhance skill levels for improved livelihood. This however requires sensitization/awareness creation, training and initial maintenance support. The broadcast media (radio and TV) can be employed as effective channels to provide market, production and technical information in a timely manner. However the cost of sustaining the system can be high and revenue generating mechanisms have to be introduced for sustainability. Reliability and access to accompanying social and amenities such as electricity and telecommunication are also essential for effective utilization of ICT. 61. It is clear from the current survey and numerous other studies that face-to-face contact and verbal communication with farmers and rural communities is the preferred and most effective means of information exchange in rural areas, with print, electronic and other media of lesser but not negligible importance. Effective extension delivery is critical for accelerated agricultural and rural development. In the Gambia extension information dissemination is inhibited by lack of mobility, few messages and inadequate staff numbers. 62. In the extension delivery system there has been a gradual shift to participatory extension approaches with closer interaction among researchers, extensionists, farmers, input suppliers and other stakeholders to develop locally applicable and innovative solutions to farmers problems. Consequently, the Farmer Field School concept is now being introduced by NADA. 63. Information formats and communication channels are generally not tailored to the requirements of the clientele. Given the high level of illiteracy and the wide use of radio, the use of radio and TV as sources of information for a large proportion of the population particularly farmers is critical. However, experience in the sub-region indicate that other ICTs such as the mobile phone and the Internet can play a pivotal role particularly in the rapid dissemination of market information. The category of information needs by the institutions surveyed cover broadly: rural development focusing on social development

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issues, farm problems (land tenure), gender and available agricultural information networks. Library services are being provided by institutions in both the public and private sector generally with limited materials. However, efforts are ongoing through GAMLISA aimed at better coordination, enhanced capacity in library management to users through exchange and sharing of materials. Technical Information 64. Technical Information needs centre on post-harvest loss reduction technologies, transportation, integrated pest management, waste management and specific areas including (varieties, input management, soil fertility and water control, animal heath and nutrition, and appropriate mechanization). Economic information 65. Specific economic information needs centre on market-related data (prices, commodity profiles for exporters, volumes and requirements), crop insurance systems etc. availability of this information will enhance productivity and facilitate marketing of farmers produce. 66. These information needs can be addressed through enhanced access to the mass media and in formats as well as channels such as the radio, TV, bulletins, flyers but also through the Internet, libraries, documentation centres and Internet-linked libraries.

5.1.2 Capacity Building Needs


67. The staffing and skill levels were reported to be generally low for the institutions surveyed. Thus upgrading skill levels will increase efficiency, effectiveness and culminate in the realization of the goals of the organizations. Most of the institutions have libraries/documentation centres although most are inadequately manned and not stocked with updated reference materials and formats of materials adapted to local requirements. The survey revealed that only few have ICM units and even fewer have ICM strategies which could contribute to better articulation of needs and facilitate funding from potential donors for equipment, training and material support. In essence the capacity of most of the institutions is inhibited by inadequate equipment and few staff with limited skills in ICM. 68. In view of the above, Increasing ICM skills of personnel, providing equipment support, developing strategies and partnerships with CTA and other collaborators will enhance output and efficiently. Key areas include:

Equipment
69. There is a lack of adequate updated equipment and software due to low budgetary allocations especially to the governmental institutions has hampered ability to acquire and maintain computers and peripherals, other equipment and continued access to websites used for obtaining relevant information.

5.1.3 Overview of CTA Products and Services


70. Awareness and benefit of CTA products and services has been limited to only a few institutions in The Gambia and confined to the Spore Magazine and the receipt of publications. Given the usefulness and relevance of CTA products and services notably

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RRRP, training, co-publishing, equipment support and Spore and ICT Update, greater awareness needs to be created and access enhanced.

5.1.4 Potential Strategic Partners


71. In view of the information and capacity building needs of the institutions studied and given the pivotal role of information for agricultural production and productivity, linkage with internal and external agencies is both relevant and critical. In this regard, partnership with CTA is essential for most of the institutions surveyed. Key amongst these are NARI, DOP, TANGO, AASAT, UTG and NFPG.

5.2 Recommendations 5.2.1 Information Needs


72. Undertake concerted efforts at national and regional levels (West Africa) to develop a network of users and producers of agriculture and rural development information through exchange visits, study tours and joint training courses. This will engender greater awareness, sharing and access to each others information but also coordination amongst the stakeholders. 73. Given the limited awareness of CTA products and services in The Gambia and their consequent low utilization, organize an awareness forum at national level to exhibit and popularize them. This will provide an opportunity for most of the institutions in agriculture and rural development to meet their information requirements. 74. Avail institutions involved in the dissemination of information to farmers and rural dwellers the opportunity to improve on appropriate techniques of information formatting and utilization to make them respond to the requirements of stakeholders. In this regard support for availability of timely and appropriate market information to producers and traders, policy makers and researchers on horticulture, cereals, fish and livestock will be essential. 75. Provide support to GAMLISA and libraries/documentation centres to increase their stock of reference materials, websites and linkage to Internet-linked libraries and information sources.

5.2.2 Capacity Building Needs


76. Make concerted efforts through CTA support to strengthen the capacity of researchers, extension agents and development workers in government, NGO and private sector services to ensure their orientation towards meeting the information needs of their clientele. 77. Undertake capacity building on strategy development to enable institutions to develop partnerships and access resources to meet their organizational goals. Enhanced capacity in strategy development will contribute towards resolving constraints linked to inadequate budgetary availability.

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78. Support to the provision of equipment (computers, GIS) and updated soft ware to ensure sustainable access to modern ICTs by institutions involved in ICM for agriculture and rural development. 79. CTA support for participation by relevant institutions to training courses particularly scientific writing, information management (library management, data management, development of market information systems, radio and video production, website development and maintenance amongst others. 80. In addition to external support from CTA and other relevant organizations, the local institutions are urged to provide basic IT training to their staff and meet basic computer stationery requirements.

5.2.3. CTA Products and Services


81. Engender greater awareness of CTA Products and Services in The Gambia through workshops, seminars; provide capacity building through training; enhance access to library materials, QAS, Spore, ICT Update and equipment support.

5.2.4. Potential Strategic Partner Institutions


82. Develop strategic partnership with organizations particularly NARI, DOP, TANGO, AASAT, UTG, NFPG. Specific areas requiring CTA partnerships are training, support for Publications (library materials), access to websites, QAS and for equipment support. Proposed areas of partnership by institution are presented below: Enhance radio and TV outreach through GRTS and local FM radios by the Provision of RRRP, Training in ICM including developing materials of appropriate format and provision of ICT equipment. Enhance outreach of agricultural and rural development messages through partnership with ACD by Training in ICM including the development of appropriate extension messages/materials and equipment support Enhance capacity of DOP through provision of GIS equipment and training support, Website establishment and maintenance, training in Information management (library/Documentation management and database establishment and management). Collaboration with NARI in Q and Answer Sessions, Website establishment and maintenance, training in information management (library/documentation management, database establishment and management) and publications from CTA. Enhanced capacity of DCD through ICM Training, Literature materials on rural development and ICT equipment support

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Enhanced capacity of the Womens Bureau in ICM Training, publications from CTA (literature materials on agricultural and rural development) and ICT equipment support. Support to the Gambia College through enhanced access to publications from CTA (literature materials on agriculture and rural development), training on information management and ICT equipment support Assistance to the University of the Gambia through training in information management ( library/documentation management), publications from CTA (literature materials on agricultural and rural development) and ICT equipment support. Enhance capacity of TANGO through provision of publications from CTA (literature materials on agricultural and rural development), ICT equipment support and Website development and maintenance. Further enhance capacity of WTG through training on information management ( ICM management) and CTA Magazine- Spore and ICT Update

23

6.
6.1

PROPOSED CTA INTERVENTION STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN


Proposed Intervention Strategy

83. From the foregoing conclusions and recommendations and in order to improve access, availability and delivery of information and services including CTA products and services to beneficiaries in The Gambia, the following CTA Intervention strategy is being proposed comprising 7 activities detailed below: 1. Increase awareness of CTA operations, products and services within agricultural and rural development sector in The Gambia (all sub-sectors and organizations). This should be organized by the CTA. Establishment of information users/producers network to increase information exchange and knowledge sharing between agricultural and rural development organizations in-country and in the West Africa sub-region. CTA could coordinate this with ACD and DOP. Enhance capacity of through the provision of training Courses in ICM For agriculture and rural development institutions to meet their needs. Institutions could be invited to CTA and other training courses on ICM. Provision of ICT (equipment and software) support to selected institutions. This could be coordinated with other donors with TANGO coordinating this intervention for NGOs and farmer organizations while DOSCIT coordinates for governmental institutions. Provide basic IT training for staff in agriculture and rural sector institutions. This could be sourced and funded by the local institutions themselves. Establishment of partnership between CTA and selected Gambian institutions. This will enhance information and capacity building for farmers and other rural dwellers and the participating local institutions. Increase Access to updated Information for producers, researchers, development workers and for decision-makers in agriculture and rural development. This can be effected through QAS, publications and links to other CTA information sources.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

84. The action plan presents for each activity: the objective, the expected results, the responsible party and the duration. The durations proposed for the activities range from one to five years. Details of the plan are presented in the action plan below.

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6.2

Action Plan for CTA Intervention Strategy


Objective Enhance access to CTA Information sources by institutions involved in agriculture and rural development Expected Results Greater access and utilization of CTA products and services Greater exposure and awareness of CTA operations, products and services Network established amongst users and producers of agricultural information in West Africa Capacity of Staff in ICM enhanced Improved information and services available to stakeholders in the agriculture an rural development sector Greater access by staff to equipment for information management Improved efficiency in information management Staff capacity in basic IT sustained Responsibility CTA Duration 1 year

Activity Increase awareness of CTA Products and Services in The Gambia

Establishment of information users/producers network

Provision of Training Courses in ICM For Agriculture and rural development institutions

Create a forum for interaction amongst agricultural information producers and users Upgrade the skill level of staff in agriculture and rural development institutions in ICM

CTA, National Information user/producer nets

2 years

CTA, agriculture and rural development institutions

5 years

Provision of ICT(equipment and software) support to selected Institutions

Basic IT Training for Staff in Agriculture and Rural Sector Institutions

Provide equipment (computers and accessories, GIS) to enable them carry out information processing and management tasks Enhance the IT capacity of staff

CTA, selected Institutions and other donors

5 years

Local institutions

5 years

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Activity Establishment of Partnership between CTA and Selected Gambian institutions

Objective Forge partnership to ensure accelerated and effective agriculture and rural development in rural and periurban Gambia Increase access to updated materials in appropriate formats for stakeholders in agriculture and rural development

Expected Results Greater interaction between CTA and selected institutions for enhanced rural welfare Greater access to reference materials in agriculture and rural development in appropriate formats through libraries, the web, radio and TV

Responsibility CTA, selected Institutions

Duration 5 years

Increase Access to updated Information for producers, researchers, development workers and for decision-makers in agriculture and rural development

CTA, Selected Institutions

5years

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ANNEXES

27

ANNEX 1. TERMS OF REFERENCE


1. Introduction
The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) was established in 1983 under the Lom Convention between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) Group of States and the European Union Member States. Since 2000, it has operated within the framework of the ACP-EC Cotonou Agreement. CTAs tasks are to develop and provide services that improve access to information for agricultural and rural development, and to strengthen the capacity of ACP countries to produce, acquire, exchange and utilise information in this area. CTAs programmes are organised around three principal activities: providing an increasing range and quantity of information products and services and enhancing awareness of relevant information sources; supporting the integrated use of appropriate communication channels and intensifying contacts and information exchange (particularly intra-ACP); and developing ACP capacity to generate and manage agricultural information and to formulate information and communication management (ICM) strategies, including those relevant to science and technology. These activities take account of methodological developments in cross-cutting issues (gender, youth, information & communication technologies ICTs, and social capital), findings from impact assessments and evaluations of ongoing programmes as well as priority information themes for ACP agriculture . CTAs activities are currently distributed among three operational programme areas / departments: Information Products and Services; Communication Channels and Services; Information and Communication Management Skills and Systems. These operational departments are supported by Planning Corporate Services (P&CS) which is charged with the methodological underpinning of their work and monitoring the ACP environment in order to identify emerging issues and trends and make proposals for their translation into programmes and activities. This current exercise, therefore, falls within the mandate of P&CS.

2. Background
Since 2003, CTA has been systematically conducting needs assessment studies across the Pacific, Caribbean and Africa regions the regions it has been mandated to serve. These studies have been in direct response to calls for CTA, in various evaluations of its products, services and programmes, to be more strategic in its choice regarding the setting of its own agenda and reacting to demand. In putting together its Strategic Plan and Framework for Action 2001 2005, CTA took a pragmatic view and opted to develop a strategy combining the benefits of both approaches, whereby the need to address the expressed demands of its stakeholders and the potential long-term advantages of developing programmes that address future needs were combined. The Centres new strategic plan covering the 2007 2010 period places emphasis on: improving CTAs efficiency and increasing the Centres outreach by addressing the
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major bottleneck of difficult or insufficient access to information in ACP countries; (ii) honing CTAs profile and further defining the niche where the Centre has a comparative advantage. Consequently, reaching more beneficiaries and further strengthening CTAs partnership networks is key as well as the thrust to make ICTs and ICM strategies more widely available.

3. Main issues
CTA works primarily through intermediary public and private partners (research centres, extension services, libraries, NGOs, farmers organisations, regional organisations and networks, ) to promote agriculture and rural development. Under the new strategic plan, the organisations targeted will be extended to include print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks in order to further maximise outreach. Through these partnerships, CTA hopes to increase the number of ACP organisations capable of accessing and combining modern and conventional ICTs, generating and managing information and developing their own ICM strategies. The identification of appropriate partners is therefore of primordial importance, whilst bearing in mind issues such as geographical coverage, decentralisation, regionalisation, thematic orientation and transparent and objective criteria and procedures for partner selection.

4. Overall Objective
Collaboration strategies with ACP agricultural organisations and relevance of CTAs support to African ACP countries improved.

5. Scope of the study


The study will focus on: providing an overview of main agricultural services and actors existing in the country (information supply side) in terms of their strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for collaboration with CTA; identifying agricultural information and ICM capacity building needs of key actors / key strategic partners for CTA products and services; identifying potential strategic partners for CTA activities and services (paying special attention to e.g. print media, editors, radio, TV and journalist networks); developing some baseline data on the status of ICM and ICTs in the country to facilitate subsequent monitoring and updating activities. The study should assist CTA to improve and better target interventions and activities aimed at potential partners and beneficiaries (including women, youth, private sector and civil society organisations) to have a more informed picture of their needs and aid in the elaboration of a strategy and framework of action. The study should also highlight where there are specific needs for CTAs products and services thereby enabling improvement in the delivery of the same.

6. Expected Results
The expected results of the study are as follow: status of infrastructure, information services and ICM capacity of institutions involved in agriculture and rural development described and analysed;

29

information and capacity building needs in the area of ICM identified for key institutions and potential CTA partners involved in agriculture and rural development; baseline data on the status of ICM and ICT in agriculture and rural development compiled for monitoring purposes and improved outreach. The study should therefore also provide updated country profiles on the status agricultural information services, the status of ICM/T in the country, which will allow CTA to make informed decisions re type and mode of intervention as well as partner selection. This will be summarised in one (1) main report per country not exceeding 30 pages excluding annexes (cf. section 8 below).

7. Methodology
The consultant will use a combination of qualitative and quantitative rapid appraisal methods including: the desk review of available literature and information sources including the findings of programme evaluations; the conduct of face-to-face interviews with relevant stakeholders / concerned parties; the limited use of questionnaires. The rapid appraisal approach will allow a general overview of the key issues and company / organisational profiles on a per country basis and may give rise to more indepth studies as and when needed in the future.

8. Reporting
The country reports will not exceed 30 pages (excluding annexes) and is broken down as follows: Main report Acknowledgements List of Acronyms Executive summary 1. Introduction 2. Country profile 2.1 Brief description of agriculture and recent developments in the sector: 2.1.1 Agriculture 2.1.2 Fisheries 2.1.3 Forestry 2.1.4 Pastorialism / Livestock (where applicable) 2.2 Brief description of the status of ICT infrastructure and recent developments in the sector 3. Status of information and communication for agriculture and rural development 3.1 Institutional, regulatory and policy framework Status of national and/or other sectoral policies on information and communication for agriculture and rural development; definition of main strategic

30

focus and principal characteristics; opportunities and threats posed by the political, institutional and regulatory environment 3.2 Operational aspects 3.2.1 Description of agricultural information and services (main actors in the area of information and communication for agriculture and rural development) 3.2.2 Information products and services provided 3.2.3 Information and communication management capacity 3.3 Interventions supporting information and communication for agriculture and rural development Examine the main interventions undertaken, planned or foreseen by the State, donor agencies, private sector (e.g. telecommunications sector) to respond to identified needs paying particular attention to the priorities and means mobilised. Lessons learnt should also be addressed in this section 3.4. Needs analysis (Main bottlenecks and shortcomings) 3.4.1 Information needs 3.4.2 Capacity building needs (IC policies & strategies, sensitisation, networking, skills, training, media, ICT, equipment) 4. Conclusions and recommendations 4.1 Conclusions 4.1.1 Information Needs 4.1.2 Capacity Building Needs 4.1.3 Potential Strategic Partners 4.2 Recommendations 4.2.1 Capacity Building Needs 4.2.2 Information Needs 4.2.3. Potential Strategic Partner Institutions 5. Proposed CTA Intervention Strategy and Action Plan From the above analysis, establish a link between the needs which are not currently met or for which complementary actions are needed and CTAs supply (products and services). This should lead to an overall and coherent strategy for CTA and an action plan in priorities are identified and an implementation schedule defined. Annexes 1. Terms of reference 2. Country profile 2.1 General agricultural profile (from available documentation) 2.1.1 Size of agricultural population (male / female / youth) 2.1.2 Farmed land, forests, fishing areas 2.1.3 Agricultural systems 2.1.4 Agriculture in the economy (percentage GDP) 2.1.5 Main agricultural produce and secondary products 2.1.6 Main export markets 2.1.7 Trade agreements that include agriculture 2.1.8 Sectoral policy related to agriculture, fisheries and forests 2.2 Socio-economic profile (from available documentation) 2.2.1 Total active population, demographic breakdown 2.2.2 Literacy level and languages 2.2.3 Access to services (health, schools, electricity) 2.2.4 Rural urban drift
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2.3 Media and telecommunications (update / check) 2.3.1 Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, radio stations, television channels, 2.3.2 Telecommunication services (fixed, mobile, etc.) 2.3.3 Computers and Internet access 3. Profile of institutions 3.1 List of all main institutions involved in agriculture and rural development activities, including private sector and civil society organisations, with name, contact details, type and role of institution 3.2 Select list of key institutions involved in agriculture and rural development, with extensive data and information on the institution, the problems faced and why it is considered a key actor 4. List of institutions / persons interviewed (to include full contact details) 5. Bibliography 9. Timing The draft final report is to be submitted within three months after contract signature by CTA; the final report is due two weeks after receipt of comments from CTA. 10. Expertise needed The national consultant should have a university degree or equivalent by experience. In addition, he/she should have at least 10 years experience in field of agriculture, rural development or social / economic sciences. He/she must have in-depth knowledge of the agricultural sector in his/her country and be able to identify key players and institutions / organisations active in this area. Some knowledge of information sciences would be an added advantage. The ability to communicate and write clearly in English is essential, while knowledge of at least one of the local languages for communication / interview purposes is an added advantage. In addition to the skills above, the regional coordinator is expected to be fluent in English, have some knowledge of the 9 countries forming the object of this study, have demonstrated experience in coordinating studies with several consultants and in producing synthesis reports. The overall coordination of the exercise will be carried out by Ms Christine Webster, Deputy Head, Planning and Corporate Services CTA. 11. Implementation schedule (CTA) Preparation/Finalisation of ToR; Identification/ short-listing of consultants; Call for offers: January April 2007; Selection of consultants & contractual arrangements: May/June 2007 Briefing: July 2007 Start date of contract: June/July 2007 Contract implementation period: June 2007 March 2008 End date of contract: March 2008.

(potential)

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12. Key documents to be made available to consultants Documents include: Cotonou Framework Agreement Executive Summaries of previous evaluation reports including ITAD, OPM, etc. CTAs Strategic Plan (2007-2010) Annual Reports Examples of reports of previous needs assessment studies Documents on products & services provided by CTA 13. Definition of roles and responsibilities Regional Coordinator Respect the timeframe regarding submission of reports and deadlines Help identify/vet country consultants Attend pre-briefing and briefing meetings Review the terms of reference Finalise questionnaires1 and methodological approach after due consultation with CTA Team Finalise the briefing notes and guidelines2 for local consultants to ensure accurate and consistent application of the agreed methodology in data collection Answer queries (technical & otherwise) of local consultants During the studies, monitor and provide technical assistance/information to the local consultants Review preliminary country reports and findings and send comments back to local consultants Send edited draft final country reports to CTA for feedback Coordinate and ensure consistency of country reports Prepare the overall report taking into account the findings and recommendations of all the country reports (table of contents to be agreed). Local Consultants Respect the timeframe regarding submission of reports and deadlines Attend briefing meeting Familiarise themselves with background documents received from CTA; including the Terms of Reference Undertake desk study and prepare country profile, list of institutions involved in agriculture as well as preliminary list of select institutions. Undertake field visits in the country specified in the contract Conduct interviews and gather information in the country specified in the contract Draft preliminary country reports and send to Regional Coordinator for initial comments Based on comments received from Regional Coordinator, revise country reports and send draft final report to CTA within the specified timeframe Finalise country reports based on comments and observations received from CTA and send final report back to CTA Role of CTA
1 2

The documents used in previous needs assessment studies are available and will need some slight modifications. See footnote above.

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Draw up initial Terms of Reference and prepare relevant background documents Appoint the Regional Coordinator and the ACP Local Consultants Prepare and attend briefing meeting of consultants Invite the Regional Coordinator and Local Consultants for Briefing Meeting Provide input to the Regional Coordinator with regard to fine-tuning terms of reference, questionnaires, interview guide and reporting guidelines for the consultants Provide relevant background documents to the Local Consultants & Regional Coordinator Elaborate budget and discuss contractual obligations with the Team of consultants & Regional Coordinator Liaise with Regional Coordinator throughout the study Pay invoices for services rendered in a timely manner on condition that all payment conditions are fulfilled Overall responsibility for the supervision and implementation of the studies Bear the agreed costs of expenditure in respect of the study (economy class return tickets, hotel accommodation and subsistence allowances during briefing meeting, or during agreed and specified field visits) Provide feedback and comments on draft country reports to the Local Consultants Give feedback to the Regional Coordinator on the Overview Report.

-----------------------------

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ANNEX 2. COUNTRY PROFILE - (THE GAMBIA)


2.1 General Agriculture Profile

The Gambia is situated on the West Coast of Africa lying between latitudes 13 and 14 degrees North, consisting of a narrow strip of land within the valleys of the Gambia River stretching some 400 kilometres East to West and varies in width of about 50 km near the mouth of the river to about 24 km further inland. It forms an enclave in the Republic of Senegal except for a short seaboard on the Atlantic Coastline. The Gambia is divided administratively into 6 agricultural regions. It has a total land surface area of 11,000 km2. The topography is flat particularly near the sea and nowhere does it rise more than 90 m above sea level. This flat topography results in the tidal effects of the river being felt as far as 300 km upstream. In the lower reaches of the river large areas are under tidal swamps. Beyond these however, the river banks are steep and require pump uplift for irrigation. Climate is a major factor in agricultural production and is characterized by a distinct dry and wet season. The wet season is of shorter duration (4-5 months) from June to October with a much longer dry season (7-8 months) from November to May. Rainfall is the most important determining factor in Gambian agriculture and is mono-modal averaging 850 to 1,100 mm annually with an observed declining trend over the last 3 decades. The Gambia can be divided into 3 agro-ecological zones according to rainfall data: 1. the Sudano-Sahelian or Riverine covering a greater part of the country and comprising 75% of the farming population and therefore constituting the zone where most of the agricultural activities take place; 2. the Sahel Savana or semi arid zone covering part of Central River Region (North) and comprising some 147,684 ha of which only 44 percent is cultivated and principally cultivated to early maturing cereals (early millet, maize, findo etc); and 3. Guinea Savannah zone or humid zone is located around the coast line and covers part of the Western and North Bank Divisions. This covers 179,790 ha about 66 percent of which is cultivable and rainfall is moderate to high with late cereals (late millet, sorghum and upland rice) predominating. Soils in The Gambia can be broadly categorized into upland and lowland. Upland soils are generally alluvial, fine textured, free draining loamy sand or sandy loam with low organic matter, low cation exchange capacity and low fertility. Lowland soils on the other hand are colluvial, heavily textured silty-clay or clay sub-soils, poorly drained, high in organic matter, high base saturation and generally fertile. However, reduced fallow period have resulted in decrease in soil fertility. The sector is characterized by subsistence rainfed crop production, traditional livestock rearing, semi-commercial groundnut and horticultural production and a large artisanal fisheries subsector. The major agriculural enterprises are field crops comprising groundnuts, cotton, coarse grains (maize, millet and sorghum), rice and sesame; horticultural crops; livestock mainly poultry, cattle and small ruminants and, fisheries

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both artisanal and industrial. Strongly interlinked with these are the water resources, wildlife and forest resource sub-sectors. 2.1.1 Size of the Agricultural Population

Table 1 indicates data on the farming population, for the period 1992 to 2004. It indicates an increase in the numbers of farmers, both male and female over the period. The farming population in 2004 is 903,508 with 448,592 male and 454,916 females. Generally there are more female than females in the farming population. Given the female dominance in numerical terms, and given the differential access to productive resources (inputs, credit, information and farm implements), a review of both the policy and the institutional mechanisms need to be undertaken if agricultural production and productivity is to be optimized. Table 1: Evolution of the Farming Population by Gender from 1992 to 2004 Year Male Female Total 1992 238,533 279,297 517,830 1993 283,528 278,503 562,031 1994 250,031 272,960 522,991 1995 295,317 279,432 574,749 1996 312,605 313,930 626,535 1997 355,178 322,269 687,447 1998 324,470 338,130 667,610 1999 327,387 333,733 661,120 2000 322,347 326,517 648,564 2001 368,582 365,839 734,721 2002 373,861 385,155 759,016 2003 441,479 439,668 881,146 2004 448,592 454,916 903,508 Source: NASS, Department of Planning, DOSA,2005 2.1.2 Farmed Land, Forest and Fishing

Out of a total cultivable land of 558,000 ha., some 250,000 ha. are cultivated annually as presented in the table below. The largest area to a single crop is allocated to groundnuts, which occupies almost 45% of the cultivated area mainly in upland fields under rainfed conditions. An average of 120,000 ha. of upland are also annualy allocated to coarse grains comprisig early millet, late millet, maize and sorhum.. The main staple crop, rice occupies an average of about 15,000 ha. of lowland farms under rainfed and improved technologies. Table 2 provides details of cultivated area of major crops from 1991/92 to 2005/06.

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Table 2: Area of Major Crops (in 000 ha ) 1991/92-2005/06 Year Groundnuts Early Late Maize Sorghum Paddy Total crop Millet Millet 1991/92 81.85 48.94 11.44 19.84 13.14 17.32 178.22 1992/93 66.98 36.66 12.55 15.55 14.29 12.66 158.68 1993/94 65.00 41.80 13.80 16.13 9.63 10.38 157.10 1994/95 79.68 47.27 11.50 12.703 9.35 14.35 175.20 1995/96 78.823 43.464 13.612 12.93 14.885 16.37 179.86 1996/97 68.08 45.31 14.33 10.41 13.59 19.08 170.76 1997/98 73.332 64.52 15.30 9.85 14.65 15.574 170.80 1998/99 75.26 57.88 15.42 11.71 14.24 19.61 193.10 1999/00 112.2 65.81 10.42 14.78 18.50 15.70 238.27 2000/01 124.85 74.10 16.27 14.84 24.35 16.70 271.89 2001/02 138.88 81.27 16.09 17.20 28.17 18.20 297.90 2002/03 105.61 86.52 10.46 18.35 18.34 12.05 251.33 2003/04 107.90 95.5 14.4 24.7 21.00 17.7 263.5 2004/05 116.60 108.2 15.0 26.1 24.2 16.6 311.0 2005/06 137.28 109.88 17.45 22.95 27.58 17.81 336.61 Source: National Agricultural Sample Survey/Department of Planning,2006 Fisheries The Gambia is endowed with abundant marine and riverine fish and consists of a continental shelf of 3,855 square kilometres, and a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone. The continental shelf in the east Central Atlantic Ocean is a rich fishing zone with a range of pelagic and demersal fish as well as Crustacean. Estimates from Surveys highlight that demersal stocks are heavily fished with sustainable limits being approached; the pelagic resources are however under- exploited. Fisheries constitute an important natural resource and provider of cheap protein for a significant proportion of the population. It is estimated that the Maximum Sustainable Yield from the Gambias continental shelf and estuarine area is 80,000 MT per year, whilst current catches are put at 30,000-40,000 Mt. The observation also indicates that high valued demersal species are under threat from exploitation. Forestry The Gambias forest is predominantly of savannah woodland with the density of the cover varying according to location. The moist western part of the country is covered with Guinea savannah vegetation whilst the drier eastern part is dominated by sudan vegetation. The forest area can be classified into high mangrove, gallery forest, closed and open woodland, shrubs and gmelina plantation. Table 3 presents data on the area allocated to the various typologies of vegetation and changes in forest cover respectively. Because of concerted efforts the rapid decline in forest cover has now stabilized, though the current trend in forest cover is one of changing density and composition of the species. Table 4 provides details on changes in forest area in The Gambia from 1972-1999.

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Table 3: Major Vegetation types of TheGambia Typology Area (ha) Percentage Tree and Shrub Savannah 348,028 33.4 Upland agricultural crops 275,088 26.4 Uncultivated swamps 81,276 7.8 Cultivated Swamps 33, 344 3.2 Fallow or bush 102,116 9.6 Closed Cannopy Woodland 83,360 8.0 Mangrove 66,688 6.4 Source: National Action Program on Desertification Convention Gambia, 2003 Table 4: Change in forest area in The Gambia (ha.) Year 1972 1980 1988 Abs. change (ha) 333,200 108,700 6,850 Percentage 33% 6.3% change Change (ha) -224,500 -4,020 Sources: Ridder (1991), Danso (1998) and Sillahs (1999) 2.1.3 Agricultural Systems Agricultural activities in the Gambia are dominated by small-scale, rain-fed food crop production mainly for subsistence (sorghum, millet, maize and rice), semi commercial groundnut and horticultural production, traditional livestock rearing and artisanal fisheries production practices. Agricultural output is generated by about 74, 000 farm households. Overall, crop production and systems are characterized by rainfall dependent, low investment small-scale, family oriented production units. Around 85 percent of the households cultivate less than 1.5 hectare. Average crop yield are rather low, with e.g. 1, 000 kg/ha for groundnuts and early millet, about 1 3000 kg/ha for maize and 1,100 kg/ha and 1 600 kg/ha for upland and swamp rice respectively. Only a limited area is put mainly under irrigated rice (tidal and pump confined to the Central River Region and horticultural production using underground water resources. Mechanized farming is relatively negligible and far between, and mostly public sector owned or promoted. Since 1999, the Government has intervened by providing tractors for cultivation nationwide. The horticultural sub-sector also has the involvement of commercial farms which are market oriented, and directed at exports. Livestock production practices are largely traditional with low input and extensive management systems. This is particularly the case for large ruminants comprising cattle and for small ruminants and village poultry. However a few livestock enterprises managed under semi intensive and intensive livestock production systems are emerging in the urban and peri-urban areas to satisfy the relatively high consumer demand. 2.1.4 Agriculture in the Economy The Gambia is predominantly an agrarian economy with agriculture and natural resources sector, the engine of economic development and playing a pivotal role in the economy. It provides livelihoods for about 70% of the population, employs about 52

1993 3,425 5% -3,325

1999 1,027 3% -2,398

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percent of the workforce and contributes between 22% and 29% annually to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as indicated from 2001 to 2005 in Table 5 below. Table 5: Contribution of Sectors to GDP Sector 2000 2001 2002 2003 Agriculture 28 29 22 26 Industry 39 39 32 36 Services 53 53 61 57 GDP at factor cost 638 687 712 748 D Million Real GDP Growth Rate 8.02 7.65 2.18 4.48 Source: National Accounts, Central Statistics Department, 2004

2004 27 37 56 786 5.17

2005 28 41 59 820 5.00

2.1.5

Main Agricultural Produce and Secondary Products

The main agricultural produce comprise crops, livestok and fish. The principal crops cultivated in The Gambia comprise grouundnuts and cereals (early millet, late millet, maize, sorghum and rice). Table 6 presents the production of the crops and shows fluctuating amongst the years, with the level of production varying amongst crops. The most significant and consistent increase has been registered for the coarse grains (maize, millets, sorghum), with early millet constituting the largest increase for a single crop. In contrast, swamp rice production has declined during the period. Other secondary crops include sesame and the root and tubers. Table 6: Production of Major Crops (000s MT) 1992/93-2005/06 Year Groundnuts Early Late Maize Sorghum Paddy Total crop Millet Millet 1992/93 54.87 36.02 10.24 18.27 12.26 19.41 173.7 1993/94 76.72 43.66 8.51 23.78 8.97 12.05 173.69 1994/95 80.80 44.09 8.75 13.31 8.90 20.27 173.7 1995/96 75.18 43.44 10.58 13.63 11.87 18.95 175.24 1996/97 45.82 49.50 11.99 10.02 13.72 18.19 149.20 1997/98 78.10 54.37 11.72 8.47 12.93 13.05 178.60 1998/99 73.46 55.60 8.07 13.01 9.87 26.64 179.90 1999/00 122.86 72.62 8.34 20.42 17.97 31.65 274.01 2000/01 138.03 78.47 16.11 21.99 24.88 34.08 313.70 2001/02 151.07 89.02 15.95 28.99 33.42 19.20 351.00 2002/03 71.53 77.34 7.28 18.58 15.21 20.33 212.90 2003/04 92.94 107.14 13.20 30.13 33.35 31.22 277.90 2004/05 135.68 115.98 16.52 29.21 29.00 34.30 349.0 2005/06 140.66 109.12 17.08 27.70 28.46 18.14 356.21 Source: National Agricultural Sample Survey/Department of Planning, 2007

Livestock Production
Livestock comprises cattle, small ruminants, various species of poultry, pigs and equines. They constitute important sources of food, income, manure and farm power. Table 7 presents data on the trends in the livestock population from 1975 to 2006 and shows a generally increasing population for cattle and for small ruminants whilst that of

39

pigs and chicken fluctuate. According to the data, the cattle population averages around 300,000; 140-150,000 sheep and 200,000-230,000 goats; 13,000 pigs; and, 700,000 chicken. Despite the large number of cattle off-take remains low due to holding of stocks as reserves of wealth by owners. Per capita meat consumption is estimated at 8 kg per annum. Large volumes of meat, eggs and milk are annually imported to meet consumption requirements. Due to the low input management systems and poor husbandry practices, productivity and output have been generally low in the traditional free-range extensive systems. In the emerging modern sector semi-intensive management systems are predominant with increasing utilization of composite animal feed and concentrates. Table 7: Livestock Population from 1975-2006 (000 heads). Year Cattle Sheep Goats Pigs Chicken 1992 343 159 185 14 673 1993 346 151 180 14 740 1994 348 144 174 16 Na 1995 350 136 169 16 Na 1996 353 130 164 16 521 1997 356 123 159 16 539 1998 359 117 154 16 513 1999 361 111 150 14 582 2000 364 106 145 14 630 2001 323 129 228 14 586 2002 327 146 262 16 591 2003 396 203 297 16 599 2004 408 209 287 16 682 2005 420 215 296 16 652 2006 433 221 305 16 417 Source: National Agricultural Sample Survey (DOP/DOSA),2007

Fisheries
Fish constitutes a cheap source of animal protein for a significant proportion of the population, according to a recent survey, 40% of the protein in domestic diet is derived from fish (UNDP 1999). The Data on fish catches from 1992 to 2004 by artisanal and industrial fisheries subsectors are presented in Table 8 and indicate dwindling catches from the industrial sector whilst those of the artisanal sector show an increasing trend. High post-harvest losses, lack of credit, low skill levels and lack of infrastructure for landing constitute key constraints encountered in the sector.

Table 8: Marine Fish Production in Metric Tonnes (1992-2004)


Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Industrial 6,059.50 7,736.30 7, 751.60 6,937.10 8,371.69 7,987.95 7,011.67 10,249.30 9,236.60 Artisanal 14,034.52 17,559.75 19,916.73 20,799.19 30,509.81 30,242.94 26,533.48 29,743.20 26,867.00
40

Year Industrial 2001 11,198.00 2002 12,160.00 2003 11,005.00 2004 8,375.00 2005 4625.25 2006 2829.52 Source: Fisheries Department,2007 2.1.6 Main Export markets

Artisanal 32,016.00 32,336.00 34,365.00 29,316.98 30,169.00 32,976.00

Given the export orientation of the National Vision, the main objective of the trade policy is increase in the flow of exports and imports. The main export items from The Gambia are groundnut and groundnut products (decorticated, oil, cake), cotton, shrimp and lobsters, fish and fish products, hide and skin and horticulture. Table 9 presents export values indicating that groundnut and groundnut derivatives dominate exports with fluctuations. Table 9 shows 1998 as recoding the highest export values of exports, with the lowest recorded for 2001. Table 9 Exports of Agricultural Commodities from 1992 to 2006 CIF Value (D 000)
Year Decorticated Groundnuts 12,935 103,306 95,339 89,000 139,900 49,000 94,498 7,160 43,242 9,174 31,131 59,000 154,371 Groundnut Oil 2,228 33,418 181,568 23,568 167,135 2,652 G/nut Cake 8,370 47,383 365 39,522 131 203 Cotton Seed/lint 228 228 3,390 11,200 6,700 2,100 1,047 1,383 2,898 6,686 3,198 1,179 4,945 Shrimp& Lobsters 23146 23,146 16,894 10,905 4,454 3,135 2,113 12,496 414 Fish& Fish Products 3423 3,428 24,026 27,200 33,500 36,600 42,665 20,963 21,180 11,952 9,164 29,488 9,443 Hide & Skin 30,000 765 856 800 1,400 900 1,365 1,581 1,502 1,571 1,145 1,041 395 Horticulture

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2545 2,744 15,500 25,900 19,200 13,803 15,271 17,807 19,048 39,093 20,762 91,260

Source: Central Statistics Department, 2007 Tables 10 and 11 present the direction of import and export by country and region from 1995 to 2002. Table 10 indicates (for the years where sufficient data was available e.g. 1999-2002) that most of the imports originate from Europe, followed by Asia and then Africa. Within Africa, most of the import comes from the ECOWAS block. Table 11 shows a different trend with most domestic exports bound for Asia. It also indicates a significant decline in domestic exports for 1999 and after compared with before 1999.

41

Table 10: Direction of Imports by Country and Region (1995 2002 in (000 of Dalasi)
TRADE Europe America Asia AFRICA Other Africa ECOWAS Cape Verde Cote DIvore Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania* Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone 1995 N/A N/A N/A 255,971 27,478 228,493 181,707 464 153 119 754 1 919 3,609 38,680 2,029 1996 N/A N/A N/A 298,616 27,157 271,459 1,782 178,514 1,442 1,740 337 601 19 1,212 3,788 73,204 8,386 1997 N/A N/A N/A 188,951 20,462 168,489 523 104,314 1,518 1,319 501 222 38 207 14,412 42,782 2,293 1998 N/A N/A N/A 215,091 28,299 187,792 24 136,882 3,624 708 579 688 75 805 7,494 35,464 1,444 1999 1,127,039 245,866 428,530 192,064 158,467 8 89,820 8,167 301 915 1,660 47 1,410 3,518 49,937 2,679 2000 1,306,462 219,513 378,708 392,425 350,659 277 267,544 2,530 934 196 29 238 4,964 6,065 67,190 692 2001 1,306,333 170,707 286,237 238,70 218,373 355 167,457 3,326 786 599 302 13 425 4,536 39,172 1,279 2002 2,113,236 237,140 361,668 288,123 268,511 114,189 4,422 913 1,250 233 166 155 6,237 138,836 1,892

Source: Department of State for Trade, Industry and Employment(DOSTIE,2006) Note* Mauritania is no longer a member ECOWAS Table 11: Domestic Export by Country and Region (1995 2002) (Values in D000)
TRADE EUROPE AMERICA ASIA AFRICA OTHER AFRICA ECOWAS Cape Verde Cote DIvoire Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania* Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone 1995 N/A 90,686 302,689 204,000 66,899 32 3,204 163 1,212 32 260 60,807 171 1996 N/A 316,162 505,734 196,000 13,609 474 716 4,149 1,618 1,403 82 499 3,878 84 1997 N/A 210,638 396,326 139,000 10,216 39 29 2,147 1,398 779 99 734 471 248 4,080 5 1998 N/A 235,352 730,528 229,000 18,685 6 2,772 6,479 1,321 285 88 528 373 5,179 1,209 1999 22,298 2,853 107,646 2000 21,485 2,483 130,372 2001 678 7,156 2002 908 12,275

509 1,380 12,272 9,495 3,666 384 2,034 1,113 1,380 73,944 1,469

212 2,004 3,960 19,312 24 3 13 77,705 646

22 372 5,600 6 60 45 1,022 -

1,056 1,411 5,051 243 4,217 -

Source: Department of State for Trade, Industry and Employment (DOSTIE, 2006) Due to The Gambias geo-political location, a significant transit and re-export trade had been established over years, which contribute measurably to national revenue. Since the introduction of Economic Reforms in 1986, The Gambia has adapted policies culminating in trade liberalization. Consequently, it has dismantled all quantitative restrictions to trade with import prohibitions maintained only on security, environmental, health, and morality grounds, as well as under international conventions to which it is a party.

42

This policy regime and its sequencing engendered favourable trading terms with countries of the sub-region resulting in robust re-export to these countries. However, the inter-regional trade was more buoyant in the 1980s and early 1990s when some 33-40% of imports was re-exported to neighbouring countries and comprised a significant proportion of domestic revenue. However towards 1998/99 when the trade policies of some of the neighbouring states changed including the devaluation of the FCFA and restricted borders particularly with Senegal, re-exports trade witnessed a decline except for 1998 during the period 1995 to 2002 as presented in Table 11. It shows a peak of 61 Million Dalasi for re-exports in 1995 to a low of 5 Million in 2002. Imports on the other hand increased significantly resulting in a negative trade balance situation 2.1.7 Trade Agreements that Include Agriculture

The trade policy of the Government of The Gambia continues to be guided by the principles of trade liberalization, deregulation and investment promotion. To this end has entered into a number of agreements, amongst those related to agriculture include the ECOWAS, WTO, Cotonou and AGOA. These are detailed below in Table 12. Table 12: Trade Agreements in Agriculture No. Agreement 1 GATT 2 Abuja Treaty under Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) World Trade Organization (WTO) Everything But Arms(EBA) Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) Cotonou Agreement

Parties United nation member states West African member states United nation members states European Union African Union members African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)countries United States

Year February, 1965 May, 1975

3 4 5 6

October 1996 2001 March, 2001 May,2002 April, 2003

7 8

Cuba, Senegal, Various Nigeria,Tunesia and Iran Department of State for Trade, Industry and Employment (DOSTIE, 2006) 2.1.8 Sector Policy related to Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

African Growth Opportunities Act(AGOA) Bilateral Agreements

April, 2004

The medium-term specific policy goals of the agriculture and natural resources sector are to: i) achieve national food self-sufficiency and security through the promotion of sustainably diversified food production programmes with emphasis on cereal production to contain the growth of imported rice;
43

ii)

increase overall sector's output especially of domestic food and export products in order to ensure food security and enhance foreign exchange earning capacity to finance other aspects of the development process; create employment and generate income for the majority of the rural population who are dependant on primary production particularly women, youth and producer associations; diversify the production base to facilitate the production of a wide range of food and export crops in order to reduce the fluctuations and uncertainties in household incomes and export earnings; reduce disparities between rural-urban incomes as well as between men and women, curb rural-urban drift and accelerate the pace of development of the rural sector; provide effective linkages between the agriculture and natural resources sector and other sectors of the economy particularly the tourism sector so as to enhance their mutual complementarily and supplementary on a sustainable basis; and, ensure the judicious and sustainable exploitation of the country's natural resource base so as to conserve and improve biodiversity and enhance its productivity consistent with consideration of the needs and rights of future generations. Food and Cash Crops Sub-sector Strategies:

iii)

iv)

v)

vi)

vii)

i)

to develop and/or screen and introduce crop cultivars and varieties of a duration appropriate to the climatic circumstances of the major agricultural zones; to address the institutional, socio-economic and physical constraints to the widespread adoption of known labour saving-devices to alleviate labour bottlenecks and improve labour productivity in crop production; to promote and facilitate the use of appropriate integrated pest control measures and, biological and chemical technologies such as herbicides in crop production to improve land productivity and alleviate labour bottlenecks especially at weeding; to promote introduction of mechanical threshing of groundnuts and efficient methods of field drying to reduce crop losses and aflatoxin contamination; to maintain the vigour and the purity of the seeds of improved crop varieties in circulation through developing an efficient production, storage and distribution system of seed; to encourage the adoption of simple soil and water management practices and structures such as construction of contour bunds and ploughing and, judicious application of conservation tillage; and,
44

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

vi)

vii)

to improve the efficiency of crop marketing and processing by facilitating and encouraging increased private sector participation through provision of appropriate incentive regime, social and economic infrastructure and a legal framework that affords sufficient protection to private ownership and reduces production cost. Livestock Sub-sector Policies:

i)

to contribute to the diversification of agriculture and rural income through improvement of the livestock sector and to better meet dietary requirements and maximize foreign exchange earnings; to keep livestock production in balance and at levels consistent with the limitations of rural resources and to meet the requirements for draught animals; and, to integrate crop and livestock production systems so as to reduce environmental degradation and improve soil fertility while enhancing availability of supplementary feed from crop residues. Fisheries Sub-sector policies:

ii)

iii)

i)

make optimal use of both the marine, riverine and potential aquaculture fishery resources of the country, promote value-added processing of fishery resources to increase the returns to the participants in the sub-sector encourage the exploitation of the nation's pelagic fishery resources as against the demersal resources which have reached (or are approaching) their optimal yield level; ensure that fish and fish products are readily and widely available in all parts of the country; and, provide a conducive investment environment to attract more private sector operators into the sub-sector. Forestry Sub-sector Policies:

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

i)

to provide an adequate supply of wood and forest products for domestic and industrial uses; to minimize soil desiccation and soil movement caused by water and wind erosion thus reducing soil degradation and thereby enhancing land productivity and sustenance of adequate level of agricultural production; establish, maintain and develop 30% of the land area in forest and ensure that 75% of this is managed and protected according to accepted forest management principles.
45

ii)

iii)

iv)

development of cost-effective management plans and strategies for protected areas. assess the countrys sites of high ecological values (fauna, flora), geological, cultural and aesthetic values, based on existing knowledge, aerial photographs and site visits. to protect the natural fauna and flora of the forest environment. Institutional, regulatory and policy framework for information and communication

v)

vi) 2.1.9

The Department of State for Communication, Information and Technology (DOSCIT) has the mandate for the coordination, promotion and regulation of the ICT sector. At the sectoral level a number of structures exist for information dissemination, recording and storage. In the agricultural sector two institutions: the Agricultural Communication Division and the Department of Planning carry out message and agricultural information development and farm and price data collection, analysis, dissemination and storage. The Gambia as part of the Vision 2020 has as its ICT objectives to transform the Gambia into a technologically advanced and information rich society by the year 2020. The country has already taken some initiatives in this direction and formulated a National Communication and Information (NICI). This policy is expected to create a very catalytic atmosphere for harnessing ICT in the country in all sectors. The policy framework hinge on the following objectives: Liberalizing the ICT sector to increase competition and more choice for consumers; Encouraging collaboration and coordination in ICT infrastructure development at local, regional and international level; Promoting and enabling the building and establishment of appropriate ICT infrastructure and broadband access that supports ICT development countrywide; Encouraging public-private partnership in providing the ICT infrastructure as well as attract both foreign and domestic investment in this sector; Establishing Universal Service Fund to provide reliable basic ICT services for the citizenry country-wide so as to meet Universal Service obligations; and, Increasing and improving the bandwidth to ensure reliable and uninterrupted services for ICT application. For the agricultural sector, the policy seeks to ensure the establishment and functioning of appropriate systems of generating, processing, management, dissemination and use of reliable agricultural statistics and information on the ANR sector, for use by

46

stakeholders for planning, advice, policy analysis, programme formulation and delivery, monitoring and investment, and management of natural resources in the ANR sector. The overall regulation of the ICT sector is provided by the DOSCIT although no comprehensive framework exists. An initiative, the Internet Regulatory Authority is being formulated.

2.2
2.2.1

Socioeconomic Profile
Demographics

The Gambia has from the 4 ten-year censuses as presented in Table 13 registered a high but mixed population growth rate increasing from 3.4% to 4.2% from the 1973-83 censuses and declining from 4.2% to 2.77 from 1993 to 2003 censuses. Among the regions Kanifing and Brikama experienced annual increases of above 3.5% whilst that for Banjul declined. Similarly, the population density increased from 47 persons per kilometer to 128 persons per kilometer. Table 13: Key Demographic Indicators for The Gambia: 1973-2003
Local Government Area 1973 Banjul Kanifing Brikama Mansa Konko Kerewan Kuntaur Janjanburey Basse The Gambia Density 39,476 39,404 91,013 42,447 93,388 47,669 54,232 86,167 493,499 47 Population Census Annual Growth Rate

1983 44,188 101,504 137,245 55,263 112,225 57,594 68,410 111,388 687,817 64

1993 42,326 228,214 234,917 65,146 156,462 67,774 88,247 155,059 1,025,867 97

2003 35,061 322,735 389,594 72,167 172,835 78,491 107,212 182,586 1,360,681 128

1973 -83 1.2 9.9 4.2 2.7 1.8 1.9 2.3 2.6 3.4

198393 -0.4 8.4 5.5 1.7 3.4 1.6 2.6 3.4 4.2

93-03 -1.93 3.52 5.28 1.08 1.00 1.56 1.93 1.67 2.77

Source: CSD, 2003 The age structure according to the 2003 Population Census, indicates that 42% are below 15 years of age; this is indicative of a young population. The data indicate that only 9% are above 60 years of age and above.

47

2003 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS OF THE GAMBIA THE AGE GROUP DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SEXES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS BANJUL KANIFING BRIKAMA MANSAKONKO KEREWAN KUNTAUR JANJANBUREH BASSE THE GAMBIA BANJUL KANIFING BRIKAMA MANSAKONKO KEREWAN KUNTAUR JANJANBUREH BASSE THE GAMBIA POPULATION BY BOTH SEXES TOTAL 35,061 322,735 389,594 72,167 172,835 78,491 107,212 182,586 1,360,681 16,265 158,756 194,585 37,964 90,001 40,911 55,505 95,853 689,840 <1 725 7,071 9,745 1,476 4,029 1,560 2,062 3,592 30,260 365 3,455 4,831 735 1,952 757 1,014 1,715 14,824 12 1,409 15,564 20,983 4,196 10,155 4,794 6,347 10,821 74,269 684 7,634 10,269 2,079 5,043 2,365 3,166 5,393 36,633 34 56 7 - 14 5,346 58,437 84,143 17,344 40,797 18,343 25,254 43,166 292,830 2,767 30,564 41,854 8,454 19,796 9,095 12,594 21,168 146,292 15 - 49 20,772 180,684 188,876 30,169 74,460 33,523 46,424 79,953 654,861 9,136 87,571 96,096 17,158 41,998 18,852 25,511 44,928 341,250 50 - 59 1,635 12,036 14,924 3,440 7,244 3,245 4,280 6,756 53,560 726 5,146 6,594 1,739 3,607 1,490 1,959 3,455 24,716 60 + 1,831 11,315 19,071 5,108 10,338 4,579 6,338 10,139 68,719 978 5,759 9,351 2,659 4,985 2,141 3,072 5,152 34,097 NS 359 4,211 3,456 363 1,150 428 790 1,543 12,300 132 1,891 1,574 197 502 202 330 651 5,479

1,551 1,433 17,530 15,887 24,946 23,450 5,164 4,907 12,617 12,045 6,217 5,802 7,965 7,752 13,402 13,214 89,392 84,490 FEMALE POPULATION 767 8,824 12,482 2,595 6,221 3,166 4,004 6,825 44,884 710 7,912 11,534 2,348 5,897 2,843 3,855 6,566 41,665

Source: Central Statistics Department, 2003

48

2.2.2

Literacy Levels and Languages

Table 14 presents data on adult literacy and show that rates are very low in the Gambia. Overall (composite combining men and women) increased from 25 % adult literacy in 1983 to 37% in 1993 and then to 48% in 2003. Men are considered more literate than women with consistently higher literacy rates. During the last Population Census in 2003 some 58% of men compared to 37% for women were literate. Increasing literacy and improving the education system particularly for women has been reported to be critical in improving heath and nutrition and access to information. English is the official language and is the medium of instruction in conventional schools from nursery to tertiary levels. The Gambia is a multi-ethnic society with a number of vernacular spoken comprising the mandinka (40%), the fulla (19%), the wollof (15%), the jola (11%), the serrere (3%), The aku (2%) and the bambara (1%). Table 14: Selected Indicators on Literacy and Access to Services
Indicator Life expectancy at Birth in (Years) Overall Male Female Fertility Rate, total (birth per woman) Mortality Rate under 5 (per 1000) Infant Mortality Rate ( per 1000 ) Maternal Mortality( per 100,000 live births) Population access to safe drinking water (in %) Access to Improved Sanitation(% Overall) Adult Literacy Rate in %-Overall Men Women 1973 33 32 35 6.1 320 217 1983 42 40 44 6.4 260 167 23 1993 53 52 54 6.1 137 137 1050 50 25
25 38.5 14.7 37 55 27

2003 58 58 59 5.1 75 75 730 80 53


48 58 37

Sources: Various (Health PER, 2001; PRSP II, November 2006) 2.2.3 Access to Services

The public health service delivery system is three tier based on the primary health care strategy. Presently services are provided by 3 hospitals, 36 health facilities at the secondary level and 492 health posts at primary levels. The public health system is complemented by 34 private and non-governmental clinics. According the health PER (2003) the public sector has 1477 beds, 211 doctors and dentists, 8 pharmacists, 261 registered nurses, 250 Enrolled nurses, 144 community nurses, 122 public health officials. Safe water is an essential pillar of sustainable health for rural and urban population. Data in Table 14 indicate that 80% and 53% of the population in 2003 have access to safe drinking water and 53 improved sanitation respectively. It should be indicated that these facilities are unevenly distributed between rural and urban areas.

49

School enrolment and attendance previously low in the past has increased with increased accessibility to schools for the rural population. Table 15 indicates that 745 schools of various categories exist with for Lower basic, 103 for Upper basic 83 basic Cycle and 66 Senior Secondary schools. Table 15: Number of Schools by Regional Education Directorate Lower Upper Basic Senior Total Region/School type Basic Basic Cycle Secondary Banjul 74 44 3 31 152 Western Region 85 27 24 15 151 North Bank Region 70 10 17 8 105 Lower River Region 56 4 12 2 73 Central River Region 115 8 15 5 143 Upper River Region 92 10 12 5 119 The Gambia 491 103 83 66 745 Source: Department of State for Education, 2004 Electricity is provided by the state-owned National Water and Electricity Company (NAWEC). Lack of investment and inadequate maintenance of the aging infrastructure have led to a progressive decline in reliability, cost effectiveness and efficiency. Power losses are estimated at 37-42 percent, far above the industry norm. Of these losses, NAWEC estimates that 25 percent are attributable to theft with the remaining 75 percent being technical. Table 15 provides information on the status of electricity detailing customer population, electricity sales, system losses, energy demand and energy demand growth rate from 2004 to 2006. The strategic objective for the energy sector is the establishment of partnership arrangements with multinational companies for the latter to generate supplementary capacity, which is sold to NAWEC for transmission, distribution and sale to consumers. One such arrangement is currently being implemented with the Global Electric Group in March 2006 which has an installed capacity of 25 megawatts. Table 15: Status of Electricity Provision Item 2004 Customer 35,329 Population Sales KWH 80,233,481 37.3 System Losses (including powerhouse consumption) Energy Demand 289,080 MWH Energy Demand 18.5 Growth rate Source: PURA Annual Report, 2006

2005 54,976 91,889,449 41.2

2006 66,405 111,255,946 40.8

312,210 7.4

368,970 18.18

The rural electrification project commissioned in 2007 is providing power to a number of rural towns and is expected to provide a boost to the development of rural industries. Despite these developments, power outages are frequent and the price of electricity is high even by African standards as indicated in Table 16.
50

Table 16: Comparative Cost Structure Electricity The Ghana Uganda Gambia Electricity US$.14 US$0.06 US$ 0.03 Manufacturing Cents up to rate$ per KWh 130 KWh Source: IDI/Sahel Invest,2003)

Mauritius US$0.07

Senegal US $0.08

NAWEC is also responsible for distribution of water. This task is undermined by the difficulties with electricity since the water must be pumped. Although the water situation is much less dire than for electricity, and water quality is good, some areas are subject to daily cuts in water supplies and pressure is often weak. 2.2.4 Rural to Urban Drift

Table 17 indicates a rapid increase in the urban population. Until the 1970s population movements from rural to urban areas was mainly seasonal with rural migrants moving to urban areas in search of jobs during the dry season (stretching from December to May) and returning to rural areas at the beginning of the rains. Since the Sahelian droughts of the mid-1970s, however, the rate of settlement for such migrants in urban areas has increased considerably. Table 17 indicates that the proportion of the population resident in urban areas increased from 23 per cent in 1973 to 31 per cent in 1983 and 38 per cent in 1993 and 51 percent in 2003. This can be attributed to the declining rural income, the huge disparity between rural and urban incomes, the lack of job opportunities and the absence of essential social services such as health and education. Table 17: Urban Population and Proportion by Census 1973-2003 Census Year Total Population Urban Population Percentage Urban The Gambia population 1973 493,499 112,689 23 1983 687,817 211,779 31 1993 1,025,867 386,876 38 2003 1,360,681 686,090 51 Source: CSD,2003 The Gambia also attracted large numbers of migrants from the sub-region, mainly into urban areas. The high urban population growth has culminated in increased urban unemployment and pressure on the limited social amenities in urban areas.

51

2.3
2.3.1

Media and Telecommunication


Newspapers, periodicals and broadcast media

Table 18: Newspapers in The Gambia


Newspaper Ownership Circulation Number of copies per issue 5 000 Address

Banjul Weekend

Private

Bimonthly

6 Adama Njie Street, Bakau New Town, Tel:2209844742 Tel:2209889190 Emai: Banjulweekend@gmail.com C/0 GPU. Mosque Road, Serrekunda P.o.Box 3465, SerreKunda Tel: 2209985504 22079 PMB 131, Banjul Bakau New Town, Sait Matty Road, Bakau KSMD Tel: info@observer.gm www.oberver.gm P.O.Box 2306, Serekunda Churchill Town, KSMD Tel 2204393177 Fax 2204393177 9918216 foroya@qanet.gm Daniel Goddard Street, Banjul Tel 2204223279 P.O.Box 976, Banjul 73 Mosque Road, Serre Kunda (Dippa Kunda), KSMD Email: swaebouconateh@hotmail.com 2 Garba Jahumpa Road, Fajara, KSMD 220 4497441/2 2209917501 Email: thepoint13@yahoo.com Website: www.thepoint.gm Churchill Town, Serre kunda Tel 2209801623 Email: hamidadiamoh@yahoo.co.uk

Daily Express Daily Observer

Private

Wednesday and Saturday Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday Monday, Wednesday and Friday 2 000-5 000

Private

Foroya

Private

1 100-1 300

Gambia Daily

Gov

Gambia News and Report The Point

Private

Monday, Wednesday and Friday Weekly

200-500

1 000

Private

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday Tuesday and Thursday

2 000-3 000

Today

Private

1 500

Source: Survey Data, December, 2007

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Table 19: Broadcast Media (Radio) Radio Address Station City Limits 49 Kairaba Avenue, KSMD 2204375531 Radio 1 FM Kairaba Avenue Radio Syd Radio Gambia-Mile 7 Radio GambiaBasse West Coast Radio Mile 2, Banjul 2204226490 Mile 7, Bakau, KSMD

Coverage Greater Banjul Area and Western Region Greater Banjul Area and Western Region Greater Banjul Area, NBR Countrywide

Frequency 93.6 FM

Broadcast hours/day 18

93.4 FM 909KHZ 98.6 FM

20 20 15

Basse, URR

URR, CRR

747MHZ

15

Herman Gmina, Manjai

Kids With Kairaba Avenue Talent(KWT) Brikama Brikama, Western Region Community Radio Yiriwa FM Brikama, Western Region Kerewan Kerewan, NBR Community Radio Farafenni Farafenni, NBR Community Radio Source: Survey Data, December, 2007

Greater Banjul Area, Western Region and NBR Greater Banjul Area and Western Region Western Region

95.3 FM

24

106.7 FM 98.0 FM

20 20

Western Region NBR and LRR

94.7 FM 105.7 FM

20 8

NBR and LRR

103.5 FM

Table 20: Broadcast Media (Television in The Gambia) Station Ownership Coverage Broadcast Hours GRTS TV Gov Countrywide 6 GAMTV Private Greater 24 Banjul Area Premium Private Greater 24 TV(DSTV) Banjul Area Source: Survey Data, December, 2007

Address Sayerr Jobe Avenue Garba Jahumpa Avenue,Bakau New Town Kotu, KSMD

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2.3.2

Telecommunication Services

The Telecommunication industry comprises of GAMTEL the primary provider of fixed lines with mobile GSM services provided by GAMCEL, AFRICELL and COMIUM. Table 21 provides detailed information on the coverage, number of subscribers of the telecommunication service providers. Table 21: Telephone/Mobile Service Provider Name Address Cost of 3 min local call GAMTEL GAMTEL House 0.26 (fixed line) GAMCEL(Mobile) Mamadi Manjang 0.26 Highway, Kanifing, KSMD AFRICELL(Mobile) Kairaba Avenue 0.29 COMMIUM 27 Kairaba Avenue, 0.29 (Mobile) Pipeline, KSMD Source: Survey Data, December, 2007

# of individual subscribers

Coverage

53,000 70% of the country 195,922 70% of the country

208,423 70% of the country 7,000 30% of the country

GAMTEL, the fixed lined provider, has modernized its telephone system with the installation of digital telephone exchange and network and has established several branches in strategic community locations ad equipped them with the necessary communication facilities. At these branch offices international calls and telefax messages can be received and sent. Connection rate for mobiles are generally high and compare favorably with many countries in the sub-region. However, the costs of fixed line telecommunication services provided by GAMTEL exceed the regional average as highlighted in Table 22. The pending Telecom Bill is expected to open up competition for fixed lines. Public telephone access services like telecentres are very much widespread in the Greater Banjul Area with a number operating in the rural areas making telephone services available to the public. Table 22: Comparative Cost Structure Telecommunication The Ghana Uganda Mauritius Gambia Telephone US$ 0.70 US$ 0.50 US$ 3.00 US$ 1.40 charges to Europe per minute Source: IDi/Sahel Invest, 2003

Senegal US$0.50

However, prices for mobile telephone calls are on the decline with more market entry and competition. Connection rate for mobiles are generally high and compare favorably with many countries in the sub-region. Figure 2 presents information on total subscribers by fixed and mobile from 1998 to 2006 and shows that while fixed lined dominated up to 2001 but mobile dominated afterwards

54

.
Fixed Vs Mobile Subscribers (1998-2006)
300

250

200

150

Fixed Mobile

100

50

0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

2.2.3

Computers and Internet

Both the Government institutions and private sector have a fair number of ICT equipment with the private sector optimizing use of ICT for business. The picture is however not balanced with some offices having majority of equipment whilst others are poorly equipped. The scenario being much worse for in terms of the rural urban divide with most rural locations using obsolete, slow machines installed years ago. According to World Bank (ICT at a glance) there were 11 personal computers per 1000 people in 2000; these increased to 16 per 1000 people in 2005. The use of ICT equipment is hindered by lack of reliable support services, particularly electricity, with the situation more acute in rural areas where equipment can lie idle for long without use. With only relatively few trained ICT personnel, retention has become difficult and most ICT firms have inadequate manpower to cater of existing ICT equipment. There are five Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Four of these channel their traffic through one international gateway owned by GAMTEL, whilst AIRTIP has been allowed to operate a Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT). Some of the ISPs had wireless infrastructure configured for high speed Internet service but have been constrained to offer such services because the Internet highway controlled by GAMTEL does not provide full broad band access. Table 24 provides information on the Internet service providers and the number of subscribers.

55

Table 24: Internet Service Providers in The Gambia Name Address # of individual subscribers GAMTEL Abuko 586 (ISP) QUANTUMNET Kairaba Avenue 650 Netpage Solutions Kairaba Avenue 206 Airtip Kairaba Avenue n/a Unique Solutions Bakau New Town n/a Source: PURA, Annual Report, 2006 The number of Internet users according to the World Bank Data (ICT at a glance) increased from 9 persons per 1,000 people in 2000 to 33 persons per 1000 people. Similarly, the percentage of schools connected to the Internet increased from 2% to 13% from 2000 to 2005. The price basket for Internet use by per month is estimated at 17.8 US$.

56

ANNEX 3. PROFILE OF INSTITUTIONS


3.1 List of Institutions in the Agricultural and Rural Development Sector
No 1 Name of Org Department of State for Agriculture Department of State for Local Government and Lands Department of State for Forestry and the Environment Department of State for Fisheries and Water Resources Department of State for Communication, Information and Technology National Agricultural Development Agency Department of Planning Department of Extension Services Name of Contact Mr. Bakary Trawally Position Permanent Secretary Permanent Secretary Org. Address The Quadrangle The Quadrangle Town Banjul Tel 2204228270 Fax 220 4228270 Email psdosa@qanet.gm Type of Organization GOV Role of Organization PP

Mr. Abdoulie Manneh

Banjul

2209961122

GOV

PP

Mr Bubu Jallow

Permanent Secretary

State House

Banjul

2202201515

GOV

PP

Mr. Lamin Nyabally

Permanent Secretary

7 Marina Parade

Banjul

220 4227631

GOV

PP

Mr. Karim Sonko

Permanent Secretary

MDI Road

Kanifing

2204378000

GOV

PP

Mr. Bakary sonko

Director General

Cape Point, Cape St. Mary 5 Marina Parade Cape St. Mary

Bakau

220449542 2204495038

2204497353

GOV

EX

RD

IN

FS

7 8

Mr. Fafanding Fatajo Mr..Musa Dampha

Director Director

Banjul Bakau

220422040 2204496420

220422040

fsfatajo@yahoo.com

GOV GOV

PP EX

RD

IN

Department of Technical Services

Mr.Landing Sonko

Director

Yundum Agricultural Station

Yundum

2204472058

GOV

RD

57

No 10

Name of Org Department of Agribusiness Department of Community Development Department of Water Resources Department of Fisheries Directorate of Information Technology Agricultural Communication Division (ACD) Participatory Integrated Watershed Project (PIWAMP) Peri-Urban Smallholder Improvement Project (PSIP) Rural Finance Project Farmer Managed Rice Project NERICA Rice Dissemination Project

Name of Contact Mr.Cherno Mballow

Position Director

11

Mr. Husainou Jorbateh

Director

Org. Address Cape Point, Cape St. Mary Marina Parade

Town Bakau

Tel 4497352

Fax

Email

Type of Organization GOV

Role of Organization

Banjul

2204228178

GOV

EX

RD

13

Mr. Ousman Jarju

Director

Marina Parade Marina Parade MDI Road

Banjul

220422272

Gov

RD

IN

14 15

Mr. Ardy Njie Mr Ebou Jobe

Director Director

Banjul Kanifing

2204201515

GOV GOV

RD

EX

16

Mr. Aboulie Bojang

Head of Unit

Abuko Station

Abuko

2209998607

220 4392282

abdoulai@yahoo.com

GOV

17

Mr.Omar Jammeh

Coordinator

Kofi Annan Street,Cape Point

Bakau

2204497990

220 4497990

GOV

RD

18

Mr.Lamin AD Sanyang

Coordinator

Abuko Station

Abuko

220 4393870

2204393875

periurban@qanet.gm

GOV

RD

EX

FS

19

Mr.Alasan Bah

Acting Coordinator Coordinator

20

Mr. Momodou Mbye Jabang Dr.Mustapha Ceesay

21

Coordinator

Cape Point,Cape St. Mary Sapu Agricultural Station NARI

Abuko

220 4497354

220439

rfin@qanet.gm

GOV

Sapu

220-4484925 2204484931 2204484925 2204484931

220 4484931

GOV

Brikama

220 4484931

GOV

58

No 22

Name of Org Market Information Service for Traders Organizations in West Africa (MISTOWA)Gambia ActionAid International The Gambia (AAITG) Catholic Relief Services(CRS) Freedom from Hunger Campaign (FFHC) Gambia Food and Nutrition Association (GAFNA) Campaign for Development and Solidarity (FORUT( Gambia) World Evangelization for Christ International (WEC) International) Africa Muslims Agency

Name of Contact Mr. Momodou Ceesay

Position Focal Point

Org. Address C/o GHE

Town Old Jeshwang

Tel 2204394819

Fax 2204394820

Email

Type of Organization PRV

Role of Organization

23

Dr. Kuje Manneh

Country Director Country Director Director

MDI Road

Kanifing

2204392244 /4392004 2204498000 2204498001 /4498002 2204474024 220447025 2204498007

actionaid@actionaid.o rg ddonovan@crs.gm.or g ffhc.bjl@qanet.gm

INGO

24

Mr. David Donavan

Fajara

Bakau

INGO

25

Mr. Babanding Jaiteh

Lamin Sanchaba

Lamin

220 447025

NGO

26

Mr. Albert Cox

Executive Director

Independen ce Stadium

Bakau

2204496743 2204496745

NGO

27

Musa Jeng

National Director

50 Garba Jahumpa Road

Bakau

220495622 2204497745

22044496316

forut@qanet.gm

NGO

28

2204373105/4 39226

2204483235

29

Shahab A. faesal

Director

c/o Post Office Road, P.OBox 2312

2204393183

2204393183

africama@qanet.gm

NGO

RU

59

No 30

Name of Org The Gambia Organisation of The Visually Impaired (GOVI) Village Aid Project Gambia Association of Baptist for World Evangelish (ABWE) Gambia Women's Finance Association (GAWFA) Foundation For Research on Women's Health, Productivity and the Environment (BAFROW) The Gambia Committee on Traditional practices The National Council of The Gambia YMCA Foundation for Humanitarian Aid Gambia

Name of Contact Muhamed Kora

Position President

Org. Address MDI Road

Town Kanifing

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization NGO RU

Role of Organization

31

Diana Tottle

Executive Coordinator Director

PMB 6016

Farafenni

2205735373/ 2205748045 2204460737 2204460737

villageaid@giiapc.org

NGO

RU

32

Barnon Robinson

Kotu LayoutWest

Kotu

NGO

RU

33

Olimata Dibba

General Manager

Kanifing Industrial Estate

Kanifing

2204397063 /64

4397062

gawfa@gamtel.gm

NGO

FS

34

Fatou Waggeh

Executive Director

Tafsir Demba Mbye Street

Banjul

2204225270

NGO

FS

35

Dr. Isatou Touray

Executive Coordinator

Garba Jahumpa Road

Bakau

2204497416

2204497416

gamco@qanet.gm

36

37

60

No 38

Name of Org Gambia Good Seed Mission Kombo East Tesito Association (KETA) Agency for the Development of Women and Children (ADWAC) Women in Service Development and Management(WI SDOM) Gambia 4H Njawara Agricultural Training Centre Rescue Mission Planet Earth Anglican Mission Development Ministries Institute of Social Research and Action (ISRA)

Name of Contact

Position

Org. Address Massembeh

Town Kiang

Tel 2204484186

Fax

Email

Type of Organization

Role of Organization

39

Lamin Fatty

President

Farraba Banta

Faraba

2204487101

4484100

40

Mam Samba Joof

Team Leader

P.B0x 828

Kerewan

2205720106

5720075

adwac@qanet.gm

41

Mariatou Kassim Loum

General Manager

JIMPEX Road

Kanifing

2204390536

4390536

kassimmariatu@hotm ail.com

42 43 44

Momodou Secka Badara Jobe

Coordinator Coordinator

Farafenni Njawara

Farafenni Njawara

2209953160 2205720130

2205735524

gambia4h@yahoo.co m

45

2204390730

46

Marina Parade

BANJUL

47

Phoday Kebbeh

Executive Director

1A Fakalya Street

Bundung

2204370418/4 392952

4390521

isra@qanet.gm

61

No 48

Name of Org Gambia Family Planning Association Kanifing Christian Children's Fund (CCF)

Name of Contact Yankuba Dibba

Position Executive Director

Org. Address

Town Kanifing

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization

Role of Organization

49

Ousman Cham

Executive Director

Radio Gambia Road

Kanifing South

50

Trust Agency for Rural Development (TARUD) Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO) Association of Farmers, Educators and Traders, AFET Association of Gambian Entrepreneurs (AGE) Methodist Mission Agricultural Programme (MMAP)

Wanjiku Kagira Kargbo

Programme Director

Gunjur Village

Kombo South, WD

51

Nuha Jatta

Chief Executive

22 Atlantic Road

Fajara

52

Seedy Bensuda

National President

P.O Box

53

Amira Ghanim Jagne

Director

Brikama Town, Western Division Kairaba Avenue, Fajara Brikama Town, Western Division

54

Mr. Soni George

Director

Brikama

55

56

Micro Finance Promotion Centre The Gambia Red Cross Society Worldview International Foundation

Mr. Sariang Jorbateh

Director

Cape Point

Bakau

Lamin Jammeh

Secretary General Director

57

Mrs. Adelade Sosseh Gaye

Mamadi Manjang Highway 49 Garba Jahumpa Road,

Kanifing

Bakau

62

No 58

Name of Org Gambia Rural Development Agency (GARDA National Assoviation of Youth Against Food Securiy (NAYAFS) The Assoication of NonGovernmental Organisation (TANGO) Stay Green Foundation Youth Front Against Drugs and Alcohol Abuse (YFADAA) Youth Action for Food Selfsufficiency and Education (YAFSSE) Catholic Office for Development CADO Fund for Africa, Africa American Cultural and Educational Solidarity (FACES)

Name of Contact Kebba Bah

Position Executive Director

Org. Address Soma

Town Soma Village, Jarra West District Latrikunda, KSMD

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization

Role of Organization

59

Alhagi Kebbeh

Director

Latrikunda Sabiji

60

Ousman Yarbo

Director

Garba Jahumpa Road

Bakau

61

Baboucarr Mbye

Director

Essau

Essau Village, N.B.D

62

Ebou Sillah

Director

63

52 Kombo Sillah Drive, Churchills Town

64

Kairaba Avenue, Kanifing P.O. Box 2929 S/Kunda No.3 Allen Street

65

63

No 66

Name of Org Initiatives Development Association The Gambia (IDAG) Wuli and Sandu Development Agency(WASDA ) Wulli Development Agency (WAD) Pro-Poor Advocacy Group(PRoPAG)

Name of Contact

Position

Org. Address

Town Bakoteh Housing Estate P.O. Box 1546 S/Kd Wuli Upper River Division

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization

Role of Organization

67

NGO

RU

68

Basse, Upper River Division Dr. Siga Jagne Director Sayerr Jobe Avenue, Bakau New Town, KSMD Brikama

NGO

RU

69

NGO

RD

70 Natonal: National Farmers Platform, The Gambia (NFPG) 71 Gambia National Cashew Growers Association Natonal: ROPPA Association for the Advancement of Science and Tehnoogy in The Gambia(AASAT : National Consumer and Protection Agency

Musa Jawneh

President

Brikama Misira

NGO

RD

Saikouba Sanyang

President

Brikama

Brikama

NGO

RU

72 73

C/o Farmers Platform Dr. Kebba Fadera

President Secretary General

Brikama

Brikama

NGO

RD

74

Mr. Amadou Gaye

Chairman

64

No 75

Name of Org YAMPI Farmers Association Agricultural Research Institute (NARI)

Name of Contact Isatou Jarju

Position President

Org. Address Jenoi

Town Lower River Region PMB 526 Serre Kunda, Brikama, Western Region

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization

Role of Organization

76

Lamin Jobe

Director General

220 4484925

220484921

GOV

RD

77

International Tryponotoleranc e Centre (ITC)

Dr. Sheikh Leigh

Director General

P.M.B. 14, Banjul

The Gambia, Kerr Serign , Western Division University of The Gambia, Facullty Brikama, Western Region Kanifing

220 4462928

2204462924

itc@itc.gm

REG

RD

78

University of The Gambia (UTG)

Mr. Jenung Manneh

Head of faculty

Building, Kanifing

2204397912/2 209917098

unigambia@qanet.gm Website: www.unigambia.gm

EDU

TR

79

College, School of Agriculture

Dr. Badara Senghore

Principal

Brikama Campus

2204483298

EDU

TR

80

81

Gambia Technical Training Institute(GTTI), Management Development Institute (MDI) Chamen Training Centre Njawara Agricultural Training Centre Radio Gambia, Radio and Television Services (GRTS)

Mrs. Fatou Mboob Mbye

Yusupha Dibba

Director General

Mamadi Manjang Highway Chamen Njawara

Kanifing, KSMD

EDU

TR, RD

82 83

Hayib Touray Badara Jobe

Director Director

NBR NBR

84

Momodou sanyang

Director General

MDI Road, Kanifing

Kanifing

GOV

IN

65

No 85

Name of Org Radio GambiaBasse (747 Mhz) Radio 1 FM (93.6 FM)

Name of Contact

Position

Org. Address

Town Basse, Upper River Division 14 Kairaba Avenue,Ser re Kunda,KMC Mile 2, Banjul High Way Manjai, KMC

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization GOV IN

Role of Organization

87

PRV

IN

89

Radio Syd (909 Khz West Coast Radio (93.3 FM) Peter Gmez Proprietor Herman Gmina Road, Manjai Kunda, KMC

2204226490

PRV

IN

90

2204461193

PRV

IN

91

Kids With Talent (106.7 FM)

Nana Anderson

Proprietor

92

Yiriwa FM (94.7 FM)

Kairaba Avenue, Serrekunda , KSMD Brikama, Western Region

PRV

IN

PRV

IN

93

94

95

Brikama Community Radio (98.0 FM) Farafenni Community Radio (103.5 FM) Kerewan Community Radio (105.7 FM) Gambia Radio and Television Services

PRV

IN

Farafenni, NBD, The Gambia Alh. Lamin Ceesay Kerewan, NBD, The Gamia

96

Serign Faye

MDI Road, Kanifing

TE

IN

66

No 97

Name of Org GAM TV

Name of Contact Papa yusupha Njie

Position

Org. Address

Town Sayerr Jobe Avenue, Bakau New Town Kotu :6 Adama Njie Street, Bakau New Town C/0 GPU. Mosque Road, Serrekunda P.o.Box 3465, SerreKunda Daniel Goddard Street, Banjul P.O.Box 2306, Serekunda Churchill Town, KSMD P.O.Box 976, Banjul 73 Mosque Road, Serre Kunda (Dippa Kunda), KSMD 2 Garba Jahumpa Road, Fajara, KSMD

Tel

Fax

Email

Type of Organization PRV IN

Role of Organization

98 100

Premum TV Banjul Weekend

Momodou Taal

2209844742 /2209889190

Banjulweekend@gma il.com

101

Gambian Daily/Weekly News Papers

Alieu Sanyang

22099855042 2079

102

The Gambia Daily

2204223279

103

Foroya

Sam Sarr

2204393177

2204393177 220 9918216

foroya@qanet.gm

104

The Gambia News and Reprt

Suwaibu Conateh

swaebouconateh@ho tmail.com

105

The Point Newspaper

2204497441/2 / 2209917501

thepoint13@yahoo.co m www.thepoint.gm

67

No 106

Name of Org Today

Name of Contact

Position

Org. Address

Town Churchill Town, Serre kunda PMB 131, Banjul Bakau New Town, Sait Matty Road, Bakau KSMD Guardian Newspaper s Limited, Rutam House, Isolo Expressway , P.O. Box 1217, Oshodi, Lagos, Lagos State

Tel 2209801623

Fax

Email hamidadiamoh@yaho o.co.uk

Type of Organization

Role of Organization

107

Daily Observer

info@observer.gm www.oberver.gm

108

The Guardian

234524111

234521982

letters@ngrguidianlin ks.com www.ngrguidiannews. com

PRV

IN

68

3.2.

List of Selected Institutions


Department of State For Communications and Infor Technology (DOSCIT To create an enabling, competitive and conducive environment for all stakeholders in the ICT sector under the principle of fair play 1. Policy Development 2. Mainstreaming ICTs in social sectors and communities 3. E-Government to enhance public service delivery 4. Development of legal and regulatory framework 5. Supervising public enterprises under DOSCIT purview 7 Directorate of ICT Spectrum Management Department of Information 321,311 Government budget 1. Staff training in Information Technology 2. Development of Website and Local Area Network 1. ISP Service Providers 2. Telecomm Operators 3. Mobile Operators 4. TV Broadcasting and Postal Services 5. Government and Consumers None 1. ITU, CTO, ATU, UNDP, Foreign Mission, UNECA, PURA, ITAG, ISOG (promotion and regulation of ICT) 2. PanAfrican e-network with AU, E-government Implementation Action Plan with UNECA (promotion of e-government) Personal collection, Internet and collaborators 1. 2. 3. 4. Market data Credit and micro credit Government and International regulations Development network

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional clerical technical etc Branches other sites

Annual budget Source of funding including main donors sponsors Programme /project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated

Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine ,SDI, QAS, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration/ interaction with other institutions (name, nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

69

Name of institution Objective/mission statement Field of specialization Number of staff (professional ,clerical, technical etc Branches ,other sites Annual budget Source of funding including main donors sponsors Programme project undertaken Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration /interaction with other institutions (name, nature How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

Gambia Radio and Television Services(GRTS) To inform, educate and entertain through our radio and television programmes Broadcasting and production of radio and television programmes 244 Radio Basse, Upper River Region D4.4m i.e. 132,000 Euro Radio and Television Revenue income from adverts, programme sponsorship and user fees Local Training Programmes The entire country and beyond No

Radio programmes from Radio Netherlands, Deutchewell Radio, UN Radio, RF1 Library Services and personal Interviews Social development issues and agricultural development networks

70

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) To conduct adaptive/client research on crops, forestry, fisheries and other natural resources in order to provide technological solutions to the problems of producers and inform policy makers on options to increase agricultural productivity and production without detriment to the natural resource base and the environment Agro forestry, Crop Systems and Resource management, Horticulture, Grain legumes and oilseeds, Seed technology, Cereals, Socioeconomics, Pest management, Agric. Engineering, Fisheries, Livestock 200 Yundum and Sapu 26,229.5 (D800,000.00) Government Subvention Short term training in CDS/ISIS IN India and Niger, Workshop on electronic production of agric documents and bibliographic database management in Ghana, AGORA training in Dakar Small scale producers in the country Spore Magazine,CTA publications

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc Branches other sites Annual budget Source of funding including main donors sponsors Programme/ project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine ,SDI, QAS, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration /interaction with other institutions (name, nature How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

CTA ,IITA,ICRAF,WARDA,ROCAFEMI,CORAF,ISRA and all in-country agricultural projects CTA booklets/bulletins, University Research Papers, Personal Collection, Radio programmes, TV Programmes, Internet, Agric Research Electronic Network, Colleagues, Agribusiness Consultants Farm problems, technical information, economic inform

71

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

Department of Planning(DOP/DOSA Improve agricultural data collection and analysis for effective policy formulation and sector planning Agricultural Policy Analysis and Formulation, Projects/Programs Development and Control, Agricultural Statistics and Resource Economics, Monitoring and Evaluation of Agricultural Projects and Documentation Center 30 permanent staff None 45,901.64D1.4m Central Government, Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel(CILSS, ADB,IFAD, and FAO through projects Inputting, analysis and publication of the National Statistical Yearbook Government (Policy) Decision-Makers, NGOs, Sub regional Organizations No

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional clerical technical etc Branches other sites Annual budget Source of funding including main donors sponsors

Programme project undertaken Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine ,SDI, QAS, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration interaction with other institutions (name, nature

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

CILSS, the collaborations are in the areas of joint projects and information exchange. These includes agricultural and food prospects in Sahel, Early Warning Bulletin Government departments, CILSS, NGOs, farmers, market vendors, projects farmers problems, economic information, technical information (Internet access, building and posting websites, use of teleconferencing and GIS)

72

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

Agricultural Communications Division(ACD To achieve agricultural development through the provision of training and promotion for increasing the knowledge and skills of the target population through the use of information, education and communication(IEC) approaches for sustainable livelihoods in the Gambia Film production and presentation, Radio programming, Tradition Media and Campaign, Publication, Training -3 professionals -6 technical -2 clerical -1 auxiliary Total -12 49,137.97 or D1,498,708.00 The Gambia Government Development of radio programmes for dissemination - Development of television programmes for dissemination - Development of manuals, leaflet, poster - - Training on theatre Extension Agents, Farmers, Policy makers - CTA Spore magazine

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional clerical technical etc

Branches other sites Annual budget Source of funding including main donors sponsors Programme/ project undertaken

Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine ,SDI, QAS, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration interaction with other institutions (name, nature

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

Sourcing information from partners such as: - Government department/projects - NGOs-CRS, AAITG, NAWFA, FFHC, ADWAC - Research Institutions- ICRISAT,NARI - Community based organizations - Private organizations - FAO - CTA - Journal articles, briefing/summaries, Abstracts, - materials suitable for mass distribution, Visual or pictorial information Technical information

73

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites

Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number actual or estimated)

Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

Gambia College - Middle level manpower training in key essential social and development services - Enter to learn ready to serve. - Education- Teacher Training - Agriculture, Livestock and rural development- Training - Nursing and Midwifery- Training - Public and Environmental HealthTraining - 67 Lecturers and 43 support staff - School of Education - School of Agriculture - School of Nursing and Midwifery - School of Public and Environmental Health 403,278 or D12,3000,000.00 Government - Networking of all computers - Introduction of basic computing in all programmes - Primary and Secondary Schoolsopen days - Farmers and Rural communities- Field days - Public, communities- Visits and Media - Spore-Magazine - CTA Publication - Reference materials provision:Novo Scotia Agricultural College- Canada through CDA,-Gambia Horse and Donkey Trust, CTA, National Research Institutes - CTA Bulletins - Meetings with beneficiaries - Internet - Text books Journal,text books, internet - Abstracts - Visual or pictorial information - Farm problems, technical information and economic information

74

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites

Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken Target audience (plus number actual or estimated)

Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature)

University of The Gambia To provide the human Resource base required to develop the county natural resources in a sustainable manner and provide suitable quality education to prepare students for studies a Bachelor, Masters Phd levels. - Agriculture and Rural Development - Medicine - French Language - History - 84 full time - 60 part time - Agriculture - Social Science - Economic and Management - Science and Technology - Medicine - Law 1,016,692.60 or D31,009,120.44 Government, Grants and through Consultancies. None - Students from different disciplines - Contacts are Letters, Telephone and Media CTA Publication - Tertiary Institutions in The Gambia viz Gambia College, Gambia Technical Training Institute, The Management Development Institutes - - St Mary College, Maryland, St Mary University- Halifax, Novo Scotia, Tomas Bata University, National Taipe University of Technology - Internet - Personal collection, textbooks, journals, Videos - DVDs - Technical information, farm problems, economic information

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

75

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Department of Community Development To enhance and promote the participation of people in charting their destinies through participatory development process - Training field extension workers - Facilitation and capacity building of Community Based Organizations and Extension Workers - Skills training for women, youth groups etc. - 300 Professional and Technical staff - 30 Support staff 163,934.42 - Government - Project: African Development Bank and World Bank - Computer and Internet training Rural farming population None - All Government Departments - African Development Bank - World Bank - UNDP-allEx-com agencies - Journals, internet, text books - Field Extension Reports - M & E Periodic Reports Technical information (rural development)

Programme/project undertaken Target audience (plus number actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

76

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number actual or estimated)

Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

Women Bureau Improve the quality of life of all Gambians particularly women through the elimination of forms of gender inequality by concrete gender in development Gender-Women empowerment operational sing the National Policy for the Advancement of Gambian Women 19992009 with stake holders - 32 staff 7 programme officers and 2 coordinators. Brikama, Mansakonko, Kerewn, Janjanbureh, Basse and Kanifing 32,786.88 D1,000,000 - Government - UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA Scan ICT Project, ICT Policy development for The Gambia and CICI Training-Kigali Rwanda National Women Council, WomenAssociation, Civil Society Organizations, NGOs, GovernmentReached through quarterly meetings, yearly reviews and planning meetings - Spore Magazine - CTA Publication Sourcing information from:National Agricultural Research Institutes (Nerica Project) National Agricultural Development Agency UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF and the ECOWAS Gender and Development Centre International Research Institutes (ICRISAT) Gender Development Centre of ECOWAS International Labour Office ActionAid International University Research Papers visual and pictorial information Technical information, Economic information Materials in Appropriate Languages

77

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken Target audience (plus number actual or estimated)

The Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (TANGO) 1. Mission - to contribute to national poverty reduction efforts by expanding membership and improving services to members in a costeffectives and financially sustainable manner. 2. Objective - Member NGOs supported to deliver effective and relevant and sustainable services in a participatory way 3. - External communication within the network of NGOs improved and link between TANGO members facilitated. TANGO assist NGOs to serve Gambian communities to come together so that they become capable of participating in national and international activities decision making process that affect the lives of its members and their beneficiaries. 13 professional staff, 4 clerical and 2 support staff 28,918.03 or D882,000 Membership fees None NGOs CBO and CSO - Contacts-Annual General Meetings(AGM) - Annual progress and financial reports from members - Quarterly and Annual Reports to members Spore Magazine CTA Publication Sourcing information from NGOs, CBOs and CSOs Government Ministries and Departments, EU/EC CTA, The UN System and Department of Planning Personal collections, media, Internet Abstracts, text books Technical and economic information (Materials suitable for distribution Material in appropriate languages Visual or pictorial information)

Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature) How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

78

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken

Target audience (plus number actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA-Sore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature)

World View The Gambia To give a vote to the Disadvantaged, under-privileged and vulnerable members of society with opportunity to voice their concerns through participatory communication Communication - Professional 6, Technical 4, Clerical 4, Project staff 3 and Volunteers 2 Kerewan 65,575.77 or D2,000,000 Media Production-National and International Partners - Training of Community Radio Personnel - Provision of digital equipment to community radios Women and Youths through direct linkages at community level. Spore Magazine Department of State for Basic and Secondary Education The UN System Department of Information The Gambia Tourism Authority Concern Universal ActionAid the Gambia Regional OSIWA, ECOWAS Gender Development Centre, AWARE, ANCEFA ECOWAS national and research institutes Newspapers Personal collections Electronic media Meeting with beneficiaries Internet Technical information( Materials suitable for mass distribution Materials in appropriate languages)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

79

Name of institution Objective/mission statement

National Farmers Platform The Gambia(NFPG) 4 Regional and District Offices 20,000 Action Aid The Gambia, GICAP, DOSA Advocacy, Adult literacy, Group management training, Information Communication Technology Grass root members(farmers in the rural areas ) None - VECO Senegal, - Regional farmer network (ROPPA) - Capacity reinforcement (AAITG,CRS) - Farmer empowerment (DOSA) - Institutional support (CNCR) Radio, Newspaper, NARI, Internet Farm problems, economic information A sustainable productive agricultural sector with farmers taking the role in decision making To constitute a credible and acceptable framework which will genuinely cater for the general interest of farmers Adult literacy and numeracy Group management training Information Communication Technology Advocacy

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional clerical technical etc Branches other sites Annual budget Source of funding including main donors sponsors Programme/ project undertaken Target audience (plus number, actual or estimated Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine ,SDI, QAS, seminars, consultants, publications Extent of collaboration interaction with other institutions (name, nature

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

80

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Gambia Horticultural Enterprises An Agri-Business Enterprise geared towards Agricultural and Socio-Economic Development in The Gambia. - Dealers in agricultural inputs, machinery - Producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables - Agro-food processors - Providers of Agricultural market/information -Professional 5, Technical 8, clerical 7 and support staff 6 131,147.51 or D4,000,000.00 - Local Banks - MISTOWA- USAID - Own fund - MISTOWA-market information system for traders and organizations in West Africa Farmers, NGOs and private operators Contacts- Telephones, Internet and shops Spore magazine IFDC, African Food Seed Trade Association(AFSTA), CTA Ministry of Agriculture COLEACP and ITC Internet Meetings with Beneficiaries Trade Fairs and Exhibitions Journal articles Briefing/Seminars Economic and economic information, materials suitable for mass distribution

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors

Programme/project undertaken Target audience (plus number actual or estimated) Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature)

How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom

Main information needs not satisfied

81

Name of Institution Objective/mission statement

Field of specialization

Number of staff (professional, clerical, technical etc) Branches, other sites Annual budget Source of funding, including main donors/sponsors Programme/project undertaken Target audience (plus number actual or estimated)

Information Technology Association of the Gambia The Information Technology Association of The Gambia (ITAG) is the premier and pioneer association for information and communication technology (ICT) industry, professional and enthusiasts in The Gambia - Advocacy and Partnership - Business Opportunities and Development - Research - Publication - 5 Volunteers-executive members 10,000 - Membership Fees None - Print Ads on newspapers - Websites - Mailing lists None DOSCIT-regulation of IT services Internet, journals, personal communication Economic information Funding Sources

Extent of interaction with CTA-Spore magazine, SDI, QAS, DORA, seminars consultant publications Extent of collaboration/interaction with institutions (name nature) How information needs are currently met, and from where and whom Main information needs not satisfied

82

ANNEX 4: LIST OF PERSONS MET


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 NAME OF INSTITUTES Abdoulie Bojang Adelete Sosseh Ebriama Bandeh Papa Yusupha Njie Cherno Jallow Amadou Gaye Sidi Jarju Ebriama Camara Momodou A. Ceesay Seringe Faye Jero Maane Ebriama Cham Fafanding Fatajo Ousainou Jorberteh Ida Faye Hydra Kajally Sonko Alhagie Cham Alieu Badara Senghore Omar Touray Jenung Maane Sheriff Sanyng Ebriama Jobe Lamin Camara Falankoi Janneh Lmin Jobe Ousman Sillah Lamin Dampha ADDRESS Agricultural Communication Division World View, The Gambia GAMTEL ITAG Freelance Journalist, Gambia Consumer Protection Association SPFS-DOSA DOSA GHE GRTS Department of Planning-NADA Department of Planning-NADA Department of Planning-NADA Department of Community Development Women Bureau Womens Bureau TANGO Gambia College NAOSU University of The Gambia Farmers Platform, The Gambia DOSCIT DOCIT NARI NARI Gambia Press Union DOSTIE TELEPHONE 9998607 4496990 9960049 7768400 9887007 9900500 9963039 9903058 9965035 9937822 7716825 9908793 9961611 9922071 9906527 9936835 9920617 9917098 9906740 7796710

9935283 9953212

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ANNEX 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Action Aid The Gambia. 2003. The Private Sector and Food Production in The Gambia. DOSA. Various Years (1991-2006). National Agricultural Sample Survey (NASS), Department of Planning, DOSA. FAO/GOTG. 1997. The National Agricultural Research System of The Gambia, Analysis and Strategy for the Long Term, Final Report FAO. 2004. The Gambia Food Security and Agricultural Development Horizon 2015 Summary National Strategy (Draft), June, 2004). GOTG / DOSA. 2006.Draft Policy Framework for the Agriculture and Natural Resources Sector of the Gambia. GOTG. 1996. The Gambia Incorporated Vision 2020. GOTG/UNECA. 2004. National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) Policy and Plans for The Gambia. African Information Society Initiative GOTG. 2002. Strategy for Poverty Alleviation (SPAII), (PRSP). GOTG/DOSA and DOSNRE. 2002. Agriculture and Natural Resources Sector Public Expenditure Review. GOTG. 2000. 1998 Household Poverty Survey Report. NGO Affairs Agency. 2000. NGO Directory for The Gambia. Public Utilities and Regulatory Authority (PURA). 2006. Annual Report TANGO. 2002. Directory of NGOs in The Gambia. TANGO UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service. 2000. Information and Communication Technologies. Voices From Africa 9. Un- Non-Governmental Liaison Service World Bank. 2003. The Gambia Development Policy Review, Challenges Ahead: Obstacles and Opportunities. World Bank. 2005. ICTs at a Glance, The Gambia.

Website: agrigambia.gm

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